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  • 1. Aguiar, Francisca C.
    et al.
    Segurado, Pedro
    Martins, Maria Joao
    Bejarano, Maria Dolores
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Portela, Maria Manuela
    Merritt, David M.
    The abundance and distribution of guilds of riparian woody plants change in response to land use and flow regulation2018In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 2227-2240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Many riparian ecosystems in Mediterranean Europe are affected by land use and flow alteration by dams. We focused on understanding how these stressors and their components affect riparian forests in the region. We asked the following questions: (1) Are there well‐defined, responsive riparian guilds? (2) Do dam‐induced streamflows determine abundance and distribution of riparian guilds? (3) What are the main drivers governing composition and cover of riparian guilds in regulated rivers?

    2. We inventoried the cover of riparian woody species in free‐flowing rivers and downstream of dams. We performed a cluster analysis and ordination to derive riparian guilds, using abundance data from 66 riparian woody species and 26 functional plant traits. We used a reduced set of principal components for the environment, land use and hydrology, and general linear modelling to explore the effect of these factors (separately and combined) on riparian guilds.

    3. We found that: (1) four dominant guilds are responsive to disturbance in southwestern European streams, namely the obligate riparian, water‐stress tolerant, deciduous competitive and Mediterranean evergreen guilds; (2) a set of land use and hydrological variables differentially affect the diverse co‐occurring riparian guilds; (3) frequency and duration of high flow pulses and the low‐flow conditions were major drivers of change in landscapes dominated by intensive agriculture and forestry; (4) storage reservoirs reduced the cover of obligate riparian and Mediterranean evergreen guilds, and increased the abundance of water‐stress tolerant and deciduous competitive guilds, while run‐of‐river dams, having limited water storage, reduced both obligate and deciduous competitive guilds.

    4. Synthesis and applications. Future research in southwestern Europe should address the resilience of riparian guilds and the effects of interacting landscape factors and stressors on guild distribution. Streamflow regulations downstream of reservoirs should focus on specific flow components, namely the magnitude of flows, and frequency and duration of extreme flow events. For successful mitigation of the dam‐induced effects on riparian vegetation, river management plans must incorporate the environmental and land use site‐specific contexts.

  • 2. Allen, Craig R.
    et al.
    Angeler, David G.
    Cumming, Graeme S.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Twidwell, Dirac
    Uden, Daniel R.
    Quantifying spatial resilience2016In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 625-635Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Anthropogenic stressors affect the ecosystems upon which humanity relies. In some cases when resilience is exceeded, relatively small linear changes in stressors can cause relatively abrupt and nonlinear changes in ecosystems. 2. Ecological regime shifts occur when resilience is exceeded and ecosystems enter a new local equilibrium that differs in its structure and function from the previous state. Ecological resilience, the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stability domain, is an important framework for understanding and managing ecological systems subject to collapse and reorganization. 3. Recently, interest in the influence of spatial characteristics of landscapes on resilience has increased. Understanding how spatial structure and variation in relevant variables in landscapes affects resilience to disturbance will assist with resilience quantification, and with local and regional management. 4. Synthesis and applications. We review the history and current status of spatial resilience in the research literature, expand upon existing literature to develop a more operational definition of spatial resilience, introduce additional elements of a spatial analytical approach to understanding resilience, present a framework for resilience operationalization and provide an overview of critical knowledge and technology gaps that should be addressed for the advancement of spatial resilience theory and its applications to management and conservation.

  • 3. Angeler, David G.
    et al.
    Allen, Craig R.
    Barichievy, Chris
    Eason, Tarsha
    Garmestani, Ahjond S.
    Graham, Nicholas A. J.
    Granholm, Dean
    Gunderson, Lance H.
    Knutson, Melinda
    Nash, Kirsty L.
    Nelson, R. John
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Spanbauer, Trisha L.
    Stow, Craig A.
    Sundstrom, Shana M.
    Management applications of discontinuity theory2016In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 688-698Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Human impacts on the environment are multifaceted and can occur across distinct spatiotemporal scales. Ecological responses to environmental change are therefore difficult to predict, and entail large degrees of uncertainty. Such uncertainty requires robust tools for management to sustain ecosystem goods and services and maintain resilient ecosystems. 2. We propose an approach based on discontinuity theory that accounts for patterns and processes at distinct spatial and temporal scales, an inherent property of ecological systems. Discontinuity theory has not been applied in natural resource management and could therefore improve ecosystem management because it explicitly accounts for ecological complexity. 3. Synthesis and applications. We highlight the application of discontinuity approaches for meeting management goals. Specifically, discontinuity approaches have significant potential to measure and thus understand the resilience of ecosystems, to objectively identify critical scales of space and time in ecological systems at which human impact might be most severe, to provide warning indicators of regime change, to help predict and understand biological invasions and extinctions and to focus monitoring efforts. Discontinuity theory can complement current approaches, providing a broader paradigm for ecological management and conservation.

  • 4. Angerbjorn, Anders
    et al.
    Eide, Nina E.
    Dalen, Love
    Elmhagen, Bodil
    Hellstrom, Peter
    Ims, Rolf A.
    Killengreen, Siw
    Landa, Arild
    Meijer, Tomas
    Mela, Matti
    Niemimaa, Jukka
    Noren, Karin
    Tannerfeldt, Magnus
    Yoccoz, Nigel G.
    Henttonen, Heikki
    Carnivore conservation in practice: replicated management actions on a large spatial scale2013In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Eide, Nina E.
    Dalén, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Elmhagen, Bodil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Hellström, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ims, Rolf A.
    Killengreen, Siw
    Landa, Arild
    Meijer, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Mela, Matti
    Niemimaa, Jukka
    Norén, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Tannerfeldt, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Yoccoz, Nigel G.
    Henttonen, Heikki
    Carnivore conservation in practice: replicatedmanagement actions on a large spatial scale2013In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than a quarter of the world’s carnivores are threatened, often due to multiple andcomplex causes. Considerable research efforts are devoted to resolving the mechanisms behindthese threats in order to provide a basis for relevant conservation actions. However, evenwhen the underlying mechanisms are known, specific actions aimed at direct support for carnivoresare difficult to implement and evaluate at efficient spatial and temporal scales.2. We report on a 30-year inventory of the critically endangered Fennoscandian arctic foxVulpes lagopus L., including yearly surveys of 600 fox dens covering 21 000 km2. These surveysshowed that the population was close to extinction in 2000, with 40–60 adult animalsleft. However, the population subsequently showed a fourfold increase in size.3. During this time period, conservation actions through supplementary feeding and predatorremoval were implemented in several regions across Scandinavia, encompassing 79% of thearea. To evaluate these actions, we examined the effect of supplemental winter feeding andred fox control applied at different intensities in 10 regions. A path analysis indicated that47% of the explained variation in population productivity could be attributed to lemmingabundance, whereas winter feeding had a 29% effect and red fox control a 20% effect.4. This confirms that arctic foxes are highly dependent on lemming population fluctuationsbut also shows that red foxes severely impact the viability of arctic foxes. This study also highlightsthe importance of implementing conservation actions on extensive spatial and temporalscales, with geographically dispersed actions to scientifically evaluate the effects. We note thatpopulation recovery was only seen in regions with a high intensity of management actions.5. Synthesis and applications. The present study demonstrates that carnivore populationdeclines may be reversed through extensive actions that target specific threats. Fennoscandianarctic fox is still endangered, due to low population connectivity and expected climate impactson the distribution and dynamics of lemmings and red foxes. Climate warming is expected tocontribute to both more irregular lemming dynamics and red fox appearance in tundra areas;however, the effects of climate change can be mitigated through intensive managementactions such as supplemental feeding and red fox control.

  • 6.
    Auffret, Alistair G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Past and present management influences the seed bank and seed rain in a rural landscape mosaic2011In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 1278-1285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Seed bank and seed rain represent dispersal in time and space. They can be important sources of diversity in the rural landscape, where fragmented habitats are linked by their histories. 2. Seed bank, seed rain and above-ground vegetation were sampled in four habitat types (abandoned semi-natural grassland (ABA), grazed former arable field (FAF), mid-field islet (MFI) and grazed semi-natural grassland (SNG)) in a rural landscape in southern Sweden, to examine whether community patterns can be distinguished at large spatial scales and whether seed bank and seed rain are best explained by current, past or intended future vegetation communities. 3. We counted 54 357 seedlings of 188 species from 1190 seed bank and 797 seed rain samples. Seed bank, seed rain and above-ground vegetation communities differed according to habitat. Several species characteristic of managed grassland vegetation were present in the seed bank, seed rain and vegetation of the other habitats. 4. The seed banks of SNGs and the seed rain of the FAFs were generally better predicted by the surrounding above-ground vegetation than were the other habitat types. The seed rain of the grazed communities was most similar to the vegetation in the FAFs, while the seed banks of the abandoned grasslands most resembled the vegetation in SNGs. 5. Gap availability and seed input could be limiting the colonisation of target species in FAFs, while remnant populations in the seed bank and the presence of grassland specialists in the above-ground vegetation indicate that abandoned grasslands and mid-field islets could be valuable sources of future diversity in the landscape after restoration. 6. Synthesis and applications. SNG communities are able to form seed banks which survive land-use change, but their seed rain does not reflect their above-ground communities. It is important that grassland plants set seed. By connecting existing grasslands with restoration targets, increased disturbance in the target habitats would allow for colonisation via the seed bank or seed rain, while decreased grazing intensity would benefit seed production in the source grasslands. Otherwise, landscape-wide propagule availability might increase with a more varied timing and intensity of management.

  • 7.
    Avril, Alexis
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst EEMiS, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Grosbois, Vladimir
    CIRAD, Campus Int Baillarguet, F-34398 Montpellier, France..
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Linnaeus Univ, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst EEMiS, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden.;Univ Georgia, Southeeastern Cooperat Wildlife Dis Study, Coll Vet Med, Dept Populat Hlth, Athens, GA 30602 USA..
    Gaidet, Nicolas
    CIRAD, Campus Int Baillarguet, F-34398 Montpellier, France..
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus Univ, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst EEMiS, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus Univ, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst EEMiS, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Capturing individual-level parameters of influenza A virus dynamics in wild ducks using multistate models2016In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 1289-1297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disease prevalence in wildlife is governed by epidemiological parameters (infection and recovery rates) and response to infection, both of which vary within and among individual hosts. Studies quantifying these individual-scale parameters and documenting their source of variation in wild hosts are fundamental for predicting disease dynamics. Such studies do not exist for the influenza A virus (IAV), despite its strong impact on the global economy and public health. Using capture-recaptures of 3500 individual mallards Anas platyrhynchos during seven migration seasons at a stopover site in southern Sweden, we provide the first empirical description of the individual-based mechanisms of IAV dynamics in a wild reservoir host. For most years, prevalence and risk of IAV infection peaked at a single time during the autumn migration season, but the timing, shape and intensity of the infection curve showed strong annual heterogeneity. In contrast, the seasonal pattern of recovery rate only varied in intensity across years. Adults and juveniles displayed similar seasonal patterns of infection and recovery each year. However, compared to adults, juveniles experienced twice the risk of becoming infected, whereas recovery rates were similar across age categories. Finally, we did not find evidence that infection influenced the timing of emigration.Synthesis and applications. Our study provides robust empirical estimates of epidemiological parameters for predicting influenza A virus (IAV) dynamics. However, the strong annual variation in infection curves makes forecasting difficult. Prevalence data can provide reliable surveillance indicators as long as they catch the variation in infection risk. However, individual-based monitoring of infection is required to verify this assumption in areas where surveillance occurs. In this context, monitoring of captive sentinel birds kept in close contact with wild birds is useful. The fact that infection does not impact the timing of migration underpins the potential for mallards to spread viruses rapidly over large geographical scales. Hence, we strongly encourage IAV surveillance with a multistate capture-recapture approach along the entire migratory flyway of mallards.

