Change search
Refine search result
1 - 35 of 35
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Andreasson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Carlsson, A C
    Wändell, P E
    High levels of leptin are associated with poor self-rated health in men and women with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin.2013In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 23, no 2, p. e11-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Assman, Gerd
    et al.
    Tyskland.
    Cullen, Paul
    Tyskland.
    Fruchart, Jean-Charles
    Frankrike.
    Greten, Heiner
    Tyskland.
    Naruszewicz, Marek
    Polen.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Internal Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Paoletti, Rudolfo
    Italien.
    Riesen, Walter
    Schweiz.
    Stoll, Monika
    Tyskland.
    Tikkanen, Matti
    Finland.
    Von Eckardstein, Arnold
    Schweiz.
    Implications of emerging risk factors for therapeutic intervention2005In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 373-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP) of the United States of America commented on the implications of new clinical trials for the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines [Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Merz CN, Brewer Jr HB, Clark LT, Hunninghake DB, et al. Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Circulation 2004,110:227-39]. In this commentary, new categories of "moderately high" and "very high" coronary risk were proposed with new "therapeutic options" for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol of ≤ 100 mg/dL and ≤70 mg/dL respectively. In ATP III, these "moderately high" risk patients had been classified as moderate risk with an LDL treatment goal of ≤130 mg/dL, while the "very high" risk patients had been classified as high risk with a treatment goal of ≤100 mg/dL. Risk classification in the new NCEP publication is based essentially on the combination of the Framingham risk score plus counting of classical risk factors. In the present document, the International Task Force for Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease responds to this NCEP commentary and supports the suggestion of more intensive LDL cholesterol lowering in particular cases. However, the Task Force feels that a classification based on a combination of a risk score plus a count of emerging risk factors is a more logical way to identify such patients requiring lower LDL cholesterol levels than a scheme in which classical risk factors are taken into account twice, once in a count and once in a risk score. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Branth, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ronquist, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Hambraeus, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Kindgren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Olsson, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Carlander, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Development of abdominal fat and incipient metabolic syndrome in young healthy men exposed to long-term stress2007In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 427-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The sympathetic nervous system may be involved in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and metabolic cardiovascular syndrome in young men. The aim was to study the effects of long-term stress on different features of the metabolic syndrome (MES) in formerly non-obese healthy young males during 5 months of defined conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen healthy male sailors (mean age 36.5 (SD)+/-7 years) participating in a sailing race around the world were recruited for the study. Investigations were done before the start and at stop overs after finishing laps 1, 2 and 4 (1, 2(1/2) and 5 months, respectively). Anthropometric and blood pressure data as well as biochemical data associated with MES were substantiated. Food intake and exercise were chartered and largely controlled. A mean weight loss of 4.5+/-2 kg (P<0.005), comprising both fat and lean body mass, was recorded during the first lap. Subsequently after 5 months, a weight gain, mainly consisting of 1.2+/-1.1 kg body fat (P<0.05), took place, concomitantly with a protein mass drop of 0.6+/-1.1 kg (P<0.05). The body fat gain accumulated on the abdominal region. Elevated blood levels of HbA1c, insulin and the triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein ratio were also observed during the race. Likewise heart rate and systolic blood pressure increased slightly but to a statistically significant extent. CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese healthy young men exposed to long-term stress developed abdominal obesity and signs of a metabolic syndrome in embryo, also emphasized by biochemical and blood pressure alterations. It is suggested that long-term and sustained stress activation might be an additional risk factor for the development of MES, even after control of dietary and exercise habits.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, A C
    et al.
    Division of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Centre for Family Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Section of Geriatrics Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Borné, Y
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Leander, K
    Division of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gigante, B
    Division of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hellénius, M-L
    Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bottai, M
    Division of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    de Faire, U
    Division of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prediction of cardiovascular disease by abdominal obesity measures is dependent on body weight and sex: results from two community based cohort studies2014In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 891-899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To study waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), and waist-hip-height ratio (WHHR) as predictors of CVD, in men and women stratified by BMI (cut-off ≥25).

    METHODS AND RESULTS: A cohort of n = 3741 (53% women) 60-year old individuals without CVD was followed for 11-years (375 CVD cases). To replicate the results, we also assessed another large independent cohort; The Malmö Diet and Cancer study - cardiovascular cohort (MDCC, (n = 5180, 60% women, 602 CVD cases during 16-years). After adjustment for established risk factors in normal-weight women, the hazard ratio (HR) per one standard deviation (SD) were; WHR; 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-2.70), WC; 1.81 (95% CI 1.02-3.20), SAD; 1.25 (95% CI 0.74-2.11), and WHHR; 1.97 (95% CI 1.40-2.78). In men the association with WHR, WHHR and WC were not significant, whereas SAD was the only measure that significantly predicted CVD in men (HR 1.19 (95% CI 1.04-1.35). After adjustments for established risk factors in overweight/obese women, none of the measures were significantly associated with CVD risk. In men, however, all measures were significant predictors; WHR; 1.24 (955 CI 1.04-1.47), WC 1.19 (95% CI 1.00-1.42), SAD 1.21 (95% CI 1.00-1.46), and WHHR; 1.23 (95% CI 1.05-1.44). Only the findings in men with BMI ≥ 25 were verified in MDCC.

    CONCLUSION: In normal weight individuals, WHHR and WHR were the best predictors in women, whereas SAD was the only independent predictor in men. Among overweight/obese individuals all measures failed to predict CVD in women, whereas WHHR was the strongest predictor after adjustments for CVD risk factors in men.

  • 5. Carlsson, A. C.
    et al.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Ärnlov, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Borne, Y.
    Leander, K.
    Gigante, B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Hellenius, M. -L
    Bottai, M.
    de Faire, U.
    Prediction of cardiovascular disease by abdominal obesity measures is dependent on body weight and sex - Results from two community based cohort studies2014In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 891-899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), and waist-hip-height ratio (WHHR) as predictors of CVD, in men and women stratified by BMI (cut-off >= 25). Methods and results: A cohort of n = 3741 (53% women) 60-year old individuals without CVD was followed for 11-years (375 CVD cases). To replicate the results, we also assessed another large independent cohort; The Malmo Diet and Cancer study - cardiovascular cohort (MDCC, (n = 5180, 60% women, 602 CVD cases during 16-years). After adjustment for established risk factors in normal-weight women, the hazard ratio (HR) per one standard deviation (SD) were; WHR; 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-2.70), WC; 1.81 (95% CI 1.02-3.20), SAD; 1.25 (95% CI 0.74-2.11), and WHHR; 1.97 (95% CI 1.40-2.78). In men the association with WHR, WHHR and WC were not significant, whereas SAD was the only measure that significantly predicted CVD in men (HR 1.19 (95% CI 1.04-1.35). After adjustments for established risk factors in overweight/obese women, none of the measures were significantly associated with CVD risk. In men, however, all measures were significant predictors; WHR; 1.24 (955 CI 1.04-1.47), WC 1.19 (95% CI 1.00-1.42), SAD 1.21 (95% CI 1.00-1.46), and WHHR; 1.23 (95% CI 1.05-1.44). Only the findings in men with BMI >= 25 were verified in MDCC. Conclusion: In normal weight individuals, WHHR and WHR were the best predictors in women, whereas SAD was the only independent predictor in men. Among overweight/obese individuals all measures failed to predict CVD in women, whereas WHHR was the strongest predictor after adjustments for CVD risk factors in men.

