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  • 1.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, IFM Biol, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Uhrig, Emily J.
    Linkoping Univ, IFM Biol, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linkoping Univ, IFM Biol, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Favati, Anna
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almberg, Johan
    Linkoping Univ, IFM Biol, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Dahlbom, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Lövlie, Hanne
    Linkoping Univ, IFM Biol, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    The Influence of Rearing on Behavior, Brain Monoamines, and Gene Expression in Three-Spined Sticklebacks2018In: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 201-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology, and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression. The different rearing environments influenced behavior and gene expression, but did not alter monoamine levels or metabolites. Specifically, compared to control fish, fish exposed to a simulated predator environment tended to be less aggressive, more exploratory, and more neophobic; and fish raised in both complex and variable social environments tended to be less neophobic. Exposure to a simulated predator environment tended to lower expression of dopamine receptor DRD4A, a complex environment increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1B, while a variable social environment tended to increase serotonin receptor 5-HTR2B and serotonin transporter SLC6A4A expression. Despite both behavior and gene expression varying with early environment, there was no evidence that gene expression mediated the relationship between early environment and behavior. Our results confirm that environmental conditions early in life can affect phenotypic variation. However, the mechanistic pathway of the monoaminergic systems translating early environmental variation into observed behavioral responses was not detected.

  • 2. Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Uhrig, Emily J.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Favati, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Almberg, Johan
    Dahlbom, Josefin
    Winberg, Svante
    Løvlie, Hanne
    The Influence of Rearing on Behavior, Brain Monoamines, and Gene Expression in Three-Spined Sticklebacks2018In: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 201-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology, and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression. The different rearing environments influenced behavior and gene expression, but did not alter monoamine levels or metabolites. Specifically, compared to control fish, fish exposed to a simulated predator environment tended to be less aggressive, more exploratory, and more neophobic; and fish raised in both complex and variable social environments tended to be less neophobic. Exposure to a simulated predator environment tended to lower expression of dopamine receptor DRD4A, a complex environment increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1B, while a variable social environment tended to increase serotonin receptor 5-HTR2B and serotonin transporter SLC6A4A expression. Despite both behavior and gene expression varying with early environment, there was no evidence that gene expression mediated the relationship between early environment and behavior. Our results confirm that environmental conditions early in life can affect phenotypic variation. However, the mechanistic pathway of the monoaminergic systems translating early environmental variation into observed behavioral responses was not detected.

  • 3.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uhrig, Emily
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Favati, A.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almberg, J.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlbom, J.
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Winberg, S.
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Influence of Rearing on Behavior, Brain Monoamines, and Gene Expression in Three-Spined Sticklebacks2018In: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 201-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks <i>(Gasterosteus aculeatus)</i> under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology, and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression. The different rearing environments influenced behavior and gene expression, but did not alter monoamine levels or metabolites. Specifically, compared to control fish, fish exposed to a simulated predator environment tended to be less aggressive, more exploratory, and more neophobic; and fish raised in both complex and variable social environments tended to be less neophobic. Exposure to a simulated predator environment tended to lower expression of dopamine receptor DRD4A, a complex environment increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1B, while a variable social environment tended to increase serotonin receptor 5-HTR2B and serotonin transporter SLC6A4A expression. Despite both behavior and gene expression varying with early environment, there was no evidence that gene expression mediated the relationship between early environment and behavior. Our results confirm that environmental conditions early in life can affect phenotypic variation. However, the mechanistic pathway of the monoaminergic systems translating early environmental variation into observed behavioral responses was not detected.

  • 4.
    Hallböök, Finn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Developmental Neuroscience.
    Wilson, Karen
    Thorndyke, Mike
    Olinski, Robert Piotr
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Developmental Neuroscience.
    Formation and evolution of the chordate neurotrophin and Trk receptor genes2006In: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 133-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurotrophins are structurally related neurotrophic polypeptide factors that regulate neuronal differentiation and are essential for neuronal survival, neurite growth and plasticity. It has until very recently been thought that the neurotrophin system appeared with the vertebrate species, but identification of a cephalochordate neurotrophin receptor (Trk), and more recently neurotrophin sequences in several genomes of deuterostome invertebrates, show that the system already existed at the stem of the deuterostome group. Comparative genomics supports the hypothesis that two whole genome duplications produced many of the vertebrate gene families, among those the neurotrophin and Trk families. It remains to be proven to what extent the whole genome duplications have driven macroevolutionary change, but it appears certain that the formation of the multi-gene copy neurotrophin and Trk receptor families at the stem of vertebrates has provided a foundation from which the various functions and pleiotropic effects produced by each of the four extant neurotrophins have evolved.