  • 8.
    Avril, Alexis
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Grosbois, Vladimir
    CIRAD, France.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Georgia, USA.
    Gaidet, Nicolas
    CIRAD, France.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Capturing individual-level parameters of influenza A virus dynamics in wild ducks using multistate models2016In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 1289-1297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disease prevalence in wildlife is governed by epidemiological parameters (infection and recovery rates) and response to infection, both of which vary within and among individual hosts. Studies quantifying these individual-scale parameters and documenting their source of variation in wild hosts are fundamental for predicting disease dynamics. Such studies do not exist for the influenza A virus (IAV), despite its strong impact on the global economy and public health. Using capture-recaptures of 3500 individual mallards Anas platyrhynchos during seven migration seasons at a stopover site in southern Sweden, we provide the first empirical description of the individual-based mechanisms of IAV dynamics in a wild reservoir host. For most years, prevalence and risk of IAV infection peaked at a single time during the autumn migration season, but the timing, shape and intensity of the infection curve showed strong annual heterogeneity. In contrast, the seasonal pattern of recovery rate only varied in intensity across years. Adults and juveniles displayed similar seasonal patterns of infection and recovery each year. However, compared to adults, juveniles experienced twice the risk of becoming infected, whereas recovery rates were similar across age categories. Finally, we did not find evidence that infection influenced the timing of emigration.Synthesis and applications. Our study provides robust empirical estimates of epidemiological parameters for predicting influenza A virus (IAV) dynamics. However, the strong annual variation in infection curves makes forecasting difficult. Prevalence data can provide reliable surveillance indicators as long as they catch the variation in infection risk. However, individual-based monitoring of infection is required to verify this assumption in areas where surveillance occurs. In this context, monitoring of captive sentinel birds kept in close contact with wild birds is useful. The fact that infection does not impact the timing of migration underpins the potential for mallards to spread viruses rapidly over large geographical scales. Hence, we strongly encourage IAV surveillance with a multistate capture-recapture approach along the entire migratory flyway of mallards.

  • 9. Axelsson, E. Petter
    et al.
    Hjalten, Joakim
    LeRoy, Carri J.
    Whitham, Thomas G.
    Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta
    Wennström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Leaf litter from insect-resistant transgenic trees causes changes in aquatic insect community composition2011In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 1472-1479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Recent research has addressed how transgenic residues fromarable crops may influence adjacent waterways, aquatic consumers and important ecosystem processes such as litter breakdown rates. With future applications of transgenic plants in forestry, such concerns may apply to forest stream ecosystems. Before any large-scale release of genetically modified (GM) trees, it is therefore imperative to evaluate the effects of genetic modifications in trees on such ecosystems. 2. We conducted decomposition experiments under natural stream conditions using leaf litter from greenhouse grown GM trees (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides) that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins (cry3Aa; targeting coleopteran leaf-feeding beetles) to examine the hypothesis that GM trees would affect litter decomposition rates and/or the aquatic arthropod community that colonizes and feeds on leaf litter in streams. 3. We show that two independent transformations of isogenic Populus trees to express Bt toxins caused similar changes to the composition of aquatic insects colonizing the leaf litter, ultimately manifested in a 25% and 33% increases in average insect abundance. 4. Measurements of 24 phenolic compounds as well as nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in the litter did not significantly differ among modified and wild-type trees and were thus not sufficient to explain these differences in the insect assemblage. 5. Decomposition rates were comparable among litter treatments suggesting that the normal suite of leaf traits influencing decomposition was similar among litter treatments and that the shredding functions of the community were maintained despite the changes in insect community composition. 6. Synthesis and applications. We report that leaf litter from GM trees affected the composition of aquatic insect communities that colonized litter under natural stream conditions. This suggests that forest management using GM trees may affect adjacent waterways in unanticipated ways, which should be considered in future commercial applications of GM trees. We also argue that studies at different scales (e.g. species, communities and ecosystems) will be needed for a full understanding of the environmental effects of Bt plants.

  • 10.
    Baeten, Lander
    et al.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Environm, Gontrode, Belgium.
    Bruelheide, Helge
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Biol, Geobot & Bot Garden, Halle, Germany;German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Leipzig, Germany.
    van der Plas, Fons
    Univ Leipzig, Dept Systemat Bot & Funct Biodivers, Leipzig, Germany;Senckenberg Gesell Naturforsch, Biodivers & Climate Res Ctr, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Kambach, Stephan
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Biol, Geobot & Bot Garden, Halle, Germany;German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Leipzig, Germany.
    Ratcliffe, Sophia
    Univ Leipzig, Dept Systemat Bot & Funct Biodivers, Leipzig, Germany;Natl Biodivers Network Trust, Nottingham, England.
    Jucker, Tommaso
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Plant Sci, Forest Ecol & Conservat, Cambridge, England;CSIRO Land & Water, Floreat, WA, Australia.
    Allan, Eric
    Univ Bern, Inst Plant Sci, Bern, Switzerland.
    Ampoorter, Evy
    Univ Ghent, Dept Environm, Gontrode, Belgium.
    Barbaro, Luc
    Univ Toulouse, INRA INPT, Dynafor, Auzeville, France.
    Bastias, Cristina C.
    CSIC, MNCN, Madrid, Spain.
    Bauhus, Juergen
    Univ Freiburg, Fac Environm & Nat Resources, Chair Silviculture, Freiburg, Germany.
    Benavides, Raquel
    CSIC, MNCN, Madrid, Spain.
    Bonal, Damien
    Univ Lorraine, INRA, UMR Silva, AgroParisTech, Nancy, France.
    Bouriaud, Olivier
    Stefan Cel Mare Univ Suceava, Fac Forestry, Suceava, Romania.
    Bussotti, Filippo
    Univ Firenze, Dept Agrifood & Environm Sci DISPAA, Lab Environm & Appl Bot, Florence, Italy.
    Carnol, Monique
    Univ Liege, InBioS Plant & Microbial Ecol, Liege, Belgium.
    Castagneyrol, Bastien
    INRA, UMR 1202 BIOGECO, Cestas, France;Univ Bordeaux, BIOGECO, UMR 1202, Pessac, France.
    Charbonnier, Yohan
    LPO, Le Bourg, Bourrou, France.
    Checko, Ewa
    Univ Warmia & Mazury, Dept Forestry & Forest Ecol, Olsztyn, Poland.
    Coomes, David A.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Plant Sci, Forest Ecol & Conservat, Cambridge, England.
    Dahlgren, Jonas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Resource Management, Umea, Sweden.
    Dawud, Seid Muhie
    Wollo Univ, Coll Agr, Dept Forestry, Dessie, Ethiopia.
    De Wandeler, Hans
    Univ Leuven, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Leuven, Belgium.
    Domisch, Timo
    Nat Resources Inst Finland Luke, Joensuu, Finland.
    Finer, Leena
    Nat Resources Inst Finland Luke, Joensuu, Finland.
    Fischer, Markus
    Univ Bern, Inst Plant Sci, Bern, Switzerland.
    Fotelli, Mariangela
    Greek Agr Org Dimitra, Forest Res Inst Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Gessler, Arthur
    Swiss Fed Res Inst WSL, Res Unit Forest Dynam, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
    Grossiord, Charlotte
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Earth & Environm Sci Div, Los Alamos, NM USA.
    Guyot, Virginie
    INRA, UMR 1202 BIOGECO, Cestas, France;Univ Bordeaux, BIOGECO, UMR 1202, Pessac, France.
    Hattenschwiler, Stephan
    Univ Montpellier, Univ Paul Valery Montpellier, EPHE, CNRS,Ctr Evolutionary & Funct Ecol, Montpellier, France.
    Jactel, Herve
    INRA, UMR 1202 BIOGECO, Cestas, France;Univ Bordeaux, BIOGECO, UMR 1202, Pessac, France.
    Jaroszewicz, Bogdan
    Univ Warsaw, Bialowieza Geobotan Stn, Fac Biol, Bialowieza, Poland.
    Joly, Francois-Xavier
    Univ Montpellier, Univ Paul Valery Montpellier, EPHE, CNRS,Ctr Evolutionary & Funct Ecol, Montpellier, France.
    Koricheva, Julia
    Royal Holloway Univ London, Sch Biol Sci, Egham, Surrey, England.
    Lehtonen, Aleksi
    Nat Resources Inst Finland Luke, Helsinki, Finland.
    Mueller, Sandra
    Univ Freiburg, Dept Geobot, Fac Biol, Freiburg, Germany.
    Muys, Bart
    Nguyen, Diem
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pollastrini, Martina
    Univ Firenze, Dept Agrifood & Environm Sci DISPAA, Lab Environm & Appl Bot, Florence, Italy.
    Radoglou, Kalliopi
    Democritus Univ Thrace DUTH, Dept Forestry & Management Environm & Nat, Nea Orestiada, Greece.
    Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Geosci & Nat Resource Managemen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Ruiz-Benito, Paloma
    Univ Alcala De Henares, Dept Ciencias Vida, Grp Ecol & Restaurac Forestal, Madrid, Spain.
    Selvi, Federico
    Univ Firenze, Dept Agrifood & Environm Sci DISPAA, Lab Environm & Appl Bot, Florence, Italy.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Mycol & Plant Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Valladares, Fernando
    CSIC, MNCN, Madrid, Spain.
    Vesterdal, Lars
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Geosci & Nat Resource Managemen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Univ Ghent, Dept Environm, Gontrode, Belgium.
    Wirth, Christian
    Max Planck Inst Biogeochem, Jena, Germany.
    Zavala, Miguel A.
    Univ Alcala De Henares, Dept Ciencias Vida, Grp Ecol & Restaurac Forestal, Madrid, Spain.
    Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael
    Identifying the tree species compositions that maximize ecosystem functioning in European forests2019In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 733-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Forest ecosystem functioning generally benefits from higher tree species richness, but variation within richness levels is typically large. This is mostly due to the contrasting performances of communities with different compositions. Evidence-based understanding of composition effects on forest productivity, as well as on multiple other functions will enable forest managers to focus on the selection of species that maximize functioning, rather than on diversity per se.

    2. We used a dataset of 30 ecosystem functions measured in stands with different species richness and composition in six European forest types. First, we quantified whether the compositions that maximize annual above-ground wood production (productivity) generally also fulfil the multiple other ecosystem functions (multifunctionality). Then, we quantified the species identity effects and strength of interspecific interactions to identify the "best" and "worst" species composition for multifunctionality. Finally, we evaluated the real-world frequency of occurrence of best and worst mixtures, using harmonized data from multiple national forest inventories.

    3. The most productive tree species combinations also tended to express relatively high multifunctionality, although we found a relatively wide range of compositions with high- or low-average multifunctionality for the same level of productivity. Monocultures were distributed among the highest as well as the lowest performing compositions. The variation in functioning between compositions was generally driven by differences in the performance of the component species and, to a lesser extent, by particular interspecific interactions. Finally, we found that the most frequent species compositions in inventory data were monospecific stands and that the most common compositions showed below-average multifunctionality and productivity.

