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  • 1. Andersson, C.
    et al.
    Liljestrom, P.
    Ståhl, Stefan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Power, U. F.
    Protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) elicited in mice by plasmid DNA immunisation encoding a secreted RSV G protein-derived antigen2000In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 247-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasmid vectors encoding two different variants, one cytoplasmic and one secreted version, of a candidate vaccine BBG2Na to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), were constructed and evaluated in a nucleic acid vaccination study. The two different vectors, which employed the Semliki Forest virus gene amplification system, were found to express BBG2Na appropriately in in vitro cell cultures. Immunisation of mice with the plasmid vectors elicited significant serum anti-BBG2Na IgG responses only in the mice receiving the plasmid encoding the secreted version of BBG2Na. Consistent with antibody induction data, sterilising lung protection against RSV-A challenge was also only observed in this group. These results indicate that the targeting of antigen expression (intracellular versus secreted) would be an important factor to consider in the design of nucleic acid vaccines.

  • 2. Bjarnsholt, Thomas
    et al.
    Hoiby, Niels
    Donelli, Gianfranco
    Imbert, Christine
    Forsberg, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Understanding biofilms: are we there yet?2012In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 125-126Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Eberhard, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Ullberg, Måns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Interaction of vitronectin with Haemophilus influenzae2002In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 215-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight strains of Haemophilus influenzae were tested for binding to human vitronectin. All strains adhered to vitronectin-coated glass slides but no binding was detected using soluble vitronectin, suggesting that surface association of vitronectin is a prerequisite. Vitronectin binding was not likely to be mediated by fimbriae as non-fimbriated and fimbriated isogenic strains adhered equally. Adhesion could be blocked by heparin, which is also known to block vitronectin binding to Staphylococcus aureus. However, no blocking was achieved with sialic acid-rich glycoproteins such as fetuin and mucin contrasting with Helicobacter pylori for which sialic acid seems to play an important role. With Streptococcus pneumoniae binding was detected both with soluble and surface-associated vitronectin and could not be blocked by heparin. Our results suggest that H. influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori all use distinct modes to interact with vitronectin.

  • 4.
    Elgh, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Linderholm, M
    Wadell, G
    Tärnvik, A
    Juto, P
    Development of humoral cross-reactivity to the nucleocapsid protein of heterologous hantaviruses in nephropathia epidemica.1998In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 309-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hantavirus infection is followed by a prominent antibody response to the viral nucleocapsid protein. Antibodies from patients infected with one hantavirus cross-react to varying degrees with the nucleocapsid protein of other viruses of the genus. We studied the cross-reactivity in serially obtained blood samples from 17 patients with nephropathia epidemica, a European form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by Puumala virus. Recombinant truncated nucleocapsid protein (aa 1-117) of Puumala virus and four other hantaviruses, Hantaan, Seoul, Dobrava and Sin Nombre viruses, were used as antigens in an indirect ELISA. In most patients, an IgG response to the Puumala virus derived recombinant protein was detected within 2-8 days of onset of disease, remained high for 2-5 months, and declined gradually within 2-3 years. All patients had IgG antibodies cross-reacting with the nucleocapsid protein of Sin Nombre virus. The ratio of the ELISA values obtained with Sin Nombre vs. Puumala virus protein as antigen increased with time after onset of disease. To a lesser extent, cross-reacting IgG antibodies also occurred to Hantaan, Seoul, and Dobrava virus antigens. In the acute phase of the disease, two patients showed IgG antibodies to one or more of these viruses whereas 2-5 months later, 11 of 16 patients had IgG antibodies to all three viruses. IgM and IgA responses to the nucleocapsid protein of Puumala virus were transitory and cross-reactivities were weak. In conclusion, after onset of nephropathia epidemica the IgG response to the Puumala virus nucleocapsid protein was associated with a gradually increasing cross-reactivity to the nucleocapsid protein of heterologous hantavirus. Our findings have implications for the interpretation of serological data, both in the diagnostics of nephropathia epidemica and in seroprevalence studies.

