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  • 1. Anderies, John M.
    et al.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Walker, Brian
    Östrom, Elinor
    Aligning Key Concepts for Global Change Policy: Robustness, Resilience, and Sustainability2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 8-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization, the process by which local social-ecological systems (SESs) are becoming linked in a global network, presents policy scientists and practitioners with unique and difficult challenges. Although local SESs can be extremely complex, when they become more tightly linked in the global system, complexity increases very rapidly as multi-scale and multi-level processes become more important. Here, we argue that addressing these multi-scale and multi-level challenges requires a collection of theories and models. We suggest that the conceptual domains of sustainability, resilience, and robustness provide a sufficiently rich collection of theories and models, but overlapping definitions and confusion about how these conceptual domains articulate with one another reduces their utility. We attempt to eliminate this confusion and illustrate how sustainability, resilience, and robustness can be used in tandem to address the multi-scale and multi-level challenges associated with global change.

  • 2. Anderson, Pippin
    et al.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Urban Ecological and Social-Ecological Research in the City of Cape Town: Insights Emerging from an Urban Ecology CityLab2012In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 23-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ango, Tola Gemechu
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Börjeson, Lowe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Senbeta, Feyera
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Balancing Ecosystem Services and Disservices: Smallholder Farmers' Use and Management of Forest and Trees in an Agricultural Landscape in Southwestern Ethiopia2014In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmers' practices in the management of agricultural landscapes influence biodiversity with implications for livelihoods, ecosystem service provision, and biodiversity conservation. In this study, we examined how smallholding farmers in an agriculture-forest mosaic landscape in southwestern Ethiopia manage trees and forests with regard to a few selected ecosystem services and disservices that they highlighted as beneficial or problematic. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from six villages, located both near and far from forest, using participatory field mapping and semistructured interviews, tree species inventory, focus group discussions, and observation. The study showed that farmers' management practices, i.e., the planting of trees on field boundaries amid their removal from inside arable fields, preservation of trees in semimanaged forest coffee, maintenance of patches of shade coffee fields in the agricultural landscape, and establishment of woodlots with exotic trees result in a restructuring of the forest-agriculture mosaic. In addition, the strategies farmers employed to mitigate crop damage by wild mammals such as baboons and bush pigs, e. g., migration and allocation of migrants on lands along forests, have contributed to a reduction in forest and tree cover in the agricultural landscape. Because farmers' management practices were overall geared toward mitigating the negative impact of disservices and to augment positive services, we conclude that it is important to operationalize ecosystem processes as both services and disservices in studies related to agricultural landscapes.

  • 4. Balvanera, Patricia
    et al.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gardner, Toby A.
    Martin-Lopez, Berta
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Speranza, Chinwe Ifejika
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Farfan, Michelle
    Hamann, Maike
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Kittinger, John N.
    Luthe, Tobias
    Maass, Manuel
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Perez-Verdin, Gustavo
    Key features for more successful place-based sustainability research on social-ecological systems: a Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS) perspective2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging discipline of sustainability science is focused explicitly on the dynamic interactions between nature and society and is committed to research that spans multiple scales and can support transitions toward greater sustainability. Because a growing body of place-based social-ecological sustainability research (PBSESR) has emerged in recent decades, there is a growing need to understand better how to maximize the effectiveness of this work. The Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS) provides a unique opportunity for synthesizing insights gained from this research community on key features that may contribute to the relative success of PBSESR. We surveyed the leaders of PECS-affiliated projects using a combination of open, closed, and semistructured questions to identify which features of a research project are perceived to contribute to successful research design and implementation. We assessed six types of research features: problem orientation, research team, and contextual, conceptual, methodological, and evaluative features. We examined the desirable and undesirable aspects of each feature, the enabling factors and obstacles associated with project implementation, and asked respondents to assess the performance of their own projects in relation to these features. Responses were obtained from 25 projects working in 42 social-ecological study cases within 25 countries. Factors that contribute to the overall success of PBSESR included: explicitly addressing integrated social-ecological systems; a focus on solutionand transformation-oriented research; adaptation of studies to their local context; trusted, long-term, and frequent engagement with stakeholders and partners; and an early definition of the purpose and scope of research. Factors that hindered the success of PBSESR included: the complexities inherent to social-ecological systems, the imposition of particular epistemologies and methods on the wider research group, the need for long periods of time to initiate and conduct this kind of research, and power asymmetries both within the research team and among stakeholders. In the self-assessment exercise, performance relating to team and context-related features was ranked higher than performance relating to methodological, evaluation, and problem orientation features. We discuss how these insights are relevant for balancing place-based and global perspectives in sustainability science, fostering more rapid progress toward inter-and transdisciplinary integration, redefining and measuring the success of PBSESR, and facing the challenges of academic and research funding institutions. These results highlight the valuable opportunity that the PECS community provides in helping build a community of practice for PBSESR.

  • 5. Ban, Natalie C.
    et al.
    Boyd, Emily
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Reading, UK.
    Cox, Michael
    Meek, Chanda L.
    Schoon, Michael
    Villamayor-Tomas, Sergio
    Linking classroom learning and research to advance ideas about social-ecological resilience2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 3, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand in higher education institutions for training in complex environmental problems. Such training requires a careful mix of conventional methods and innovative solutions, a task not always easy to accomplish. In this paper we review literature on this theme, highlight relevant advances in the pedagogical literature, and report on some examples resulting from our recent efforts to teach complex environmental issues. The examples range from full credit courses in sustainable development and research methods to project-based and in-class activity units. A consensus from the literature is that lectures are not sufficient to fully engage students in these issues. A conclusion from the review of examples is that problem-based and project-based, e.g., through case studies, experiential learning opportunities, or real-world applications, learning offers much promise. This could greatly be facilitated by online hubs through which teachers, students, and other members of the practitioner and academic community share experiences in teaching and research, the way that we have done here.

  • 6. Barnes, Michele L.
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Guerrero, Angela M.
    McAllister, Ryan R. J.
    Alexander, Steven M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Maryland, USA.
    Robins, Garry
    The social structural foundations of adaptation and transformation in social-ecological systems2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 4, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social networks are frequently cited as vital for facilitating successful adaptation and transformation in linked social-ecological systems to overcome pressing resource management challenges. Yet confusion remains over the precise nature of adaptation vs. transformation and the specific social network structures that facilitate these processes. Here, we adopt a network perspective to theorize a continuum of structural capacities in social-ecological systems that set the stage for effective adaptation and transformation. We begin by drawing on the resilience literature and the multilayered action situation to link processes of change in social-ecological systems to decision making across multiple layers of rules underpinning societal organization. We then present a framework that hypothesizes seven specific social-ecological network configurations that lay the structural foundation necessary for facilitating adaptation and transformation, given the type and magnitude of human action required. A key contribution of the framework is explicit consideration of how social networks relate to ecological structures and the particular environmental problem at hand. Of the seven configurations identified, three are linked to capacities conducive to adaptation and three to transformation, and one is hypothesized to be important for facilitating both processes. We discuss how our theoretical framework can be applied in practice by highlighting existing empirical examples from related environmental governance contexts. Further extension of our hypotheses, particularly as more data become available, can ultimately help guide the design of institutional arrangements to be more effective at dealing with change.

  • 7.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    History and local management of a biodiversity-rich, urban cultural landscape2005In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban green spaces provide socially valuable ecosystem services. Through an historical analysis of the development of the National Urban Park (NUP) of Stockholm, we illustrate how the coevolutionary process of humans and nature has resulted in the high level of biological diversity and associated recreational services found in the park. The ecological values of the area are generated in the cultural landscape. External pressures resulting in urban sprawl in the Stockholm metropolitan region increasingly challenge the capacity of the NUP to continue to generate valuable ecosystem services. Setting aside protected areas, without accounting for the role of human stewardship of the cultural landscape, will most likely fail. In a social inventory of the area, we identify 69 local user and interest groups currently involved in the NUP area. Of these, 25 are local stewardship associations that have a direct role in managing habitats within the park that sustain such services as recreational landscapes, seed dispersal, and pollination. We propose that incentives should be created to widen the current biodiversity management paradigm, and actively engage local stewardship associations in adaptive co-management processes of the park and surrounding green spaces. Copyright © 2005 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance.