    4. Synthesis and applications. Species identity and composition effects are essential to the development of high-performing production systems, for instance in forestry and agriculture. They therefore deserve great attention in the analysis and design of functional biodiversity studies if the aim is to inform ecosystem management. A management focus on tree productivity does not necessarily trade-off against other ecosystem functions; high productivity and multifunctionality can be combined with an informed selection of tree species and species combinations.

  • 11.
    Bejarano, Maria Dolores
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Aguiar, Francisca Constanca
    Riparian plant guilds become simpler and most likely fewer following flow regulation2018In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 365-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. River regulation affects riparian systems world-wide and conservation and restoration efforts are essential to retain biodiversity, and the functioning and services of riverine ecosystems. Effects of regulation on plant species richness have been widely addressed, but the filtering effect of regulation on guilds has received less attention.

    2. We used a functional trait approach to identify adaptive plant strategies through regulation-tolerant traits and predict shifts of riparian vegetation communities in response to regulation. We analysed variation in functional diversity across gradients of hydrological alteration in northern Sweden in relation to modified timing and infrequent major floods, along with frequent short-term inundation.

    3. Functional richness was similar in all study sites, but species richness declined with increasing intensity of regulation, and the species lost were largely functionally redundant (i.e. co-existing species that have similar contribution to an ecosystem function). Guilds of species intolerant to waterlogging were particularly unsuccessful in most regulated sites as they were affected by hydropower dams which replace major fluvial disturbances with frequent short inundation events. We predict that this guild will disappear, with likely consequences for the entire riverine ecosystem.

    4. Synthesis and applications. We conclude that functional traits tolerant to waterlogging or submergence and lack of major fluvial disturbances were key to understanding our results. We suggest that the functional trait approach can be integrated with knowledge of other ecosystem components to provide an understanding of ecosystem function that can be used to guide fluvial ecosystem management.

  • 12.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wetterlind, Simon
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sigvald, Roland
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cereal aphid populations in non-crop habitats show strong density dependence2007In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 1013-1022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1.

    Few studies have addressed how density-dependent and density-independent regulation of population growth and abundance varies among habitats for a species that requires multiple habitat types to complete its life cycle. Understanding such relationships, however, are of direct relevance to the control of crop pest insects that regularly move between crop and non-crop habitats.

    2.

    We used autoregressive models to analyse a series of seasonal catches of the cereal aphid Rhopalosiphum padi. The data were collected from regional suction traps and egg counts on the overwintering host, over a period of 14–31 years, at four locations in Sweden. R. padi is an obligate host-alternating species in Sweden and seasonal catches reflect habitat use in a year: the primary woody host in winter and spring, the cereal crops in summer, and the perennial grasslands in the autumn.

    3.

    Strong direct density dependence acting within the year was found, but the strength varied between seasons depending on habitat use by the aphids during the year. Only a weak indication or no indication at all of density dependence was found during the period of residency on the primary host in the winter and spring periods.

    4.

    Density dependence occurred when R. padi utilized summer cereals (42% of the variation was explained), and even stronger density dependence occurred in the perennial grasslands in the autumn (70% variation explained). Stochastic fluctuations in the winter and spring were balanced by a strong density dependence in the cereal and grassland habitats in the summer and autumn periods, which reduced variability in population fluctuations.

    5.

    Weather, measured as seasonal average temperature and accumulated precipitation, did not affect aphid abundance fluctuations much, explaining only 1–9% of the variability.

    6.

    Synthesis and applications. Our results suggest that density-dependent regulation of R. padi occurs in late summer grasslands and early summer cereals. The mechanisms causing these patterns are not understood, making it difficult to provide specific pest management recommendations at this stage. The results do indicate, however, that pest management needs to involve a landscape-level approach, taking into account mechanistic information about the plant, herbivore and predator interactions in multiple habitats visited by the herbivorous pest.

  • 13.
    Breed, Martin F.
    et al.
    Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity (ACEBB), School of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Adelaide.
    Ottewell, Kym M.
    Gardner, Michael G.
    Lowe, Andrew J.
    Clarifying climate change adaptation responses for scattered trees in modified landscapes2011In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 637-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Many studies have investigated adaptation to climate change. However, the term ‘adaptation’ has been used ambiguously and sometimes included parts of both classic evolutionary processes and conservation planning measures (i.e. human-mediated adaptation).

    2. To reduce ambiguity, we define three classes of evolutionary processes involved in adaptation – migrational, novel-variant and plasticity. Migrational adaptation describes the process of redistribution of standing genetic variation among populations. Novel-variant adaptation describes the increase in frequency of beneficial, new genetic variants. Plasticity adaptation refers to adaptive plastic responses of organisms to environmental stressors. Quite separately, human-mediated adaptation aims to maintain these evolutionary processes.

    3.  Whilst the role of scattered trees in migrational adaptation of fauna may have been neglected in the past, their capacity to assist migrational adaptation of trees has been previously documented. However, their role in novel-variant and plasticity adaptation is generally unrecognised, and warrants further attention.

    4.Synthesis and applications. By defining different aspects of adaptation carefully, we show that scattered trees should not be cleared since they may facilitate gene flow across fragmented landscapes. However, they should be avoided as dominant seed sources since their stock may be of poor quality.

  • 14. Bruno, Daniel
    et al.
    Gutierrez-Canovas, Cayetano
    Sanchez-Fernandez, David
    Velasco, Josefa
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Impacts of environmental filters on functional redundancy in riparian vegetation2016In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 846-855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Understanding and predicting ecosystem responses to multiple environmental pressures is a long-standing interest in ecology and environmental management. However, few studies have examined how the functional features of freshwater biological communities vary along multiple gradients of environmental stress. Furthermore, modelling these functional features for a whole river network constitutes a strong potential basis to improve ecosystem management. 2. We explored how functional redundancy of biological communities (FR, a functional feature related to the stability, resistance and resilience of ecosystems) responds to single and multiple environmental filters. We compared these responses with those of functional richness, evenness and divergence. We used riparian vegetation of a Mediterranean basin, and three of the main environmental filters affecting freshwater communities in such regions, that is drought, flow regulation and agricultural intensity, thus considering the potential effect of natural environmental variability. We also assessed the predictability of FR and estimated it for the entire river network. 3. We found that all functional measures decreased with increasing environmental filter intensity. However, FR was more sensitive to single and multiple environmental filters compared to other functional measures. The best-fitting model explained 59% of the FR variability and included agriculture, drought and flow regulation and the pairwise interactions of agriculture with drought and flow regulation. The parameters of the FR models differed from null model expectations reflecting a non-random decline along stress gradients. 4. Synthesis and applications. We found non-random detrimental effects along environmental filters' gradients for riparian functional redundancy (the most sensitive functional index), meaning that increased stress could jeopardize stability, resistance and resilience of these systems. In general, agriculture caused the greatest impact on functional redundancy and functional diversity measures, being the most important stressor for riparian functionality in the study area. Temporary streams flowing through an agricultural, regulated basin had reduced values of functional redundancy, whereas the free-flowing medium-sized, perennial water courses flowing through unaltered sub-basins displayed higher values of functional redundancy and potentially greater stability against human impacts. All these findings along with the predicted basin-wide variation of functional redundancy can assist environmental managers in improving monitoring and ecosystem management.

  • 15.
    Dannewitz, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population Biology.
    Petersson, Erik
    Dahl, Jonas
    Prestegaard, Tore
    Löf, Anna-Carin
    Järvi, Torbjörn
    Reproductive success of hatchery produced and wild born brown trout Salmo trutta in an experimental stream2004In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 355-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1.Although releases of hatchery-produced salmonids to support conspecific wildpopulations have increased dramatically during recent decades, little information isavailable about the performance in the wild of hatchery fish and their offspring.Important factors determining the success and genetic outcomes of supportive breedingprogrammes include (i) the relative reproductive success of released hatchery fish in thewild, and (ii) the extent to which the propagation affects the variance in reproductivesuccess in the population as a whole.2.We performed two field experiments on brown troutSalmo truttafrom the RiverDalälven in Sweden, where we examined reproductive success in an experimental stream.In experiment 1 we compared reproductive success between trout from a seventhgenerationhatchery stock of native origin and wild-born trout from the river. In experiment2, we compared reproductive success between seventh-generation hatchery troutand hatchery-reared trout derived from wild-born parents. Individual reproductivesuccess, based on the number of offspring assigned using microsatellite markers, wasassessed on three occasions after reproduction: immediately after hatching and after thefirst and second growth seasons.3.In experiment 1 there were no significant differences in reproductive success betweenseventh-generation hatchery trout and wild-born trout. In experiment 2, males from wildbornparents were more successful than males from the seventh-generation hatcherystock, but this difference was not observed among females.4.There was some evidence for a positive association between body size and reproductivesuccess among females but not males. For males, the number of mates was significantlyassociated with reproductive success, but this relationship was not evident among females.5.The variance in reproductive success was pronounced in both experiments, yieldingestimates of the ratio between the genetically effective size and the census size of ourexperimental populations ranging from 0·12 to 0·59.6.Synthesis and applications. Our results suggest that the reproductive success in thewild of hatchery-produced and wild-born trout with a common genetic backgroundmay be rather similar. These findings, in combination with the pronounced variancein reproductive success observed among breeders, indicate that supportive breedingcan be managed to increase not only the census but also the genetically effective sizeof small, endangered salmonid populations. However, to minimize negative effects ofhatchery selection, it is important to give priority to the restoration of natural habitatsand thereby increase the reproductive output from individuals in the wild.

  • 16.
    Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Löfgren, Ola
    Sörkin, Dieke
    ALS Analytica AB, Luleå.
    Population dynamics of small mammals in relation to forest age and structural habitat factors in northern Sweden2002In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 781-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In northern Scandinavia there are indications of a long-term decline in the abundance of the three dominant vole species, Clethrionomys glareolus, Clethrionomys rufocanus and Microtus agrestis, since the 1970s. One explanation proposes that intensified clear-cutting has created even-aged and homogeneous forest stands with poor overall conditions for survival and reproduction of the voles. 2. We investigated the relationship between forest age and structural habitat factors and its implications for the species richness and abundance of small mammals. In particular, we assessed the population dynamics of C. glareolus, a forest-dwelling species with rather general habitat requirements. 3. Extensive snap-trapping of small mammals was conducted during 1998-2000 on 24 study sites in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Trapping was carried out along transects running from immature forests of six age classes (0-50 years) into adjacent reference sites (> 100 years). At each trapping station we recorded 14 habitat variables that were reduced to three principal components (PCs). The PCs were related to late successional traits, such as forest age and cover of tree layers (PC1), cover of tall vegetation in the field layer (PC2) and structural heterogeneity in the forest floor (PC3). 4. The species richness of small mammals, as well as the total abundance of C. glareolus, was positively influenced by tall vegetation (PC2) and structural heterogeneity (PC3) but not by late successional traits (PC1). The youngest forests had higher scores for both PC2 and PC3 compared with older forests. 5. The youngest forests also had the highest species richness and total abundance of C. glareolus. This was associated with a generally higher rate of change in numbers of C. glareolus during summer in the youngest forests compared with adjacent reference sites. In contrast, survival during winter was lower in the youngest forests. We found this result to be consistent with a source-sink scenario where young individuals, primarily born in old forest stands in early summer, migrate into younger forests to breed, but where the probabilities for winter survival are poor. 6. Our study demonstrates that both the species richness of small mammals and the population dynamics of C. glareolus are influenced to a great extent by structural habitat factors that are altered by common forest management practices in northern Sweden. In order to conserve species richness of small mammals and to minimize population fluctuations of C. glareolus in northern Scandinavia, we outline forest management practices that will provide heterogeneous environments, such as leaving logging residues on site after forest harvesting.

