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  • 1.
    Albåge, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
    Postoperative chylothorax: a cause for concern2017In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 159, no 10, p. 2023-2024Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Blomstedt, P
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery. Neurokirurgi.
    Hariz, M I
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery. Neurokirurgi.
    Hardware-related complications of deep brain stimulation: a ten year experience.2005In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 147, no 10, p. 1061-1064Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Fytagoridis, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Tisch, S
    Deep brain stimulation of the posterior subthalamic area in the treatment of tremor2009In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 151, no 1, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have described lesional therapy in the posterior subthalamic area (PSA) in the treatment of various movement disorders. Recently, some publications have illustrated the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in this area in patients with Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, MS-tremor, and other forms of tremor. Even though the clinical series is small, the reported benefits prompted us to explore DBS in this area in the treatment of tremor.

    METHOD: Five patients with tremor were operated using unilateral DBS of the PSA. Two patients had dystonic tremor, one primary writing tremor, one cerebellar tremor and the other neuropathic tremor. All patients were assessed before and 1 year after surgery using items 5 and 6 (tremor of the upper extremity), 11-14 (hand function), and when appropriate item 10 (handwriting) from the essential tremor rating scale.

    FINDINGS: The mean improvement on stimulation after 1 year was 87%. A pronounced and sustained microlesional effect was seen in several of the patients, and while the mean improvement off stimulation was 56% the reduction in the three patients with the most pronounced effect was 89%. The two patients with dystonic tremor did also become free of the dystonic symptoms and pain in the treated arm. No severe complication occurred.

    CONCLUSIONS: DBS of the PSA in this small group of patients had an excellent effect on the different forms of tremor, except for the neuropathic tremor where the effect was moderate. These preliminary results suggest PSA to be an effective target for the treatment of various forms of tremor. Further studies concerning indications, safety and efficacy of DBS in the posterior subthalamic area are required.

  • 4.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Sandvik, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Fredricks, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Hariz, Marwan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus versus the zona incerta in the treatment of essential tremor2011In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 153, no 12, p. 2329-2335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for essential tremor (ET). Currently the ventrolateral thalamus is the target of choice, but the posterior subthalamic area (PSA), including the caudal zona incerta (cZi), has demonstrated promising results, and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been suggested as a third alternative. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of STN DBS in ET and to compare this to cZi DBS.

    Methods: Four patients with ET were implanted with two ipsilateral electrodes, one in the STN and one in the cZi. All contacts were evaluated concerning the acute effect on tremor, and the effect of chronic DBS in either target was analyzed.

    Results: STN and cZi both proved to be potent targets for DBS in ET. DBS in the cZi was more efficient, since the same degree of tremor reduction could here be achieved at lower energy consumption. Three patients became tremor-free in the treated hand with either STN or cZi DBS, while the fourth had a minor residual tremor after stimulation in either target.

    Conclusion: In this limited material, STN DBS was demonstrated to be an efficient treatment for ET, even though cZi DBS was more efficient. The STN may be an alternative target in the treatment of ET, pending further investigations to decide on the relative merits of the different targets.

  • 5.
    Bobinski, L
    et al.
    Neurokirurgisk klinik Rekonstruktionscentrum.
    Boström, Sverre
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurosurgery UHL.
    Hillman, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurosurgery UHL.
    Theodorsson, Annette
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of clinical chemistry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurosurgery UHL.
    Postoperative pseudoaneurysm of the superficial temporal artery (S.T.A.) treated with Thrombostat® (thrombin glue) injection2004In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 146, no 9, p. 1039-1041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication of craniotomy. Blunt injury to the temporal artery region is the usual cause, but still a rare complication. Clinical presentation. A patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage was successfully treated by aneurysm clipping. The patient developed hydrocephalus, and was admitted for a shunt operation seventeen days later. The craniotomy had healed normally, but a palpable temporal lump was present in the skin incision. Intervention. The pulsating mass proved to be a postoperative aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery (S.T.A.) and was successfully occluded with 500 units Thrombostat® (thrombin glue) which was injected into the aneurysm sac using a 22-gauge needle guided by ultrasound. The permanency of the obliteration was verified by ultrasound examination.

  • 6. Bobinski, L
    et al.
    Boström, Sverre
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurosurgery UHL.
    Zsigmond, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurosurgery UHL.
    Theodorsson, Annette
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of clinical chemistry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurosurgery UHL.
    Leptomeningeal cyst due to vacuum extraction delivery in a twin infant2007In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 149, no 3, p. 319-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A rare case of a leptomeningeal cyst is reported in a twin male neonate delivered using a vacuum extractor, who presented a huge, non-pulsating, oedematous mass overlying the frontal fontanelle after birth. The mass was initially diagnosed as a cephalo haematoma. Ultrasonography indicated intracranial bleeding and a subsequent CT scan revealed an intraparenchymal bleeding above the left frontal horn, combined with a thin, left-sided, subdural haematoma and subarachnoid haemorrhage in the left Sylvian fissure. Apart from a bulging soft and round formation (2 × 2 × 3 cm) next to the anterior fontanel growing since birth, the neurological development of the infant was normal. MRI examination at the age of 7 months revealed that it consisted of a cystic mass (leptomeningeal cyst) connected to the left frontal horn, stretching right through the brain and also penetrating the dura mater. No signs of the perinatal haematomas were observed at this time. Surgical treatment, with fenestration of the cyst into the frontal horn and a watertight duraplasty with a periosteal flap and thrombin glue covered by small bone chips, was performed at 9 months of age. Due to a residual skull bone defect a second cranioplasty with autologous skull bone was performed three and half years later. During a follow-up period of 12 years the neurological and psychological development of the boy has been indistinguishable to that of his twin brother, indicating the satisfactory outcome of the treatment. © 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  • 7.
    Bobinski, Lukas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Dynamics of brain tissue changes induced by traumatic brain injury assessed with the Marshall, Morris-Marshall, and the Rotterdam classifications and its impact on outcome in a prostacyclin placebo-controlled study2012In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 154, no 6, p. 1069-1079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study evaluates the types and dynamics of intracranial pathological changes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) who participated in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study of add-on treatment with prostacyclin. Further, the changes of brain CT scan and their correlation to Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS), maximal intracranial pressure (ICPmax), minimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPmin), and Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) at 3, 6, and 12 months were studied. Forty-eight subjects with severe traumatic brain injury were treated according to an ICP-targeted therapy protocol based on the Lund concept with the addition of prostacyclin or placebo. The first available CT scans (CTi) and follow-up scans nearest to 24 h (CT24) were evaluated using the Marshall, Rotterdam, and Morris-Marshall classifications. There was a significant correlation of the initial Marshall, Rotterdam, Morris-Marshall classifications and GOS at 3 and 12 months. The CT24 Marshall classification did not significantly correlate to GOS while the Rotterdam and the Morris-Marshall classification did. The CTi Rotterdam classification predicted outcome evaluated as GOS at 3 and 12 months. Prostacyclin treatment did not influence the dynamic of tissue changes. The Rotterdam classification seems to be appropriate for describing the evolution of the injuries on the CT scans and contributes in predicting of outcome in patients treated with an ICP-targeted therapy. The Morris-Marshall classification can also be used for prognostication of outcome but it describes only the impact of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH).

  • 8.
    Boström, Sverre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurosurgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurosurgery UHL.
    Bobinski, L
    Zsigmond, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurosurgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurosurgery UHL.
    Theodorsson, Annette
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurosurgery UHL.
    Improved brain protection at decompressive craniectomy - a new method using Palacoso (R) R-40 (methylmethacrylate)2005In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 147, no 3, p. 279-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method is described for protecting the brain after decompressive craniectomy in which a temporary methylmethacrylate flap is formed, somewhat larger than the original bone flap, thus gaining "extra" volume for the oedematous brain in which to expand. The present procedure was developed as a pan of ordinary clinical practice particularly in response to demands from the NICU staff and our colleagues at other clinics who were responsible for the care of the patient in the post NICU period. They made us keenly aware that these patients frequently lack optimal co-ordination and balance and therefore run an increased risk of trauma to the unprotected brain when failing. This prompted us to develop a method for brain protection after decompressive craniectomy aiding in the care and rehabilitation until the final installation of the patient's own bone flap can be performed.

  • 9.
    Boström, Sverre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurosurgery UHL.
    Bobinski, Lukas
    Zsigmond, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurosurgery UHL.
    Nilsson, Inge
    Theodorsson, Annette
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of clinical chemistry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurosurgery UHL.
    A new scaled microgauge for use in neurosurgery2005In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 147, no 12, p. 1281-1282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new scaled microgauge is described for measuring anatomical structures during microsurgery. The instrument has a tip marked in millimetres, which can be positioned in any desired angle enabling measurement in confined areas. © Springer-Verlag 2005.