  • 5.
    Engström, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Bailey, Leslie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Önskog, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    A comparative study of RNA and DNA as internal gene expression controls early in the developmental cycle of Chlamydia pneumoniae2010In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 244-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many microbial pathogens invade and proliferate within host cells and the molecular mechanism underlying this behavior is currently being revealed for several bacterial species. Testing clinically relevant antibacterial compounds and elucidating their effects on gene expression requires adequate controls, especially when studying genetically intractable organisms such as Chlamydia spp., for which various gene fusions cannot be constructed. Until now, relative mRNA levels in Chlamydia have been measured using different internal gene expression controls, including 16S rRNA, mRNAs, and DNA. Here, we compared the advantages and disadvantages of various internal expression controls during the early phase of Chlamydia pneumoniae development. The relative abundance of target mRNAs varied using the different internal control RNAs. This was partly due to variation in the transcript stability of the RNA species. Also, seven out of nine of the analyzed RNAs increased fivefold or more between 2 and 14 h postinfection, while the amount of DNA and number of cells remained essentially unaltered. Our results suggest that RNA should not be used as a gene expression control during the early phase of Chlamydia development, and that intrinsic bacterial DNA is preferable for that purpose because it is stable, abundant, and its relative amount is generally correlated with bacterial numbers.

  • 6. Godefroid, Marie
    et al.
    Svensson, Mona V
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Cambier, Pierre
    Uzureau, Sophie
    Mirabella, Aurélie
    De Bolle, Xavier
    Van Cutsem, Pierre
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Letesson, Jean-Jacques
    Brucella melitensis 16M produces a mannan and other extracellular matrix components typical of a biofilm2010In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 364-377Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scherbak, Nikolai
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Substances released from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 potentiate NF-κB activity in Escherichia coli-stimulated urinary bladder cells2012In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 147-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic bacterium used to maintain urogenital health. The putative mechanism for its probiotic effect is by modulating the host immunity. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are often caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli that frequently evade or suppress immune responses in the bladder and can target pathways, including nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). We evaluated the role of L. rhamnosus GR-1 on NF-κB activation in E. coli-stimulated bladder cells. Viable L. rhamnosus GR-1 was found to potentiate NF-κB activity in E. coli-stimulated T24 bladder cells, whereas heat-killed lactobacilli demonstrated a marginal increase in NF-κB activity. Surface components released by trypsin- or LiCl treatment, or the resultant heat-killed shaved lactobacilli, had no effect on NF-κB activity. Isolation of released products from L. rhamnosus GR-1 demonstrated that the induction of NF-κB activity was owing to released product(s) with a relatively large native size. Several putative immunomodulatory proteins were identified, namely GroEL, elongation factor Tu and NLP/P60. GroEL and elongation factor Tu have previously been shown to elicit immune responses from human cells. Isolating and using immune-augmenting substances produced by lactobacilli is a novel strategy for the prevention or treatment of UTI caused by immune-evading E. coli.

  • 8.
    Maripuu, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Eriksson, Anna
    Norgren, Mari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Superantigen gene profile diversity among clinical group A streptococcal isolates.2008In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 236-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the diversity of superantigen gene profiles between and within emm-genotypes of 92 clinical group A streptococcal isolates (30 STSS, 24 sepsis, 25 erysipelas, and 12 tonsillitis) collected in Sweden between 1986 and 2001. The emm-genotype and the distribution of smeZ, speG, speJ, speA, speC, speH, speI, speK/L, speL/M, speM, and ssa genes, and the smeZ allelic variant were determined using PCR and DNA sequencing. Forty-five emm1 isolates revealed 10 superantigen gene profiles. One profile dominated and was identified in 22 isolates collected over 14 years. The results indicate that a selective advantage maintained this genotype in circulation. The superantigen content among the emm1 isolates ranged from three to seven, with smeZ-1, speG, and speA present in all but one profile. The 47 isolates of 27 other emm-genotypes exhibited 29 superantigen gene profiles. Thus, the distribution of superantigen genes was highly variable within isolates regardless of emm-genotype. Two novel emm1 subtypes and 14 novel smeZ allelic variants were identified. The 22 smeZ alleles were generally linked to the emm-genotype. The results of the investigation show that superantigen gene profiling is useful for tracking spread of clones in the community.

  • 9. Pedersen, Lisbeth Nørum
    et al.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Møller, Jens Kjølseth
    Typing Chlamydia trachomatis: from egg yolk to nanotechnology2009In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 120-130Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A historical review is provided of the various methods used for half a century to differentiate and type Chlamydia trachomatis strains. Typing of C. trachomatis is an important tool for revealing transmission patterns in sexual networks, and enabling association with clinical manifestations and pathogenicity. Serotyping using the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) has been the mainstay of epidemiological work for several decades. However, the development of nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAAT) and easy access to sequencing have shifted the focus from MOMP serotypes to omp1 genotypes. However, insufficient epidemiological resolution is achieved by characterization of both MOMP and omp1. This calls for new high-resolution genotyping methods applying for example a multilocus variable number tandem repeat assay (MLVA) or multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The futuristic nanotechnology already seems at hand to further simplify and automate the high-resolution genotyping method based on NAAT and sequencing of various targets in the C. trachomatis genome. Thereby, a high throughput can be achieved and more epidemiological information can be obtained. However, it is important to realize that culture of C. trachomatis may still be needed to detect and characterize new variants of C. trachomatis.