  • 8. Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Crumley, Carole L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Svedin, Uno
    Biocultural Refugia: Combating the Erosion of Diversity in Landscapes of Food Production2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is urgent need to both reduce the rate of biodiversity loss caused by industrialized agriculture and feed more people. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of places that harbor traditional ecological knowledge, artifacts, and methods when preserving biodiversity and ecosystem services in landscapes of food production. We use three examples in Europe of biocultural refugia, defined as the physical places that not only shelter farm biodiversity, but also carry knowledge and experiences about practical management of how to produce food while stewarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. Memory carriers include genotypes, landscape features, oral, and artistic traditions and self-organized systems of rules, and as such reflect a diverse portfolio of practices on how to deal with unpredictable change. We find that the rich biodiversity of many regionally distinct cultural landscapes has been maintained through different smallholder practices developed in relation to local environmental fluctuations and carried within biocultural refugia for as long as millennia. Places that transmit traditional ecological knowledge and practices hold important lessons for policy makers since they may provide genetic and cultural reservoirs - refugia - for the wide array of species that have co-evolved with humans in Europe for more than 6000 thousand yrs. Biodiversity restoration projects in domesticated landscapes can employ the biophysical elements and cultural practices embedded in biocultural refugia to create locally adapted small-scale mosaics of habitats that allow species to flourish and adapt to change. We conclude that such insights must be included in discussions of land-sparing vs. land-sharing when producing more food while combating loss of biodiversity. We found the latter strategy rational in domesticated landscapes with a long history of agriculture.

  • 9.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden; Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crumley, Carole L.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden; Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Svedin, Uno
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Biocultural Refugia: Combating the Erosion of Diversity in Landscapes of Food Production2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 4, article id 71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is urgent need to both reduce the rate of biodiversity loss caused by industrialized agriculture and feed more people. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of places that harbor traditional ecological knowledge, artifacts, and methods when preserving biodiversity and ecosystem services in landscapes of food production. We use three examples in Europe of biocultural refugia, defined as the physical places that not only shelter farm biodiversity, but also carry knowledge and experiences about practical management of how to produce food while stewarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. Memory carriers include genotypes, landscape features, oral, and artistic traditions and self-organized systems of rules, and as such reflect a diverse portfolio of practices on how to deal with unpredictable change. We find that the rich biodiversity of many regionally distinct cultural landscapes has been maintained through different smallholder practices developed in relation to local environmental fluctuations and carried within biocultural refugia for as long as millennia. Places that transmit traditional ecological knowledge and practices hold important lessons for policy makers since they may provide genetic and cultural reservoirs - refugia - for the wide array of species that have co-evolved with humans in Europe for more than 6000 thousand yrs. Biodiversity restoration projects in domesticated landscapes can employ the biophysical elements and cultural practices embedded in biocultural refugia to create locally adapted small-scale mosaics of habitats that allow species to flourish and adapt to change. We conclude that such insights must be included in discussions of land-sparing vs. land-sharing when producing more food while combating loss of biodiversity. We found the latter strategy rational in domesticated landscapes with a long history of agriculture.

  • 10.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crumley, Carole
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Uppsala University, Sweden; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Svedin, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biocultural Refugia: Combating the Erosion of Diversity in Landscapesof Food Production2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 4, p. UNSP 71-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is urgent need to both reduce the rate of biodiversity loss caused by industrialized agriculture and feed morepeople. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of places that harbor traditional ecological knowledge, artifacts, and methodswhen preserving biodiversity and ecosystem services in landscapes of food production. We use three examples in Europe ofbiocultural refugia, defined as the physical places that not only shelter farm biodiversity, but also carry knowledge and experiencesabout practical management of how to produce food while stewarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. Memory carriersinclude genotypes, landscape features, oral, and artistic traditions and self-organized systems of rules, and as such reflect adiverse portfolio of practices on how to deal with unpredictable change. We find that the rich biodiversity of many regionallydistinct cultural landscapes has been maintained through different smallholder practices developed in relation to localenvironmental fluctuations and carried within biocultural refugia for as long as millennia. Places that transmit traditionalecological knowledge and practices hold important lessons for policy makers since they may provide genetic and culturalreservoirs — refugia — for the wide array of species that have co-evolved with humans in Europe for more than 6000 thousandyrs. Biodiversity restoration projects in domesticated landscapes can employ the biophysical elements and cultural practicesembedded in biocultural refugia to create locally adapted small-scale mosaics of habitats that allow species to flourish and adaptto change. We conclude that such insights must be included in discussions of land-sparing vs. land-sharing when producingmore food while combating loss of biodiversity. We found the latter strategy rational in domesticated landscapes with a longhistory of agriculture

  • 11.
    Bergsten, Arvid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Galafassi, Diego
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The problem of spatial fit in social-ecological systems: detecting mismatches between ecological connectivity and land management in an urban region2014In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 4, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of institutional fit in social-ecological systems has been empirically documented and conceptually discussed for decades, yet there is a shortage of approaches to systematically and quantitatively examine the level of fit. We address this gap, focusing on spatial fit in an urban and peri-urban regional landscape. Such landscapes typically exhibit significant fragmentation of remnant habitats, which can limit critical species dispersal. This may have detrimental effects on species persistence and ecosystem functioning if land use is planned without consideration of the spatial patterns of fragmentation. Managing habitat fragmentation is particularly challenging when the scale of fragmentation reaches beyond the control of single managers, thereby requiring different actors to coordinate their activities to address the problem at the appropriate scale. We present a research approach that maps patterns of collaborations between actors who manage different parts of a landscape, and then relates these patterns to structures of ecological connectivity. We applied our approach to evaluate the fit between a collaborative wetland management network comprising all 26 municipalities in the Stockholm County in Sweden and an ecologically defined network of dispersed but ecologically interconnected wetlands. Many wetlands in this landscape are either intersected by the boundary between two or more municipalities, or are located close to such boundaries, which implies a degree of ecological interconnectedness and a need for intermunicipal coordination related to wetland management across boundaries. We first estimated the level of ecological connectivity between wetlands in neighboring municipalities, and then used this estimate to elaborate the level of social-ecological fit vis-a-vis intermunicipal collaboration. We found that the level of fit was generally weak. Also, we identified critical misalignments of ecological connectivity and intermunicipal collaboration, respectively, as well as collaborations that represented an adequate alignment. These findings inform on where to most effectively allocate limited resources of collaborative capacity to enhance the level of social-ecological fit. Our approach and results are illustrated using maps, which facilitates the potential application of this method in land use planning practice.

  • 12. Biggs, Duan
    et al.
    Biggs, Reinette (Oonsie)
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dakos, Vasilis
    Scholes, Robert J.
    Schoon, Michael
    Are We Entering an Era of Concatenated Global Crises?2011In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 10-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increase in the frequency and intensity of environmental crises associated with accelerating human-induced global change is of substantial concern to policy makers. The potential impacts, especially on the poor, are exacerbated in an increasingly connected world that enables the emergence of crises that are coupled in time and space. We discuss two factors that can interact to contribute to such an increased concatenation of crises: (1) the increasing strength of global vs. local drivers of change, so that changes become increasingly synchronized; and (2) unprecedented potential for the propagation of crises, and an enhanced risk of management interventions in one region becoming drivers elsewhere, because of increased connectivity. We discuss the oil-food-financial crisis of 2007 to 2008 as an example of a concatenated crisis with origin and ultimate impacts in far removed parts of the globe. The potential for a future of concatenated shocks requires adaptations in science and governance including (a) an increased tolerance of uncertainty and surprise, (b) strengthening capacity for early detection and response to shocks, and (c) flexibility in response to enable adaptation and learning.