  • 10.
    Cesarini, Kristina G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    The European board qualification in neurosurgery (EBQNS)2007In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 149, no 10, p. 1084-1085Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Clausen, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Hillered, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Cerebral glucose metabolism after traumatic brain injury in the rat studied by C-13-glucose and microdialysis2011In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 153, no 3, p. 653-658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), a disturbed cerebral glucose metabolism contributes to secondary brain damage. To study local cerebral glucose metabolism after TBI, we delivered C-13-labeled glucose into brain tissue by microdialysis (MD). MD probes were inserted bilaterally into the parietal cortex of rat brain, one probe in the shear stress zone of the injury and the other at the corresponding contralateral coordinates. A moderately severe controlled cortical contusion was used to model TBI. Dialysate concentrations of glucose, pyruvate, lactate, and glycerol were measured, and following derivatization, C-13 enrichments of the compounds were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found that C-13-labeled glucose was rapidly converted into C-13-lactate and C-13-glycerol. In the hours following TBI, concentrations and C-13 enrichments of lactate and glycerol increased. The findings confirm the occurrence of anaerobic local glucose metabolism early after TBI. Only a small fraction of the glycerol was newly synthesized, suggesting that the hypothesis that most of the released glycerol after TBI comes from degradation of membrane phospholipids still holds. We conclude that the combination of microdialysis and stable isotope technique is a useful tool for investigating local glucose metabolism following brain injury.

  • 12.
    Elf, Kristin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Rostedt Punga: Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Enblad: Neurosurgery.
    Semnic, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Rostami-Berglund, Elham
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Enblad: Neurosurgery.
    Sundblom, Jimmy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Enblad: Neurosurgery.
    Zetterling, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Enblad: Neurosurgery.
    Continuous EEG monitoring after brain tumor surgery2019In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 161, no 9, p. 1835-1843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Prolonged seizures generate cerebral hypoxia and increased intracranial pressure, resulting in an increased risk of neurological deterioration, increased long-term morbidity, and shorter survival. Seizures should be recognized early and treated promptly.

    The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of postoperative seizures in patients undergoing craniotomy for primary brain tumors and to determine if non-convulsive seizures could explain some of the postoperative neurological deterioration that may occur after surgery.

    Methods

    A single-center prospective study of 100 patients with suspected glioma. Participants were studied with EEG and video recording for at least 24 h after surgery.

    Results

    Seven patients (7%) displayed seizure activity on EEG recording within 24 h after surgery and another two patients (2%) developed late seizures. One of the patients with early seizures also developed late seizures. In five patients (5%), there were non-convulsive seizures. Four of these patients had a combination of clinically overt and non-convulsive seizures and in one patient, all seizures were non-convulsive. The non-convulsive seizures accounted for the majority of total seizure time in those patients. Non-convulsive seizures could not explain six cases of unexpected postoperative neurological deterioration. Postoperative ischemic lesions were more common in patients with early postoperative seizures.

    Conclusions

    Early seizures, including non-convulsive, occurred in 7% of our patients. Within this group, non-convulsive seizure activity had longer durations than clinically overt seizures, but only 1% of patients had exclusively non-convulsive seizures. Seizures were not associated with unexpected neurological deterioration.

  • 13.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Emanuelson, Ingrid
    Björklund, Ragnhild
    Stålhammar, Daniel A
    Mild traumatic brain injuries: the impact of early intervention on late sequelae. A randomized controlled trial.2007In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 149, no 2, p. 151-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Positive results from early clinical intervention of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients by rehabilitation specialists have been reported. Various treatments have been used, but few controlled studies are published. We hypothesised that early rehabilitation of selected MTBI patients would reduce long term sequelae.

    Method: A randomised controlled trial with one year follow-up. Among 1719 consecutive patients with MTBI, 395 individuals, 16-60 years of age, met the MTBI definition. Exclusion criteria were: previous clinically significant brain disorders and/or a history of substance abuse. The control group (n = 131) received regular care. The intervention group (n = 264) was examined by a rehabilitation specialist. 78 patients were mainly referred to an occupational therapist. The problems were identified in daily activities and in terms of post-concussion symptoms (PCS), an individualised, tailored treatment was given. Primary endpoint was change in rate of PCS and in life satisfaction at one-year follow-up between the groups.

    Findings: No statistical differences were found between the intervention and control groups. Patients who experienced few PCS two to eight weeks after the injury and declined rehabilitation recovered and returned to their pre-injury status. Patients who suffered several PCS and accepted rehabilitation did not recover after one year. Interpretation. In this particular MTBI sample, early active rehabilitation did not change the outcome to a statistically-significant degree. Further studies should focus on patients with several complaints during the first 1-3 months and test various types of interventions.

  • 14.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Continuous monitoring of intracranial compliance in neurointensive care (Editorial by invitation)2018In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 160, no 12, p. 2289-2290Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Fahlström, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery, Uppsala University, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tobieson, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Redebrandt, Henrietta Nittby
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Neurosurgery, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Zeberg, Hugo
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bartek, Jiri
    Department of Medicine and Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurosurgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurosurgery, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bartley, Andreas
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Erkki, Maria
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery, Umeå University, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hessington, Amel
    Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery, Uppsala University, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Troberg, Ebba
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Neurosurgery, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Mirza, Sadia
    Department of Medicine and Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion P.
    Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery, Uppsala University, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Marklund, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery, Uppsala University, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Neurosurgery, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Differences in neurosurgical treatment of intracerebral haemorrhage: a nation-wide observational study of 578 consecutive patients2019In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 161, no 5, p. 955-965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) carries an excessive mortality and morbidity. Although surgical ICH treatment can be life-saving, the indications for surgery in larger cohorts of ICH patients are controversial and not well defined. We hypothesised that surgical indications vary substantially among neurosurgical centres in Sweden.

    Objective

    In this nation-wide retrospective observational study, differences in treatment strategies among all neurosurgical departments in Sweden were evaluated.

    Methods

    Patient records, neuroimaging and clinical outcome focused on 30-day mortality were collected on each operated ICH patient treated at any of the six neurosurgical centres in Sweden from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2015.

    Results

    In total, 578 consecutive surgically treated ICH patients were evaluated. There was a similar incidence of surgical treatment among different neurosurgical catchment areas. Patient selection for surgery was similar among the centres in terms of patient age, pre-operative level of consciousness and co-morbidities, but differed in ICH volume, proportion of deep-seated vs. lobar ICH and pre-operative signs of herniation (p < .05). Post-operative patient management strategies, including the use of ICP-monitoring, CSF-drainage and mechanical ventilation, varied among centres (p < .05). The 30-day mortality ranged between 10 and 28%.

    Conclusions

    Although indications for surgical treatment of ICH in the six Swedish neurosurgical centres were homogenous with regard to age and pre-operative level of consciousness, important differences in ICH volume, proportion of deep-seated haemorrhages and pre-operative signs of herniation were observed, and there was a substantial variability in post-operative management. The present results reflect the need for refined evidence-based guidelines for surgical management of ICH.

  • 16. Fahlström, Andreas
    et al.
    Tobieson, Lovisa
    Redebrandt, Henrietta Nittby
    Zeberg, Hugo
    Bartek, Jiri, Jr.
    Bartley, Andreas
    Erkki, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience. Umeå University Hospital.
    Hessington, Amel
    Troberg, Ebba
    Mirza, Sadia
    Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion P.
    Marklund, Niklas
    Differences in neurosurgical treatment of intracerebral haemorrhage: a nation-wide observational study of 578 consecutive patients2019In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 161, no 5, p. 955-965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) carries an excessive mortality and morbidity. Although surgical ICH treatment can be life-saving, the indications for surgery in larger cohorts of ICH patients are controversial and not well defined. We hypothesised that surgical indications vary substantially among neurosurgical centres in Sweden.

    Objective: In this nation-wide retrospective observational study, differences in treatment strategies among all neurosurgical departments in Sweden were evaluated.

    Methods: Patient records, neuroimaging and clinical outcome focused on 30-day mortality were collected on each operated ICH patient treated at any of the six neurosurgical centres in Sweden from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2015.

    Results: In total, 578 consecutive surgically treated ICH patients were evaluated. There was a similar incidence of surgical treatment among different neurosurgical catchment areas. Patient selection for surgery was similar among the centres in terms of patient age, pre-operative level of consciousness and co-morbidities, but differed in ICH volume, proportion of deep-seated vs. lobar ICH and pre-operative signs of herniation (p < .05). Post-operative patient management strategies, including the use of ICP-monitoring, CSF-drainage and mechanical ventilation, varied among centres (p < .05). The 30-day mortality ranged between 10 and 28%.

    Conclusions: Although indications for surgical treatment of ICH in the six Swedish neurosurgical centres were homogenous with regard to age and pre-operative level of consciousness, important differences in ICH volume, proportion of deep-seated haemorrhages and pre-operative signs of herniation were observed, and there was a substantial variability in post-operative management. The present results reflect the need for refined evidence-based guidelines for surgical management of ICH.

  • 17.
    Fahlström, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Tobieson, Lovisa
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Neurosurg, Linkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Redebrandt, Henrietta Nittby
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Neurosurg, Lund, Sweden.
    Zeberg, Hugo
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bartek, Jiri, Jr.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med & Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Stockholm, Sweden;Rigshosp, Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bartley, Andreas
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Clin Neurosci,Neurosurg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Erkki, Maria
    Umea Univ, Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Neurosci, Neurosurg, Umea, Sweden.
    Hessington, Amel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Troberg, Ebba
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Neurosurg, Lund, Sweden.
    Mirza, Sadia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med & Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Marklund, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery. Linkoping Univ, Dept Neurosurg, Linkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden;Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Neurosurg, Lund, Sweden.
    Differences in neurosurgical treatment of intracerebral haemorrhage: a nation-wide observational study of 578 consecutive patients2019In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 161, no 5, p. 955-965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) carries an excessive mortality and morbidity. Although surgical ICH treatment can be life-saving, the indications for surgery in larger cohorts of ICH patients are controversial and not well defined. We hypothesised that surgical indications vary substantially among neurosurgical centres in Sweden.