  • 6.
    Daryani, Achraf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Becker, Wulf
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Antioxidant intake, oxidative stress and inflammation among immigrant women from the Middle East living in Sweden: associations with cardiovascular risk factors2007In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 748-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Immigrant women from the Middle East have higher cardiovascular risk compared to native women. Whether low antioxidant intake, oxidative stress or inflammation contributes to risk is unknown. In a cross-sectional study of 157 randomly selected foreign-born women (Iranian and Turkish) and native women living in Sweden, we investigated antioxidant status, oxidative stress (F-2-isoprostanes) and systemic inflammation (plasma high sensitive C-reactive protein; CRP) markers. We also investigated relationships between F2-isoprostanes, CRP and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods and result: Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls repeated four times. Micronutrient intake was not consistently different between groups. Serum a-tocopherol, but not gamma-tocopherot levels, was tower in Turkish vs. Swedish women (P < 0.05). Turkish women had the highest F-2-isoprostane levels (P < 0.05 vs. Iranian women) and CRP levels (P < 0.01 vs. Swedish women and P = 0.05 vs. Iranian women). In immigrants (n = 97), F-2-isoprostanes correlated positively to insulin levels (r = 0.31, P < 0.01), and CRP was correlated to obesity and several cardiovascular risk factors (r-values >0.21, P values <0.05). Conclusion: The rote of antioxidant status is unclear, whereas signs of oxidative stress and inflammation are evident in immigrant women from Middle East, especially Turkish women. Oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation might contribute to the higher cardiovascular risk previously observed in immigrant women. Further larger studies adjusting for more potential confounders are motivated to confirm these results.

  • 7. Delgado-Lista, J.
    et al.
    Perez-Martinez, P.
    Garcia-Rios, A.
    Phillips, C. M.
    Hall, W.
    Gjelstad, I. M. F.
    Lairon, D.
    Saris, W.
    Kiec-Wilk, B.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Drevon, C. A.
    Defoort, C.
    Blaak, E. E.
    Dembinska-Kiec, A.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lovegrove, J. A.
    Roche, H. M.
    Lopez-Miranda, J.
    A gene variation (rs12691) in the CCAT/enhancer binding protein alpha modulates glucose metabolism in metabolic syndrome2013In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 417-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA) is a transcription factor involved in adipogenesis and energy homeostasis. Caloric restriction reduces CEBPA protein expression in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). A previous report linked rs12691 SNP in CEBPA to altered concentration of fasting triglycerides. Our objective was to assess the effects of rs12691 in glucose metabolism in Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) patients. Methods and results: Glucose metabolism was assessed by static (glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin and resistin plasma concentrations) and dynamic (disposition index, insulin sensitivity index, HOMA-IR and acute insulin response to glucose) indices, performed at baseline and after 12 weeks of 4 dietary interventions (high saturated fatty acid (SFA), high monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), low-fat and low-fat-high-n3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)) in 486 subjects with MetS. Carriers of the minor A allele of rs12691 had altered disposition index (p = 0.0003), lower acute insulin response (p = 0.005) and a lower insulin sensitivity index (p = 0.025) indicating a lower insulin sensitivity and a lower insulin secretion, at baseline and at the end of the diets. Furthermore, A allele carriers displayed lower HDL concentration. Conclusion: The presence of the A allele of rs12691 influences glucose metabolism of MetS patients. Clinical Trials Registry number NCT00429195.

  • 8. Gerdts, E.
    et al.
    de Simone, G.
    Lund, B. P.
    Okin, P. M.
    Wachtell, K.
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nieminen, M. S.
    Dahlöf, B.
    Devereux, R. B.
    Impact of overweight and obesity on cardiac benefit of antihypertensive treatment2013In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 122-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Increased body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertension. Less is known about the impact of BMI on improvement in left ventricular (LV) structure and function during antihypertensive treatment. Methods and results: Annual BMI, echocardiograms and cardiovascular events were recorded in 875 hypertensive patients with LV hypertrophy during 4.8 years randomized treatment in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) echocardiography substudy. Patients were grouped by baseline BMI into normal (n = 282), overweight (n = 405), obese (n = 150) and severely obese groups (n = 38) (BMI <= 24.9, 25.0-29.9, 30.0-34.9, and >= 35.0 kg/m(2), respectively). At study end, residual LV hypertrophy was present in 54% of obese and 79% of severely obese patients compared to 31% of normal weight patients (both p < 0.01). In regression analyses, adjusting for initial LV mass/height(2.7), higher BMI predicted less LV hypertrophy reduction and more reduction in LV ejection fraction (both p < 0.05), independent of blood pressure reduction, diabetes and in-study weight change. During follow-up, 91 patients suffered cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke. In Cox regression analysis 1 kg/m(2) higher baseline BMI predicted a 5% higher rate of cardiovascular events and 10% higher cardiovascular mortality over 4.8 years (both p < 0.05). Conclusions: In hypertensive patients in the LIFE study, increased BMI was associated with less reduction of LV hypertrophy and less improvement in LV systolic function which may contribute to the observed higher cardiovascular event rate of treated hypertensive patients. (C) 2011 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

  • 9. Giacco, R.
    et al.
    Cuomo, V,
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Uusitupa, M.
    Hermansen, K.
    Meyer, B.J.
    Riccardi, G.
    Rivellese, A.A.
    Fish oil, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in healthy people: Is there any effect of fish oil supplementation in relation to the type of background diet and habitual dietary intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids?2007In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 572-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To evaluate whether a moderate supplementation of long-chain n-3 fatty acids is able to modulate insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell function and glucose tolerance in healthy individuals consuming a diet rich in either saturated or monounsaturated fat, also in relation to their habitual dietary intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acid.

    Methods and results

    One hundred and sixty-two healthy individuals were randomly assigned to follow either one of two isoenergetic diets for 3months, one rich in monounsaturated fats and the other rich in saturated fats. Within each group there was a second randomisation to fish oil (n-3 fatty acids 3.6g/day) or placebo. At the beginning and at the end of the treatment periods insulin sensitivity (SI), first phase insulin response (FPIR) and glucose tolerance (KG-value) were evaluated by the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT).