  • 13.
    Biggs, Reinette (Oonsie)
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Rhode, Clint
    Archibald, Sally
    Kunene, Lucky Makhosini
    Mutanga, Shingirirai S.
    Nkuna, Nghamula
    Ocholla, Peter Omondi
    Phadima, Lehlohonolo Joe
    Strategies for managing complex social-ecological systems in the face of uncertainty: examples from South Africa and beyond2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving our ability to manage complex, rapidly changing social-ecological systems is one of the defining challenges of the 21st century. This is particularly crucial if large-scale poverty alleviation is to be secured without undermining the capacity of the environment to support future generations. To address this challenge, strategies that enable judicious management of socialecological systems in the face of substantive uncertainty are needed. Several such strategies are emerging from the developing body of work on complexity and resilience. We identify and discuss four strategies, providing practical examples of how each strategy has been applied in innovative ways to manage turbulent social-ecological change in South Africa and the broader region: (1) employ adaptive management or comanagement, (2) engage and integrate different perspectives, (3) facilitate self-organization, and (4) set safe boundaries to avoid system thresholds. Through these examples we aim to contribute a basis for further theoretical development, new teaching examples, and inspiration for developing innovative new management strategies in other regions that can help address the considerable sustainability challenges facing society globally.

  • 14.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rocha, Juan C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    The Regime Shifts Database: a framework for analyzing regime shifts in social-ecological systems2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 3, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regime shifts, i.e., large, persistent, and usually unexpected changes in ecosystems and social-ecological systems, can have major impacts on ecosystem services, and consequently, on human well-being. However, the vulnerability of different regions to various regime shifts is largely unknown because evidence for the existence of regime shifts in different ecosystems and parts of the world is scattered and highly uneven. Furthermore, research tends to focus on individual regime shifts rather than comparisons across regime shifts, limiting the potential for identifying common drivers that could reduce the risk of multiple regime shifts simultaneously. Here, we introduce the Regime Shifts Database, an open-access database that systematically synthesizes information on social-ecological regime shifts across a wide range of systems using a consistent, comparative framework, providing a wide-ranging information resource for environmental planning, assessment, research, and teaching initiatives. The database currently contains 28 generic types of regime shifts and > 300 specific case studies. Each entry provides a literature-based synthesis of the key drivers and feedbacks underlying the regime shift, as well as impacts on ecosystem services and human well-being, and possible management options. Across the 28 regime shifts, climate change and agriculture-related activities are the most prominent among a wide range of drivers. Biodiversity, fisheries, and aquatic ecosystems are particularly widely affected, as are key aspects of human well-being, including livelihoods, food and nutrition, and an array of cultural ecosystem services. We hope that the database will stimulate further research and teaching on regime shifts that can inform policy and practice and ultimately enhance our collective ability to manage and govern large, abrupt, systemic changes in the Anthropocene.

  • 15.
    Biggs, Reinette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Westley, Frances R.
    University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
    Navigating the Back Loop: Fostering Social Innovation and Transformation in Ecosystem Management2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 9-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Addressing the environmental challenges of the 21st century requires substantial changes to the way modern society views and manages ecosystems. In particular, many authors contend that fundamental transformation of the largely sectoral, expert-centered ecosystem-management institutions of modern, Western societies is needed. There is increasing agreement that more adaptive, integrated, collaborative ecosystem-management approaches, interlinked at multiple scales, would improve society's ability to sustainably manage complex social-ecological systems. Therefore, understanding processes of transformation, and factors that may enable transformation in ecosystem management, has become an active research area. We explore ecosystem-management transformations using a social-innovation framework. Based on three local-level case studies of transformation in freshwater management, we provide a pilot assessment of factors that may promote the emergence and adoption of integrated, collaborative ecosystem-management approaches. Our analysis suggests that ongoing environmental degradation, increasing environmental awareness, and shifting societal values are creating fertile ground for the emergence and adoption of new approaches to ecosystem management. Based on the case studies we examined, we suggest that initiatives that foster environmental awareness and attachment to local ecosystems, develop capacity for social entrepreneurship in the environmental arena, promote dialogue between key stakeholders, and provide institutional support to new institutions may facilitate the emergence of integrated, collaborative ecosystem-management approaches.

  • 16.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Kannen, Andreas
    Barausse, Alberto
    Fischer, Christian
    Heymans, Johanna J.
    Luisetti, Tiziana
    Todorova, Valentin
    Valman, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mee, Laurence
    Past and future challenges in managing European seas2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine environments have undergone large-scale changes in recent decades as a result of multiple anthropogenic pressures, such as overfishing, eutrophication, habitat fragmentation, etc., causing often nonlinear ecosystem responses. At the same time, management institutions lack the appropriate measures to address these abrupt transformations. We focus on existing examples from social-ecological systems of European seas that can be used to inform and advise future management. Examples from the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea on long-term ecosystem changes caused by eutrophication and fisheries, as well as changes in management institutions, illustrate nonlinear dynamics in social-ecological systems. Furthermore, we present two major future challenges, i.e., climate change and energy intensification, that could further increase the potential for nonlinear changes in the near future. Practical tools to address these challenges are presented, such as ensuring learning, flexibility, and networking in decision-making processes across sectors and scales. A combination of risk analysis with a scenario-planning approach might help to identify the risks of ecosystem changes early on and may frame societal changes to inform decision-making structures to proactively prevent drastic surprises in European seas.

  • 17. Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social networks in natural resource management: What is there to learn from a structural perspective?2006In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 11, no 2, p. r2-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social networks among actors and stakeholders are gaining attention in studies of natural resource management, particularly those of adaptive management based on different forms of participation and co-management. In this sense, social networks have primarily been envisioned as enabling different actors to collaborate and coordinate management efforts. Here, we continue the discussion initiated by Newman and Dale (2005), which highlighted the fact that not all social networks are created equal. We discuss the relation between some structural characteristics and functions of social networks with respect to natural resource management, thus focusing on structural implications that are often overlooked when studying social networks within the context of natural resource management. We present several network measures used to quantify structural characteristics of social networks and link them to a number of features such as learning, leadership, and trust, which are identified as important in natural resource management. We show schematically that there may be inherent juxtapositions among different structural characteristics that need to be balanced in what we envision as social network structures conducive to adaptive co-management of natural resources. We argue that it is essential to develop an understanding of the effects that different structural characteristics of social networks have on natural resource management.

  • 18.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Duke University, USA.
    Robins, Garry
    McAllister, Ryan R. J.
    Guerrero, Angela M.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lubell, Mark
    Theorizing benefits and constraints in collaborative environmental governance: a transdisciplinary social-ecological network approach for empirical investigations2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When environmental processes cut across socioeconomic boundaries, traditional top-down government approaches struggle to effectively manage and conserve ecosystems. In such cases, governance arrangements that foster multiactor collaboration are needed. The effectiveness of such arrangements, however, depends on how well any ecological interdependencies across governed ecosystems are aligned with patterns of collaboration. This inherent interdisciplinary and complex problem has impeded progress in developing a better understanding of how to govern ecosystems for conservation in an increasingly interconnected world. We argue for the development of empirically informed theories, which are not only able to transcend disciplinary boundaries, but are also explicit in taking these complex social-ecological interdependences into account. We show how this emerging research frontier can be significantly improved by incorporating recent advances in stochastic modeling of multilevel social networks. An empirical case study from an agricultural landscape in Madagascar is reanalyzed to demonstrate these improvements.