    Objective

    In this nation-wide retrospective observational study, differences in treatment strategies among all neurosurgical departments in Sweden were evaluated.

    Methods

    Patient records, neuroimaging and clinical outcome focused on 30-day mortality were collected on each operated ICH patient treated at any of the six neurosurgical centres in Sweden from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2015.

    Results

    In total, 578 consecutive surgically treated ICH patients were evaluated. There was a similar incidence of surgical treatment among different neurosurgical catchment areas. Patient selection for surgery was similar among the centres in terms of patient age, pre-operative level of consciousness and co-morbidities, but differed in ICH volume, proportion of deep-seated vs. lobar ICH and pre-operative signs of herniation (p<.05). Post-operative patient management strategies, including the use of ICP-monitoring, CSF-drainage and mechanical ventilation, varied among centres (p<.05). The 30-day mortality ranged between 10 and 28%.

    Conclusions

    Although indications for surgical treatment of ICH in the six Swedish neurosurgical centres were homogenous with regard to age and pre-operative level of consciousness, important differences in ICH volume, proportion of deep-seated haemorrhages and pre-operative signs of herniation were observed, and there was a substantial variability in post-operative management. The present results reflect the need for refined evidence-based guidelines for surgical management of ICH.

  • 18.
    Fischerström, Ann
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Nyholm, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Lewen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Acute neurosurgery for traumatic brain injury by general surgeons in Swedish county hospitals: A regional study2014In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 156, no 1, p. 177-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally acute life-saving evacuations of extracerebral haematomas are performed by general surgeons on vital indication in county hospitals in the Uppsala-A-rebro health care region in Sweden, a region characterized by long distances and a sparsely distributed population. Recently, it was stated in the guidelines for prehospital care of traumatic brain injury from the Scandinavian Neurosurgical Society that acute neurosurgery should not be performed in smaller hospitals without neurosurgical expertise. The aim of this study was to investigate: how often does acute decompressive neurosurgery occur in county hospitals in the Uppsala-A-rebro region today, what is the indication for surgery, and what is the clinical outcome? Finally, the goal was to evaluate whether the current practice in the Uppsala-A-rebro region should be revised. Patients referred to the neurointensive care unit at the Department of Neurosurgery in Uppsala after acute evacuation of intracranial haematomas in the county hospitals 2005-2010 were included in the study. Data was collected retrospectively from the medical records following a predefined protocol. The presence of vital indication, radiological and clinical results, and long-term outcome were evaluated. A total of 49 patients (17 epidural haematomas and 32 acute subdural haematomas) were included in the study. The operation was judged to have been performed on vital indication in all cases. The postoperative CT scan was improved in 92 % of the patients. The reaction level and pupillary reactions were significantly improved after surgery. Long-term outcomes showed 51 % favourable outcome, 33 % unfavourable outcome, and in 16 % the outcome was unknown. Looking at the indication for acute neurosurgery, the postoperative clinical and radiological results, and the long-term outcome, it appears that our regional policy regarding life-saving decompressive neurosurgery in county hospitals by general surgeons should not be changed. We suggest a curriculum aimed at educating general surgeons in acute neurosurgery.

  • 19. Gehlen, Manuel
    et al.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Kurtcuoglu, Vartan
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Schmid Daners, Marianne
    Comparison of anti-siphon devices: how do they affect CSF dynamics in supine and upright posture?2017In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 159, no 8, p. 1389-1397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Three different types of anti-siphon devices (ASDs) have been developed to counteract siphoning-induced overdrainage in upright posture. However, it is not known how the different ASDs affect CSF dynamics under the complex pressure environment seen in clinic due to postural changes. We investigated which ASDs can avoid overdrainage in upright posture best without leading to CSF accumulation.

    METHODS: Three shunts each of the types Codman Hakim with SiphonGuard (flow-regulated), Miethke miniNAV with proSA (gravitational), and Medtronic Delta (membrane controlled) were tested. The shunts were compared on a novel in vitro setup that actively emulates the physiology of a shunted patient. This testing method allows determining the CSF drainage rates, resulting CSF volume, and intracranial pressure in the supine, sitting, and standing posture.

    RESULTS: The flow-regulated ASDs avoided increased drainage by closing their primary flow path when drainage exceeded 1.39 ± 0.42 mL/min. However, with intraperitoneal pressure increased in standing posture, we observed reopening of the ASD in 3 out of 18 experiment repetitions. The adjustable gravitational ASDs allow independent opening pressures in horizontal and vertical orientation, but they did not provide constant drainage in upright posture (0.37 ± 0.03 mL/min and 0.26 ± 0.03 mL/min in sitting and standing posture, respectively). Consequently, adaptation to the individual patient is critical. The membrane-controlled ASDs stopped drainage in upright posture. This eliminates the risk of overdrainage, but leads to CSF accumulation up to the volume observed without shunting when the patient is upright.

    CONCLUSIONS: While all tested ASDs reduced overdrainage, their actual performance will depend on a patient's specific needs because of the large variation in the way the ASDs influence CSF dynamics: while the flow-regulated shunts provide continuous drainage in upright posture, the gravitational ASDs allow and require additional adaptation, and the membrane-controlled ASDs show robust siphon prevention by a total stop of drainage.

  • 20.
    Hanrahan, John
    et al.
    Kings Coll London, Fac Life Sci & Med, London WC2R 2LS, England.
    Sideris, Michail
    Queen Mary Univ London, Womens Hlth Res Unit, Mile End Rd, London E1 4NS, England.
    Pasha, Terouz
    Kings Coll London, Fac Life Sci & Med, London WC2R 2LS, England.
    Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Theodoulou, Iakovos
    Kings Coll London, Fac Life Sci & Med, London WC2R 2LS, England.
    Nicolaides, Marios
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, Mile End Rd, London E1 4NS, England.
    Georgopoulou, Efstratia-Maria
    Univ Athens, Sch Med, Athens 15772, Greece.
    Kombogiorgas, Dimitris
    Metropolitan Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Athens 18547, Greece.
    Bimpis, Alexios
    Gen Hosp Tripoli, Dept Neurosurg, Erythrou Stavrou Str, Tripoli 22100, Greece.
    Papalois, Apostolos
    Expt Res Ctr ELPEN, Athens, Greece.
    Hands train the brain-what is the role of hand tremor and anxiety in undergraduate microsurgical skills?2018In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 160, no 9, p. 1673-1679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Physiological hand tremor occurs naturally, due to oscillations of the upper extremities. Tremor can be exacerbated by stress and anxiety, interfering with fine motor tasks and potentially impact on surgical performance, particularly in microsurgery. We investigated the link between tremor, anxiety and performance in a neurosurgical module as part of an international surgical course.

    Methods: Essential Skills in the Management of Surgical Cases (ESMSC) course recruits medical students from European Union (EU) medical schools. Students are asked to suture the dura mater in an ex vivo swine model, of which the first suture completed was assessed. Questionnaires were distributed before and after the module, eliciting tremor risk factors, self-perception of tremor and anxiety. Johnson O'Connor dexterity pad was used to objectively measure dexterity. Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS) was used to assess skills-based performance. Anxiety was assessed using the Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS). Tremor was evaluated by four qualified neurosurgeons.

    Results: Forty delegates participated in the study. Overall performance decreased with greater subjective perception of anxiety (p = 0.032, rho = -0.392). Although increasing scores for tremor at rest and overall WTAS score were associated with decreased performance, this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Tremor at rest did not affect dexterity (p = 0.876, rho = -0.027).

    Conclusions: Physiological tremor did not affect student performance and microsurgical dexterity in a simulation-based environment. Self-perception of anxiety affected performance in this module, suggesting that more confident students perform better in a simulated neurosurgical setting.

  • 21.
    Hariz, Marwan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Battery obsolescence, industry profit and deep brain stimulation2019In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 161, no 10, p. 2047-2048Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Hedlund, Mathilde
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Coping strategies, health-related quality of life and psychiatric history in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage2010In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 152, no 8, p. 1375-1382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) reduces health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and increases the risk of psychiatric sequels such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Especially those with a psychiatric history and those using maladaptive coping strategies are at risk for such sequels. The extent to which HRQoL after SAH was related to a history of psychiatric morbidity and to the use of various coping strategies was assessed.

    Patients admitted to the Uppsala University Hospital with aneurysmal SAH (n = 59) were investigated prospectively. Seven months after SAH, data were collected using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders, the Short Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey and the Jalowiec Coping Scale.

    Patients with SAH had lower HRQoL than the general Swedish population in all eight domains of the SF-36. The lower HRQoL was almost entirely in the subgroup with a psychiatric history. HRQoL was also strongly correlated to the use of coping. Physical domains of SF-36 were less affected than mental domains. Those with a psychiatric history used more coping than the remainder with respect to all emotional coping scales. Coping and the presence of a psychiatric history were more strongly related to mental than to physical components of HRQoL.