  • 10.
    Schöier, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Högdahl, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Söderlund, Gustaf
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Kihlström, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae-induced cell death in human coronary artery endothelial cells is caspase-independent and accompanied by subcellular translocations of Bax and apoptosis-inducing factor.2006In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 207-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease are causing high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Different risk factors have been demonstrated, but the exact mechanisms behind these diseases are still not fully understood. Recent studies have suggested Chlamydia pneumoniae to be involved in the pathogenesis, and increased apoptotic indexes in atherosclerotic plaques have been documented. In this study, we show that C. pneumoniae induces apoptosis and necrosis in populations of human coronary artery endothelial cells. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL and flow cytometry after staining of cells with annexin V and propidium iodide, and defined as TUNEL-reactive or annexin V-positive, propidium iodide-negative cells. The apoptosis was induced within 2 h postinfection and increased with inoculation dose. The general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk did not affect apoptotic frequencies. By immunochemistry and immunoblot, we demonstrated activation and subcellular translocation of the proapoptotic protein Bax, and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor from the cytosol to the nucleus. These results indicate that C. pneumoniae-induced apoptosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells is caspase-independent and regulated by Bax and apoptosis-inducing factor.

  • 11.
    Strindhall, Jan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Lindgren, Per Eric
    Löfgren, Sture
    Kihlström, Erik
    Variations among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus to induce expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1 in human endothelial cells.2002In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 227-235Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Strindhall, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Löfgren, Sture
    Department of Microbiology, Hospital of Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Kihlström, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Variations among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus to induce expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1 in human endothelial cells2002In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 227-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eighteen clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, nine methicillin-sensitive and nine methicillin-resistant, were investigated for their ability to induce expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1 in human endothelial cells. Upregulation of adhesion molecules varied between isolates; 17 isolates induced expression of E-selectin and 13 of ICAM-1. Some isolates induced a significant expression of E-selectin without stimulation of ICAM-1, whereas the opposite was not found. Bacterial viability was required for induction of the adhesion molecules. The kinetics of ICAM-1 expression in S. aureus-infected cells differed from those stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β). On the other hand, expression of E-selectin was very similar in S. aureus-infected and IL-1β-stimulated cells. There was no correlation between ability of S. aureus to induce expression of cell adhesion molecules, methicillin susceptibility, pulse field gel electrophoresis patterns, biochemical characteristics, phage typing and toxin production.

  • 13.
    Wilsson, A.
    et al.
    Wilsson, Å., School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Lind, Susanne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science.
    Öhman, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Lundqvist-Setterud, H.
    Apoptotic neutrophils containing Staphylococcus epidermidis stimulate macrophages to release the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukin-62008In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 126-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus epidermidis infections are usually nosocomial and involve colonization of biomaterials. The immune defense system cannot efficiently control the bacteria during these infections, which often results in protracted chronic inflammation, in which a key event is disturbed removal of neutrophils by tissue macrophages. While ingesting uninfected apoptotic neutrophils, macrophages release anti-inflammatory cytokines that lead to resolution of inflammation. In clinical studies, we have previously found elevated levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and interleukin-6 in synovial fluid from prostheses infected with coagulase negative staphylococci. We show that macrophages phagocytosing apoptotic neutrophils containing S. epidermidis released TNF-a and interleukin-6, whereas macrophages phagocytosing spontaneously apoptotic neutrophils did not. This difference was not due to dissimilar phagocytic capacities, because macrophages ingested both types of neutrophils to the same extent. The activation was induced mainly by the apoptotic neutrophils themselves, not by the few remaining extracellular bacteria. Macrophages were not activated by apoptotic neutrophils that contained paraformaldehyde-killed S. epidermidis. Proinflammatory reactions induced by clearance of apoptotic neutrophils containing S. epidermidis might represent an important mechanism to combat the infective agent. This activation of macrophages may contribute to the development of chronic inflammation instead of inflammation resolution. © 2008 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Wilsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Lind, Sara
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Öhman, Lena
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; and Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Åsa
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lundqvist-Setterud, Helen
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Apoptotic neutrophils containing Staphylococcus epidermidis stimulate macrophages to release the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-62008In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 126-135Article in journal (Refereed)
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