    Fish oil did not have any effect on SI, FPIR, KG-value and disposition index in either diet. Even after dividing subjects according to the median value of n-6/n-3 ratio of serum phospholipids at baseline, there was no change in SI (Δ SI 0.42±0.34 on fish oil vs 0.14±0.23 on placebo for those with n-6/n-3 <4.85; −1.03±0.47 on fish oil vs −0.27±0.32 on placebo for those with n-6/n-3 >4.85) (M±SE), FPIR (Δ FPIR 135.9±78.9 vs 157.2±157.5pmol/L; 38.8±181.7 vs 357.1±181.7pmol/L), KG-value (Δ KG 0.14±0.15 vs 0.12±0.11; −0.32±0.16 vs 0.15±0.15) or disposition index (Δ disposition index 1465.4±830.4 vs 953.8±690.0; −1641.6±1034.3 vs 446.6±905.1). Considering the 75th percentile of n-6/n-3 ratio (5.82) the results on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and disposition index were confirmed, while, in this more extreme situation, n-3 fatty acid supplementation induced a significant deterioration of KG-value (p=0.02).

    Conclusions

    In healthy individuals a moderate supplementation of fish oil does not affect insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell function or glucose tolerance. The same is true even when the habitual dietary intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids is taken into account.

  • 10. Helal, O.
    et al.
    Defoort, C.
    Robert, S.
    Marin, C.
    Lesavre, N.
    Lopez-Miranda, J.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Basu, Samur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Lovegrove, J.
    McMonagle, J.
    Roche, H. M.
    Dignat-George, F.
    Lairon, D.
    Increased levels of microparticles originating from endothelial cells, platelets and erythrocytes in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Relationship with oxidative stress2011In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 665-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Circulating microparticles (MP) are involved in the pathogenesis of atherothrombotic disorders and are raised in individual with CVD. We measured their level and cellular origin in subjects with MetS and analyzed their associations with 1/anthropometric and biological parameters of MetS, 2/inflammation and oxidative stress markers.

    Methods and results: Eighty-eight subjects with the MetS according to the NCEP-ATPIII definition were enrolled in a bicentric study and compared to 27 healthy controls. AnnexinV-positive MP (TMP), MP derived from platelets (PMP), erythrocytes (ErMP), endothelial cells (EMP), leukocytes (LMP) and granulocytes (PNMP) were determined by flow cytometry. MetS subjects had significantly higher counts/mu l of TMP (730.6 +/- 49.7 vs 352.8 +/- 35.6), PMP (416.0 +/- 43.8 vs 250.5 +/- 23.5), ErMP (243.8 +/- 22.1 vs 73.6 +/- 19.6) and EMP (7.8 +/- 0.8 vs 4.0 +/- 1.0) compared with controls. LMP and PNMP were not statistically different between groups. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that each criterion for the MetS influenced the number of TMP. Waist girth was a significant determinant of PMP and EMP level and blood pressure was correlated with EMP level. Glycemia positively correlated with PMP level whereas dyslipidemia influenced EMP and ErMP levels. Interestingly, the oxidative stress markers, plasma glutathione peroxy-dase and urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2) alpha, independently influenced TMP and PMP levels whereas inflammatory markers did not, irrespective of MP type.

    Conclusion: Increased levels of TMP, PMP, ErMP and EMP are associated with individual metabolic abnormalities of MetS and oxidative stress. Whether MP assessment may represent a marker for risk stratification or a target for pharmacological intervention deserves further investigation.

  • 11. Jonasson, L
    et al.
    Wikby, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Olsson, A G
    Low serum beta-carotene reflects immune activation in patients with coronary artery disease2003In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 120-125Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Jonasson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Wikby, A.
    Dept. of Nat. Sci. and Biomedicine, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Internal Medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Low serum ß-carotene reflects immune activation in patients with coronary artery disease2003In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 120-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aim: Low serum levels of antioxidant vitamins are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). An immunomodulatory effect of antioxidants has been proposed. The aim of the study was to investigate whether an increased immune response in CAD patients was associated with suppressed circulating levels of antioxidant vitamins. Methods and Results: Forty-four men with stable angina and angiographically verified CAD were included as well as 69 healthy controls. T cell subsets in peripheral blood were quantified by 3-colour flow cytometry. C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and the lipophilic antioxidants a-tocopherol, ß-carotene and lycopene were determined in serum. Compared with controls, patients had signs of an enhanced inflammatory activity assessed by significantly increased levels of CRP, sIL-2R and CD4+CD25+T cell subsets. Patients also had significantly lower ß-carotene and lycopene levels whereas a-tocopherol levels did not differ. The increased inflammatory/immune parameters in patients showed a significant inverse relationship to serum ß-carotene but not to lycopene or a-tocopherol. Conclusions: Low serum ß-carotene in CAD patients reflects activation of the immune system. Inflammation should be considered as an important confounding factor when analysing data on ß-carotene and CAD. © 2003, Medikal Press.

  • 13. Krachler, Benno
    et al.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Eriksson, Jan W
    Hallmans, Göran
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Fatty acid profile of the erythrocyte membrane preceding development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus2008In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 503-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: The respective roles of dietary fatty acids in the pathogenesis of diabetes are as yet unclear. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) composition may provide an estimate of dietary fatty acid intake. This study investigates the relation between EMFA composition and development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods and results: In a nested case-referent design we studied 159 individuals tested as non-diabetic at baseline who after a mean observation time of 5.4 +/- 2.6 years were diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and 291 sex- and age-matched referents. Higher proportions of pentadecanoic acid (15: 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0) were associated with a tower risk of diabetes. In accordance with earlier findings, higher proportions of palmitoleic (16:1 n-7), dihomo-gamma-linotenic (20:3 n-6) and adrenic (22:4 n-6) acids were associated with increased risk, whereas linoleic (18:2 n-6) and clupanodonic (22:5 n-3) acids were inversely associated with diabetes. After adjustment for BMI, HbA1c, alcohol intake, smoking and physical activity the only significant predictors were 15:0 and 17:0 as protective factors and 22:4 n6 as risk factor.Conclusion: In accordance with previous studies, our results indicate that EMFA-patterns predict development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The inverse association with two saturated fatty acids, previously shown to reflect consumption of dairy products, is a new finding.

  • 14.
    Lankinen, Maria A.
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Schwab, Ursula S.
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland; Institute of Clinical Medicine, Internal Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki E. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland Author ID: 55949278200 Follow this Author
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Yetukuri, L.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Sysi-Aho, Marko
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Kallio, Petteri
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, , Kuopio, Finland.
    Suortti, Tapani M.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Laaksonen, David E.
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, Internal Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland; Institute of Biomedicine, Physiology, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Gylling, Helena K.
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland; Institute of Clinical Medicine, Internal Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Poutanen, Kaisa S.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Department of Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, , Kuopio, Finland.
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, , Kuopio, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Dietary carbohydrate modification alters serum metabolic profiles in individuals with the metabolic syndrome2010In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 249-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Whole-grain cereals and diets with a low glycemic index may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the effect of carbohydrate modification on serum metabolic profiles, including lipids and branched chain amino acids, and dependencies between these and specific gene expression pathways in adipose tissue.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty subjects with metabolic syndrome were selected from the larger FUNGENUT study population, randomized either to a diet high in oat and wheat bread and potato (OWP) or rye bread and pasta (RP). Serum metabolomics analyses were performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS), gas chromatography (GC) and UPLC. In the OWP group multiple proinflammatory lysophosphatidylcholines increased, while in the RP group docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3) increased and isoleucine decreased. mRNA expression of stress reactions- and adipose tissue differentiation-related genes were up-regulated in adipose tissue in the OWP group. In the RP group, however, pathways related to stress reactions and insulin signaling and energy metabolism were down-regulated. The lipid profiles had the strongest association with the changes in the adipose tissue differentiation pathway when using the elastic net regression model of the lipidomic profiles on selected pathways.

    CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the dietary carbohydrate modification alters the serum metabolic profile, especially in lysoPC species, and may, thus, contribute to proinflammatory processes which in turn promote adverse changes in insulin and glucose metabolism.

  • 15.
    Larsson, S. C.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden;Uppsala Univ, Dept Surg Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Håkansson, N.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bäck, M.
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Coffee consumption and risk of aortic valve stenosis: A prospective study2018In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 803-807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Coffee contains many biologically active compounds with potential adverse or beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Whether coffee consumption is associated with the risk of aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is unknown. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the association between coffee consumption and AVS incidence.

    Methods and results: This prospective study included 71 178 men and women who provided information on their coffee consumption through a questionnaire at baseline. Incident cases of AVS were identified through linkage with the Swedish National Patient and Cause of Death Registers. During a mean follow-up of 15.2 years, 1295 participants (777 men and 518 women) were diagnosed with AVS. Coffee consumption was positively associated with risk of AVS in a dose - response manner after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and other risk factors (P-trend = 0.005). The multivariable hazard ratios were was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.04 - 1.19) per 2 cups/day increase of coffee consumption and 1.65 (95% confidence interval 1.10 - 2.48) when comparing the highest (>= 6 cups/day) with the lowest (<0.5 cup/day) category of coffee consumption. The association was not modified by other risk factors.

    Conclusions: This study provides novel evidence that high coffee consumption is associated with an increased risk of AVS.

  • 16.
    Lidebjer, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Leanderson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Jonasson, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Low plasma levels of oxygenated carotenoids in patients with coronary artery disease2007In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 448-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Low circulating levels of carotenoids have been associated with cardiovascular disease. The distribution of different carotenoids in blood may have an impact on the cardioprotective capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of 6 major carotenoids in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and relate the findings to clinical, metabolic and immune parameters. Methods and results: Plasma levels of oxygenated carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin) and hydrocarbon carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene) were determined in 39 patients with acute coronary syndrome, 50 patients with stable CAD and 50 controls. Serological assays for inflammatory activity and flow cytometrical analysis of lymphocyte subsets were performed. Both patient groups had significantly lower plasma levels of oxygenated carotenoids, in particular lutein + zeaxanthin, compared to controls. Low levels of oxygenated carotenoids were associated with smoking, high body mass index (BMI), low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and, to a minor degree, inflammatory activity. Plasma levels of lutein + zeaxanthin were independently associated with the proportions of natural killer (NK) cells, but not with other lymphocytes, in blood. Conclusion: Among carotenoids, lutein + zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin were significantly reduced in CAD patients independent of clinical setting. The levels were correlated to a number of established cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the relationship between NK cells and lutein + zeaxanthin may indicate a particular role for certain carotenoids in the immunological scenario of CAD. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Lind, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Epidemiology.
    Strand, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology. Antaros Med AB, BioVenture Hub, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology. Antaros Med AB, BioVenture Hub, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Relationship between endothelium-dependent vasodilation and fat distribution using the new "imiomics" image analysis technique2019In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 1077-1086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: We investigated how vasoreactivity in the brachial artery and the forearm resistance vessels were related to fat distribution and tissue volume, using both traditional imaging analysis and a new technique, called “Imiomics”, whereby vasoreactivity was related to each of the >2M 3D image elements included in the whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    Methods and results: In 326 subjects in the Prospective investigation of Obesity, Energy and Metabolism (POEM) study (all aged 50 years), endothelium-dependent vasodilation was measured by acetylcholine infusion in the brachial artery (EDV) and flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). Fat distribution was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). EDV, but not FMD, was significantly related to total fat mass, liver fat, subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue in a negative fashion in women, but not in men. Using Imiomics, an inverse relationship was seen between EDV and a local tissue volume of SAT in both the upper part of the body, as well as the gluteo-femoral part and the medial parts of the legs in women. Also the size of the liver, heart and VAT was inversely related to EDV. In men, less pronounced relationships were seen. FMD was also significantly related to local tissue volume of upper-body SAT and liver fat in women, but less so in men.

    Conclusion: EDV, and to a lesser degree also FMD, were related to liver fat, SAT and VAT in women, but less so in men. Imiomics both confirmed findings from traditional methods and resulted in new, more detailed results.

  • 18. Lindi, Virpi
    et al.
    Schwab, Ursula
    Louheranta, Anne
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Tapsell, Linda
    Riccardi, Gabriele
    Rivellese, Angela A
    Laakso, Markku
    Uusitupa, Matti I J
    The G-250A polymorphism in the hepatic lipase gene promoter is associated with changes in hepatic lipase activity and LDL cholesterol: The KANWU Study2008In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 88-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Hepatic lipase (HL) catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides and phospholipids from lipoproteins, and promotes the hepatic uptake of tipoproteins. A common G-250A polymorphism in the promoter of the hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) has been described. The aim was to study the effects of the G-250A polymorphism on HL activity, serum lipid profile and insulin sensitivity. Methods and results: Altogether 151 healthy subjects (age 49 +/- 8 years, BMI 26.5 +/- 3.0 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned for 3 months to an isoenergetic diet containing either a high proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA diet) or monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA diet). Within groups there was a second random assignment to supplements with fish oil (3.6 g n-3 FA/day) or placebo. At baseline, the A-250A genotype was associated with high serum LDL cholesterol concentration (P = 0.030 among three genotypes). On the MUFA diet carriers of the A-250A genotype presented a greater decrease in LDL cholesterol concentration than subjects with other genotypes (P = 0.007 among three genotypes). The rare -250A allele was related to Low HL activity (P < 0.001 among three genotypes). The diet did not affect the levels of HL activity among the genotypes. Conclusion: The A-250A genotype of the LIPC gene was associated with high LDL cholesterol concentration, but the MUFA-enriched diet reduced serum LDL cholesterol concentration especially in subjects with the A-250A genotype.

  • 19. Lundman, Pia
    et al.
    Boquist, Susanna
    Samnegård, Ann
    Bennermo, Marie
    Held, Claes
    Department of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Ericsson, Carl-Göran
    Silveira, Angela
    Hamsten, Anders
    Tornvall, Per
    A high-fat meal is accompanied by increased plasma interleukin-6 concentrations2007In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 195-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Enhanced and prolonged postprandial lipaemia is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the mechanisms linking postprandial lipaemia to the increased risk of atherosclerosis and CHD remain to be determined. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a high-fat meal on plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cellular adhesion molecules in CHD patients and control subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-one middle-aged men with premature CHD and 26 healthy male controls were investigated. The plasma triglyceride response to the high-fat meal was significantly greater among cases than controls. The oral fat load induced a twofold increase in plasma concentrations of IL-6, an increase that was similar in CHD patients and control subjects. No changes could be detected in plasma concentrations of cellular adhesion molecules in response to postprandial lipaemia in either CHD patients or control subjects. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that a high-fat meal affects mechanisms that induce increased inflammatory activity, which is recognised as a key modulator in the development of atherosclerosis and CHD. However, the increased levels of plasma IL-6 appear not to be determined by the magnitude of the postprandial triglyceridaemia.