    A psychiatric history and the use of maladaptive emotional coping were related to worse HRQoL, more to mental than to physical aspects.

  • 23.
    Hessington, Amel
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ Hosp, Sect Neurosurg, Dept Neurosci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery. Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Hippokratio Gen Hosp, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Fahlström, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Marklund, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery. Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Neurosurg, Lund, Sweden.
    Favorable clinical outcome following surgical evacuation of deep-seated and lobar supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage: a retrospective single-center analysis of 123 cases2018In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 160, no 9, p. 1737-1747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the role of surgical treatment remains controversial, particularly in deep-seated ICHs. We hypothesized that early mortality and long-term functional outcome differ between patients with surgically treated lobar and deep-seated ICH.

    Method: Patients who underwent craniotomy for ICH evacuation from 2009 to 2015 were retrospectively evaluated and categorized into two subgroups: lobar and deep-seated ICH. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was used to evaluate long-term functional outcome.

    Result: Of the 123 patients operated for ICH, 49.6% (n = 61) had lobar and 50.4% (n = 62) deep-seated ICH. At long-term follow-up (mean 4.2 years), 25 patients (20.3%) were dead, while 51.0% of survivors had a favorable outcome (mRS score <= 3). Overall mortality was 13.0% at 30 days and 17.9% at 6 months post-ictus, not influenced by ICH location. Mortality was higher in patients >= 65 years old (p = 0.020). The deep-seated group had higher incidence and extent of intraventricular extension, younger age (52.6 +/- 9.0 years vs. 58.5 +/- 9.8 years; p < 0.05), more frequently pupillary abnormalities, and longer neurocritical care stay (p < 0.05). The proportion of patients with good outcome was 48.0% in deep-seated vs. 54.1% in lobar ICH (p = 0.552). In lobar ICH, independent predictors of long-term outcome were age, hemorrhage volume, preoperative level of consciousness, and pupillary reaction. In deep-seated ICHs, only high age correlated significantly with poor outcome.

    Conclusions: At long-term follow-up, most ICH survivors had a favorable clinical outcome. Neither mortality nor long-term functional outcome differed between patients operated for lobar or deep-seated ICH. A combination of surgery and neurocritical care can result in favorable clinical outcome, regardless of ICH location.

  • 24.
    Hillman, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Milos, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zhengquan, Yu
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjögren, Florence
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Anderson, Chris
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mellergård, Pekka
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Intracerebral microdialysis in neurosurgical intensive care patients utilising catheters with different molecular cut-off (20 and 100 kD)2006In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 148, no 3, p. 319-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To compare the properties of a new intracerebral micro-dialysis catheter with a high cut-off membrane (molecular cut-off 100 kDalton) with a standard catheter (CMA70, molecular cut-off 20 kDalton).

    Methods. Paired intracerebral microdialysis catheters were inserted in fifteen comatose patients treated in a neurosurgical intensive care unit following subarachnoid haemorrhage or traumatic brain injury. The high-cut-off catheter (D100) differed from the CMA 70 catheter by the length (20 mm) and cut-off properties of the catheter membranes (100 kDalton) and the perfusion fluids used (Ringer-Dextran 60). Samples were collected every 4–6 hours, analyzed bedside (for glucose, glutamate, glycerol, lactate, pyruvate and urea) and later in the laboratory (for total protein).

    Results. Fluid recovery was similar for the two types of catheters, but significantly more protein was recovered by the D100 catheter. The recovery of glycerol and pyruvate did not differ, while minor differences in recovery of glutamate and glucose were observed. The recovery of lactate was considerably lower in the D100 catheter (p < 0.01), influencing the lactate/pyruvate-ratio. The patterns of concentration changes over time were consistent for all metabolites, and independent of type of catheter.

    Conclusion. Microdialysis catheters with high cut-off membranes can be used in routine clinical practice in the NSICU, adding the possibility of macro-molecule sampling from the extracellular space during monitoring.

  • 25.
    Johnson, Ulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Engquist, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Lewén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Howells, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Nilsson, Pelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Rostami, Elham
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Increased risk of critical CBF levels in SAH patients with actual CPP below calculated optimal CPP2017In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 159, no 6, p. 1065-1071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Cerebral pressure autoregulation can be quantified with the pressure reactivity index (PRx), based on the correlation between blood pressure and intracranial pressure. Using PRx optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt) can be calculated, i.e., the level of CPP where autoregulation functions best. The relation between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CPPopt has not been examined. The objective was to assess to which extent CPPopt can be calculated in SAH patients and to investigate CPPopt in relation to CBF.

    Methods Retrospective study of prospectively collected data. CBF was measured bedside with Xenon-enhanced CT (Xe-CT). The difference between actual CPP and CPPopt was calculated (CPPa dagger). Correlations between CPPa dagger and CBF parameters were calculated with Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient (rho). Separate calculations were done using all patients (day 0-14 after onset) as well as in two subgroups (day 0-3 and day 4-14).

    Results Eighty-two patients with 145 Xe-CT scans were studied. Automated calculation of CPPopt was possible in adjunct to 60% of the Xe-CT scans. Actual CPP < CPPopt was associated with higher numbers of low-flow regions (CBF < 10 ml/100 g/min) in both the early phase (day 0-3, n = 39, Spearman's rho = -0.38, p = 0.02) and late acute phase of the disease (day 4-14, n = 35, Spearman's rho = -0.39, p = 0.02). CPP level per se was not associated with CBF.

    Conclusions Calculation of CPPopt is possible in a majority of patients with severe SAH. Actual CPP below CPPopt is associated with low CBF.

  • 26.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Grayson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    The complications and the position of the Codman MicroSensor (TM) ICP device: an analysis of 549 patients and 650 Sensors2013In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 155, no 11, p. 2141-2148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complications of and insertion depth of the Codman MicroSensor ICP monitoring device (CMS) is not well studied. To study complications and the insertion depth of the CMS in a clinical setting. We identified all patients who had their intracranial pressure (ICP) monitored using a CMS device between 2002 and 2010. The medical records and post implantation computed tomography (CT) scans were analyzed for occurrence of infection, hemorrhage and insertion depth. In all, 549 patients were monitored using 650 CMS. Mean monitoring time was 7.0 +/- 4.9 days. The mean implantation depth was 21.3 +/- 11.1 mm (0-88 mm). In 27 of the patients, a haematoma was identified; 26 of these were less than 1 ml, and one was 8 ml. No clinically significant bleeding was found. There was no statistically significant increase in the number of hemorrhages in presumed coagulopathic patients. The infection rate was 0.6 % and the calculated infection rate per 1,000 catheter days was 0.8. The risk for hemorrhagic and infectious complications when using the CMS for ICP monitoring is low. The depth of insertion varies considerably and should be taken into account if patients are treated with head elevation, since the pressure is measured at the tip of the sensor. To meet the need for ICP monitoring, an intraparenchymal ICP monitoring device should be preferred to the use of an external ventricular drainage (EVD).

  • 27.
    Latini, Francesco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Basma, Jaafar
    Ryttlefors, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Krisht, Ali Fadl
    Epidural skull base approach for dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) of the anterior and middle cranial fossa2014In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 156, no 1, p. 93-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Lenell, Samuel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Nyholm, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Lewen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Updated periodic evaluation of standardized neurointensive care shows that it is possible to maintain a high level of favorable outcome even with increasing mean age2015In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 157, no 3, p. 417-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Periodic evaluation of neurointensive care (NIC) is important. There is a risk that quality of daily care declines and there may also be unrecognized changes in patient characteristics and management. The aim of this work was to investigate the characteristics and outcome for traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients in the period 2008-2009 in comparison with 1996-1997 and to some extent also with earlier periods. TBI patients 16-79 years old admitted from 2008 to 2009 were selected for the study. Glasgow Coma Scale Motor score at admission (GCS M), radiology, surgery, and outcome (Glasgow Outcome Extended Scale) were collected from Uppsala Traumatic Brain Injury Register. The study included 148 patients (mean age, 45 years). Patients > 60 years old increased from 16 % 1996-1997 to 30 % 2008-2009 (p < 0.01). The proportion of GCS M 4-6 were similar, 92 vs. 93 % (NS). In 1996-1997 patients, 73 % had diffuse injury (Marshall classification) compared to 77 % for the 2008-2009 period (NS). More patients underwent surgery during 2008-2009 (43 %) compared to 1996-1997 (32 %, p < 0.05). Good recovery increased and mortality decreased substantially from 1980-1981 to 1987-1988 and to 1996-1997, but then the results were unchanged in the 2008-2009 period, with 73 % favorable outcome and 11 % mortality. Mortality increased in GCS M 6-4, from 2.8 % in 1996-1997 to 10 % in 2008-2009 (p < 0.05); most of the patients that died had aggravating factors, e.g., high age, malignancy. A large-proportion favorable outcome was maintained despite that patients > 60 years with poorer prognosis doubled, indicating that the quality of NIC has increased or at least is unchanged. More surgery may have contributed to maintaining the large proportion of favorable outcome. For future improvements, more knowledge about TBI management in the elderly is required.

