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  • 1. Engstrom-Öst, Jonna
    et al.
    Holmborn, Towe
    Brutemark, Andreas
    Hogfors, Hedvig
    Vehmaa, Anu
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    The effects of short-term pH decrease on the reproductive output of the copepod Acartia bifilosa - a laboratory study2014In: Marine and Freshwater Behaviour & Physiology, ISSN 1023-6244, E-ISSN 1029-0362, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This laboratory study reports some reproductive responses of the copepod Acartia bifilosa to rapid variations in pH. The imposed changes mimic those that copepods could experience due to coastal upwelling, changed mixing conditions or vertical migration. We measured effects of low pH on egg production, hatching and early nauplii development (H-0: no effects on response variables between low and ambient pH). On treatment with low pH, we found positive effects on egg production rate and nauplii development time. The positive response to low pH could be an initial stress response or show that A. bifilosa is tolerant to the experimental pH values. The result suggests that A. bifilosa is adapted to pH changes as it performs daily migrations between the depths with differing pH. It could also be advantageous for population development if eggs hatch at high speed and so reduce the possibility that they will sink into anoxic and low pH waters.

  • 2.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Prey capture rates of two species of salmonids (Salmo trutta and Thymallus thymallus) in an artificial stream: effects of temperature on their functional response2014In: Marine and Freshwater Behaviour & Physiology, ISSN 1023-6244, E-ISSN 1029-0362, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The foraging success of predators depends on how their consumption of prey is affected by prey density under different environmental settings. Here, we measured prey capture rates of drift-feeding juvenile brown trout and European grayling at different prey densities in an artificial stream channel at 5 and 11 °C. Capture rates were lower at 5 than at 11 °C, and the difference was most pronounced at high prey densities. At high prey densities, we also observed that European grayling had higher capture rates than brown trout. Type III functional response curves, i.e. sigmoidal relationships between capture rates and prey densities, fitted the data better than type I (linear) and II (hyperbolic) curves for all four combinations of temperatures and species. These results may explain the dominance of grayling in stream habitats with low water velocities and results such as these may be of use when developing foraging-based food web models of lotic ecosystems that include drift-feeding salmonids.

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