  • 17.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Eriksson, Anna-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Villard, Marc-André
    Effects of selection cutting on the abundance and fertility of indicator lichens Lobaria pulmonaria and Lobaria quercizans2008In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Ehrlén, Johan
    et al.
    Syrjänen, Kimmo
    Leimu, Roosa
    Garcia, Maria Begona
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Land use and population growth of Primula veris: an experimental demographic approach2005In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 317-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Changes in land use are the primary cause of decline for many plant species. Efficient management actions for such species must be based on knowledge of the key phases of the plant life cycles that respond most to changes in environmental factors. 2. To assess how grazing influences population viability of the perennial rosette herb Primula veris, we applied four experimental treatments to abandoned grasslands and recorded the demographic response in permanent plots and seed sowing experiments over 3 years. 3. Treatments had strong effects on population viability. Transition matrix models showed that cutting the surrounding vegetation had no effect on population growth rate (lambda). However, when this was combined with litter removal lambda increased to 1.46, compared with 1.11 in controls. With disturbance and complete removal of the surrounding vegetation the effect was even stronger, and lambda increased to 1.60. 4. Increases in lambda were primarily a result of increased growth of the smallest rosettes, and increased seedling production. In contrast, the performance of larger P. veris individuals was not affected by experimental treatments. 5. The higher the elasticity of a particular life cycle transition, the less the change in the transition rate caused by treatments. This suggests that plants are able partly to buffer the effects of environmental variation by minimizing changes in the life cycle transitions that are most important to population growth rate. 6. Synthesis and applications. Experimental demographic approaches provide an important tool for assessing how grazing and other types of management influence species viability, and help to unravel the mechanisms underlying such relationships. With such information it is possible to predict the effects of novel types of management and land-use scenarios on population viability. For P. veris, we identified seedling establishment as a key phase in the life cycle, and litter accumulation as a key environmental factor, suggesting that these should be prime targets for management. One practice that is likely to favour as well as seedling establishment preventing litter accumulation is late summer grazing.

  • 19.
    Engström, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of stream restoration on dispersal of plant propagules2009In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 397-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Species immigration is vital for the success of restoring degraded ecosystems, but the effectiveness of enhancing dispersal following restoration is seldom evaluated. Running water is an important vector for plant dispersal. Frequency and duration of floods and channel-network complexity are important factors influencing propagule dispersal. In Sweden, these functions have been modified by channelization to facilitate timber floating, thus hampering emigration and immigration of riparian propagules.

    2. During the last 10–20 years, affected watercourses have been restored by removing barriers and replacing boulders into channels. This is hypothesized to facilitate retention of water-dispersed propagules. We studied the efficiency of propagule retention following restoration by releasing propagule mimics and by placing propagule traps in the riparian zone.

    3. Retention of propagule mimics was highest in sites restored with boulders and large wood. Retention occurred at both high and low flows but was most efficient during low flows when mimics were trapped by boulders and wood. Waterborne propagules ending up at such sites are unlikely to establish unless they can reach the riparian zone later. At high flows, floating propagules are more likely to reach riparian areas suitable for establishment. According to propagule traps placed at various levels of the riparian zone, deposition of plant propagules and sediments did not increase in restored sites.

    4. Synthesis and applications. Our study not only demonstrates that restoration of channel complexity through replacement of boulders and wood can enhance retention of plant propagules, but also it highlights the importance of understanding how restoration effects vary with flow. Most streams are restored to function optimally during median or average flows, whereas communities often are controlled by ecological processes acting during extreme flow events. We advocate that stream restoration should be designed for optimal function during those discharges under which the ecological processes in question are most important, which in this case is, during high flow.

  • 20. Filbee-Dexter, Karen
    et al.
    Symons, Celia C.
    Jones, Kristal
    Haig, Heather A.
    Pittman, Jeremy
    Alexander, Steven M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Maryland, USA.
    Burke, Matthew J.
    Quantifying ecological and social drivers of ecological surprise2018In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 2135-2146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. A key challenge facing ecologists and ecosystem managers is understanding what drives unexpected shifts in ecosystems and limits the effectiveness of human interventions. Research that integrates and analyses data from natural and social systems can provide important insight for unravelling the complexity of these dynamics. It is, therefore, a critical step towards the development of evidence-based, whole-system management approaches.

    2. To examine our ability to influence ecosystems that are behaving in unexpected ways, we explore three prominent cases of ecological surprise. We captured the social-ecological systems (SES) using key variables and interactions from Ostrom's SES framework, which integrates broader ecosystem processes (e.g. climate, connectivity), management variables (e.g. quotas, restrictions, monitoring), resource use behaviours (e.g. harvesting) and the resource unit (e.g. trees, fish, clean water) being managed.

    3. Structural equation modelling revealed that management interventions often influenced resource use behaviours (e.g. rules and limits strongly affected harvest or pollution), but they did not have a significant effect on the abundance of the managed resource. Instead, most resource variability was related to ecological processes and feedbacks operating at broader spatial or temporal scales than management interventions, which locked the resource system into the degraded state.

    4. Synthesis and applications. Mismatch between the influence of management systems and ecosystem processes can limit the effectiveness of human interventions during periods of ecological surprise. Management strategies should shift from a conventional focus on removal or addition of a single resource towards solutions that influence the broader ecosystem. Operationalizing Ostrom’s framework to quantitatively analyse social‐ecological systems using structural equation models shows promise for testing solutions to navigate these events.

  • 21. Fournier, Auriel M. V.
    et al.
    Sullivan, Alexis R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Bump, Joseph K.
    Perkins, Marie
    Shieldcastle, Mark C.
    King, Sammy L.
    Combining citizen science species distribution models and stable isotopes reveals migratory connectivity in the secretive Virginia rail2017In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 618-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Stable hydrogen isotope (delta D) methods for tracking animal movement are widely used yet often produce low resolution assignments. Incorporating prior knowledge of abundance, distribution or movement patterns can ameliorate this limitation, but data are lacking for most species. We demonstrate how observations reported by citizen scientists can be used to develop robust estimates of species distributions and to constrain dD assignments. 2. We developed a Bayesian framework to refine isotopic estimates of migrant animal origins conditional on species distribution models constructed from citizen scientist observations. To illustrate this approach, we analysed the migratory connectivity of the Virginia rail Rallus limicola, a secretive and declining migratory game bird in North America. 3. Citizen science observations enabled both estimation of sampling bias and construction of bias-corrected species distribution models. Conditioning dD assignments on these species distribution models yielded comparably high-resolution assignments. 4. Most Virginia rails wintering across five Gulf Coast sites spent the previous summer near the Great Lakes, although a considerable minority originated from the Chesapeake Bay watershed or Prairie Pothole region of North Dakota. Conversely, the majority of migrating Virginia rails from a site in the Great Lakes most likely spent the previous winter on the Gulf Coast between Texas and Louisiana. 5. Synthesis and applications. In this analysis, Virginia rail migratory connectivity does not fully correspond to the administrative flyways used to manage migratory birds. This example demonstrates that with the increasing availability of citizen science data to create species distribution models, our framework can produce high-resolution estimates of migratory connectivity for many animals, including cryptic species. Empirical evidence of links between seasonal habitats will help enable effective habitat management, hunting quotas and population monitoring and also highlight critical knowledge gaps.

  • 22.
    Frainer, André
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    McKie, Brendan G.
    Enhanced ecosystem functioning following stream restoration: The roles of habitat heterogeneity and invertebrate species traits2018In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 377-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Habitat restoration is increasingly undertaken in degraded streams and rivers to help improve biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Follow-up assessments focused on outcomes for biodiversity have often found scant evidence for recovery, raising concerns about the efficacy of habitat restoration for improving ecological integrity. However, responses of other ecological variables, such as ecosystem process rates and the functional trait composition of biological assemblages, have been little evaluated.

    2. We assessed how the restoration of habitat heterogeneity affected multiple functional parameters in 20 boreal stream reaches encompassing both more and less extensively restored sites, as well as channelised and natural reference sites. We further assessed relationships between our functional parameters and a fluvial geomorphic measure of habitat heterogeneity.

    3. Leaf decomposition was positively related to habitat heterogeneity. This was associated with shifts in the functional composition of detritivore assemblages, with the most obligate litter consumers more prominent in reaches showing higher habitat heterogeneity. The deposition of fine particulate organic matter was consistently higher in restored than channelised sites, and was positively related to the heterogeneity gradient. Algal biomass accrual per unit area did not vary either with restoration or the heterogeneity gradient.

    4. Synthesis and applications. Our findings demonstrate that restoration of river habitat heterogeneity can enhance retention and decomposition of organic matter, key ecosystem properties underpinning ecosystem functioning and service delivery. Significantly, enhanced litter decomposition was linked with a change in the functional composition rather than diversity of detritivore assemblages. Future evaluation of the success of habitat restorations should incorporate quantification of ecosystem processes and the functional traits of biota, in addition to measures of fluvial geomorphology and more traditional biotic metrics, to facilitate a more comprehensive and mechanistic assessment of ecological responses.

  • 23.
    Gothe, Emma
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden;County Board Dalarna, Sweden.
    Degerman, Erik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sandin, Leonard
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Segersten, Joel
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tamario, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Mckie, Brendan G.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Flow restoration and the impacts of multiple stressors on fish communities in regulated rivers2019In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 1687-1702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    River regulation for hydropower is undertaken worldwide, causing profound alterations to hydrological regimes and running water habitats. Regulated catchments are often subjected to additional stressors, arising inter alia from agriculture, forestry and industry, which are likely to interact with impacts of river regulation on fish and other biota. Such interactions are poorly understood, hindering planning of effective mitigation and restoration. We investigated fish responses to increased discharge (as a restoration measure) in regulated rivers in Sweden. We compiled electrofishing data from river channels downstream of hydropower dams, each of which either has or lacks a mandated minimum discharge corresponding to c. 5% of pre-regulation discharge. We further analysed interactions between flow restoration and co-occurring local and regional stressors. River channels without a mandated minimum discharge were characterized by a low diversity of fish species with traits favouring persistence under unpredictable environmental conditions, including omnivory, short life cycles and small size. Additional stressors further reduced diversity and increased dominance by broad-niched, opportunistic species. Both the presence and magnitude of a mandated minimum discharge were positively related to fish diversity and density, and the relative density of three economically and recreationally valuable species. However, the size of these relationships frequently varied with the presence of additional stressors. Increasing levels of hydrological degradation and reduced connectivity at the catchment scale reduced positive flow-ecology relationships and hindered the restoration of fish communities towards reference conditions. However, application of a mandated minimum discharge also assisted in mitigating impacts of some co-occurring stressors, especially reduced riparian integrity. Synthesis and applications. Additional stressors can strongly influence the outcomes of flow restoration for fish community diversity and composition. Our approach combining fish species and trait data from multiple flow restoration projects with information on additional stressors yielded valuable insights into factors affecting flow restoration success, useful for (a) identifying the systems most likely to benefit from mandated minimum flows, (b) modelling influences of multiple stressors on flow-ecology relationships, (c) prioritizing additional measures to manage co-occurring stressors and enhance outcomes from flow restoration.