  • 29.
    Lenell, Samuel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Enblad: Neurosurgery.
    Nyholm, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Enblad: Neurosurgery.
    Lewén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Enblad: Neurosurgery.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Enblad: Neurosurgery.
    Clinical outcome and prognostic factors in elderly traumatic brain injury patients receiving neurointensive care2019In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 161, no 6, p. 1243-1254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The probability of favorable outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) decreases with age. Elderly,≥60 years, are an increasing part of our population. Recent studies have shown an increase of favorable outcome in elderly over time. However,the optimal patient selection and neurointensive care (NIC) treatments may differ in the elderly and the young. The aims of this study were to examine outcome in a larger group of elderly TBI patients receiving NIC and to identify demographic and treatmentrelated prognostic factors.

    Methods: Patients with TBI≥60 years receiving NIC at our department between 2008 and 2014 were included. Demographics, co-morbidity, admission characteristics, and type of treatments were collected. Clinical outcome at around 6 months was assessed. Potential prognostic factors were included in univariate and multivariate regression analysis with favorable outcomeas dependent variable.

    Results: Two hundred twenty patients with mean age 70 years (median 69; range 60–87) were studied. Overall, favorable outcome was 46% (Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) 5–8), unfavorable outcome 27% (GOSE 2–4), and mortality 27% (GOSE 1). Significant independent negative prognostic variables were high age (p< 0.05), multiple injuries (p<0.05),GCSM≤3 on admission (p< 0.05), and mechanical ventilation (p<0.001).

    Conclusions: Overall, the elderly TBI patients> 60 years receiving modern NIC in this study had a fair chance of favorable outcome without large risks for severe deficits and vegetative state, also in patients over 75 years of age. High age, multiple injuries, GCS M≤3 on admission, and mechanical ventilation proved to be independent negative prognostic factors. The results underline that a selected group of elderly with TBI should have access to NIC

  • 30.
    Lindvall, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Bergström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Löfroth, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Bergenheim, A Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    A comparison between surgical resection in combination with WBRT or hypofractionated stereotactic irradiation in the treatment of solitary brain metastases.2009In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 151, no 9, p. 1053-1059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The standard treatment of solitary brain metastases previously has been tumour resection in combination with whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Stereotactic radiotherapy has emerged as a non-invasive treatment option especially for small brain metastases. We now report our results on resection + WBRT or hypofractionated stereotactic irradiation (HCSRT) in the treatment of solitary brain metastases. METHODS: Between 1993 and 2004 patients with metastatic cancer and solitary brain metastases were selected for surgical resection + WBRT or HCSRT alone at the Umeå University Hospital. Fifty-nine patients were treated with surgical resection + WBRT (34 male, 25 female, mean age 63.3 years). Forty-seven patients were treated with HCSRT alone (15 male, 32 female, mean age 64.9 years). FINDINGS: In patients followed radiologically, 28% treated with resection + WBRT showed a local recurrence after a median time of 8.0 months, whereas there was a lack of local control in 16% in the HCSRT group after a median time of 3.0 months. There was a significantly longer survival time for patients treated with resection + WBRT (median 7.9, mean 12.9 months) compared to HCSRT (median 5.0, mean 7.6 months). Even in patients with a tumour volume <10 cc, there was a significantly longer survival in favour of resection + WBRT (median 8.4, mean 17.4 months) compared to HCSRT (median 5.0, mean 7.9 months). CONCLUSION: This retrospective and non-randomised study indicates that surgical resection in combination with WBRT may be an option even for small brain metastases suitable for treatment with HCSRT. Since survival and local control following resection + WBRT was at least as favourable as compared to HCSRT alone, tumour location and expected neurological outcome may be the strongest aspect when selecting treatment modality.

  • 31.
    Lindvall, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Cerebral oedema as a complication following treatment of a giant arachnoid cyst2012In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 154, no 8, p. 1417-1418Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Luikku, Antti J.
    et al.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med Neurol, Kuopio, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Neurosurg Neuro Ctr, POB 100, FIN-70029 Kuopio, Finland..
    Hall, Anette
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med Neurol, Kuopio, Finland..
    Nerg, Ossi
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med Neurol, Kuopio, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Neurol NeuroCtr, Kuopio, Finland..
    Koivisto, Anne M.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med Neurol, Kuopio, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Neurol NeuroCtr, Kuopio, Finland..
    Hiltunen, Mikko
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med Neurol, Kuopio, Finland.;Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Biomed, Kuopio, Finland..
    Helisalmi, Seppo
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med Neurol, Kuopio, Finland..
    Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med Neurol, Kuopio, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Neurol NeuroCtr, Kuopio, Finland..
    Sutela, Anna
    Kuopio Univ Hosp, Dept Radiol, Kuopio, Finland..
    Kojoukhova, Maria
    Kuopio Univ Hosp, Neurosurg Neuro Ctr, POB 100, FIN-70029 Kuopio, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Dept Radiol, Kuopio, Finland..
    Mattila, Jussi
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Tampere, Finland.;Combinostics Ltd, Tampere, Finland..
    Lotjonen, Jyrki
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Tampere, Finland.;Combinostics Ltd, Tampere, Finland..
    Rummukainen, Jaana
    Kuopio Univ Hosp, Dept Pathol, Kuopio, Finland..
    Alafuzoff, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology. Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med Neurol, Kuopio, Finland.;Univ Uppsala Hosp, Dept Pathol & Cytol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jaaskelainen, Juha E.
    Kuopio Univ Hosp, Neurosurg Neuro Ctr, POB 100, FIN-70029 Kuopio, Finland..
    Remes, Anne M.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med Neurol, Kuopio, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Neurol NeuroCtr, Kuopio, Finland..
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med Neurol, Kuopio, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Neurol NeuroCtr, Kuopio, Finland..
    Leinonen, Ville
    Kuopio Univ Hosp, Neurosurg Neuro Ctr, POB 100, FIN-70029 Kuopio, Finland..
    Multimodal analysis to predict shunt surgery outcome of 284 patients with suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus2016In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 158, no 12, p. 2311-2319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal selection of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients for shunt surgery is challenging. Disease State Index (DSI) is a statistical method that merges multimodal data to assist clinical decision-making. It has previously been shown to be useful in predicting progression in mild cognitive impairment and differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia. In this study, we use the DSI method to predict shunt surgery response for patients with iNPH. In this retrospective cohort study, a total of 284 patients (230 shunt responders and 54 non-responders) from the Kuopio NPH registry were analyzed with the DSI. Analysis included data from patients' memory disorder assessments, age, clinical symptoms, comorbidities, medications, frontal cortical biopsy, CT/MRI imaging (visual scoring of disproportion between Sylvian and suprasylvian subarachnoid spaces, atrophy of medial temporal lobe, superior medial subarachnoid spaces), APOE genotyping, CSF AD biomarkers, and intracranial pressure. Our analysis showed that shunt responders cannot be differentiated from non-responders reliably even with the large dataset available (AUC = 0.58). Prediction of the treatment response in iNPH is challenging even with our extensive dataset and refined analysis. Further research of biomarkers and indicators predicting shunt responsiveness is still needed.

  • 33.
    Lutz, Barbara S.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ma, S.-F.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine & Chang Gung University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C..
    Chuang, D. C. C
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine & Chang Gung University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C..
    Lidman, Disa
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wei, F.-Ch.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine & Chang Gung University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C..
    Specificity of reinnervation and motor recovery after interposition of an artificial barrier between transected and repaired nerves in adjacency: an experimental study in the rat2001In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 143, no 4, p. 393-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-specific re-innervation of target organs caused by misdirected axonal growth at the repair site is regarded as one reason for a poor functional outcome after peripheral nerve transsection and repair. This study investigates the rate of aberrant re-innervation and its influence on motor recovery in the rat sciatic nerve using artificial sheets as barrier between tibial and peroneal nerves.

    The sciatic nerve was transsected and repaired as follows: epineural sutures (A × 6), fascicular repair of tibial and peroneal nerves respectively (B × 8), and the same as in group B, but separating both nerves using an Integra®-sheet with silicone (C × 8), or Integra® without silicone (D × 8). As control, solely the tibial nerve was transsected and repaired (E × 5).

    Final investigations after 4 months revealed that in group C, 50% of the Integra®-silicone sheets were dislocated. No dislocation was found in group D. Muscle contraction force of the gastrocnemius muscle was significantly higher in group E as compared to all other groups. However although not significant, group D showed a consistently higher muscle contraction force than groups A, B, and C. Histology in groups A, B, and C with dislocated sheets demonstrated multiple axons growing from the tibial to the peroneal nerve and vice versa. In groups D and E, no such axonal growth was visible. These findings were confirmed by a significantly higher rate of specific re-innervation of the soleus muscle using sequential retrograde double labelling technique.

    Results of this study suggest that an artificial sheet such as Integra® bears the potential of preventing aberrant re-innervation between repaired adjacent nerves resulting in improved motor recovery. Clinically, this technique may be of importance for brachial plexus, sciatic nerve, and facial nerve repair.