  • 20.
    Malmström, H.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wandell, P. E.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Family Med, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Holzmann, M. J.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Emergency Med, Huddinge, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Internal Med, Solna, Sweden..
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Univ Uppsala Hosp, Dept Med Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden..
    Jungner, I.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;CALAB Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hammar, N.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;AstraZeneca R&D, Med Evidence & Observat Res, Molndal, Sweden..
    Walldius, G.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Carlsson, A. C.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Uppsala Hosp, Dept Med Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Low fructosamine and mortality - A long term follow-up of 215,011 non-diabetic subjects in the Swedish AMORIS study2016In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 26, no 12, p. 1120-1128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Both high and low fasting glucose has been associated with an increased mortality among individuals without diabetes. This J-shaped association has also been shown for HbA1c in relation to all-cause mortality. High fructosamine is associated with increased mortality. In this study we aim to evaluate if low fructosamine is also associated with increased mortality in non-diabetic subjects. Methods and results: We included 215,011 subjects from the AMORIS cohort undergoing occupational health screening or primary care in Stockholm, Sweden. Cause specific mortality was obtained from the Swedish Cause-of-Death Register by record linkage. Hazard ratios for the lowest decile of fructosamine were estimated by Cox regression for all-cause (n = 41,388 deaths) and cause-specific mortality during 25 years of follow-up. We observed gradually increased mortality with lower fructosamine in a large segment of the population. In the lowest decile of fructosamine the sex, age, social class and calendar adjusted hazard ratio was 1.20 (95% CI; 1.18-1.27) compared to deciles 2-9. This increased mortality was attenuated after adjustment for six other biomarkers (HR = 1.11 (95% CI; 1.07-1.15)). Haptoglobin, an indicator of chronic inflammation, made the greatest difference in the point estimate. In sensitivity analyses we found an association between low fructosamine and smoking and adjustment for smoking further attenuated the association between low fructosamine and mortality. Conclusion: Low levels of fructosamine in individuals without diabetes were found to be associated with increased mortality. Smoking and chronic inflammation seem to at least partially explain this association but an independent contribution by low fructosamine cannot be excluded.

  • 21. Malmström, H
    et al.
    Wändell, P E
    Holzmann, M J
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Jungner, I
    Hammar, N
    Walldius, G
    Carlsson, A C
    Low fructosamine and mortality - A long term follow-up of 215,011 non-diabetic subjects in the Swedish AMORIS study2016In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 26, no 12, p. 1120-1128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Both high and low fasting glucose has been associated with an increased mortality among individuals without diabetes. This J-shaped association has also been shown for HbA1c in relation to all-cause mortality. High fructosamine is associated with increased mortality. In this study we aim to evaluate if low fructosamine is also associated with increased mortality in non-diabetic subjects.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 215,011 subjects from the AMORIS cohort undergoing occupational health screening or primary care in Stockholm, Sweden. Cause specific mortality was obtained from the Swedish Cause-of-Death Register by record linkage. Hazard ratios for the lowest decile of fructosamine were estimated by Cox regression for all-cause (n = 41,388 deaths) and cause-specific mortality during 25 years of follow-up. We observed gradually increased mortality with lower fructosamine in a large segment of the population. In the lowest decile of fructosamine the sex, age, social class and calendar adjusted hazard ratio was 1.20 (95% CI; 1.18-1.27) compared to deciles 2-9. This increased mortality was attenuated after adjustment for six other biomarkers (HR = 1.11 (95% CI; 1.07-1.15)). Haptoglobin, an indicator of chronic inflammation, made the greatest difference in the point estimate. In sensitivity analyses we found an association between low fructosamine and smoking and adjustment for smoking further attenuated the association between low fructosamine and mortality.

    CONCLUSION: Low levels of fructosamine in individuals without diabetes were found to be associated with increased mortality. Smoking and chronic inflammation seem to at least partially explain this association but an independent contribution by low fructosamine cannot be excluded.

  • 22.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Department of Medicine, Skellefteå Hospital.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Sunderby Hospital, Luleå.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Medicine, Skellefteå Hospital.
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Consumption of filtered and boiled coffee and the risk of fist acute myocardial infarction: a nested case/referent study2010In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 527-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim

    In northern Sweden, consumption of both filtered and boiled coffee is common. Boiled coffee, especially popular in rural areas, is known to raise blood lipids, a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (MI). To our knowledge, only one epidemiological study, a case-control study from Sweden, has investigated boiled coffee in MI, noting an increased risk at high consumption levels in men, and no association in women. The aim of the present nested case-referent study was to relate consumption of filtered and boiled coffee to the risk of first MI.

    Methods and results

    The study subjects were 375 cases (303 men, 72 women) and 1293 matched referents from the population-based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Coffee consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Risk estimates were calculated by conditional logistic regression. A statistically significant positive association was found between consumption of filtered coffee and MI risk in men [odds ratio for consumption ≥4 times/day versus ≤1 time/day 1.73 (95% CI 1.05–2.84)]. In women, a similar association was observed, but for boiled coffee [odds ratio 2.51 (95% CI 1.08–5.86)]. After adjustment for current smoking, postsecondary education, hypertension, and sedentary lifestyle, the results for women were no longer statistically significant.

    Conclusion

    Consumption of filtered coffee was positively associated with the risk of a first MI in men. A similar tendency was observed for boiled coffee in women, but the result was not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Further investigation in a larger study is warranted.

  • 23.
    Oresic, Matej
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Metabolomics, a novel tool for studies of nutrition, metabolism and lipid dysfunction2009In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 816-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: In this review metabolomics is introduced in historic perspective, with key platforms and bioinformatics methodologies described. An overview is provided covering recent applications of metabolomics and lipidomics in the context of human physiology, lipid metabolism and nutrition.

    DATA SYNTHESIS: Global coverage of human metabolome requires application of multiple analytical platforms. The choice of a particular targeted or non-targeted analytical strategy depends on the hypothesis tested, state-of-the-art in the field, as well as on sample availability. Human metabolome has been shown to be sensitive to age, gut microbial composition, and lifestyle. Several studies have shown that, given the appropriate experimental design, subtle effects of interventions such as change of diet or weight loss can be detected by metabolomics and studied in the context of human physiology and health status.

    CONCLUSION: Metabolome provides a sensitive intermediate phenotype linking the genotype, gut microbial composition and personal health status. Innovative experimental designs combined with novel computational tools for handling metabolomics data offer new opportunities for early disease detection as well as for characterization of dietary and therapeutic interventions in the context of human physiology.