  • 19.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Conceptualizing power to study social-ecological interactions2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    My aim is to conceptualize power using social science theory and to demonstrate why and how the concept of power can complement resilience studies and other analyses of social-ecological interaction. Social power as a scientific concept refers to the ability to influence both conduct and context. These two dimensions of power (conduct and context) can be observed by differentiating between various sources of power, including, for example, technology or mental power. The relevance of the conceptualization of power presented here is illustrated with the example of fire as a source of social-ecological power. I conclude by discussing how attention to power can help to address issues of social justice and responsibility in social-ecological interactions.

  • 20.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Angelstam, Per
    School of Forest Engineers, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Alfsen-Norodom, Christine
    Columbia University, UENSCO Joint program on Biosphere and Society.
    Scale mismatches in management of urban landscapes2006In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 11, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban landscapes constitute the future environment for most of the world’s human population.An increased understanding of the urbanization process and of the effects of urbanization at multiple scalesis, therefore, key to ensuring human well-being. In many conventional natural resource managementregimes, incomplete knowledge of ecosystem dynamics and institutional constraints often leads toinstitutional management frameworks that do not match the scale of ecological patterns and processes. Inthis paper, we argue that scale mismatches are particularly pronounced in urban landscapes. Urban greenspaces provide numerous important ecosystem services to urban citizens, and the management of theseurban green spaces, including recognition of scales, is crucial to the well-being of the citizens. From aqualitative study of the current management practices in five urban green spaces within the GreaterStockholm Metropolitan Area, Sweden, we found that 1) several spatial, temporal, and functional scalesare recognized, but the cross-scale interactions are often neglected, and 2) spatial and temporal meso-scalesare seldom given priority. One potential effect of the neglect of ecological cross-scale interactions in thesehighly fragmented landscapes is a gradual reduction in the capacity of the ecosystems to provide ecosystemservices. Two important strategies for overcoming urban scale mismatches are suggested: 1) developmentof an integrative view of the whole urban social–ecological landscape, and 2) creation of adaptivegovernance systems to support practical management.

  • 21.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Angelstam, Per
    School of Forest Engineers, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Alfsen-Norodom, Christine
    Columbia University, UENSCO Joint program on Biosphere and Society.
    Scale mismatches in management of urban landscapes2006In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 11, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban landscapes constitute the future environment for most of the world’s human population.An increased understanding of the urbanization process and of the effects of urbanization at multiple scalesis, therefore, key to ensuring human well-being. In many conventional natural resource managementregimes, incomplete knowledge of ecosystem dynamics and institutional constraints often leads toinstitutional management frameworks that do not match the scale of ecological patterns and processes. Inthis paper, we argue that scale mismatches are particularly pronounced in urban landscapes. Urban greenspaces provide numerous important ecosystem services to urban citizens, and the management of theseurban green spaces, including recognition of scales, is crucial to the well-being of the citizens. From aqualitative study of the current management practices in five urban green spaces within the GreaterStockholm Metropolitan Area, Sweden, we found that 1) several spatial, temporal, and functional scalesare recognized, but the cross-scale interactions are often neglected, and 2) spatial and temporal meso-scalesare seldom given priority. One potential effect of the neglect of ecological cross-scale interactions in thesehighly fragmented landscapes is a gradual reduction in the capacity of the ecosystems to provide ecosystemservices. Two important strategies for overcoming urban scale mismatches are suggested: 1) developmentof an integrative view of the whole urban social–ecological landscape, and 2) creation of adaptivegovernance systems to support practical management.

  • 22. Bousquet, Francois
    et al.
    Botta, Aurelie
    Alinovi, Luca
    Barreteau, Olivier
    Bossio, Deborah
    Brown, Katrina
    Caron, Patrick
    d'Errico, Marco
    DeClerck, Fabrice
    Dessard, Helene
    Enfors Kautsky, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Fabricius, Christo
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Fortmann, Louise
    Hubert, Bernard
    Magda, Daniele
    Mathevet, Raphael
    Norgaard, Richard B.
    Quinlan, Allyson
    Staver, Charles
    Resilience and development: mobilizing for transformation2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 3, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, the Third International Conference on the resilience of social-ecological systems chose the theme resilience and development: mobilizing for transformation. The conference aimed specifically at fostering an encounter between the experiences and thinking focused on the issue of resilience through a social and ecological system perspective, and the experiences focused on the issue of resilience through a development perspective. In this perspectives piece, we reflect on the outcomes of the meeting and document the differences and similarities between the two perspectives as discussed during the conference, and identify bridging questions designed to guide future interactions. After the conference, we read the documents (abstracts, PowerPoints) that were prepared and left in the conference database by the participants (about 600 contributions), and searched the web for associated items, such as videos, blogs, and tweets from the conference participants. All of these documents were assessed through one lens: what do they say about resilience and development? Once the perspectives were established, we examined different themes that were significantly addressed during the conference. Our analysis paves the way for new collective developments on a set of issues: (1) Who declares/assign/cares for the resilience of what, of whom? (2) What are the models of transformations and how do they combine the respective role of agency and structure? (3) What are the combinations of measurement and assessment processes? (4) At what scale should resilience be studied? Social transformations and scientific approaches are coconstructed. For the last decades, development has been conceived as a modernization process supported by scientific rationality and technical expertise. The definition of a new perspective on development goes with a negotiation on a new scientific approach. Resilience is presently at the center of this negotiation on a new science for development.

  • 23. Campbell, Bruce M.
    et al.
    Beare, Douglas J.
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Hall-Spencer, Jason M.
    Ingram, John S. I.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Ortiz, Rodomiro
    Ramankutty, Navin
    Sayer, Jeffrey A.
    Shindell, Drew
    Agriculture production as a major driver of the Earth system exceeding planetary boundaries2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 4, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the role of agriculture in destabilizing the Earth system at the planetary scale, through examining nine planetary boundaries, or safe limits: land-system change, freshwater use, biogeochemical flows, biosphere integrity, climate change, ocean acidification, stratospheric ozone depletion, atmospheric aerosol loading, and introduction of novel entities. Two planetary boundaries have been fully transgressed, i.e., are at high risk, biosphere integrity and biogeochemical flows, and agriculture has been the major driver of the transgression. Three are in a zone of uncertainty i.e., at increasing risk, with agriculture the major driver of two of those, land-system change and freshwater use, and a significant contributor to the third, climate change. Agriculture is also a significant or major contributor to change for many of those planetary boundaries still in the safe zone. To reduce the role of agriculture in transgressing planetary boundaries, many interventions will be needed, including those in broader food systems.

  • 24. Carpenter, Stephen R.
    et al.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Scheffer, Marten
    Westley, Frances
    Resilience: Accounting for the Noncomputable2009In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 13-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plans to solve complex environmental problems should always consider the role of surprise. Nevertheless, there is a tendency to emphasize known computable aspects of a problem while neglecting aspects that are unknown and failing to ask questions about them. The tendency to ignore the noncomputable can be countered by considering a wide range of perspectives, encouraging transparency with regard to conflicting viewpoints, stimulating a diversity of models, and managing for the emergence of new syntheses that reorganize fragmentary knowledge.

  • 25. Carpenter, Stephen R.
    et al.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Scheffer, Marten
    Westley, Frances R.
    Dancing on the volcano: social exploration in times of discontent2019In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radical recent developments such as Brexit, the rise of extreme nationalism, the gilets jaunes, polarizing leaders, the Arab Spring, and fundamentalist movements are indications of societal discontent with the status quo. Other societal phenomena such as gender fluidity, veganism, and bartering are also associated with a perceived need to change. The context is the Anthropocene, a humandominated biosphere challenging the resilience of a livable planet. Such a broad set of developments may be interpreted in the light of new insights from theory of complex systems about what happens as resilience of the current pathway (societal organization as we know it) decreases. Rising fluctuations characterize a phase of uncertainty and exploration, potentially leading into a transition of the system toward a new pathway. We reflect on global changes that may contribute to social destabilization such as rising wealth concentration and environmental degradation and ask how responses may be understood from social-psychological forces such as the need for group identity and managing the terror of mortality. The emerging image is that of a society engaged in multifaceted experimentation. Maintaining such experimentation may help inspire novel pathways to desirable futures, but there is a risk of societies becoming trapped in backward-looking narratives that threaten long-term sustainable outcomes.