  • 34.
    Marklund, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: a long-term consequence of traumatic brain injury?2017In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 159, no 1, p. 21-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Merzo, Abraham
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Lenell, Samuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Nyholm, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Lewen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Promising clinical outcome of elderly with TBI after modern neurointensive care2016In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 158, no 1, p. 125-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing number of elderly patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to specific neurointensive care (NIC) challenges. Therefore, elderly subjects with TBI need to be further studied. In this study we evaluated the demographics, management and outcome of elderly TBI patients receiving modern NIC. Patients referred to our NIC unit between 2008 and 2010 were included. Patients were divided in two age groups, elderly (E) a parts per thousand yen65 years and younger (Y) 64-15 years. Parameters studied were the dominant finding on CT scans, neurological motor skills and consciousness, type of monitoring, neurosurgical procedures/treatments and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended score at 6 months after injury. Sixty-two E (22 %) and 222 Y (78 %) patients were included. Falls were more common in E (81 %) and vehicle accidents were more common in Y patients (37 %). Acute subdural hematoma was significantly more common in E (50 % of cases) compared to Y patients (18 %). Intracranial pressure was monitored in 44 % of E and 57 % of Y patients. Evacuation of significant mass lesions was performed more common in the E group. The NIC mortality was similar in both groups (4-6 %). Favorable outcome was observed in 72 % of Y and 51 % of E patients. At the time of follow-up 25 % of E and 7 % of Y patients had died. The outcome of elderly patients with TBI was significantly worse than in younger patients, as expected. However, as much as 51 % of the elderly patients showed a favorable outcome after NIC. We believe that these results encourage modern NIC in elderly patients with TBI. We need to study how secondary brain injury mechanisms differ in the older patients and to identify specific outcome predictors for elderly patients with TBI.

  • 36.
    Nilsson, Daniel T.
    et al.
    Gothenburg Univ, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Epilepsy Res Grp, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Bla Str 5,3 Tr, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Malmgren, Kristina
    Gothenburg Univ, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Epilepsy Res Grp, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Rydenhag, Bertil
    Gothenburg Univ, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Epilepsy Res Grp, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Outcomes of multilobar resections for epilepsy in Sweden 1990-2013: a national population-based study2016In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 158, no 6, p. 1151-1157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports on outcome after multilobar resection (MLR) are scarce and most are retrospective single-centre studies or case studies with few patients. The aim of this study is to present seizure and complication outcomes 2 years after MLR in a prospective population-based series. The Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Registry (SNESUR) provides prospective population-based data on outcome and complications after epilepsy surgery. For this study, we have analysed data on seizure outcome and complications after MLR from the SNESUR between 1990 and 2013. Fifty-seven patients underwent MLR; 40/57 surgeries were performed between 1990 and 2000. Sixteen operations were classified as partial hemispherotomy. Resections were right-sided in 33 (58 %) patients. Mean age was 17.3 years (range, 0.3-63.4 years) and mean duration of epilepsy before surgery was 11.0 years (range, 0.2-37 years). Preoperative neurological deficits were seen in 19 patients (33.3 %). Learning disability (LD) was seen in 18 patients (31.6 %), six had severe LD (IQ < 50). Seizure outcome after 2 years was available for 53 patients. Thirteen (24.5 %) were seizure-free and 12 (22.6 %) had > 75 % seizure frequency reduction. Three (5.3 %) patients suffered major complications: infarction of the middle cerebral artery, epidural abscess and hemiparesis. Minor complications were seen in ten patients. There was no mortality. This prospective, population-based study provides data on seizure outcome and complications after MLR. In selected patients MLR can be considered, but expectations for seizure freedom should not be too high and patients and parents should be counselled appropriately.

  • 37.
    Näslund, Olivia
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Smits, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology. Sahlgrens Acad, Inst Physiol & Neurosci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Förander, Petter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Laesser, Mats
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Radiol, Gothenburg, Sweden; St Olavs Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Trondheim, Norway.
    Bartek, Jiri
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden; St Olavs Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Trondheim, Norway; Rigshosp, Dept Neurosurg, Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Gempt, Jens
    Tech Univ Munich, Dept Neurosurg, Klinikum Rechts Isar, Munich, Germany.
    Liljegren, Ann
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Radiol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Daxberg, Eva-Lotte
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Radiol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jakola, Asgeir Store
    Sahlgrens Acad, Inst Physiol & Neurosci, Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Med Lib, Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Amino acid tracers in PET imaging of diffuse low-grade gliomas: a systematic review of preoperative applications2018In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using amino acid tracers has in recent years become widely used in the diagnosis and prediction of disease course in diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGG). However, implications of preoperative PET for treatment and prognosis in this patient group have not been systematically studied. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the preoperative diagnostic and prognostic value of amino acid PET in suspected diffuse LGG. Medline, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were systematically searched using keywords "PET," "low-grade glioma," and "amino acids tracers" with their respective synonyms. Out of 2137 eligible studies, 28 met the inclusion criteria. Increased amino acid uptake (lesion/brain) was consistently reported among included studies; in 25-92% of subsequently histopathology-verified LGG, in 83-100% of histopathology-verified HGG, and also in some non-neoplastic lesions. No consistent results were found in studies reporting hot spot areas on PET in MRI-suspected LGG. Thus, the diagnostic value of amino acid PET imaging in suspected LGG has proven difficult to interpret, showing clear overlap and inconsistencies among reported results. Similarly, the results regarding the prognostic value of PET in suspected LGG and the correlation between uptake ratios and the molecular tumor status of LGG were conflicting. This systematic review illustrates the difficulties with prognostic studies presenting data on group-level without adjustment for established clinical prognostic factors, leading to a loss of additional prognostic information. We conclude that the prognostic value of PET is limited to analysis of histological subgroups of LGG and is probably strongest when using kinetic analysis of dynamic FET uptake parameters.

  • 38.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Section for Neurosurgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Honeybul, Stephen
    Departement of Neurosurgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Australia.
    A study of the opinions of Swedish healthcare personnel regarding acceptable outcome following decompressive hemicraniectomy for ischaemic stroke2018In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 160, no 1, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Decompressive hemicraniectomy (DC) is an established lifesaving treatment for malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery (mMCAI). However, surgical decompression will not reverse the effects of the stroke and many survivors will be left severely disabled. The objective of this study was to assess what neurological outcome would be considered acceptable in these circumstances amongst Swedish healthcare workers.

    METHOD: Healthcare workers were invited to participate in a presentation that outlined the pathophysiology of mMCAI, the rationale behind DC and outcome data from randomised controlled trials that have investigated efficacy of the procedure. They were then asked which neurological outcome would they feel to be acceptable based on the modified Rankin Score (mRS) and the Aphasia Handicap Scale (AHS). Information regarding sex, age, marital status, relatives, religion, earlier experience of stroke and occupation was also collected.

    RESULTS: Six hundred and nine persons participated. The median accepted mRS was 3. An mRS of 4 or 5 was perceived to be acceptable by only 30.5% of participants. Therefore the most likely outcome, based on the results of the randomised controlled trials, would be unacceptable to most of the participants [OR 0.39 (CI, 0.22-0.69)]. The median accepted AHS was 3. A worst language outcome of restricted autonomy of verbal communication (AHS 3) or better would be accepted by 44.6%.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study has highlighted the ethical problems when obtaining consent for DC following mMCAI, because for many of the participants the most likely neurological outcome would be deemed unacceptable. These issues need to be considered prior to surgical intervention and the time may have come for a broader societal discussion regarding the value of a procedure that converts death into survival with severe disability given the attendant financial and healthcare resource implications.

  • 39.
    Olivecrona, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    The IMPACT prognosis calculator used in patients with severe traumatic brain injury treated with an ICP-targeted therapy2012In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 154, no 9, p. 1567-1573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prognosis of severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is important. The International Mission on Prognosis in Traumatic Brain Injury (IMPACT) study group has developed a prediction calculator for the outcome of patients with sTBI, and this has been made available on the World Wide Web. We have studied the use of the IMPACT calculator on sTBI patients treated with an ICP-targeted therapy based on the Lund concept. The individual clinical data of patients in a prospective sTBI protocol-driven trial of the treatment of sTBI using the Lund concept were entered into the prognosis calculator, and the individual prognosis for each patient was calculated and compared with the actual outcome at 6 months. The use of the IMPACT calculator led to an overestimation of mortality and of an unfavourable outcome. Compared with the IMPACT database, the absolute risk reduction (ARR) for mortality was 13.6 %. There is a statistically significant probability for the prediction of mortality and unfavourable outcome. A ROC curve analysis shows an area under the curve (AUC) in the Core model for mortality of 0.744 and of unfavourable outcome of 0.731, in the Extended model of 0.751 and 0.721 respectively, and in the Lab model of 0.779 and 0.810 respectively. The IMPACT prognosis calculator should be used with caution for the prediction of outcome for an individual patient with sTBI treated with an ICP-targeted therapy based on the Lund concept. We conclude that we have to initiate treatment in all patients with blunt sTBI and an initial ICP > 10 mmHg. It seems that the outcome in sTBI patients treated in this fashion is better than would have been expected from the IMPACT prognosis.