  • 24.
    Griffiths, Jennifer R.
    et al.
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Schindler, Daniel E.
    Armstrong, Jonathan B.
    Scheuerell, Mark D.
    Whited, Diane C.
    Clark, Robert A.
    Hilborn, Ray
    Holt, Carrie A.
    Lindley, Steven T.
    Stanford, Jack A.
    Volk, Eric C.
    Performance of salmon fishery portfolios across western North America2014In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 1554-1563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    <list list-type=1 id=jpe12341-list-0001> Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio theory provides a framework to characterize the relative performance among ecosystems and the processes that drive differences in performance. We assessed Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. portfolio performance across their native latitudinal range focusing on the reliability of salmon returns as a metric with which to assess the function of salmon ecosystems and their services to humans. We used the Sharpe ratio (e.g. the size of the total salmon return to the portfolio relative to its variability (risk)) to evaluate the performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios across the west coast of North America. We evaluated the effects on portfolio performance from the variance of and covariance among salmon returns within each portfolio, and the association between portfolio performance and watershed attributes. We found a positive latitudinal trend in the risk-adjusted performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios that also correlated negatively with anthropogenic impact on watersheds (e.g. dams and land-use change). High-latitude Chinook salmon portfolios were on average 25 times more reliable, and their portfolio risk was mainly due to low variance in the individual assets. Sockeye salmon portfolios were also more reliable at higher latitudes, but sources of risk varied among the highest performing portfolios.Synthesis and applications. Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally, assessing the sources of portfolio risk can guide actions to maintain existing resilience (protect habitat and disturbance regimes that maintain response diversity; employ harvest strategies sensitive to different portfolio components) or improve restoration activities. Improving our understanding of portfolio reliability may allow for management of natural resources that is robust to ongoing environmental change. Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally, assessing the sources of portfolio risk can guide actions to maintain existing resilience (protect habitat and disturbance regimes that maintain response diversity; employ harvest strategies sensitive to different portfolio components) or improve restoration activities. Improving our understanding of portfolio reliability may allow for management of natural resources that is robust to ongoing environmental change.

  • 25.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Aspect modifies the magnitude of edge effects on bryophyte growth in boreal forests2005In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 518-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The increased length of forest clear-cut edges is considered to be one of the main ecological consequences of silviculture. The effects vary over the landscape, and studies have shown that aspect is one important factor determining the extent of microclimatic edge effects across forest clear-cut boundaries. However, little is known about the relationship between contrasts in microclimate at edges and responses of ecological processes and biodiversity, such as growth, decomposition and species distributions.

    2. A field experiment was conducted in the boreal forest of northern Sweden to assess the effect of aspect at north- and south-facing edges using mosses as bioindicators. The growth of two species (Hylocomium splendens and Hylocomiastrum umbratum) was evaluated during one growing season. Samples of each species were planted in pots at eight north- and eight south-facing forest clear-cut edges.

    3. Growth increased exponentially with distance from the edge to the interior, and there was a significant effect both in north- and south-facing edges. The percentage decline in growth at the edge was larger in the south- than in the north-facing edges.

    4. The spatial extent of the edge effect, when measured at the point of 90% of interior growth, was similar between north- and south-facing edges, although it differed between the two species evaluated.

    5. Synthesis and applications. The difference in exposure to sunlight between north- and south-facing edges was shown to modify the magnitude of the growth of a poikilohydric organism at the very edge, but not the depth of the edge influence. Aspect should be taken into account in management plans for conservation of boreal forests. In the northern hemisphere, wider buffers of uncut forest should be left at the south side than at the north side of retained forest patches. Those forest interior species that are most sensitive to alterations in microclimate will, however, need equal protection from edge effects at all aspects.

  • 26.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Weibull, Henrik
    Do time-lagged extinctions and colonizations change the interpretation of buffer strip effectiveness?: a study of riparian bryophytes in the first decade after logging2012In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 1316-1324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a risk that short-term studies either underestimate disturbance effects because of time-lagged responses, including both time-lagged extinctions and colonizations, or overestimate them because of fast recovery. To evaluate the conservation effectiveness of tree group retention (in this case, buffer strips along streams), we studied the bryophyte community once prior to, and twice after logging, comparing one buffer and one clear-cut plot (0.1 ha) in each of 13 riparian sites. We asked whether time-lagged responses or recovery processes had dominated the period between two re-inventories, 2.5 and 10.5 years after logging, focusing both on the whole community and on species of conservation concern. Although there were examples of recovering species in both clear-cuts and buffer strips, the similarity in species composition to predisturbance conditions had decreased in the second re-inventory. Even if the buffer strips displayed more time-lagged colonizations and local extinctions over the later period compared to the clear-cuts, the overall species composition in the buffer strips was still significantly more similar to the prelogging conditions than the clear-cuts. The red-listed species had mostly declined during the first period, and the number of red-list species per plot (mostly species growing on dead wood) was rather stable at <20% of predisturbance levels in clear-cuts and <60% in buffer strips in the last re-inventory. Synthesis and applications. We show that most extinctions of red-list species occurred soon after disturbance and that the conclusions drawn from a study carried out 2.5 years after the disturbance did not change profoundly 8 years later. Although the species composition in the buffer strips continued to change over time, sensitive species survived much better in buffer strips than in clear-cuts, which supports the practice of retaining buffer strips for terrestrial species too. This knowledge should encourage managers to find ways of increasing the efficacy of this practice. One obvious measure could be to retain wider strips or implement other management practices that make the buffer strips less sensitive to wind, which will lead to higher tree retention to support a prelogging species composition.

  • 27.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    The importance of trees for woody pasture bird diversity and effects of the European Union's tree density policy2017In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 1638-1647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Recent reforms in the Common Agricultural Policy aim for a greening of the subsidy system with potential improvements for biodiversity conservation. As part of that process, the tree density limit for pastures to qualify for European Union subsidies has been increased from 50 to 100 trees per hectare. However, recent studies show that the high biodiversity values of these habitats may be threatened by these limits, highlighting the need for policy improvements. Still, little is known about the direct effects of tree density limitations on bird communities in woody pastures. 2. We investigated how bird diversity and species composition are affected by tree density in 49 Swedish woody pastures along a gradient of 4-214 trees per hectare. We recorded bird communities, tree density and stand structure estimates in the field and estimated forest cover in the surrounding landscape from aerial photos. Using generalised additive models and redundancy analysis, we analysed how bird territorial species richness, bird abundance and species composition are affected by tree density, taking into account other local and landscape scale explanatory variables. 3. Tree density had a significant positive effect on bird species richness at low tree densities and species richness saturated at approximately 50 trees per hectare. Shrub density had a significant positive linear effect on both bird species richness and abundance. Tree and shrub density were also the major drivers of bird community composition, with secondary effects of tree species diversity and landscape forest cover. 4. Policy implications. Our results show that tree density is not the limiting factor, but rather a driver of bird diversity and species composition in woody pastures and that tree density limits may fail to capture the whole range of biological values. To improve policy recommendations, we therefore stress the importance of considering additional social-ecological drivers associated to management quality, e.g. taking into account moral and cultural motivations among farmers, to preserve biodiversity in woody pastures.

  • 28. Johansson, M. E.
    et al.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Responses of riparian plants to flooding in free-flowing and regulated boreal rivers: an experimental study2002In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 971-986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1 The long history of river regulation has resulted in extensively changed ecosystem structures and processes in rivers and their associated environments. This fact, together with changing climatic and hydrological conditions, has increased the need to recover the natural functions of rivers. To develop guidelines for river restoration, comparative ecological experiments at contrasting water-level regimes are needed. We compared growth and survival of transplanted individuals of four riparian plant species (Betula pubescens, Carex acuta, Filipendula ulmaria and Leontodon autumnalis) over 2 years on four free-flowing and four regulated riverbank sites in northern Sweden. The species were chosen as representatives of dominating life-forms and species traits on different elevations of the riverbanks.

    • 2 In Betula and Filipendula, mean proportional growth rates were significantly higher at free-flowing sites than at regulated sites, whereas no consistent differences between free-flowing and regulated sites were found in Carex and Leontodon. Differences among species were generally in accordance with natural distribution patterns along riverbank elevation gradients and with experimental evidence on flooding tolerance, although plants of all species survived and even showed positive growth rates on elevations below their natural range of occurrence.
    • 3 Partial least squares regression was used to relate plant performance (growth and survival) to duration, frequency and timing of flooding at the different sites. Flood duration and frequency typically reduced performance in all species and during all time periods, although to various degrees. Flood events early in the experiment determined the outcome to a high degree at all sites. Variables indicating a regulated regime were mostly negatively related to plant performance, whereas free-flowing regime variables were positively related to plant performance.
    • 4 We used two of the regression models generated from our data with an acceptably high predictive power to simulate a hypothetical re-regulation scenario in run-of-river impoundments. With an overall reduction in flooding duration and frequency of 50–75%, plant performance of Filipendula at low riverbank elevations showed predicted increases of about 20–30%, levelling off to zero at the highest elevations. Reductions in summer floods represented about one-third to half of this increase.
    • 5 We conclude that for a range of species individual plant performance is clearly reduced on banks of impoundments and storage reservoirs due to changes in the water-level regime. Furthermore, our model simulation suggests that rather substantial reductions of flood duration and frequency are needed to improve plant performance on riverbanks upstream from dams in impounded rivers. River restoration principles should, however, be based on a combination of experimental data on plant performance of individual species and observed long-term changes in plant communities of regulated rivers. Consequently, successful re-regulation schemes in boreal rivers should include both reductions of summer and winter floods as well as re-introduced spring floods.
  • 29. Kratina, Pavel
    et al.
    Mac Nally, Ralph
    Kimmerer, Wim J.
    Thomson, James R.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. University of California Davis, USA.
    Human-induced biotic invasions and changes in plankton interaction networks2014In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 1066-1074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Pervasive and accelerating changes to ecosystems due to human activities remain major sources of uncertainty in predicting the structure and dynamics of ecological communities. Understanding which biotic interactions within natural multitrophic communities are weakened or augmented by invasions of non-native species in the context of other environmental pressures is needed for effective management. 2. We used multivariate autoregressive models with detailed time-series data from largely freshwater and brackish regions of the upper San Francisco Estuary to assess the topology, direction and strength of trophic interactions following major invasions and establishment of non-native zooplankton in the early 1990s. We simultaneously compared the effects of fish and clam predation, environmental temperature and salinity intrusion using time-series data from > 60 monitoring locations spanning more than three decades. 3. We found changes in the networks of biotic interactions in both regions after the major zooplankton invasions. Our results imply an increased pressure on native herbivores; intensified negative interactions between herbivores and omnivores; and stronger bottom-up influence of juvenile copepods but weaker influence of phytoplankton as a resource for higher trophic levels following the invasions. We identified salinity intrusion as a primary pressure but showed relatively stronger importance of biotic interactions for understanding the dynamics of entire communities. 4. Synthesis and applications. Our findings highlight the dynamic nature of biotic interactions and provide evidence of how simultaneous invasions of exotic species may alter interaction networks in diverse natural ecosystems over large spatial and temporal scales. Efforts to restore declining fish stocks may be in vain without fully considering the trophic dynamics that limit the flow of energy to target populations. Focusing on multitrophic interactions that may be threatened by invasions rather than a limited focus on responses of individual species or diversity is likely to yield more effective management strategies.