  • 26.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden; The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Exploring the social-ecological systems discourse 20 years later2019In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the 20-year evolution of the social-ecological systems framework (SESs). Although a first definition of SES dates back to 1988, Berkes and Folke more thoroughly used the concept in 1998 to analyze resilience in local resource management systems. Since then studies of interlinked human and natural systems have emerged as a field on its own right, promoting interdisciplinary dialogue and collaboration in a wide set of fields and practices. As the SES concept celebrates its 20-year existence we decided to make an overview of how authors use the concept in relation to research that deals with social and ecological linkages. Hence, we conducted a review of the SES concept using the Scopus database, analyzing a random set of journal articles on social-ecological systems (n = 50) regarding definitions of SES, authors' main sources of inspiration in using the concept, as well as document type, subject area, and other relevant information. Although there is a steady increase of SES publications, we found that 61% of the papers analyzed did not even provide a definition of the term social-ecological system(s), a shortcoming that makes case comparisons difficult and reduces the usefulness of the concept. We also found three common SES frameworks that authors seem to be most commonly inspired by, referred to here as the original, the robustness, and multitier frameworks, respectively. The first can be characterized as a descriptive framework, the latter two more as diagnostic frameworks, useful for modeling. Although it would be a bit presumptuous of us to come up with a more thorough definition of the SES concept in this paper, we urge SES scholars to be more meticulous in making explicit what they mean by a social-ecological system when conducting SES research.

  • 27.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Exploring the social-ecological systems discourse 20 years later2019In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 423-432, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the 20-year evolution of the social-ecological systems framework (SESs). Although a first definition of SES dates back to 1988, Berkes and Folke more thoroughly used the concept in 1998 to analyze resilience in local resource management systems. Since then studies of interlinked human and natural systems have emerged as a field on its own right, promoting interdisciplinary dialogue and collaboration in a wide set of fields and practices. As the SES concept celebrates its 20-year existence we decided to make an overview of how authors use the concept in relation to research that deals with social and ecological linkages. Hence, we conducted a review of the SES concept using the Scopus database, analyzing a random set of journal articles on social-ecological systems (n = 50) regarding definitions of SES, authors’ main sources of inspiration in using the concept, as well as document type, subject area, and other relevant information. Although there is a steady increase of SES publications, we found that 61% of the papers analyzed did not even provide a definition of the term social-ecological system(s), a shortcoming that makes case comparisons difficult and reduces the usefulness of the concept. We also found three common SES frameworks that authors seem to be most commonly inspired by, referred to here as the original, the robustness, and multitier frameworks, respectively. The first can be characterized as a descriptive framework, the latter two more as diagnostic frameworks, useful for modeling. Although it would be a bit presumptuous of us to come up with a more thorough definition of the SES concept in this paper, we urge SES scholars to be more meticulous in making explicit what they mean by a social-ecological system when conducting SES research. 

  • 28.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The relations among threatened species, their protection, and taboos1997In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN), and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos. Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped into biological classes. Threat categories were determined for each species, based on the IUCN Red Data Book. We found that ≃ 30% of the identified taboos prohibit any use of species listed as threatened by IUCN. Of the specific-species taboos, 60% are set on reptiles and mammals. In these two classes, ≃ 50% of the species are threatened, representing all of the threatened species in our analysis, with the exception of one bird species. Both endemic and keystone species that are important for ecosystem functions are avoided by specific-species taboos. Specific-species taboos have important ecological ramifications for the protection of threatened and ecologically important populations of species. We do not suggest that specific-species taboos are placed on species because they are, or have been, endangered; instead, we emphasize that species are avoided for a variety of other reasons. It is urgent to identify and analyze resource practices and social mechanisms of traditional societies, such as taboos, and to investigate their possible ecological significance. Although it may provide insights of value for conservation, not only of species,

  • 29. Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    WHAT you know is WHO you know? – communication patterns among resource users as a prerequisite for co-management2006In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 11, no 2, p. Aricle nr 7-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The social networks is one factor determining the flow of information within communities and as such may be important in determining successful implementation of community based management. We mapped the social network used for communication of knowledge and information related to natural resource extraction among villagers in a coastal seascape in Kenya. We further identified subgroups and examined their interrelations while measuring to what extent personal attributes such as occupation can explain observed group structure. Finally, we compared the local ecological knowledge held by villagers of different occupations with the structure of the communication network to map how well this structure can explain distribution of ecological knowledge among them. Results show that communication occurs primarily between fishermen who use the same gear type, which may inhibit exchange of ecological knowledge within the community. This may partly explain why the community has been unsuccessful in regulating resource extraction, especially since potentially influential groups of nonfishermen have a limited communication with the various fisher groups. Analysis of network structure also shows that groups most central, and hence potentially most influential, are dominated in numbers by migrant deep sea fishermen, hypothetically less motivated to initiate collective action for resource management. Hence, we conclude that a lack of collective action to remedy an unsustainable situation may be attributed to various different but distinct aspects of the specific structure of the social network.

  • 30.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hubacek, Klaus
    The right connections: how do social networks lubricate the machinery of natural resource governance?2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 18-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Parker, John N.
    Learning in support of governance: Theories, methods, and a framework to assess how bridging organizations contribute to adaptive resource governance2012In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 32-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humanity faces increasingly intractable environmental problems characterized by high uncertainty, complexity, and swift change. Natural resource governance must therefore involve continuous production and use of new knowledge to adapt to highly complex, rapidly changing social-ecological systems to ensure long-term sustainable development. Bridging and boundary organizations have been proposed as potentially powerful means of achieving these aims by promoting cooperation among actors from the science, policy, and management sectors. However, despite substantial investments of time, capital, and human resources, little agreement exists about definitions and measures of knowledge production and how this is achieved in bridging organizations and there is only meager understanding of how knowledge production and its use are shaped by social interactions, socio-political environments, and power relations. New concepts, methods, and metrics for conceptualizing and measuring learning in support of natural resource governance and testing the conditions under which it can be achieved are therefore badly needed. This paper presents an attempt at a holistic framework to address this, drawing on theory, methods, and metrics from three research areas: knowledge utilization, boundary organizations, and stakeholder theory. Taken together, these provide a solid conceptual and methodological toolkit for conducting cross-case comparisons aimed at understanding the social environmental conditions under which learning in such organizations does and does not occur. We use empirical data to show how the framework can be applied and discuss some of the practical considerations and important challenges that emerge. We close with a general discussion and an agenda for future research to promote discussion around the topic of how to erect systematic comparisons of learning in support of adaptive natural resource governance as it occurs in bridging organizations.

  • 32.
    Dahlberg, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Burlando, Catie
    Natural Resource Institute, University of Manitoba.
    Addressing trade-offs: Experiences from conservation and development initiatives in the Mkuze Wetlands, South Africa2009In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 14, no 2, p. online-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Present-day conservation policies generally include the aim to integrate biodiversity conservation and local development, and describe this as a win–win solution that can satisfy all interests. This is challenged by research claiming that many efforts fail to match practice to rhetoric. South Africa has made strong commitments to fulfill the dual goals of conservation and development, and the iSimangaliso Wetland Park is promoted as an example of this. We explore present and potential outcomes of conservation and development interventions in a community bordering the Wetland Park through the perspective of different stakeholders, with the aim of uncovering opportunities and risks. In terms of improving local livelihoods as well as involvement in conservation, the success of the studied interventions varied. Local communities may accept restrictions on resource use as a result of realistic and fairly negotiated trade-offs, but if perceived as unjust and imposed from above, then mistrust and resistance will increase. In this area, collaboration between conservation organizations and the local community had improved, but still faced problems associated with unequal power relations, unrealistic expectations, and a lack of trust, transparency, and communication. As unsustainable efforts are a waste of funds and engagement, and may even become counterproductive, policy visions need to be matched by realistic allocations of staff, time, funds, and training. At the national and international level, the true cost of conservation has to be recognized and budgeted for if efforts at integrating conservation and development are to succeed.