  • 24.
    Ortega, F. B.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ruiz, J. R.
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; University of Granade, Granada, Spain.
    Labayen, I.
    University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain; Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlof, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Harro, J.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Kwak, L.
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Oja, L.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Merenakk, L.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Veidebaum, T.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Sjostrom, M.
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Role of socio-cultural factors on changes in fitness and adiposity in youth: A 6-year follow-up study2013In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 883-890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Optimal cardio-respiratory fitness and adiposity levels are tightly related to health in youth. We analysed changes in fitness and adiposity in young individuals from two countries, and examined the role of maternal education in these changes.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: A 6-year follow-up study was conducted on 483 Estonian children (9 years) and 466 Swedish children (9-10 years) and adolescents (15 years). Fitness was assessed by a maximal bike test, and total and central adiposity were indirectly estimated by skinfolds (Slaughter's equation for fat mass) and waist circumference. At follow-up, fitness and adiposity had increased in the children cohort (P ≤ 0.001), while small or no change occurred in the adolescent cohort. In the children cohort, Estonian participants had a lower increase in fitness and a higher increase in adiposity (total and central) than Swedish participants. Higher maternal education increased the odds of remaining fit (top quartile) by half and reduced the risk of remaining fat (top quartile) by half; odds ratios = 1.56 (1.00-2.43), 0.50 (0.32-0.77) and 0.61 (0.39-0.94) for fitness, total and central adiposity, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the socioeconomic situation of a country might influence key cardiovascular risk factors (fitness and adiposity), being at higher risk for a low-middle income country (Estonia) than a higher income country (Sweden). The findings stress the role of socioeconomic status, particularly maternal education, in the maintenance of healthy fitness and adiposity levels from childhood into later life. Preventive efforts have to be taken from early age.

  • 25.
    Rydén, Mireille
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Leanderson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Kastbom, K-O
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jonasson, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Effects of simvastatin on carotenoid status in plasma2010In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 66-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotenoids are potent antioxidants mainly transported in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction. They may also influence the immune response and inverse associations with inflammatory markers have been reported. We investigated whether simvastatin, by exerting both lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects, altered the carotenoid status in plasma.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design was applied. Eighty volunteers with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia received either simvastatin 40 mg or placebo for 6 weeks. Lipids, oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, oxygenated carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin) and hydrocarbon carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene) were measured in plasma. Simvastatin use was associated with significant reductions in total cholesterol, LDL, ox-LDL and CRP. Simvastatin therapy also resulted in reduced plasma levels of both oxygenated and hydrocarbon carotenoids. However, when adjusted for lipids, all carotenoids except beta-cryptoxanthin showed significant increases after simvastatin therapy. Both crude and lipid-adjusted carotenoids were inversely correlated with CRP and IL-6 in plasma but the change in carotenoid status during simvastatin therapy was not specifically related to any changes in inflammatory markers.

    CONCLUSIONS: To summarize, the change in carotenoid status during simvastatin therapy was mainly attributed to the lowering of cholesterol and not to the suppression of inflammatory activity. After adjustment for lipids, the levels of lutein, lycopene, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene were significantly increased by simvastatin suggesting an increased ratio of carotenoids per particle.

  • 26.
    Rådholm, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, "Primary Health Care in Motala".
    Tengblad, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, "Primary Health Care in Motala".
    Dahlén, Elsa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, "Primary Health Care in Motala".
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Ödeshög.
    The impact of using sagittal abdominal diameter to predict major cardiovascular events in European patients with type 2 diabetes2017In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 418-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Obesity is associated with diabetes type 2 and one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We explored if sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) is a better predictor of major cardiovascular events than waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) in type 2 diabetes. Methods and results: The CARDIPP study consists of a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study we used data from 635 participants with no previous myocardial infarction or stroke, with a mean follow-up time of 7.1 years. SAD, WC and BMI were measured at baseline and the end-point was first cardiovascular event, measured as a composite of ICD-10 codes for acute myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular mortality. SAD was significantly higher in the major cardiovascular event group compared to participants that did not suffer a major cardiovascular event during follow-up (p amp;lt; 0.001). SAD amp;gt; 25 cm was the only anthropometric measurement that remained associated with major cardiovascular events when adjusted for modifiable and non-modifiable factors (hazard ratio 2.81, 95% confidence interval 1.37-5.76, p = 0.005). Conclusion: SAD with the cut off level of amp;gt; 25 cm, if confirmed in larger studies, may be used as a more independent risk-assessment tool compared with WC in clinical practice, to identify persons with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk. (C) 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 27. Song, X.
    et al.
    Jousilahti, P.
    Stehouwer, C. D. A.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Onat, A.
    Laatikainen, T.
    Yudkin, J. S.
    Dankner, R.
    Morris, R.
    Tuomilehto, J.
    Qiao, Q.
    Cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in relation to various anthropometric measures of obesity in Europeans2015In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 295-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in relation to various anthropometric measures of obesity is still controversial.

    Methods and results: Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and waist-to-hip-to-height ratio (WHHR) were measured at baseline in a cohort of 46,651 European men and women aged 24-99 years. The relationship between anthropometric measures of obesity and mortality was evaluated by the Cox proportional hazards model with age as a time-scale and with threshold detected by a piecewise regression model. Over a median follow-up of 7.9 years, 2381 men and 1055 women died, 1071 men (45.0%) and 339 women (32.1%) from cardiovascular disease (CVD). BMI had a J-shaped relationship with CVD mortality, whereas anthropometric measures of abdominal obesity had positive linear relationships. BMI, WC and WHtR showed J-shaped associations with all-cause mortality, whereas WHR, ABSI and WHHR demonstrated positive linear relationships. Accordingly, a threshold value was detected at 29.29 and 30.98 kg/m(2) for BMI, 96.4 and 93.3 cm for WC, 0.57 and 0.60 for WHtR, 0.0848 and 0.0813 m(11/6) kg(-2/3) for ABSI with CVD mortality in men and women, respectively; 29.88 and 29.50 kg/m(2) for BMI, 104.3 and 105.6 for WC, 0.61 and 0.67 for WHtR, 0.95 and 0.86 for WHR, 0.0807 and 0.0765 for ABSI in men and women, respectively, and 0.52 for WHHR in women with all-cause mortality.

    Conclusion: All anthropometric measures of abdominal obesity had positive linear associations with CVD mortality, whereas some showed linear and the others J-shaped relationships with all-cause mortality. BMI had a J-shaped relationship with either CVD or all-cause mortality. Thresholds detected based on mortality may help with clinical definition of obesity in relation to mortality.