  • 30.
    Kärvemo, Simon
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Björkman, Christer
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Johansson, Therese
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Weslien, Jan
    Skogforsk.
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Forest restoration as a double-edged sword: the conflict between biodiversity conservation and pest control2017In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 1658-1668Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Lisovski, Simeon
    et al.
    Deakin Univ, Australia;Swiss Ornithol Inst, Switzerland.
    van Dijk, Jacintha G. B.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Netherlands.
    Klinkenberg, Don
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands;Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Netherlands.
    Nolet, Bart A.
    Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Netherlands;Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Fouchier, Ron A. M.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Klaassen, Marcel
    Deakin Univ, Australia.
    The roles of migratory and resident birds in local avian influenza infection dynamics2018In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 2963-2975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Migratory birds are an increasing focus of interest when it comes to infection dynamics and the spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, we lack detailed understanding of migratory birds' contribution to local AIV prevalence levels and their downstream socio-economic costs and threats. 2. To explain the potential differential roles of migratory and resident birds in local AIV infection dynamics, we used a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model. We investigated five (mutually non- exclusive) mechanisms potentially driving observed prevalence patterns: (1) a pronounced birth pulse (e.g. the synchronised annual influx of immunologically naive individuals), (2) short-term immunity, (3) increase in susceptible migrants, (4) differential susceptibility to infection (i.e. transmission rate) for migrants and residents, and (5) replacement of migrants during peak migration. 3. SIR models describing all possible combinations of the five mechanisms were fitted to individual AIV infection data from a detailed longitudinal surveillance study in the partially migratory mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos). During autumn and winter, the local resident mallard community also held migratory mallards that exhibited distinct AIV infection dynamics. 4. Replacement of migratory birds during peak migration in autumn was found to be the most important mechanism driving the variation in local AIV infection patterns. This suggests that a constant influx of migratory birds, likely immunological naive to locally circulating AIV strains, is required to predict the observed temporal prevalence patterns and the distinct differences in prevalence between residents and migrants. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our analysis reveals a key mechanism that could explain the amplifying role of migratory birds in local avian influenza virus infection dynamics; the constant flow and replacement of migratory birds during peak migration. Apart from monitoring efforts, in order to achieve adequate disease management and control in wildlife-with knock-on effects for livestock and humans,-we conclude that it is crucial, in future surveillance studies, to record host demographical parameters such as population density, timing of birth and turnover of migrants.

  • 32.
    Löbel, Swantje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Snäll, Tord
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Epiphytic bryophytes near forest edges and on retention trees: reduced growth and reproduction especially in old-growth-forest indicator species2012In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 1334-1343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Epiphytes are an important component in many forest ecosystems. The proportion of threatened epiphyte species is high, and the impact of clearcuts on key demographic processes via edge-influence is still poorly understood. There are few studies on epiphyte growth, and even less is known about how reproduction is affected by proximity to forest edges. For retention trees, demographic studies are even scarcer.
    2. Based on the results from a 6-month transplant experiment and a 3-year study of natural colonies, we modelled growth and reproduction of epiphytic bryophytes used as indicators of old-growth forests and widespread epiphytes in relation to distance from the forest edge. We also modelled growth and reproduction on retention trees within the clearcut. Species responses were linked to variation in canopy openness.
    3. Unlike the widespread species, the old-growth-forest indicators grew exponentially with distance from the edge, and this response was more pronounced at the south-east than north-west forest edge. In one red-listed species, reproduction was thoroughly inhibited near the edge, whereas the reproductive rate of the widespread species tended to increase. However, the widespread species also showed reduced shoot lengths on the retention trees.
    4. Reduced growth and inhibited reproduction of sensitive epiphytes near edges decrease the number of dispersing diaspores and may, in combination with lower local connectivity and increased tree fall rates close to edges, increase the risk of metapopulation extinction.
    5. Synthesis and applications. Two general management implications for boreal forests are drawn. First, retention trees may not have the capacity to act as a ‘lifeboat’ for epiphytic bryophytes and support their populations during the regeneration phase. Second, the creation of buffer zones is a useful conservation strategy for bryophytes. The exact width of zones depends on the forest structure and should be orientated in relation to the requirements of the most sensitive species. For the rather dense experimental forest, a width of at least 30 m was required for the south-facing buffer, whereas for the north-facing buffer 10 m was sufficient.
  • 33.
    Malm-Renöfält, Birgitta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Merritt, David M.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Connecting variation in vegetation and stream flow: the role of geomorphic context in vegetation response to large floods along boreal rivers2007In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 147-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Flooding governs riparian plant diversity along boreal rivers but the ecological role of extreme floods is only partly understood. We studied the dynamics of riparian plant composition and richness in the free-flowing Vindel River in northern Sweden, and the importance of reach type in sustaining high species richness.
    2. We conducted three surveys of riparian plant species richness over a period of two decades. The first and last of these surveys were conducted 1–3 years after significant flooding and the second was carried out after a period of more moderate flooding.
    3. Our results suggest that extreme floods reduce riparian plant species richness in tranquil (slow-flowing) reaches but that a subsequent period of less extreme flood events facilitates recovery. Tranquil river reaches were also more prone to invasion by ruderal species following major floods. Species richness in turbulent reaches (rapids and runs) remained constant during all surveys. One possible explanation for this pattern is that tranquil reaches become more anoxic during floods because they have more fine-grade soils with lower hydraulic conductivity than turbulent reaches. Anoxic conditions may cause stress and plant death, opening up space for colonization. Turbulent reaches maintain a better oxygenation in the root zone of plants through high groundwater turnover, reducing negative effects of prolonged floods.
    4. The fact that turbulent reaches preserved species richness regardless of flood magnitude suggests that they are important for the resistance of riparian ecosystems to prolonged inundation. In contrast, tranquil reaches, with a higher water-holding capacity, might instead maintain their species richness during drought periods.
    5. Synthesis and applications. Our findings highlight the importance of spatial and temporal variation in riverine plant species richness and composition. To conserve these habitats at a landscape scale, a full range of reach types is necessary to allow for recovery in reaches where species richness has declined. To maintain healthy riparian zones, river managers should focus restoration efforts on interactions between hydrology, geomorphology and biota.
  • 34.
    McKie, Brendan G.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Petrin, Zlatko
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Malmqvist, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mitigation or disturbance? Effects of liming on macroinvertebrate assemblage structure and leaf-litter decomposition in the humic streams of northern Sweden2006In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 780-791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Stream liming can alleviate the effects of anthropogenic acidification but itself constitutes a substantial ecosystem-level perturbation. Acidity in the humic streams of northern Sweden largely arises from natural causes but liming is extensively practised, with uncertain ecological outcomes.
    2. We investigated macroinvertebrate assemblage structure and leaf-litter decomposition in seven humic Swedish streams, each of which is limed at a single point using a dosing tower. Grey alder Alnus incana leaves were enclosed in replicate fine (mesh size 0·5 mm) and coarse (10 mm) mesh bags at three locations in each stream: upstream of the dosing tower, in the transitional ‘mixing zone’ immediately downstream of the tower, and at a site further downstream where the lime powder is completely dissolved, with marked changes to water chemistry. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were characterized from each site via five replicate Surber samples.
    3. Alkalinity, pH, conductivity and calcium (Ca) concentrations increased following liming, whereas dissolved organic carbon and aluminium concentrations decreased.
    4. Decomposition in fine mesh bags, primarily mediated by microbes, was positively associated with pH and Ca and was significantly elevated by liming, probably attributable to stimulation of fungal pectin-degrading enzymes that require Ca as a cofactor.
    5. Decomposition attributable to detritivorous insects (shredders), assessed by subtracting decomposition observed in fine mesh bags from that observed in coarse bags, was reduced following liming, in concert with changes to shredder assemblages. Abundance of large caddisfly shredders declined in limed stream sections, whereas some smaller stoneflies increased in number. Shredder diversity declined following liming during spring. Species evenness fell overall, and richness was reduced in four of six streams.
    6. Synthesis and applications. Water chemistry changes following stream liming in northern Sweden appear to overcompensate for the limited acid deposition observed in the region, with important ecosystem consequences. The potential deleterious impacts of liming need to be balanced against its desired outcomes in regions where acidity is largely attributable to natural causes.
  • 35. Moe, Stein R.
    et al.
    Rutina, Lucas P.
    Hytteborn, Håkan
    du Toit, Johan T.
    What controls woodland regeneration after elephants have killed the big trees?2009In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 223-230Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Nilsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    M. Dokter, Adriaan
    Schmid, Baptiste
    Scacco, Martina
    Verlinden, Liesbeth
    Bäckman, Johan
    Haase, Günther
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Dell’Omo, Giacomo
    W. Chapman, Jason
    Leijnse, Hidde
    Liechti, Felix
    Field validation of radar systems for monitoring bird migration2018In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 00, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Nilsson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gardfjell, Maria
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Long-term effects of river regulation on river margin vegetation1991In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 963-987Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38. Quinlan, Allyson E.
    et al.
    Berbés-Blázquez, Marta
    Haider, L. Jamila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Measuring and assessing resilience: broadening understanding through multiple disciplinary perspectives2016In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 53, p. 677-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Increased interest in managing resilience has led to efforts to develop standardized tools for assessments and quantitative measures. Resilience, however, as a property of complex adaptive systems, does not lend itself easily to measurement. Whereas assessment approaches tend to focus on deepening understanding of system dynamics, resilience measurement aims to capture and quantify resilience in a rigorous and repeatable way.
    2. We discuss the strengths, limitations and trade-offs involved in both assessing and measuring resilience, as well as the relationship between the two. We use a range of disciplinary perspectives to draw lessons on distilling complex concepts into useful metrics.
    3. Measuring and monitoring a narrow set of indicators or reducing resilience to a single unit of measurement may block the deeper understanding of system dynamics needed to apply resilience thinking and inform management actions.
    4. Synthesis and applications. Resilience assessment and measurement can be complementary. In both cases it is important that: (i) the approach aligns with how resilience is being defined, (ii) the application suits the specific context and (iii) understanding of system dynamics is increased. Ongoing efforts to measure resilience would benefit from the integration of key principles that have been identified for building resilience.
  • 39.
    Rader, Romina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. University of New England, Australia.
    Birkhofer, Klaus
    Schmucki, Reto
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Smith, Henrik G.
    Stjernman, Martin
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Organic farming and heterogeneous landscapes positively affect different measures of plant diversity2014In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 1544-1553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing landscape heterogeneity and organic farming practices are known to enhance species richness in agroecosystems. However, little is known about the consequences of these management options on other biodiversity components such as community composition, phylogenetic structure and functional diversity which may be more closely linked to ecosystem functioning. We surveyed semi-natural plant communities within the uncultivated field margins of 18 arable farms in Skane, south Sweden. We investigated how taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity responds to landscape heterogeneity (presence of semi-natural habitat) and farm management intensity (organic vs. conventional farming). Plant species richness and functional diversity metrics all responded positively to landscape heterogeneity, with the strongest effect occurring on conventional farms. Community composition differed with farm management, and mean phylogenetic relatedness, an indicator of phylogenetic structure, was significantly higher on the field margins of organic compared to conventional farms. Individual plant functional groups themselves responded in unique ways to land management and landscape heterogeneity.Synthesis and applications. Management strategies that promote the conservation of heterogeneous landscapes (i.e. a higher proportion of semi-natural habitats) and organic farm management practices are important for maintaining plant phylogenetic, functional and taxonomic diversity in agroecosystems. Accommodating various forms of diversity is important to ensure that ecosystems have the greatest possible array of species ecologies'. Such measures will help to improve the capacity of these ecosystems to provide multiple ecosystem functions, including the sustaining and regulating services of benefit to people. Management strategies that promote the conservation of heterogeneous landscapes (i.e. a higher proportion of semi-natural habitats) and organic farm management practices are important for maintaining plant phylogenetic, functional and taxonomic diversity in agroecosystems. Accommodating various forms of diversity is important to ensure that ecosystems have the greatest possible array of species ecologies'. Such measures will help to improve the capacity of these ecosystems to provide multiple ecosystem functions, including the sustaining and regulating services of benefit to people.