  • 5. Navarrete, Ana F.
    et al.
    Blezer, Erwin L. A.
    Pagnotta, Murillo
    de Viet, Elizabeth S. M.
    Todorov, Orlin S.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Laland, Kevin N.
    Reader, Simon M.
    Primate Brain Anatomy: New Volumetric MRI Measurements for Neuroanatomical Studies2018In: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 109-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the publication of the primate brain volumetric dataset of Stephan and colleagues in the early 1980s, no major new comparative datasets covering multiple brain regions and a large number of primate species have become available. However, technological and other advances in the last two decades, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the creation of institutions devoted to the collection and preservation of rare brain specimens, provide opportunities to rectify this situation. Here, we present a new dataset including brain region volumetric measurements of 39 species, including 20 species not previously available in the literature, with measurements of 16 brain areas. These volumes were extracted from MRI of 46 brains of 38 species from the Netherlands Institute of Neuroscience Primate Brain Bank, scanned at high resolution with a 9.4-T scanner, plus a further 7 donated MRI of 4 primate species. Partial measurements were made on an additional 8 brains of 5 species. We make the dataset and MRI scans available online in the hope that they will be of value to researchers conducting comparative studies of primate evolution.

  • 6.
    Schjolden, Joachim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Genetically determined variation in stress responsiveness in rainbow trout: behavior and neurobiology2007In: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 227-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that the diversity in stressors, their intensity, predictability and the context in which they are experienced, will result in behavioral and physiological responses just as diverse. In addition, stress responses are characterized by individual variations where the physiological and behavioral reactions are associated in such a manner that distinct stress coping styles encompassing suites of correlated traits can be identified. These are often referred to as proactive and reactive stress coping styles. Proactive coping is characterized by more aggression, higher general activity and higher sympathetic activation, whereas reactive coping is characterized by immobility, lack of initiative and a higher parasympathetic/hypothalamic activation. Stable coping styles appear to coexist within populations, and these strategies appear to be largely innate. Moreover, the physiological and behavioral traits of coping styles appear to be heritable. These stress coping styles have proven to play a major role in competitive ability and subsequent social position in different species of vertebrates. However, there are also studies showing that social position can affect parameters encompassing the stress coping style of individuals. In this regard it is important, but not always easy, to distinguish between causes and effects of behavioral and physiological responses to stressors. The question raised is to what extent and rigidness stress coping styles are guided by genetic factors.

  • 7. Wardill, T. J.
    et al.
    Knowles, K.
    Barlow, L.
    Tapia, G.
    Nordström, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Olberg, R. M.
    Gonzalez-Bellido, P. T.
    The Killer Fly Hunger Games: Target Size and Speed Predict Decision to Pursuit2015In: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 28-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predatory animals have evolved to optimally detect their prey using exquisite sensory systems such as vision, olfaction and hearing. It may not be so surprising that vertebrates, with large central nervous systems, excel at predatory behaviors. More striking is the fact that many tiny insects, with their miniscule brains and scaled down nerve cords, are also ferocious, highly successful predators. For predation, it is important to determine whether a prey is suitable before initiating pursuit. This is paramount since pursuing a prey that is too large to capture, subdue or dispatch will generate a substantial metabolic cost (in the form of muscle output) without any chance of metabolic gain (in the form of food). In addition, during all pursuits, the predator breaks its potential camouflage and thus runs the risk of becoming prey itself. Many insects use their eyes to initially detect and subsequently pursue prey. Dragonflies, which are extremely efficient predators, therefore have huge eyes with relatively high spatial resolution that allow efficient prey size estimation before initiating pursuit. However, much smaller insects, such as killer flies, also visualize and successfully pursue prey. This is an impressive behavior since the small size of the killer fly naturally limits the neural capacity and also the spatial resolution provided by the compound eye. Despite this, we here show that killer flies efficiently pursue natural <i>(Drosophila melanogaster)</i> and artificial (beads) prey. The natural pursuits are initiated at a distance of 7.9 ± 2.9 cm, which we show is too far away to allow for distance estimation using binocular disparities. Moreover, we show that rather than estimating absolute prey size prior to launching the attack, as dragonflies do, killer flies attack with high probability when the ratio of the prey's subtended retinal velocity and retinal size is 0.37. We also show that killer flies will respond to a stimulus of an angular size that is smaller than that of the photoreceptor acceptance angle, and that the predatory response is strongly modulated by the metabolic state. Our data thus provide an exciting example of a loosely designed matched filter to <i>Drosophila</i>, but one which will still generate successful pursuits of other suitable prey.

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