  • 40.
    Olivecrona, Zandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Koskinen, Lars-Owe D
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    The release of S-100B and NSE in severe traumatic head injury is associated with APOE epsilon 42012In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 154, no 4, p. 675-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we tested the hypothesis that the level of two biochemical markers of brain injury may be associated with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 allele. In this prospective consecutive study patients with sTBI were included (n = 48). Inclusion criteria were Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 8 at the time of intubation and sedation, patient age between 15 and 70 years, an initial cerebral perfusion pressure > 10 mmHg, and arrival to our level-one trauma university hospital within 24 h after trauma. Blood samples for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S-100B were collected as soon as possibly after arrival, and then twice daily (12-h intervals) for 5 consecutive days. Venous blood was used for APOE genotype determination. Clinical outcome at 3 months after injury was assessed with the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE). Significantly higher levels of the maximal S-100B (S-100B(max)) and area under the curve (S-100B(AUC)) were found in subjects with the APOE epsilon 4 allele compared to those with non-epsilon 4. A similar tendency was observed for NSEmax and NSEAUC, though not statistically significant. Our data indicate that there might be a gene-induced susceptibility to severe traumatic brain injury and that patients with the APOE epsilon 4 allele may be more predisposed to brain cellular damage measured as S-100B and NSE. Thus, it seems to be of importance to consider the APOE genotype in interpreting the levels of the biomarkers.

  • 41.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vavruch, Ludek
    Department of Neuro-Orthopedic Surgery, Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Predictive factors for arm pain, neck pain, neck specific disability and health after anterior cervical decompression and fusion2006In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 148, no 2, p. 167-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Predictive factors for a low arm and neck pain, and good health after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) with a cervical carbon fibre intervertebral fusion cage (CIFC) are still lacking.

    Method. A prospective consecutive study to investigate which preoperative factors that could predict a good outcome with regard to arm pain, neck pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI) and general health three years after ACDF with CIFC was conducted. Thirty-four patients were included before surgery. Measurements took place the day before, six months, one year and three years after ACDF.

    Findings. In multivariate analysis, to be a non-smoker before surgery was the most important factor for a low postoperative arm pain, a low pain frequency was the most important factor for low postoperative neck pain, normal rating on Distress and Risk Assessment Method (DRAM) was the most important factor for high function on NDI and a low initial pain intensity was the most important factor for good postoperative health. For all outcome variables a normal rating on DRAM was an important factor for a good outcome.

    Conclusions. Non-smoking, a low pain level and normal rating on DRAM were the best preoperative predictors of a good outcome in ACDF. Inclusion criteria for surgery should be based on a bio psychosocial model and DRAM seems to be useful for including the traditional inclusion criteria.

  • 42. Piper, Ian
    et al.
    Chambers, Iain
    Citerio, Giuseppe
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Gregson, Barbara
    Howells, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Kiening, Karl
    Mattern, Julia
    Nilsson, Pelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Ragauskas, Arminas
    Sahuquillo, Juan
    Donald, Rob
    Sinnott, Richard
    Stell, Anthony
    The brain monitoring with Information Technology (BrainIT) collaborative network: EC feasibility study results and future direction2010In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 152, no 11, p. 1859-1871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The BrainIT group works collaboratively on developing standards for collection and analyses of data from brain-injured patients and to facilitate a more efficient infrastructure for assessing new health care technology with the primary objective of improving patient care. European Community (EC) funding supported meetings over a year to discuss and define a core dataset to be collected from patients with traumatic brain injury using IT-based methods. We now present the results of a subsequent EC-funded study with the aim of testing the feasibility of collecting this core dataset across a number of European sites and discuss the future direction of this research network. Over a 3-year period, data collection client- and web-server-based tools were developed and core data (grouped into nine categories) were collected from 200 head-injured patients by local nursing staff in 22 European neuro-intensive care centres. Data were uploaded through the BrainIT website and random samples of received data were selected automatically by computer for validation by data validation staff against primary sources held in each local centre. Validated data were compared with originally transmitted data and percentage error rates calculated by data category. Feasibility was assessed in terms of the proportion of missing data, accuracy of data collected and limitations reported by users of the IT methods. Thirteen percent of data files required cleaning. Thirty "one-off" demographic and clinical data elements had significant amounts of missing data (> 15%). Validation staff conducted 19,461 comparisons between uploaded database data with local data sources and error rates were commonly less than or equal to 6%, the exception being the surgery data class where an unacceptably high error rate of 34% was found. Nearly 10,000 therapies were successfully recorded with start-times but approximately a third had inaccurate or missing "end-times" which limits the analysis of duration of therapy. Over 40,000 events and procedures were recorded but events with long durations (such as transfers) were more likely to have end-times missed. The BrainIT core dataset is a rich dataset for hypothesis generation and post hoc analyses, provided that studies avoid known limitations in the dataset. Limitations in the current IT-based data collection tools have been identified and have been addressed. In order for multi-centre data collection projects to be viable, the resource intensive validation procedures will require a more automated process and this may include direct electronic access to hospital-based clinical data sources for both validation purposes and for minimising the duplication of data entry. This type of infrastructure may foster and facilitate the remote monitoring of patient management and protocol adherence in future trials of patient management and monitoring.

  • 43.
    Purins, Karlis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Sandhagen, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Lewén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Brain tissue oxygen monitoring: a study of in vitro accuracy and stability of Neurovent-PTO and Licox sensors2010In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 152, no 4, p. 681-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECT: Periods of brain tissue ischemia are common after severe head injury, and their occurrence and duration are negatively correlated with outcome. Accurate and reliable measurement of brain tissue oxygenation (B(ti) pO(2)) may be a key to improve patient outcome after severe head injury. Knowledge of stability and accuracy of the B(ti) pO(2) systems is crucial. We have therefore conducted a bench test study of new Neurovent-PTO(R) (NV) and Licox(R) (LX) oxygen tension catheters to evaluate the sensor accuracy, response time to different oxygen tensions, response to temperature changes and long-term stability. METHODS: For all experiments five new fluorescent NV sensors and five new electrochemical LX sensors were used. The catheter probes were placed into a container filled with a buffer solution. The solution was equilibrated with five high precision calibration gases. The accuracy of the probes was recorded after an equilibration period of 20 min in O(2) concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg at 37.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C. The probe response to an increase in temperature from 37.0 degrees C to 38.5 degrees C to 40.0 degrees C in two different gases with O(2) concentrations of 10 and 20 mmHg were analysed. We also recorded the time for reaching 90% of a new oxygen concentration level when switching from one concentration to another. Finally, to test if there was a time-dependant drift in pO(2) recordings, all sensors were left in 10 mmHg O(2) solution for 10 days, and recordings were taken every 24 h. RESULTS: In all gas concentrations, NV and LX sensors measured pO(2) with high accuracy and stability in vitro (mean differences from calculated values were for NV 0.76-1.6 mmHg and for LX -0.46-0.26 mmHg). Both sensors showed a shorter response time to pO(2) increase (for NV 56 +/- 22 s and for LX 78 +/- 21 s) compared to pO(2) decrease (for NV 131 +/- 42 s and for LX 215 +/- 63 s). NV pO(2) values were more stable for changes in temperature, while LX sensors showed larger standard deviations with increasing temperature (the difference from the calculated values in 19.7 mmHg O(2) at 40 degrees C were for NV probes between 0.5 and 1.7 mmHg and LX between -2.3 and 1.9 mmHg). Both sensors gave stable results with low standard deviations during long-term (10 days) use, but with a slight elevation of measured pO(2) levels by time. CONCLUSIONS: Both NV and LX were accurate in detecting different oxygen tensions, and they did not deviate over longer recording times. However, LX needed a significantly longer time to detect changes in pO(2) levels compared to NV. Furthermore, LX probes showed an increased standard deviation with higher temperatures.

  • 44. Rofes, Adrià
    et al.
    Mandonnet, Emmanuel
    Godden, John
    Baron, Marie Hélène
    Colle, Henry
    Darlix, Amelie
    de Aguiar, Vânia
    Duffau, Hugues
    Herbet, Guillaume
    Klein, Martin
    Lubrano, Vincent
    Martino, Juan
    Mathew, Ryan
    Miceli, Gabriele
    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie
    Pallud, Johan
    Papagno, Costanza
    Rech, Fabien
    Robert, Erik
    Rutten, Geert-Jan
    Santarius, Thomas
    Satoer, Djaina
    Sierpowska, Joanna
    Smits, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Skrap, Miran
    Spena, Giannantonio
    Visch, Evy
    De Witte, Elke
    Zetterling, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Wager, Michel
    Survey on current cognitive practices within the European Low-Grade Glioma Network: towards a European assessment protocol.2017In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 159, no 7, p. 1167-1178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The European Low-Grade Glioma network indicated a need to better understand common practices regarding the managing of diffuse low-grade gliomas. This area has experienced great advances in recent years.

    METHOD: A general survey on the managing of diffuse low-grade gliomas was answered by 21 centres in 11 European countries. Here we focused on specific questions regarding perioperative and intraoperative cognitive assessments.