  • 40.
    Ruete, Alejandro
    et al.
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Snäll, Tord
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jönsson, Mari
    SLU, Uppsala.
    Contrasting long-term effects of transient anthropogenic edges and forest fragment size on generalist and specialist deadwood-dwelling fungi2017In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 1142-1151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests are becoming increasingly fragmented world-wide, creating forest patches with reduced area and greater exposure to human land uses along fragment edges. In this study, we predict the future impacts of anthropogenic edges and fragment size on the future occupancy of deadwood-dwelling fungi in boreal old-growth forest fragments. We used Bayesian models fitted to empirical data to predict 40years of occupancy dynamics of logs by a group of old-growth forest indicator fungi and two common fungi under different scenarios of clear-cutting in adjacent forest (0%, 25%, 50% and 100%) and fragment sizes (1-20ha). Small fragment size (1-3<bold></bold>14ha) and intensified forestry with 50-100% clear-cutting of forest around old-growth forest fragments lead to lower predicted occupancy of old-growth indicator fungi while common generalist species like Fomitopsis pinicola increased. There was a trade-off between fragment size and management, where increasing fragment size buffered the negative long-term effects from increased adjacent clear-cutting. These changes in fungal occupancy at the edge should be accounted for when working towards conservation targets for protected areas, such as the Aichi target 11.Synthesis and applications. Preserve what is left - but buffer for change. Small forest fragments often represent the last vestiges of high habitat quality (i.e. species, structures) in managed forest landscapes. As effective area-based conservation measures for the long-term occupancy of old-growth fungi, small fragments need to be managed to protect species from degrading transient edge effects. Management should focus on increasing the size of conservation areas with permanent buffer zones. Alternatively, non-simultaneous adjacent clear-cutting in a way that reduces the edge effect over time (i.e. dynamic buffers) may increase the effective area and improve performance of set-asides in protecting species of special concern for conservation. Preserve what is left - but buffer for change. Small forest fragments often represent the last vestiges of high habitat quality (i.e. species, structures) in managed forest landscapes. As effective area-based conservation measures for the long-term occupancy of old-growth fungi, small fragments need to be managed to protect species from degrading transient edge effects. Management should focus on increasing the size of conservation areas with permanent buffer zones. Alternatively, non-simultaneous adjacent clear-cutting in a way that reduces the edge effect over time (i.e. dynamic buffers) may increase the effective area and improve performance of set-asides in protecting species of special concern for conservation.

  • 41.
    Samnegård, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Alins, Georgina
    Boreux, Virginie
    Bosch, Jordi
    García, Daniel
    Happe, Anne-Kathrin
    Klein, Alexandra-Maria
    Miñarro, Marcos
    Mody, Karsten
    Porcel, Mario
    Rodrigo, Anselm
    Roquer-Beni, Laura
    Tasin, Marco
    Hambäck, Peter A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Management trade-offs on ecosystem services in apple orchards across Europe: Direct and indirect effects of organic production2019In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 802-811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apple is considered the most important fruit crop in temperate areas and profitable production depends on multiple ecosystem services, including the reduction of pest damage and the provision of sufficient pollination levels. Management approaches present an inherent trade-off as each affects species differently. We quantified the direct and indirect effects of management (organic vs. integrated pest management, IPM) on species richness, ecosystem services, and fruit production in 85 apple orchards in three European countries. We also quantified how habit composition influenced these effects at three spatial scales: within orchards, adjacent to orchards, and in the surrounding landscape. Organic management resulted in 48% lower yield than IPM, and also that the variation between orchards was large with some organic orchards having a higher yield than the average yield of IPM orchards. The lower yield in organic orchards resulted directly from management practices, and from higher pest damage in organic orchards. These negative yield effects were partly offset by indirect positive effects from more natural enemies and higher flower visitation rates in organic orchards. Two factors other than management affected species richness and ecosystem services. Higher cover of flowering plants within and adjacent to the apple trees increased flower visitation rates by pollinating insects and a higher cover of apple orchards in the landscape decreased species richness of beneficial arthropods. The species richness of beneficial arthropods in orchards was uncorrelated with fruit production, suggesting that diversity can be increased without large yield loss. At the same time, organic orchards had 38% higher species richness than IPM orchards, an effect that is likely due to differences in pest management.Synthesis and applications. Our results indicate that organic management is more efficient than integrated pest management in developing environmentally friendly apple orchards with higher species richness. We also demonstrate that there is no inherent trade-off between species richness and yield. Development of more environmentally friendly means for pest control, which do not negatively affect pollination services, needs to be a priority for sustainable apple production. Our results indicate that organic management is more efficient than integrated pest management in developing environmentally friendly apple orchards with higher species richness. We also demonstrate that there is no inherent trade-off between species richness and yield. Development of more environmentally friendly means for pest control, which do not negatively affect pollination services, needs to be a priority for sustainable apple production. Editor's Choice

  • 42.
    Sandström, Jennie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bernes, Claes
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm.
    Junninen, Kaisa
    Metsähallitus Parks & Wildlife Finland, Joensuu, Finland; University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Lõhmus, Asko
    Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia.
    Macdonald, Ellen
    University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Müller, Jörg
    Bavarian Forest National Park, Grafenau, Germany.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Impacts of dead-wood manipulation on the biodiversity of temperate and boreal forests - A systematic review2019In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 1770-1781Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dead wood (DW) provides critical habitat for thousands of species in forests, but its amount, quality and diversity have been heavily reduced by forestry. Therefore, interventions aiming to increase DW might be necessary to support its associated biodiversity, even in protected forests, which may be former production forests. Our aim was to synthesize the current state of knowledge drawn from replicated experimental studies into solid quantitative evidence of the effects of DW manipulation on forest biodiversity, with a focus on protected forests.

    We conducted a full systematic review of effects of DW manipulation on forest biodiversity in boreal and temperate regions. We included three intervention types: creation of DW from live trees at the site, addition of DW from outside the site and prescribed burning. Outcomes included abundance and species richness of saproxylic insects, ground insects, wood-inhabiting fungi, lichens, reptiles and cavity-nesting birds. In total, we included 91 studies, 37 of which were used in meta-analyses. Although meta-analysis outcomes were heterogeneous, they showed that increasing the amount of DW (“DW enrichment”) has positive effects on the abundance and richness of saproxylic insects and fungi. The positive effect on saproxylic pest insect abundance tended to be less than that on saproxylic insects in general. No significant effects were found for ground insects or cavity-nesting birds.

    Although reviewed studies were mainly short term, our results support that management that increases DW amounts has the potential to increase the abundance of DW-dependent species and, in most cases, also their species richness. Studies of burning showed positive effects on the abundance of saproxylic insects similar to those of other interventions, even though burning on average resulted in a smaller enrichment of DW amounts.

    Policy implications. The findings of the review suggest that manipulating dead wood (DW) can be an effective part of conservation management to support biodiversity in protected areas. The findings also indicate that the diversity of DW types is important, a mix of DW qualities should be favoured. Burning seems to be an effective method to increase biodiversity but to benefit cavity-nesting birds, snag losses need to be minimized.

  • 43.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Janssen, Roel H.
    Rip, Winnie J.
    Bender, Irene M. A.
    Bakker, Elisabeth S.
    Windows of opportunity for germination of riparian species after restoring water level fluctuations: a field experiment with controlled seed banks2014In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 1006-1014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Restoration activities aiming at increasing vegetation diversity often try to stimulate both dispersal and germination. In wetlands, dispersal and germination are coupled as water and water level fluctuations (WLF) simultaneously influence seed transport and germination conditions (soil moisture). Water regime shifts have been shown to affect vegetation composition. However, the interactions between WLF, dispersal and subsequent germination as drivers of such changes are still poorly understood, especially within the complexity of a field situation.

    2. We tested the effect of soil moisture on ten riparian species in the greenhouse and sowed these species on 135 field locations in nine wetlands with recently restored WLF. We used quantile regressions to test the effects of WLF on the window of opportunity for germination from sown seeds and other seeds naturally dispersed to our plots, as well as on community diversity.

    3. Soil moisture significantly affected germination both in the greenhouse and in the field. In the complexity of a field situation, a flooding depth just below the soil level, an intermediate flooding duration and a high flooding frequency provided the best opportunities for maximal germination. This was because these conditions enhanced germination from the seed bank as well as increasing germination from dispersed seeds. Seedling diversity showed identical patterns.

    4. Other known (i.e., light conditions) and unknown factors played a role as we found low and variable germination, even under optimal conditions. We found evidence that WLF can affect vegetation zonation as flooded seedling communities contained more species with high moisture affinity.

    5. Synthesis and applications. Water level fluctuations provide clear windows of opportunity for germination both from the seed bank and from dispersed seeds. Water regime changes are therefore likely to strongly affect recruitment opportunities and subsequent community assembly in riparian ecosystems, for instance through climate change or management. Water level fluctuations can be used as management tool to stimulate plant recruitment and seedling diversity in riparian wetlands.

  • 44. Saura, Santiago
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Fortin, Marie-Josee
    Stepping stones are crucial for species' long-distance dispersal and range expansion through habitat networks2014In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 171-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate and land-use changes will require species to move large distances following shifts in their suitable habitats, which will frequently involve traversing intensively human-modified landscapes. Practitioners will therefore need to evaluate and act to enhance the degree to which habitat patches scattered throughout the landscape may function as stepping stones facilitating dispersal among otherwise isolated habitat areas. We formulate a new generalized network model of habitat connectivity that accounts for the number of dispersing individuals and for long-distance dispersal processes across generations. By doing so, we bridge the gap between complex dynamic population models, which are generally too data demanding and hence difficult to apply in practical wide-scale decision-making, and simpler static connectivity models that only consider the amount of habitat that can be reached by a single average disperser during its life span. We find that the loss of intermediate and sufficiently large stepping-stone habitat patches can cause a sharp decline in the distance that can be traversed by species (critical spatial thresholds) that cannot be effectively compensated by other factors previously regarded as crucial for long-distance dispersal (fat-tailed dispersal kernels, source population size). We corroborate our findings by showing that our model largely outperforms previous connectivity models in explaining the large-scale range expansion of a forest bird species, the Black Woodpecker Dryocopus martius, over a 20-year period. The capacity of species to exploit the opportunities created by networks of stepping-stone patches largely depends on species-specific life-history traits, suggesting that species assemblages traversing fragmented landscapes may be exposed to a spatial filtering process driving long-term changes in community composition.Synthesis and applications. Previous static connectivity models seriously underestimate the importance of stepping-stone patches in sustaining rare but crucial dispersal events. We provide a conceptually broader model that shows that stepping stones (i) must be of sufficient size to be of conservation value, (ii) are particularly crucial for the spread of species (either native or invasive) or genotypes over long distances and (iii) can effectively reduce the isolation of the largest habitat blocks in reserves, therefore largely contributing to species persistence across wide spatial and temporal scales. Previous static connectivity models seriously underestimate the importance of stepping-stone patches in sustaining rare but crucial dispersal events. We provide a conceptually broader model that shows that stepping stones (i) must be of sufficient size to be of conservation value, (ii) are particularly crucial for the spread of species (either native or invasive) or genotypes over long distances and (iii) can effectively reduce the isolation of the largest habitat blocks in reserves, therefore largely contributing to species persistence across wide spatial and temporal scales. Editor's Choice