  • 28.
    Vessby, Bengt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Ahrén, B
    Warensjö, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Lindgärde, Folke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Plasma lipid fatty acid composition, desaturase activities and insulin sensitivity in Amerindian women2012In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 176-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Two Amerindian populations - Shuar women living in the Amazonian rain forest under traditional conditions and urbanized women in a suburb of Lima were studied. The fatty acid composition in plasma lipids and the relationships between fatty acid composition and metabolic variables were studied, as well as in a reference group of Swedish women.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Fasting plasma was used for analyses of glucose, insulin, leptin and fatty acid composition. Women in Lima had more body fat, higher fasting insulin and leptin and lower insulin sensitivity than the Shuar women, who had insulin sensitivity similar to Swedish women. Shuar women had very high proportions (mean; SD) of palmitoleic (13.2; 3.9%) and oleic (33.9; 3.7%) acids in the plasma cholesteryl esters with very low levels of linoleic acid (29.1; 6.1 3%), as expected on a low fat, high carbohydrate diet. The estimated activity of delta 9 (SCD-1) desaturase was about twice as high in the Shuar compared with Lima women, suggesting neo lipogenesis, while the delta 5 desaturase activity did not differ. The Lima women, as well as the Swedish, showed strong positive correlations between SCD-1 activity on the one hand and fasting insulin and HOMA index on the other. These associations were absent in the Shuar women.

    CONCLUSIONS: The high SCD-1 activity in the Shuar women may reflect increased lipogenesis in adipose tissue. It also illustrates how a low fat diet rich in non-refined carbohydrates can be linked to a good metabolic situation.

  • 29.
    Warensjö, Eva
    et al.
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public health and Caring sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public health and Caring sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Mohsen, Rawya
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public health and Caring sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public health and Caring sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public health and Caring sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on estimated desaturase activities during a controlled dietary intervention2008In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 18, no 10, p. 683-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims

    Direct measurement of desaturase activities are difficult to obtain in humans. Consequently, surrogate measures of desaturase activity (estimated desaturase activities) have been frequently used in observational studies, and estimated Δ9- (or stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD)), Δ6- and Δ5-desaturase activities have been associated with cardiometabolic disease. Data on how the markers of desaturase activities are modified by changes in dietary fat quality are lacking and therefore warrant examination.

    Methods and results

    In a two-period (three weeks) strictly controlled cross-over study, 20 subjects (six women and 14 men) consumed a diet high in saturated fat (SAT-diet) and a rapeseed oil diet (RO-diet), rich in oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA). Estimated desaturase activities were calculated as precursor to product FA ratios in serum cholesteryl esters and phospholipids. The estimated SCD [16:1 n-7/16:0] and Δ6-desaturase [20:3 n-6/18:2 n-6] was significantly higher while Δ5-desaturase [20:4 n-6/20:3 n-6] was significantly lower in the SAT-diet (P < 0.001 for all), compared to the RO-diet. The serum proportions of palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic and dihomo-γ-linolenic acids were significantly higher in the SAT-diet while the proportions of LA and ALA were significantly higher in the RO-diet.

    Conclusion

    This is the first study to demonstrate that surrogate measures of desaturase activities change as a consequence of an alteration in dietary fat quality. Both the [16:1/16:0]-ratio and 16:1 seem to reflect changes in saturated fat intake and may be useful markers of saturated fat intake in Western countries.

  • 30.
    Warensjö, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Mohsen, Rawya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on estimated desaturase activities during a controlled dietary intervention2008In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 18, no 10, p. 683-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims

    Direct measurement of desaturase activities are difficult to obtain in humans. Consequently, surrogate measures of desaturase activity (estimated desaturase activities) have been frequently used in observational studies, and estimated Δ9- (or stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD)), Δ6- and Δ5-desaturase activities have been associated with cardiometabolic disease. Data on how the markers of desaturase activities are modified by changes in dietary fat quality are lacking and therefore warrant examination.

    Methods and results

    In a two-period (three weeks) strictly controlled cross-over study, 20 subjects (six women and 14 men) consumed a diet high in saturated fat (SAT-diet) and a rapeseed oil diet (RO-diet), rich in oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA). Estimated desaturase activities were calculated as precursor to product FA ratios in serum cholesteryl esters and phospholipids. The estimated SCD [16:1 n-7/16:0] and Δ6-desaturase [20:3 n-6/18:2 n-6] was significantly higher while Δ5-desaturase [20:4 n-6/20:3 n-6] was significantly lower in the SAT-diet (P<0.001 for all), compared to the RO-diet. The serum proportions of palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic and dihomo-γ-linolenic acids were significantly higher in the SAT-diet while the proportions of LA and ALA were significantly higher in the RO-diet.

    Conclusion

    This is the first study to demonstrate that surrogate measures of desaturase activities change as a consequence of an alteration in dietary fat quality. Both the [16:1/16:0]-ratio and 16:1 seem to reflect changes in saturated fat intake and may be useful markers of saturated fat intake in Western countries.

  • 31.
    Warensjö, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Öhrvall, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fatty acid composition and estimated desaturase activities are associated with obesity and lifestyle variables in men and women2006In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 128-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that the fatty acid (FA) composition in serum cholesteryl esters to a certain extent mirrors not only the FA composition of dietary fat, but also the endogenous FA synthesis, where desaturases play an important part. A surrogate measure of Δ9-, Δ6- and Δ5-desaturase activity can be calculated as a [product:precursor] fatty acid ratio. Δ9-Desaturase activity is known to be high in conditions like diabetes, atherosclerosis and obesity. The aim of the present study was to relate the proportions of individual fatty acids in serum cholesteryl esters, as well as estimated desaturase ratios to markers of obesity and lifestyle variables (smoking, physical activity and dietary fat). We also studied gender differences. These relationships were studied in a reference population consisting of men (n=554) and women (n=295) who took part in a health survey concerning coronary heart disease in Sweden. We found positive and significant correlations between markers of obesity and the proportions of 16:0, 16:1 (n-7), 18:0, 18:3 (n-6), 20:3 (n-6), 20:4 (n-6), 20:5 (n-3), Δ9 and Δ6 activities, and an inverse correlation to Δ5 activity and 18:2 (n-6). These relationships were independent of age and physical activity and in some cases of body mass index (BMI). For each standard deviation (SD) increase of Δ9 and Δ6 activities, the risk of being overweight was increased by about 60%, whereas the risk was reduced to about 30% for every SD increase of Δ5 activity. Women were found to have significantly higher levels of Δ9 and lower levels of Δ6 desaturase activities than men. In conclusion, this study shows that a changed FA profile in serum cholesteryl esters and estimated desaturase activities are associated with obesity and lifestyle factors in men and women.

  • 32. Xu, H.
    et al.
    Rossi, M.
    Campbell, K. L.
    Sencion, G. L.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Cederholm, T.
    Sjögren, P.
    Risérus, U.
    Lindholm, B.
    Carrero, J. J.
    Excess protein intake relative to fiber and cardiovascular events in elderly men with chronic kidney disease.2016In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 597-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The elevated cardiovascular (CVD) risk observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be partially alleviated through diet. While protein intake may link to CVD events in this patient population, dietary fiber has shown cardioprotective associations. Nutrients are not consumed in isolation; we hypothesize that CVD events in CKD may be associated with dietary patterns aligned with an excess of dietary protein relative to fiber.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective cohort study from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men. Included were 390 elderly men aged 70-71 years with CKD and without clinical history of CVD. Protein and fiber intake, as well as its ratio, were calculated from 7-day dietary records. Cardiovascular events were registered prospectively during a median follow-up of 9.1 (inter-quartile range, 4.5-10.7) years. The median dietary intake of protein and fiber was 66.7 (60.7-71.1) and 16.6 (14.5-19.1) g/day respectively and the protein-to-fiber intake ratio was 4.0 (3.5-4.7). Protein-to-fiber intake ratio was directly associated with serum C-reactive protein levels. During follow-up, 164 first-time CVD events occurred (incidence rate 54.5/1000 per year). Protein-fiber intake ratio was an independent risk factor for CVD events [adjusted hazard ratio, HR per standard deviation increase (95% confidence interval, CI) 1.33 (1.08, 1.64)]. Although in opposing directions, dietary protein [1.18 (0.97, 1.44)], dietary fiber alone [0.81 (0.64, 1.02)], were not significantly associated with CVD events.