    RESULTS: More centres referred to the same speech and language therapist and/or neuropsychologist across all assessments; a core of assessment tools was routinely used across centres; fluency tasks were commonly used in the perioperative stages, and object naming during surgery; tasks that tapped on attention, executive functions, visuospatial awareness, calculation and emotions were sparsely administered; preoperative assessments were performed 1 month or 1 week before surgery; timing for postoperative assessments varied; finally, more centres recommended early rehabilitation, whenever needed.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is an emerging trend towards following similar practices for the management of low-grade gliomas in Europe. Our results are descriptive and formalise current discussions in our group. Also, they contribute towards the development of a European assessment protocol.

  • 45.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Lundström, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Health-related quality of life at median 12 months after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, measured with EuroQoL-5D2013In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 155, no 4, p. 587-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    A measurement of quality of life (QoL) should cover the important aspects of daily life and be easy to perform. Ease of performance is especially important for patients with spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), since fatigue and cognitive disabilities are known sequeles. EuroQoL (EQ-5D) is a preference-based instrument measuring QoL, based on self-reported health status in five dimensions: Mobility, Self-Care, Usual Activities, Pain/Discomfort and Anxiety/Depression. In the present study EuroQoL was used in patients with aneurysmal SAH (aSAH) in comparison with a Swedish reference population. We also determined the extent to which demographic characteristics and clinical parameters predicted outcome.

    METHODS:

    Seven hundred fifty-five patients with aSAH were studied after a median 12 months. The proportion of patients in the best QoL category for each dimension was compared with the corresponding proportion in an age matched reference population. Disease severity was measured using the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies' SAH grading system and the Fisher scale. The extent to which demographic and clinical factors predicted outcome was evaluated using linear regression.

    RESULTS:

    Aneurysmal SAH patients generally had a worse QoL compared with the reference population, in all five dimensions of EQ-5D. In the patient population, disease severity predicted worse outcome in all five dimensions. Female gender and surgery as treatment method (in the case of anterior aneurysms) predicted worse outcome in Usual Activities and Anxiety/Depression.

    CONCLUSION:

    The nature of the sequeles after SAH depends on severity of disease, gender and treatment method. These factors should be more emphasised in planning rehabilitation.

  • 46.
    Rostami, Elham
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Nyström, Petra Witt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology. Skandionkliniken, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Libard, Sylwia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology.
    Wikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Casar Borota, Olivera
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology.
    Gudjonsson, Olafur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Recurrent papillary craniopharyngioma with BRAFV600E mutation treated with neoadjuvant-targeted therapy.2017In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 159, no 11, p. 2217-2221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Craniopharyngiomas are histologically benign but locally aggressive tumors in the sellar region that may cause devastating neurological and endocrine deficits. They tend to recur following surgery with high morbidity; hence, postoperative radiotherapy is recommended following sub-total resection. BRAFV600E mutation is the principal oncogenic driver in the papillary variant of craniopharyngiomas. Recently, a dramatic tumor reduction has been reported in a patient with BRAFV600E mutated, multiply recurrent papillary craniopharyngioma using a combination therapy of BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib and MEK inhibitor trametinib. Here, we report on near-radical reduction of a growing residual BRAFV600E craniopharyngioma using the same neoadjuvant therapy.

  • 47.
    Ryttlefors, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Howells, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Nilsson, Pelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Neurointensive care is justified in elderly patients with severe subarachnoid hemorrhage--an outcome and secondary insults study2010In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 152, no 2, p. 241-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim was to study the outcome and the occurrence of secondary brain insults in elderly patients with severe subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in comparison to younger patients. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients with severe SAH requiring a ventriculostomy and management at the neurointensive care unit with at least 120 h of multimodality monitoring data during the first 240 h following SAH were included. Data were continuously recorded for intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and temperature. Secondary insult levels were defined and quantified as percent of good monitoring time at insult level. Outcome according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale was evaluated at 6 months after the SAH. Age-dependent differences in occurrence of secondary insults and clinical characteristics were analyzed with multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Good recovery or moderate disability was achieved in 24.1% of the elderly and in 42.9% of the younger patients. The frequency of severe disability was 41.4% in the elderly and 37.1% in the younger patients. The occurrence of ICP insults was lower and the occurrence of hypertensive, hypotensive, and hypoxemic insults were higher in the elderly patients. CONCLUSIONS: An independent outcome was achieved in a substantial proportion of the elderly with severe SAH, and the proportion of severe disability was not greater than among the younger patients, which justifies neurointensive care also in elderly patients. The occurrence of secondary insults was age dependent. Future studies of multimodality monitoring may provide age-specific secondary insult levels necessary for a tailored neurointensive care specific for elderly patients with severe SAH.

  • 48.
    Samuelsson, Carolina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Hillered, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Microdialysis patterns in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with focus on ischemic events and brain interstitial glutamine levels2009In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 151, no 5, p. 437-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This observational microdialysis (MD) study of 33 subarachnoid hemorrhage patients explores brain interstitial levels of glutamine, glutamate, lactate and pyruvate, and their relationship to clinical status and clinical course at the neurointensive care unit. METHODS: The focus was on ischemic events, defined by clinical criteria or by radiology, and the significance of brain interstitial glutamine levels and lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio. RESULTS: Eleven out of 12 periods with an ischemic MD pattern, defined as lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratios exceeding 40, were either related to delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) or CT-verified infarcts, confirming that L/P above 40 is a specific ischemic and pathological MD measure. Poor admittance WFNS grade (WFNS 4-5) patients had lower glutamine at the onset of monitoring than what good admittance WFNS grade (WFNS 1-3) patients had (P < 0.05). Interstitial glutamine increased over time in most patients. A "glutamine surge" was defined as a period where the interstitial glutamine concentration increased at least 150 microM over 12 h. Fifteen patients had a DIND and associated MD patterns were glutamine surges (n = 12) and/or L/P>40 (n = 6). Seven patients received vasospasm treatment; in five of these the only DIND-associated MD pattern was a glutamine surge. Seventy percent of the glutamine surges occurred during ongoing propofol sedation, and there was no association between extubations and glutamine surges. There was no difference in mean glutamine levels during the monitoring period between patients with favorable 6-month outcome and patients with poor 6-month outcome. CONCLUSION: We suggest that an increasing interstitial glutamine trend is a dynamic sign of augmented astrocytic metabolism with accelerated glutamate uptake and glutamine synthesis. This pattern is presumably present in metabolically challenged, but yet not overt ischemic tissue.

  • 49.
    Sandström, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nordström, Håkan
    Elekta Instrument AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Elekta Instrument AB, Sweden.
    Kjäll, Per
    Elekta Instrument AB, Sweden.
    Jokura, Hidefumi
    Tohoku University School of Medicine, Japan.
    Toma-Dasu, Iuliana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Karolinska Insitutet, Sweden.
    Variability in target delineation for cavernous sinus meningioma and anaplastic astrocytoma in stereotactic radiosurgery with Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion2014In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 156, no 12, p. 2303-2313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Radiosurgery clinical practice relays on empirical observations and the experience of the practitioners involved in determining and delineating the target and therefore variability in target delineation might be expected for all the radiosurgery approaches, independent of the technique and the equipment used for delivering the treatment. The main aim of this study was to quantify the variability of target delineation for two radiosurgery targets expected to be difficult to delineate. The secondary aim was to investigate the dosimetric implications with respect to the plan conformity. The primary aim of the study has therefore a very general character, not being bound to one specific radiosurgery technique.

    Materials and methods: Twenty radiosurgery centers were asked to delineate one cavernous sinus meningioma and one astrocytoma and to plan the treatments for Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion. The analysis of the delineated targets was based on the calculated 50% agreement volume, AV50. The AV50 was compared to each delineated target by the concordance index and discordance index. The differences in location, size, and shape of the delineated targets were also analyzed using the encompassing volume compared to the common volume, i.e., the AV100, of all delineated structures.

    Results: Target delineation led to major differences between the participating centers and therefore the AV50 was small in comparison to each delineated target volume. For meningioma, the AV50 was 5.90 cm3, the AV100 was 2.60 cm3, and the encompassing volume was 13.14 cm3. For astrocytoma, the AV50 was 2.06 cm3 while the AV100 was extremely small, only 0.05 cm3, and the encompassing volume was 43.27 cm3. These variations translate into corresponding discrepancies in plan conformity.

    Conclusions: Significant differences in shape, size, and location between the targets included in this study were identified and therefore the clinical implications of these differences should be further investigated.

  • 50.
    Sandvik, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Hariz, Gun-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Quality of life following DBS in the caudal zona incerta in patients with essential tremor2012In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 154, no 3, p. 495-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder and oftenaffects the quality of life. There are only a few studies evaluating the quality of life after deepbrain stimulation (DBS).

    Findings: This is a prospective study of 16 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation in thecaudal Zona incerta (cZi). The quality of life was assessed with Quality of Life in EssentialTremor Questionnaire (QUEST) and SF-36 scores and the tremor was evaluated using theessential tremor rating scale (ETRS).

    Results: In the tremor rating hand tremor on the treated side improved by 95%, hand functionby 78% and activities of daily living improved by 74%. The QUEST score showedstatistically significant improvements in the psychosocial and activities of daily livingsubscores. The SF-36 score did not show any significant improvement.

    Conclusions: Although very good tremor reduction was achieved, the improvement in thequality of life scores was more modest. This could partly be explained by the quality of lifebeing affected by other factors than the tremor itself.

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