  • 33.
    Daw, Tim M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hicks, Christina C.
    Brown, Katrina
    Chaigneau, Tomas
    Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A.
    Cheung, William W. L.
    Rosendo, Sergio
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Coulthard, Sarah
    Sandbrook, Chris
    Perry, Chris
    Bandeira, Salomao
    Muthiga, Nyawira A.
    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bosire, Jared
    McClanahan, Tim R.
    Elasticity in ecosystem services: exploring the variable relationship between ecosystems and human well-being2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 2, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of ecosystem service elasticity (ES elasticity) that describes the sensitivity of human well-being to changes in ecosystems. ES Elasticity is a result of complex social and ecological dynamics and is context dependent, individually variable, and likely to demonstrate nonlinear dynamics such as thresholds and hysteresis. We present a conceptual framework that unpacks the chain of causality from ecosystem stocks through flows, goods, value, and shares to contribute to the well-being of different people. This framework builds on previous conceptualizations, but places multidimensional well-being of different people as the final element. This ultimately disaggregated approach emphasizes how different people access benefits and how benefits match their needs or aspirations. Applying this framework to case studies of individual coastal ecosystem services in East Africa illustrates a wide range of social and ecological factors that can affect ES elasticity. For example, food web and habitat dynamics affect the sensitivity of different fisheries ecosystem services to ecological change. Meanwhile high cultural significance, or lack of alternatives enhance ES elasticity, while social mechanisms that prevent access can reduce elasticity. Mapping out how chains are interlinked illustrates how different types of value and the well-being of different people are linked to each other and to common ecological stocks. We suggest that examining chains for individual ecosystem services can suggest potential interventions aimed at poverty alleviation and sustainable ecosystems while mapping out of interlinkages between chains can help to identify possible ecosystem service trade-offs and winners and losers. We discuss conceptual and practical challenges of applying such a framework and conclude on its utility as a heuristic for structuring interdisciplinary analysis of ecosystem services and human well-being.

  • 34.
    Dieperink, Carel
    et al.
    Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Environmental Governance.
    Mees, Hannelore
    Antwerp University, Research Group Environment and Society.
    Priest, Sally J.
    Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bruzzone, Silvia
    Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (ENPC), France.
    Larrue, Corinne
    University of Paris.
    Matczak, Piotr
    Adam Mickiewicz University, Institute of Sociology.
    Managing urban flood resilience as a multilevel governance challenge: an analysis of required multilevel coordination mechanisms2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In both academic literature and flood risk management practices, it is argued that governance initiatives are needed to enhance the flood resilience of urban agglomerations. Multiple levels of governance will be involved in this activity. However, thus far, the literature has hardly addressed what mechanisms are required to coordinate the different levels of managing urban flood resilience, and what factors account for these mechanisms. Our aim is to address this knowledge gap. Here, we examine six in-depth case studies undertaken in urban agglomerations in different European countries: Dordrecht, the Netherlands; Hull, UK; Geraardsbergen, Belgium; Karlstad, Sweden; Wroclaw, Poland; and Nice, France. The case studies reveal the ways in which multiple levels of governance are involved in managing urban flood resilience. Coordination among governance levels is achieved by proactive policy entrepreneurs, the use of bridging concepts, clear rules, and the provision of resources. These mechanisms seem to be universally applicable, but their characteristics appear to be highly dependent on more general institutional, economic, geographical, and cultural contextual factors.

  • 35.
    Downing, Andrea S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    van Nes, Egbert H.
    Balirwa, John S.
    Beuving, Joost
    Bwathondi, P. O. J.
    Chapman, Lauren J.
    Cornelissen, Ilse J. M.
    Cowx, Iain G.
    Goudswaard, Kees P. C.
    Hecky, Robert E.
    Janse, Jan H.
    Janssen, Annette B. G.
    Kaufman, Les
    Kishe-Machumu, Mary A.
    Kolding, Jeppe
    Ligtvoet, Willem
    Mbabazi, Dismas
    Medard, Modesta
    Mkumbo, Oliva C.
    Mlaponi, Enock
    Munyaho, Antony T.
    Nagelkerke, Leopold A. J.
    Ogutu-Ohwayo, Richard
    Ojwang, William O.
    Peter, Happy K.
    Schindler, Daniel E.
    Seehausen, Ole
    Sharpe, Diana
    Silsbe, Greg M.
    Sitoki, Lewis
    Tumwebaze, Rhoda
    Tweddle, Denis
    van de Wolfshaar, Karen E.
    van Dijk, Han
    van Donk, Ellen
    van Rijssel, Jacco C.
    van Zwieten, Paul A. M.
    Wanink, Jan
    Witte, F.
    Mooij, Wolf M.
    Coupled human and natural system dynamics as key to the sustainability of Lake Victoria's ecosystem services2014In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 31-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    East Africa's Lake Victoria provides resources and services to millions of people on the lake's shores and abroad. In particular, the lake's fisheries are an important source of protein, employment, and international economic connections for the whole region. Nonetheless, stock dynamics are poorly understood and currently unpredictable. Furthermore, fishery dynamics are intricately connected to other supporting services of the lake as well as to lakeshore societies and economies. Much research has been carried out piecemeal on different aspects of Lake Victoria's system; e.g., societies, biodiversity, fisheries, and eutrophication. However, to disentangle drivers and dynamics of change in this complex system, we need to put these pieces together and analyze the system as a whole. We did so by first building a qualitative model of the lake's social-ecological system. We then investigated the model system through a qualitative loop analysis, and finally examined effects of changes on the system state and structure. The model and its contextual analysis allowed us to investigate system-wide chain reactions resulting from disturbances. Importantly, we built a tool that can be used to analyze the cascading effects of management options and establish the requirements for their success. We found that high connectedness of the system at the exploitation level, through fisheries having multiple target stocks, can increase the stocks' vulnerability to exploitation but reduce society's vulnerability to variability in individual stocks. We describe how there are multiple pathways to any change in the system, which makes it difficult to identify the root cause of changes but also broadens the management toolkit. Also, we illustrate how nutrient enrichment is not a self-regulating process, and that explicit management is necessary to halt or reverse eutrophication. This model is simple and usable to assess system-wide effects of management policies, and can serve as a paving stone for future quantitative analyses of system dynamics at local scales.

  • 36.
    Drury O'Neill, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Ferrer, Alice Joan G.
    Pomeroy, Robert
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    Who benefits from seafood trade? A comparison of social and market structures in small-scale fisheries2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 3, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the benefits flowing from a coastal seascape through seafood trade to various social groups in two distinct small-scale fishery case studies. A knowledge gap currently exists in relation to how benefits from a fishery, and the associated trade, are ultimately distributed, specifically, how market structures and relations, and the combined dynamics of the local fishing society, can mediate these flows. Previous research into improved fisheries governance for food and livelihood security has failed to integrate the structure of the market place as well as the multidimensional nature of actor relations that influence extractive behavior. Using a value chain framework, we take a relational approach to study these gaps. Surveys were conducted in two fisheries (Zanzibar and the Philippines) as part of a comparative analysis including market-types, assistance networks, and income inequality. Chain structures, gender roles, and levels of contractualization within the two cases differed vastly, appearing to give rise to different types of income inequalities and barriers to participation. In the Philippines economic exchanges revolve more around provision of financial capital, although in both systems social standing and obligations play a role in determining market structures. In Zanzibar trading agents engaging customers in predetermined sale arrangements earn relatively more than their counterpart freelancers, however at the production level no income differences are seen between those with or without arrangements. Both cases stand to be further integrated into the international seafood market, which raises questions over how certain actors will benefit, based on their current participation and access. Results emphasize the need for more evidence in regards to benefits flows and how aspects such as gender and transaction forms impact them. This is necessary for governance decisions around fisheries, poverty alleviation, and increased global market integration.

  • 37.
    Dyer, Michelle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. James Cook University, Australia.
    Transforming communicative spaces: the rhythm of gender in meetings in rural Solomon Islands2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women's lack of participation in important decision making is noted as an obstacle to sustainable development in many parts of the world. An initial issue for gender equity in environmental decision making in many developing country contexts is not only women's inclusion but also their substantive participation in decision-making forums. In this article I examine the power structures embedded in the public communicative spaces in a village in the Western Province of Solomon Islands using empirical data in conjunction with ethnographic understanding of gendered meeting styles. The data reveal some reasons why women may be silenced as public political actors. It also raises the potential for development actors to create conceptual space for specific women's ways of meeting and validating women's meeting styles. These findings have implications for encouraging transformative communicative spaces and formats that allow transcendence of socially embedded power structures.

  • 38.
    Elbakidze, M
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Angelstam, PK
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Axelsson, R
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Multi-stakeholder collaboration in Russian and Swedish model forest initiatives: adaptive governance toward sustainable forest management?2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building the adaptive capacity of interlinked social and ecological systems is assumed to improve implementation of sustainable forest management (SFM) policies. One mechanism is collaborative learning by continuous evaluation, communication, and transdisciplinary knowledge production. The Model Forest (MF) concept, developed in Canada, is intended to encourage all dimensions of sustainable development through collaboration among stakeholders of forest resources in a geographical area. Because the MF approach encompasses both social and ecological systems, it can be seen as a process aimed at improving adaptive capacity to deal with uncertainty and change. We analyzed multi-stakeholder approaches used in four MF initiatives representing social–ecological systems with different governance legacies and economic histories in the northwest of the Russian Federation (Komi MF and Pskov MF) and in Sweden (Vilhelmina MF and the Foundation Säfsen Forests in the Bergslagen region). To describe the motivations behind development of the initiative and the governance systems, we used qualitative open-ended interviews and analyzed reports and official documents. The initial driving forces for establishing new local governance arrangements were different in all four cases. All MFs were characterized by multi-level and multi-sector collaboration. However, the distribution of power among stakeholders ranged from clearly top down in the Russian Federation to largely bottom up in Sweden. All MF initiatives shared three main challenges: (a) to develop governance arrangements that include representative actors and stakeholders, (b) to combine top-down and bottom-up approaches to governance, and (c) to coordinate different sectors’ modes of landscape governance. We conclude that, in principle, the MF concept is a promising approach to multi-stakeholder collaboration. However, to understand the local and regional dimensions of sustainability, and the level of adaptability of such multi-stakeholder collaboration initiatives, empirical studies of outcomes are needed. To assess the adaptive capacity, the states and trends of economic, ecological, social, and cultural dimensions in actual landscapes need to be linked to how the multi-stakeholder collaboration develops and performs over the long term.

  • 39. Elmhagen, Bodil
    et al.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Angerbjorn, Anders
    Borgstrom, Sara
    Boyd, Emily
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Dalen, Love
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Ehrlen, Johan
    Ermold, Matti
    Hamback, Peter A.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Lagerholm, Vendela K.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Moor, Helen
    Nykvist, Bjorn
    Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne
    Plue, Jan
    Prieto, Carmen
    van der Velde, Ype
    Lindborg, Regina
    Interacting effects of change in climate, human population, land use, and water use on biodiversity and ecosystem services2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 1, article id UNSP 23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Elmhagen, Bodil
    et al.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Angerbjorn, Anders
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boyd, Emily
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Dalén, Love
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för bioinformatik och genetik.
    Ehrlen, Johan
    Ermold, Matti
    Hamback, Peter A.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Lagerholm, Vendela K.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Moor, Helen
    Nykvist, Bjorn
    Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne
    Plue, Jan
    Prieto, Carmen
    van der Velde, Ype
    Lindborg, Regina
    Interacting effects of change in climate, human population, land use, and water use on biodiversity and ecosystem services2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 1, article id UNSP 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human population growth and resource use, mediated by changes in climate, land use, and water use, increasingly impact biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. However, impacts of these drivers on biodiversity and ecosystem services are rarely analyzed simultaneously and remain largely unknown. An emerging question is how science can improve the understanding of change in biodiversity and ecosystem service delivery and of potential feedback mechanisms of adaptive governance. We analyzed past and future change in drivers in south-central Sweden. We used the analysis to identify main research challenges and outline important research tasks. Since the 19th century, our study area has experienced substantial and interlinked changes; a 1.6°C temperature increase, rapid population growth, urbanization, and massive changes in land use and water use. Considerable future changes are also projected until the mid-21st century. However, little is known about the impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services so far, and this in turn hampers future projections of such effects. Therefore, we urge scientists to explore interdisciplinary approaches designed to investigate change in multiple drivers, underlying mechanisms, and interactions over time, including assessment and analysis of matching-scale data from several disciplines. Such a perspective is needed for science to contribute to adaptive governance by constantly improving the understanding of linked change complexities and their impacts.

  • 41.
    Elmhagen, Bodil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boyd, Emily
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Reading, England.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Dalen, Love
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Ermold, Matti
    Hambäck, Peter A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lagerholm, Vendela K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Moor, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    van der Velde, Ype
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Wageningen University & Research Center, Netherlands.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Interacting effects of change in climate, human population, land use, and water use on biodiversity and ecosystem services2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 1, article id UNSP 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human population growth and resource use, mediated by changes in climate, land use, and water use, increasingly impact biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. However, impacts of these drivers on biodiversity and ecosystem services are rarely analyzed simultaneously and remain largely unknown. An emerging question is how science can improve the understanding of change in biodiversity and ecosystem service delivery and of potential feedback mechanisms of adaptive governance. We analyzed past and future change in drivers in south-central Sweden. We used the analysis to identify main research challenges and outline important research tasks. Since the 19th century, our study area has experienced substantial and interlinked changes; a 1.6 degrees C temperature increase, rapid population growth, urbanization, and massive changes in land use and water use. Considerable future changes are also projected until the mid-21st century. However, little is known about the impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services so far, and this in turn hampers future projections of such effects. Therefore, we urge scientists to explore interdisciplinary approaches designed to investigate change in multiple drivers, underlying mechanisms, and interactions over time, including assessment and analysis of matching-scale data from several disciplines. Such a perspective is needed for science to contribute to adaptive governance by constantly improving the understanding of linked change complexities and their impacts.

  • 42.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Scale-Crossing Brokers and Network Governance of Urban Ecosystem Services: The Case of Stockholm2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 28-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and the livability of cities. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. This article synthesizes a set of case studies from urban green areas in Stockholm, Sweden—allotment gardens, urban parks, cemeteries and protected areas—and discusses how governmental agencies and civil society groups engaged in urban green area management can be linked through social networks so as to better match spatial scales of ecosystem processes. The article develops a framework that combines ecological scales with social network structure, with the latter being taken as the patterns of interaction between actor groups. Based on this framework, the article (1) assesses current ecosystem governance, and (2) develops a theoretical understanding of how social network structure influences ecosystem governance and how certain actors can work as agents to promote beneficial network structures. The main results show that the mesoscale of what is conceptualized as city scale green networks (i.e., functionally interconnected local green areas) is not addressed by any actor in Stockholm, and that the management practices of civil society groups engaged in local ecosystem management play a crucial but neglected role in upholding ecosystem services. The article proposes an alternative network structure and discusses the role of midscale managers (for improving ecological functioning) and scale-crossing brokers (engaged in practices to connect actors across ecological scales). Dilemmas, strategies, and practices for establishing this governance system are discussed.

  • 43.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erik
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Borgström, Sara
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Scale-Crossing Brokers and Network Governance of Urban Ecosystem Services: The Case of Stockholm2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 4, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and the livability of cities. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. This article synthesizes a set of case studies from urban green areas in Stockholm, Sweden—allotment gardens, urban parks, cemeteries and protected areas—and discusses how governmental agencies and civil society groups engaged in urban green area management can be linked through social networks so as to better match spatial scales of ecosystem processes. The article develops a framework that combines ecological scales with social network structure, with the latter being taken as the patterns of interaction between actor groups. Based on this framework, the article (1) assesses current ecosystem governance, and (2) develops a theoretical understanding of how social network structure influences ecosystem governance and how certain actors can work as agents to promote beneficial network structures. The main results show that the mesoscale of what is conceptualized as city scale green networks (i.e., functionally interconnected local green areas) is not addressed by any actor in Stockholm, and that the management practices of civil society groups engaged in local ecosystem management play a crucial but neglected role in upholding ecosystem services. The article proposes an alternative network structure and discusses the role of midscale managers (for improving ecological functioning) and scale-crossing brokers (engaged in practices to connect actors across ecological scales). Dilemmas, strategies, and practices for establishing this governance system are discussed.

  • 44.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Andersson, Erik
    Borgström, Sara T.
    Scale-Crossing Brokers and Network Governance of Urban Ecosystem Services: The Case of Stockholm2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 28-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and the livability of cities. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. This article synthesizes a set of case studies from urban green areas in Stockholm, Sweden-allotment gardens, urban parks, cemeteries and protected areas-and discusses how governmental agencies and civil society groups engaged in urban green area management can be linked through social networks so as to better match spatial scales of ecosystem processes. The article develops a framework that combines ecological scales with social network structure, with the latter being taken as the patterns of interaction between actor groups. Based on this framework, the article (1) assesses current ecosystem governance, and (2) develops a theoretical understanding of how social network structure influences ecosystem governance and how certain actors can work as agents to promote beneficial network structures. The main results show that the mesoscale of what is conceptualized as city scale green networks (i.e., functionally interconnected local green areas) is not addressed by any actor in Stockholm, and that the management practices of civil society groups engaged in local ecosystem management play a crucial but neglected role in upholding ecosystem services. The article proposes an alternative network structure and discusses the role of midscale managers (for improving ecological functioning) and scale-crossing brokers (engaged in practices to connect actors across ecological scales). Dilemmas, strategies, and practices for establishing this governance system are discussed.

  • 45.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Social movements and ecosystem services: the role of social network structure in protecting and managing urban green areas in Stockholm2008In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 13, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploitation and degradation of urban green areas reduce their capacity to sustain ecosystem services. In protecting and managing these areas, research has increasingly focused on actors in civil society. Here, we analyzed an urban movement of 62 civil-society organizations—from user groups, such as boating clubs and allotment gardens, to culture and nature conservation groups—that have protected the Stockholm National Urban Park. We particularly focused on the social network structure of the movement, i.e., the patterns of interaction between movement organizations. The results reveal a core-periphery structure where core and semi-core organizations have deliberately built political connections to authorities, whereas the periphery gathers all user groups involved in day-to-day activities in the park. We show how the core-periphery structure has facilitated collective action to protect the park, but we also suggest that the same social network structure might simultaneously have constrained collaborative ecosystem management. In particular, user groups with valuable local ecological knowledge have not been included in collaborative arenas. Our case points out the inherent double-nature of all social networks as they facilitate some collective actions, yet constrain others. The paper argues for incorporating social network structure in theories and applications of adaptive governance and co-management.

  • 46.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Social Movements and Ecosystem Services-the Role of Social Network Structure in Protecting and Managing Urban Green Areas in Stockholm2008In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 13, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploitation and degradation of urban green areas reduce their capacity to sustain ecosystem services. In protecting and managing these areas, research has increasingly focused on actors in civil society. Here, we analyzed an urban movement of 62 civil-society organizations-from user groups, such as boating clubs and allotment gardens, to culture and nature conservation groups-that have protected the Stockholm National Urban Park. We particularly focused on the social network structure of the movement, i.e., the patterns of interaction between movement organizations. The results reveal a core-periphery structure where core and semi-core organizations have deliberately built political connections to authorities, whereas the periphery gathers all user groups involved in day-to-day activities in the park. We show how the core-periphery structure has facilitated collective action to protect the park, but we also suggest that the same social network structure might simultaneously have constrained collaborative ecosystem management. In particular, user groups with valuable local ecological knowledge have not been included in collaborative arenas. Our case points out the inherent double-nature of all social networks as they facilitate some collective actions, yet constrain others. The paper argues for incorporating social network structure in theories and applications of adaptive governance and co-management.

  • 47.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Resilience (Republished)2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 4, article id 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience thinking in relation to the environment has emerged as a lens of inquiry that serves a platform for interdisciplinary dialogue and collaboration. Resilience is about cultivating the capacity to sustain development in the face of expected and surprising change and diverse pathways of development and potential thresholds between them. The evolution of resilience thinking is coupled to social-ecological systems and a truly intertwined human-environment planet. Resilience as persistence, adaptability, and transformability of complex adaptive social-ecological systems is the focus, clarifying the dynamic and forward-looking nature of the concept. Resilience thinking emphasizes that social-ecological systems, from the individual, to community, to society as a whole, are embedded in the biosphere. The biosphere connection is an essential observation if sustainability is to be taken seriously. In the continuous advancement of resilience thinking there are efforts aimed at capturing resilience of social-ecological systems and finding ways for people and institutions to govern social-ecological dynamics for improved human well-being, at the local, across levels and scales, to the global. Consequently, in resilience thinking, development issues for human well-being, for people and planet, are framed in a context of understanding and governing complex social-ecological dynamics for sustainability as part of a dynamic biosphere.

  • 48.
    Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden,.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Reyers, Belinda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-ecological resilience and biosphere-based sustainability science2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 3, article id 41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere. The focus is shifting from the environment as externality to the biosphere as precondition for social justice, economic development, and sustainability. In this article, we exemplify the intertwined nature of social-ecological systems and emphasize that they operate within, and as embedded parts of the biosphere and as such coevolve with and depend on it. We regard social-ecological systems as complex adaptive systems and use a social-ecological resilience approach as a lens to address and understand their dynamics. We raise the challenge of stewardship of development in concert with the biosphere for people in diverse contexts and places as critical for long-term sustainability and dignity in human relations. Biosphere stewardship is essential, in the globalized world of interactions with the Earth system, to sustain and enhance our life-supporting environment for human well-being and future human development on Earth, hence, the need to reconnect development to the biosphere foundation and the need for a biosphere-based sustainability science.

  • 49.
    Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Carpenter, Stephen R.
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin.
    Walker, Brian
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Scheffer, Marten
    Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen Agricultural University.
    Chapin, Terry
    Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks .
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 4, p. Art. 20-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pritchard Jr., L.
    Evangelical Environmental Network, United States.
    Berkes, F.
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedin, U.
    Swedish Research Council for the Environment, Sweden.
    The problem of fit between ecosystems and institutions: ten years later2007In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of fit is about the interplay between the human and ecosystem dimensions in social-ecological systems that are not just linked but truly integrated. This interplay takes place across temporal and spatial scales and institutional and organizational levels in systems that are increasingly being interpreted as complex adaptive systems. In 1997, we were invited to produce one of three background papers related to a, at that time, new initiative called Institutional Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (IDEG), a research activity of the International Human Dimensions Program of Global Environmental Change (IHDP). The paper, which exists as a discussion paper of the IHDP, has generated considerable interest. Here we publish the original paper 10 years later with an extended introduction and with reflections on some of the issues raised in the original paper concerning problems of fit.

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