  • 45.
    Schuler, Matthew S.
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Darrin Fresh Water Institute, Troy, NY, USA.
    Hintz, William D.
    Department of Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Darrin Fresh Water Institute, Troy, NY, USA.
    Jones, Devin K.
    Department of Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Darrin Fresh Water Institute, Troy, NY, USA.
    Lind, Lovisa
    Department of Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Darrin Fresh Water Institute, Troy, NY, USA.
    Mattes, Brian M.
    Department of Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Darrin Fresh Water Institute, Troy, NY, USA.
    Stoler, Aaron B.
    Department of Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Darrin Fresh Water Institute, Troy, NY, USA.
    Sudol, Kelsey A.
    Department of Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Darrin Fresh Water Institute, Troy, NY, USA.
    Relyea, Rick A.
    Department of Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Darrin Fresh Water Institute, Troy, NY, USA.
    How common road salts and organic additives alter freshwater food webs: in search of safer alternatives2017In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 1353-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The application of deicing road salts began in the 1940s and has increased drastically in regions where snow and ice removal is critical for transportation safety. The most commonly applied road salt is sodium chloride (NaCl). However, the increased costs of NaCl, its negative effects on human health, and the degradation of roadside habitats has driven transportation agencies to seek alternative road salts and organic additives to reduce the application rate of NaCl or increase its effectiveness. Few studies have examined the effects of NaCl in aquatic ecosystems, but none have explored the potential impacts of road salt alternatives or additives on aquatic food webs. 2. We assessed the effects of three road salts (NaCl, MgCl2 and ClearLane (TM)) and two road salts mixed with organic additives (GeoMelt (TM) and Magic Salt (TM)) on food webs in experimental aquatic communities, with environmentally relevant concentrations, standardized by chloride concentration. 3. We found that NaCl had few effects on aquatic communities. However, the microbial breakdown of organic additives initially reduced dissolved oxygen. Additionally, microbial activity likely transformed unusable phosphorus from the organic additives to usable phosphorus for algae, which increased algal growth. The increase in algal growth led to an increase in zooplankton abundance. Finally, MgCl2 - a common alternative to NaCl - reduced compositional differences of zooplankton, and at low concentrations increased the abundance of amphipods. 4. Synthesis and applications. Our results indicate that alternative road salts (to NaCl), and road salt additives can alter the abundance and composition of organisms in freshwater food webs at multiple trophic levels, even at low concentrations. Consequently, road salt alternatives and additives might alter ecosystem function and ecosystem services. Therefore, transportation agencies should use caution in applying road salt alternatives and additives. A comprehensive investigation of road salt alternatives and road salt additives should be conducted before wide-scale use is implemented. Further research is also needed to determine the impacts of salt additives and alternatives on higher trophic levels, such as amphibians and fish.

  • 46.
    Sundblad, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Bergström, Ulf
    Sandström, Alfred
    Ecological coherence of Marine Protected Area networks: A spatial assessment using species distribution models2011In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 112-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The juvenile stages of fish are often dependent on specific habitat types for their survival. Protecting these habitats may be crucial for maintaining strong adult stocks. The Natura 2000 network of the European Union offers protection of marine habitats that are essential for the recruitment of many fish species. By protecting these critical habitats the network may be important for maintaining the stocks of these fish species. 2.We present a spatially explicit, GIS-based, assessment of two important components of the ecological coherence of Marine Protected Area (MPA) networks: representativity and connectivity. Representativity can be measured as the proportion of each conservation feature that is protected, whereas connectivity assesses the spatial configuration of the network. We apply these analyses to study the ecological coherence of the Natura 2000 network in a 30 000-km2 archipelago in the Baltic Sea, with respect to a coastal fish assemblage and associated habitats. The analyses are based on fish distribution maps that have been constructed by statistically relating life stage specific occurrence to environmental variables, and thereafter making spatial predictions based on maps of the environmental variables. 3.The map-based analyses show that both the representativity and the connectivity of the network are poor with respect to the studied fish species. In total, 3.5% (11 km2) of the assemblage recruitment habitat was protected and 48% of the potentially connected habitats were included in the MPA network. 4.The assessment explicitly identified geographical areas, visually communicated using maps, where the network should be improved to ensure ecological coherence. 5.Synthesis and applications.Many MPA networks around the world, such as the Natura 2000 network in Europe, have recently come into effect. Establishment of the networks has often been governed by opportunity rather than by strict ecological analyses, primarily because distribution maps of species and habitats have been unavailable. Map-based assessments of the strengths and weaknesses of evolving MPA networks, such as the one presented here, are needed in adaptive management. They can provide an efficient tool for visualising and communicating the results to stakeholders and policy makers in the process of working towards ecological coherence.

  • 47.
    Sundström, L. Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Vandersteen, Wendy E.
    Lohmus, Mare
    Devlin, Robert H.
    Growth-enhanced coho salmon invading other salmon species populations: effects on early survival and growth2014In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 82-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first genetically modified (GM) fish intended for human consumption has recently stimulated significant scientific discussion and regulatory scrutiny regarding food safety and environmental risks. Currently, no experiments with transgenic fish have been performed in nature, yet such data are needed to facilitate predictions of ecological consequences should engineered fish escape to the natural environment. To address this limitation, we conducted experiments under natural conditions but within a contained environment to assess the impact of invasion of growth-enhanced GM coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum) on survival and growth of three naturally cohabitating fishes: Chinook salmon O.tshawytscha (Walbaum), steelhead trout O.mykiss (Walbaum) and conspecific wild-type coho salmon. We found that the impact of stream-reared GM coho salmon on invaded specimens was similar to the impact of non-GM coho salmon. However, GM fish significantly reduced survival and growth of the invaded populations if they were first allowed to grow larger under hatchery conditions before being released.Synthesis and applications. Our results show that the ecological impact of fish genetically modified (GM) for rapid growth on closely related fish species may not be high in stream environments, unless these fish are first reared under culture conditions where they are able to realize their genetic growth potential. As such, first generation escapes of GM fish into the natural environment should be a main concern in the short term, whereas later generations, which are more similar to naturally occurring genotypes, are expected to have significantly weaker effects but which could persist for longer periods. Our results show that the ecological impact of fish genetically modified (GM) for rapid growth on closely related fish species may not be high in stream environments, unless these fish are first reared under culture conditions where they are able to realize their genetic growth potential. As such, first generation escapes of GM fish into the natural environment should be a main concern in the short term, whereas later generations, which are more similar to naturally occurring genotypes, are expected to have significantly weaker effects but which could persist for longer periods.

  • 48.
    Winter, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Austria.
    Jung, Linda S.
    Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
    Otte, Annette
    Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
    Donath, Tobias W.
    Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
    Kriechbaum, Monika
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Austria.
    Control of the toxic plant Colchicum autumnale in semi- natural grasslands: Effects of cutting treatments on demography and diversity2014In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 524-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-natural grasslands are important habitats for the conservation of biodiversity in Europe. High population densities of toxic Colchicum autumnale in these grasslands may cause problems for livestock and the marketing of hay. Consequently, farmers may either intensify grassland management to reduce C. autumnale in the fodder or abandon the land; both practices will lead to a loss of biodiversity. Previous studies suggesting early cutting to control C. autumnale did not consider population dynamics and the effects on plant diversity. We conducted a four-year experiment in six regions within Austria and Germany, applying five cutting treatments in 16 C. autumnale populations to test the effects of cutting date and frequency on C. autumnale and co-occurring vegetation. Demographic data were evaluated with matrix population models, life-table response experiment (LTRE), anova and manova. Vegetation data were analysed with multiresponse permutation procedures (MRPP), anova and manova. Population growth rate was significantly reduced in plots cut in early and late May compared to plots cut in June (control). Plants cut in late April or early May showed the lowest survival probability. Significantly fewer large vegetative plants developed capsules in the following year when cut in early or late May. LTRE analysis showed that differences in the population growth rate between the control and early cut treatments were mainly the result of a reduced survival and growth and an increased retrogression to smaller stages. Multiresponse permutation procedures revealed no differences in vegetation composition between treatments except for one site in 2011. There were no differences in Shannon index, evenness or species turnover rate within any year. Synthesis and applications. The greatest reduction in vitality of Colchicum autumnale was observed in grasslands cut in late April or early May. After three years of early cutting, no reduction in plant species diversity was observed. The second cut should be postponed to July to enable seed shed of plants. Grassland management decisions to control toxic C. autumnale must be made in close cooperation with nature conservation authorities to consider site characteristics and requirements of endangered species. The greatest reduction in vitality of Colchicum autumnale was observed in grasslands cut in late April or early May. After three years of early cutting, no reduction in plant species diversity was observed. The second cut should be postponed to July to enable seed shed of plants. Grassland management decisions to control toxic C. autumnale must be made in close cooperation with nature conservation authorities to consider site characteristics and requirements of endangered species.

  • 49.
    Åström, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of slash harvest on bryophytes and vascular plants in southern boreal forest clear-cuts2005In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1194-1202Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Öster, Mathias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Ask, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Cousins, S A O
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Dispersal and establishment limitation reduces the potential for successful restoration of species-rich grasslands on former arable fields2009In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 1266-1274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Ex-arable fields have been suggested as potential sites for re-creation of semi-natural grasslands, but information is still limited on the temporal scales needed for the natural assembly of these communities and whether colonization is related to dispersal or establishment limitation.

    2. We investigated grazed ex-arable fields of different age and adjacent semi-natural grasslands in terms of species richness of plants, community similarity, colonization pattern and recruitment ability of 16 sown grassland species. The functional trait distribution of successful and unsuccessful colonizing species was compared using five traits related to dispersal and persistence: seed mass, seed bank persistence, specific leaf area, plant height and potential for lateral spread.

    3. The youngest ex-arable fields had the lowest species richness and contained communities with the lowest similarity to semi-natural grassland. Species richness and similarity to semi-natural grassland both increased with time since grazing started on ex-arable fields, but were still significantly lower than in semi-natural grasslands even after more than 50 years of grazing.

    4. Colonization was not related to any of the investigated functional traits. The rank order of the species in terms of abundance was correlated between young and old ex-arable fields suggesting that species performance remains the same with field age.

    5. Recruitment after sowing was generally lower in ex-arable fields than in semi-natural grasslands, although the basic recruitment ability varied between species. Recruitment did not change with field age, suggesting that dispersal limitation rather than establishment limitation caused the temporal pattern of colonization. However, establishment limitation may act as a filter for colonization of all ex-arable fields, regardless of their age.

    6. Synthesis and applications. This study demonstrates that the temporal scale for natural assembly of semi-natural grassland communities in ex-arable fields extends over 50 years, even when source pools are nearby. Results suggest that a field age-independent establishment limitation, combined with dispersal limitation, cause the delayed assembly in ex-arable fields. Management that aims to re-create semi-natural grassland communities in ex-arable fields should consider introducing seeds or improving germination conditions at the sites.

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