    CONCLUSIONS: An excess of dietary protein relative to fiber intake was associated with the incidence of cardiovascular events in a homogeneous population of older men with CKD.

  • 33.
    Xu, H.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Div Renal Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Div Baxter Novum, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rossi, M.
    Princess Alexandra Hosp, Ctr Kidney Dis Res, Brisbane, Qld 4102, Australia.;Kings Coll London, Div Diabet & Nutr Sci, London WC2R 2LS, England..
    Campbell, K. L.
    Princess Alexandra Hosp, Ctr Kidney Dis Res, Brisbane, Qld 4102, Australia.;Bond Univ, Fac Hlth Sci & Med, Robina, Australia..
    Sencion, G. L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Div Renal Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Div Baxter Novum, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden..
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lindholm, B.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Div Renal Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Div Baxter Novum, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Carrero, J. J.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Div Renal Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Div Baxter Novum, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Excess protein intake relative to fiber and cardiovascular events in elderly men with chronic kidney disease2016In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 597-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: The elevated cardiovascular (CVD) risk observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be partially alleviated through diet. While protein intake may link to CVD events in this patient population, dietary fiber has shown cardioprotective associations. Nutrients are not consumed in isolation; we hypothesize that CVD events in CKD may be associated with dietary patterns aligned with an excess of dietary protein relative to fiber. Methods and Results: Prospective cohort study from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men. Included were 390 elderly men aged 70-71 years with CKD and without clinical history of CVD. Protein and fiber intake, as well as its ratio, were calculated from 7-day dietary records. Cardiovascular events were registered prospectively during a median follow-up of 9.1 (inter-quartile range, 4.5-10.7) years. The median dietary intake of protein and fiber was 66.7 (60.7-71.1) and 16.6 (14.5-19.1) g/day respectively and the protein-to-fiber intake ratio was 4.0 (3.5-4.7). Protein-to-fiber intake ratio was directly associated with serum C-reactive protein levels. During follow-up, 164 first-time CVD events occurred (incidence rate 54.5/1000 per year). Protein-fiber intake ratio was an independent risk factor for CVD events [adjusted hazard ratio, HR per standard deviation increase (95% confidence interval, CI) 1.33 (1.08, 1.64)]. Although in opposing directions, dietary protein [1.18 (0.97, 1.44)], dietary fiber alone [0.81 (0.64, 1.02)], were not significantly associated with CVD events. Conclusions: An excess of dietary protein relative to fiber intake was associated with the incidence of cardiovascular events in a homogeneous population of older men with CKD.

  • 34. Xu, H
    et al.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Sandhagen, B
    Risérus, U
    Lindholm, B
    Lind, L
    Carrero, J J
    Lipophilic index, kidney function, and kidney function decline2016In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 26, no 12, p. 1096-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Unhealthy dietary fats are associated with faster kidney function decline. The cell membrane composition of phospholipid fatty acids (FAs) is a determinant of membrane fluidity and rheological properties. These properties, which have been linked to kidney damage, are thought to be reflected by the lipophilic index (LI). We prospectively investigated the associations of LI with kidney function and its decline.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Observational study from the Prospective Investigation of Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors including 975 men and women with plasma phospholipid FAs composition and cystatin-C estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Of these, 780 attended re-examination after 5 years, and eGFR changes were assessed. Participants with a 5-year eGFR reduction ≥30% were considered chronic kidney disease (CKD) progressors (n = 198). LI was calculated as the sum of the products of the FA proportions with the respective FAs melting points. Blood rheology/viscosity measurements were performed in a random subsample of 559 subjects at baseline. Increased LI showed a statistically significant but overall weak association with blood, plasma viscosity (both Spearman rho = 0.16, p < 0.01), and erythrocyte deformability (rho = -0.09, p < 0.05). In cross-sectional analyses, LI associated with lower eGFR (regression coefficient 3.00 ml/min/1.73 m(2) 1-standard deviation (SD) increment in LI, 95% CI: -4.31, -1.69, p < 0.001). In longitudinal analyses, LI associated with a faster eGFR decline (-2.13 [95% CI -3.58, -0.69] ml/min/1.73 m(2), p < 0.01) and with 32% increased odds of CKD progression (adjusted OR 1.32 [95%, CI 1.05-1.65]).

    CONCLUSIONS: A high LI was associated with lower kidney function, kidney function decline, and CKD progression.

  • 35.
    Xu, H.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Renal Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Div Baxter Novum, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden..
    Sandhagen, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lindholm, B.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Renal Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Div Baxter Novum, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Carrero, J. J.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Renal Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Div Baxter Novum, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lipophilic index, kidney function, and kidney function decline2016In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 26, no 12, p. 1096-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Unhealthy dietary fats are associated with faster kidney function decline. The cell membrane composition of phospholipid fatty acids (FAs) is a determinant of membrane fluidity and rheological properties. These properties, which have been linked to kidney damage, are thought to be reflected by the lipophilic index (LI). We prospectively investigated the associations of LI with kidney function and its decline. Methods and results: Observational study from the Prospective Investigation of Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors including 975 men and women with plasma phospholipid FAs composition and cystatin-C estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Of these, 780 attended reexamination after 5 years, and eGFR changes were assessed. Participants with a 5-year eGFR reduction >= 30% were considered chronic kidney disease (CKD) progressors (n = 198). LI was calculated as the sum of the products of the FA proportions with the respective FAs melting points. Blood rheology/viscosity measurements were performed in a random subsample of 559 subjects at baseline. Increased LI showed a statistically significant but overall weak association with blood, plasma viscosity (both Spearman rho = 0.16, p < 0.01), and erythrocyte deformability (rho = -0.09, p < 0.05). In cross-sectional analyses, LI associated with lower eGFR (regression coefficient 3.00 ml/min/1.73 m(2) 1-standard deviation (SD) increment in LI, 95% CI: -4.31, -1.69, p < 0.001). In longitudinal analyses, LI associated with a faster eGFR decline (-2.13 [95% CI -3.58, -0.69] ml/min/1.73 m(2), p < 0.01) and with 32% increased odds of CKD progression (adjusted OR 1.32 [95%, CI 1.05-1.65]). Conclusions: A high LI was associated with lower kidney function, kidney function decline, and CKD progression.

1 - 35 of 35
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf