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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Morad, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Saarinen, Niina M
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Estradiol, Tamoxifen, and Flaxseed Alter IL-1 beta and IL-1Ra Levels in Normal Human Breast Tissue in Vivo2012In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 97, no 11, p. E2044-E2054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sex steroid exposure increases the risk of breast cancer by unclear mechanisms. Diet modifications may be one breast cancer prevention strategy. The proinflammatory cytokine family of IL-1 is implicated in cancer progression. IL-1Ra is an endogenous inhibitor of the proinflammatory IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjective: The objective of this study was to elucidate whether estrogen, tamoxifen, and/or diet modification altered IL-1 levels in normal human breast tissue. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDesign and Methods: Microdialysis was performed in healthy women under various hormone exposures, tamoxifen therapy, and diet modifications and in breast cancers of women before surgery. Breast tissue biopsies from reduction mammoplasties were cultured. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: We show a significant positive correlation between estradiol and in vivo levels of IL-1 beta in breast tissue and abdominal sc fat, whereas IL-1Ra exhibited a significant negative correlation with estradiol in breast tissue. Tamoxifen or a dietary addition of 25 g flaxseed per day resulted in significantly increased levels of IL-1Ra in the breast. These results were confirmed in ex vivo culture of breast biopsies. Immunohistochemistry of the biopsies did not reveal any changes in cellular content of the IL-1s, suggesting that mainly the secreted levels were affected. In breast cancer patients, intratumoral levels of IL-1 beta were significantly higher compared with normal adjacent breast tissue. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: IL-1 may be under the control of estrogen in vivo and may be attenuated by antiestrogen therapy and diet modifications. The increased IL-1 beta in breast cancers of women strongly suggests IL-1 as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer treatment and prevention.

  • 2. Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin
    et al.
    Aronson, A. Stefan
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hagenäs, Lars
    Ivarsson, Sten A.
    Jonsson, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Kriström, Berit
    Marcus, Claude
    Nilsson, Karl Olof
    Ritzén, E. Martin
    Tuvemo, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Westphal, Otto
    Aman, Jan
    Dose-dependent effect of growth hormone on final height in children with short stature without growth hormone deficiency2008In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 93, no 11, p. 4342-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: The effect of GH therapy in short non-GH-deficient children, especially those with idiopathic short stature (ISS), has not been clearly established owing to the lack of controlled trials continuing until final height (FH). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect on growth to FH of two GH doses given to short children, mainly with ISS, compared with untreated controls. DESIGN AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, long-term multicenter trial was conducted in Sweden. INTERVENTION: Two doses of GH (Genotropin) were administered, 33 or 67 microg/kg.d; control subjects were untreated. SUBJECTS: A total of 177 subjects with short stature were enrolled. Of these, 151 were included in the intent to treat (AllITT) population, and 108 in the per protocol (AllPP) population. Analysis of ISS subjects included 126 children in the ITT (ISSITT) population and 68 subjects in the PP (ISSPP) population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured FH sd score (SDS), difference in SDS to midparenteral height (diff MPHSDS), and gain in heightSDS. RESULTS: After 5.9+/-1.1 yr on GH therapy, the FHSDS in the AllPP population treated with GH vs. controls was -1.5+/-0.81 (33 microg/kg.d, -1.7+/-0.70; and 67 microg/kg.d, -1.4+/-0.86; P<0.032), vs. -2.4+/-0.85 (P<0.001); the diff MPHSDS was -0.2+/-1.0 vs. -1.0+/-0.74 (P<0.001); and the gain in heightSDS was 1.3+/-0.78 vs. 0.2+/-0.69 (P<0.001). GH therapy was safe and had no impact on time to onset of puberty. A dose-response relationship identified after 1 yr remained to FH for all growth outcome variables in all four populations. CONCLUSION: GH treatment significantly increased FH in ISS children in a dose-dependent manner, with a mean gain of 1.3 SDS (8 cm) and a broad range of response from no gain to 3 SDS compared to a mean gain of 0.2 SDS in the untreated controls.

  • 3. Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin
    et al.
    Aronson, A Stefan
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Hagenäs, Lars
    Ivarsson, Sten A
    Jonsson, Björn
    Kriström, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Marcus, Claude
    Nilsson, Karl Olof
    Ritzén, E Martin
    Tuvemo, Torsten
    Westphal, Otto
    Aman, Jan
    Dose-dependent effect of growth hormone on final height in children with short stature without growth hormone deficiency.2008In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 93, no 11, p. 4342-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: The effect of GH therapy in short non-GH-deficient children, especially those with idiopathic short stature (ISS), has not been clearly established owing to the lack of controlled trials continuing until final height (FH). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect on growth to FH of two GH doses given to short children, mainly with ISS, compared with untreated controls. DESIGN AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, long-term multicenter trial was conducted in Sweden. INTERVENTION: Two doses of GH (Genotropin) were administered, 33 or 67 microg/kg.d; control subjects were untreated. SUBJECTS: A total of 177 subjects with short stature were enrolled. Of these, 151 were included in the intent to treat (AllITT) population, and 108 in the per protocol (AllPP) population. Analysis of ISS subjects included 126 children in the ITT (ISSITT) population and 68 subjects in the PP (ISSPP) population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured FH sd score (SDS), difference in SDS to midparenteral height (diff MPHSDS), and gain in heightSDS. RESULTS: After 5.9+/-1.1 yr on GH therapy, the FHSDS in the AllPP population treated with GH vs. controls was -1.5+/-0.81 (33 microg/kg.d, -1.7+/-0.70; and 67 microg/kg.d, -1.4+/-0.86; P<0.032), vs. -2.4+/-0.85 (P<0.001); the diff MPHSDS was -0.2+/-1.0 vs. -1.0+/-0.74 (P<0.001); and the gain in heightSDS was 1.3+/-0.78 vs. 0.2+/-0.69 (P<0.001). GH therapy was safe and had no impact on time to onset of puberty. A dose-response relationship identified after 1 yr remained to FH for all growth outcome variables in all four populations. CONCLUSION: GH treatment significantly increased FH in ISS children in a dose-dependent manner, with a mean gain of 1.3 SDS (8 cm) and a broad range of response from no gain to 3 SDS compared to a mean gain of 0.2 SDS in the untreated controls.

  • 4. Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin
    et al.
    Aronson, A. Stefan
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Hagenäs, Lars
    Ivarsson, Sten A.
    Jonsson, Björn
    Kriström, Berit
    Marcus, Claude
    Nilsson, Karl Olof
    Ritzén, E. Martin
    Tuvemo, Torsten
    Westphal, Otto
    Åman, Jan
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Dose-dependent effect of growth hormone on final height in children with short stature without growth hormone deficiency2008In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 93, no 11, p. 4342-4350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: The effect of GH therapy in short non-GH-deficient children, especially those with idiopathic short stature (ISS), has not been clearly established owing to the lack of controlled trials continuing until final height (FH).

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect on growth to FH of two GH doses given to short children, mainly with ISS, compared with untreated controls.

    DESIGN AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, long-term multicenter trial was conducted in Sweden.

    INTERVENTION: Two doses of GH (Genotropin) were administered, 33 or 67 microg/kg.d; control subjects were untreated.

    SUBJECTS: A total of 177 subjects with short stature were enrolled. Of these, 151 were included in the intent to treat (AllITT) population, and 108 in the per protocol (AllPP) population. Analysis of ISS subjects included 126 children in the ITT (ISSITT) population and 68 subjects in the PP (ISSPP) population.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured FH sd score (SDS), difference in SDS to midparenteral height (diff MPHSDS), and gain in heightSDS.

    RESULTS: After 5.9+/-1.1 yr on GH therapy, the FHSDS in the AllPP population treated with GH vs. controls was -1.5+/-0.81 (33 microg/kg.d, -1.7+/-0.70; and 67 microg/kg.d, -1.4+/-0.86; P<0.032), vs. -2.4+/-0.85 (P<0.001); the diff MPHSDS was -0.2+/-1.0 vs. -1.0+/-0.74 (P<0.001); and the gain in heightSDS was 1.3+/-0.78 vs. 0.2+/-0.69 (P<0.001). GH therapy was safe and had no impact on time to onset of puberty. A dose-response relationship identified after 1 yr remained to FH for all growth outcome variables in all four populations.

    CONCLUSION: GH treatment significantly increased FH in ISS children in a dose-dependent manner, with a mean gain of 1.3 SDS (8 cm) and a broad range of response from no gain to 3 SDS compared to a mean gain of 0.2 SDS in the untreated controls. 

  • 5.
    Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Dept Physiol Endocrinol, Medicinargatan 11, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Martensson, Anton
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Dept Physiol Endocrinol, Medicinargatan 11, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Stat Konsultgrp, SE-41319 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Savendahl, Lars
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Karolinska Inst, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Pediat Endocrinol Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Niklasson, Aimon
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Gothenburg Pediat Growth Res Ctr,Dept Pediat, SE-41685 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bang, Peter
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Pediat, SE-58185 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Gothenburg Pediat Growth Res Ctr,Dept Pediat, SE-41685 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Kristrom, Berit
    Umea Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Pediat, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Norgren, Svante
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Karolinska Inst, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Pediat Endocrinol Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pehrsson, Nils-Gunnar
    Stat Konsultgrp, SE-41319 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Oden, Anders
    Stat Konsultgrp, SE-41319 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Chalmers, Dept Math Sci, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Mortality Is Not Increased in Recombinant Human Growth Hormone-treated Patients When Adjusting for Birth Characteristics2016In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 101, no 5, p. 2149-2159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether reported high mortality in childhood recombinant human GH (rhGH)-treated patients was related to birth-characteristics and/or rhGH treatment. Design and Setting: We sought to develop a mortality model of the Swedish general population born between 1973 and 2010, using continuous-hazard functions adjusting for birth characteristics, sex, age intervals, and calendar year to estimate standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and to apply this model to assess expected deaths in Swedish rhGH-treated patients with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency (IGHD), idiopathic short stature (155) or born small for gestational age (SGA). Participants:The general population: Swedish Medical Birth Register (1973-2010: 1 880 668 males; 1 781 131 females) and Cause of Death Register (1985-2010). Intervention Population: Three thousand eight hundred forty-seven patients starting rhGH treatment between 1985 and 2010 and followed in the National GH Register and/or in rhGH trials diagnosed with IGHD (n = 1890), ISS (n = 975), or SGA (n=982). Main Outcome Measures: Death. Results: Using conventional models adjusting for age, sex, and calendar-year, the SMR was 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-2.19), P = .14, observed/expected deaths 21/14.68. The rhGH population differed (P < .001) from the general population regarding birth weight, birth length, and congenital malformations. Application of an Advanced Model: When applying the developed mortality model of the general population, the ratio of observed/expected deaths in rhGH-treated patients was 21/21.99; SMR = 0.955 (0.591-1.456)P = .95. Model Comparison: Expected number of deaths were 14.68 (14.35-14.96) using the conventional model, and 21.99 (21.24-22.81) using the advanced model, P < .001, which had at all ages a higher gradient of risk per SD of the model, 24% (range, 18-42%; P < .001). Conclusions: Compared with the general Swedish population, the ratio of observed/expected deaths (21/21.99) was not increased in childhood rhGH-treated IGHD, ISS, and SGA patients when applying an advanced sex-specific mortality model adjusting for birth characteristics.

  • 6. Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin
    et al.
    Martensson, Anton
    Savendahl, Lars
    Niklasson, Aimon
    Bang, Peter
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Kriström, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Norgren, Svante
    Pehrsson, Nils-Gunnar
    Oden, Anders
    Mortality Is Not Increased in Recombinant Human Growth Hormone-treated Patients When Adjusting for Birth Characteristics2016In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 101, no 5, p. 2149-2159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether reported high mortality in childhood recombinant human GH (rhGH)-treated patients was related to birth-characteristics and/or rhGH treatment.

    Design and Setting: We sought to develop a mortality model of the Swedish general population born between 1973 and 2010, using continuous-hazard functions adjusting for birth characteristics, sex, age intervals, and calendar year to estimate standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and to apply this model to assess expected deaths in Swedish rhGH-treated patients with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency (IGHD), idiopathic short stature (155) or born small for gestational age (SGA).

    Participants: The general population: Swedish Medical Birth Register (1973-2010: 1 880 668 males; 1 781 131 females) and Cause of Death Register (1985-2010).

    Intervention Population: Three thousand eight hundred forty-seven patients starting rhGH treatment between 1985 and 2010 and followed in the National GH Register and/or in rhGH trials diagnosed with IGHD (n = 1890), ISS (n = 975), or SGA (n=982).

    Main Outcome Measures: Death.

    Results: Using conventional models adjusting for age, sex, and calendar-year, the SMR was 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-2.19), P = .14, observed/expected deaths 21/14.68. The rhGH population differed (P < .001) from the general population regarding birth weight, birth length, and congenital malformations.

    Application of an Advanced Model: When applying the developed mortality model of the general population, the ratio of observed/expected deaths in rhGH-treated patients was 21/21.99; SMR = 0.955 (0.591-1.456)P = .95.

    Model Comparison: Expected number of deaths were 14.68 (14.35-14.96) using the conventional model, and 21.99 (21.24-22.81) using the advanced model, P < .001, which had at all ages a higher gradient of risk per SD of the model, 24% (range, 18-42%; P < .001).

    Conclusions: Compared with the general Swedish population, the ratio of observed/expected deaths (21/21.99) was not increased in childhood rhGH-treated IGHD, ISS, and SGA patients when applying an advanced sex-specific mortality model adjusting for birth characteristics.

  • 7.
    Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Anton
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Stat Konsultgrp, Sweden.
    Savendahl, Lars
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Aimon
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bang, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahlgren, Jovanna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kriström, Berit
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Norgren, Svante
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Pehrsson, Nils-Gunnar
    Stat Konsultgrp, Sweden.
    Oden, Anders
    Stat Konsultgrp, Sweden; Chalmers, Sweden.
    Mortality Is Not Increased in Recombinant Human Growth Hormone-treated Patients When Adjusting for Birth Characteristics2016In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 101, no 5, p. 2149-2159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether reported high mortality in childhood recombinant human GH (rhGH)-treated patients was related to birth-characteristics and/or rhGH treatment. Design and Setting: We sought to develop a mortality model of the Swedish general population born between 1973 and 2010, using continuous-hazard functions adjusting for birth characteristics, sex, age intervals, and calendar year to estimate standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and to apply this model to assess expected deaths in Swedish rhGH-treated patients with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency (IGHD), idiopathic short stature (155) or born small for gestational age (SGA). Participants:The general population: Swedish Medical Birth Register (1973-2010: 1 880 668 males; 1 781 131 females) and Cause of Death Register (1985-2010). Intervention Population: Three thousand eight hundred forty-seven patients starting rhGH treatment between 1985 and 2010 and followed in the National GH Register and/or in rhGH trials diagnosed with IGHD (n = 1890), ISS (n = 975), or SGA (n=982). Main Outcome Measures: Death. Results: Using conventional models adjusting for age, sex, and calendar-year, the SMR was 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-2.19), P = .14, observed/expected deaths 21/14.68. The rhGH population differed (P amp;lt; .001) from the general population regarding birth weight, birth length, and congenital malformations. Application of an Advanced Model: When applying the developed mortality model of the general population, the ratio of observed/expected deaths in rhGH-treated patients was 21/21.99; SMR = 0.955 (0.591-1.456)P = .95. Model Comparison: Expected number of deaths were 14.68 (14.35-14.96) using the conventional model, and 21.99 (21.24-22.81) using the advanced model, P amp;lt; .001, which had at all ages a higher gradient of risk per SD of the model, 24% (range, 18-42%; P amp;lt; .001). Conclusions: Compared with the general Swedish population, the ratio of observed/expected deaths (21/21.99) was not increased in childhood rhGH-treated IGHD, ISS, and SGA patients when applying an advanced sex-specific mortality model adjusting for birth characteristics.

  • 8.
    Annerbo, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hultin, Hella
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Left-shifted relation between calcium and parathyroid hormone in Graves' Disease2014In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 99, no 2, p. 545-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Patients with Graves' disease (GD) have disturbances in calcium regulation with manifestations such as postoperative hypocalcemia. We have investigated the thyroid as well as the parathyroid function in detail.

    Material and Method:

    A series of patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for GD (n=56) or Multi Nodular Goitre (MNG, n=50) were scrutinized for postoperative hypocalcemia, need for calcium and/or vitamin D substitution. CiCa-clamp was used in 14 patients and 21 controls to quantify the secretion of PTH in relation to the ionized plasma calcium level. The setpoint, equal to the plasma ionized calcium concentration at which 50% of the maximal secretion of PTH is inhibited, as well as other CiCa-related parameters were calculated.

    Results:

    Hypocalcemia was present in 48% of GD and 41.2% of patients with MNG postoperatively. Patients with GD had lower calcium levels, 18% had S-Ca< 2.00 mmol/L compared to 4.0% in the MNG group, p=0.02. A higher degree of GD patients were given parenteral calcium-substitution during the hospital stay (3.6% vs 0 %) and oral calcium substitution at discharge (48% vs 10%), although they had normal vitamin D3 levels. The GD group showed a significantly left-shifted setpoint compared to the normal group on CiCa clamp, 1.16 mmol/l vs. 1.20 mmol/L (p<0.001), as well as an increased PTH release to hypocalcemic stimulus. GD patients also show an association between degree of subclinical toxicosis at time of surgery and risk for developing postoperative hypocalcemia.

    Conclusion:

    Patients with GD demonstrate dysregulation of the calcium homeostasis by several parameters. GD patients have lower postoperative S-calcium compared to patients with MNG, lower calcium/PTH setpoint and a significantly increased release of PTH to hypocalcemic stimulus compared to controls. The CiCa clamp response in GD patients with normal 25-OH-vitamin D3 levels mimics that of obese patients in which vitamin D insufficiency has been proposed as an underlying cause.

  • 9.
    Arner, Peter
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Daniel Peter
    Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thörne, Anders
    Södertälje Hospital, Sweden.
    Wirén, Mikael
    Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hoffstedt, Johan
    Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Näslund, Erik
    Karolinska Institute, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thorell, Anders
    Karolinska Institute, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rydén, Mikael
    Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Variations in the size of the major omentum are primarily determined by fat cell number2013In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 98, no 5, p. E897-E901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is strongly linked to insulin resistance. Variations in the size of any adipose depot are determined by alterations in adipocyte volume and/or number. The individual contribution of each of the latter factors was determined in the major omentum, a fully resectable VAT depot.

    SUBJECTS: Total removal of the major omentum (omentectomy) was performed in conjunction with bariatric surgery in 55 obese patients. Tissue weight as well as mean adipocyte size and number in the omentum were determined. In subgroups, total VAT was estimated by computerized tomography (n = 17) or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (n = 34).

    RESULTS: The weight of the major omentum (on average 0.6 kg) correlated significantly with total VAT mass estimated by computerized tomography or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (r = 0.48-0.7; P < .01). Omental weight in relation to total body fat correlated with several features of the metabolic syndrome and inversely with serum-leptin (P < .001). Mean adipocyte size and total adipocyte number correlated strongly with omental weight (r = 0.6-0.8; P < .0001), irrespective of body mass index and total body fat mass, and accounted almost in total for interindividual variations in omental size. However, stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that adipocyte number was significantly (P < .0001) more important (62%) than adipocyte size (35%).

    CONCLUSION: The size of the major omentum is representative for VAT mass and correlates with a pernicious metabolic profile. Variations in omental weight are primarily determined by adipocyte number and to a lesser degree by adipocyte size, suggesting that increased VAT mass in obesity is predominantly dependent on adipocyte proliferation.

  • 10.
    Bang, P.
    et al.
    Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institute and Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nygren, J.
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute and Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson-Skwirut, C.
    Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institute and Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thorell, A.
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute and Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute and Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Postoperative induction of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 proteolytic activity: relation to insulin and insulin sensitivity1998In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 83, no 7, p. 2509-2515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) proteolytic activity (IGFBP-3-PA) has been demonstrated in a number of clinical states of insulin resistance, including severe illness, after surgery, and in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In the present study we assessed the role of insulin sensitivity in expression of IGFBP-3-PA in serum. In 18 patients studied, a significant increase in IGFBP-3-PA (P < 0.005) was demonstrated after cole-rectal surgery. Eight patients receiving an oral glucose load before surgery demonstrated a significant greater relative increase in IGFBP-3-PA compared with 10 patients not receiving glucose (32.9 +/- 7.1% vs. 8.6 +/- 6.7%, respectively; P < 0.05). Both groups had reduced insulin sensitivity after surgery(-58 +/- 4%; P < 0.0001; n = 18), as determined by hyperinsulinemic, normoglycemic clamps; however, the group not receiving glucose displayed 18% less insulin sensitivity than the oral glucose load group (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the relative changes in IGFBP-3-PA and C peptide levels were inversely correlated (P < 0.05), suggesting that increased IGFBP-3-PA, presumably increasing IGF bioavailability, may be associated with decreased insulin demands. Interestingly, insulin infusion during the 4-h hyperinsulinemic, normoglycemic clamp performed 24 h after surgery (post-op) resulted in a further increase in IGFBP-3-PA in both groups (P < 0.005), whereas no significant responses could be demonstrated during the pre-op clamp. The expression of increased IGFBP-3-PA was accompanied by conversion of endogenous intact 39/42-kDa IGFBP-3 into its 30-kDa fragmented form as determined by Western immunoblotting, and this conversion was virtually complete after the 4-h post-op clamp in patients displaying marked increases in IGFBP-3-PA. Characterization of the IGFBP-3-PA demonstrated that it was specific for IGFBP-3, as no degradation of IGFBP-1 and -2 was detected, and the use of various protease inhibitors demonstrated that serine proteases and possibly matrix metalloproteinases contribute to the increased IGFBP-3-PA level after surgery. We propose that IGF bioavailability may be increased by the induction of IGFBP-3-PA in insulin-resistant subjects, and that insulin regulates IGFBP-3-PA in this state.

  • 11.
    Bausch, Birke
    et al.
    Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center Freiburg, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany.
    Borozdin, Wiktor
    Institute for Human Genetics and Anthropology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany / Center of Human Genetics, Freiburg, Germany.
    Mautner, Victor F
    Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    Hoffmann, Michael M
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Freiburg, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany.
    Boehm, Detlef
    Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center Freiburg, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany.
    Robledo, Mercedes
    Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas, Madrid, Spain.
    Cascon, Alberto
    Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas, Madrid, Spain.
    Harenberg, Tomas
    Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center Freiburg, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany.
    Schiavi, Francesca
    Istituto Oncologico Veneto Instituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Padova, Italy.
    Pawlu, Christian
    Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center Freiburg, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany.
    Peczkowska, Mariola
    Department of Hypertension, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland.
    Letizia, Claudio
    Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
    Calvieri, Stefano
    Department of Dermatology, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
    Arnaldi, Giorgio
    Department of Endocrinology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona, Ancona, Italy.
    Klingenberg-Noftz, Rolf D
    Medical Clinic I, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
    Reisch, Nicole
    Department of Endocrinology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Fassina, Ambrogio
    Department of Pathology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
    Brunaud, Laurent
    Department of Digestive and Endocrine Surgery, University Hospital Nancy, University of Nancy, Nancy, France.
    Walter, Martin A
    Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Mannelli, Massimo
    Department of Clinical Pathophysiology, Endocrine Unit, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
    MacGregor, Graham
    Blood Pressure Unit, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. George’s University, London, United Kingdom.
    Palazzo, F Fausto
    Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
    Barontini, Marta
    Centro de Investigaciones Endocrinologicas-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Walz, Martin K
    Department of Surgery, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Essen, Germany.
    Kremens, Bernhard
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Brabant, Georg
    Department of Endocrinology, Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover, Germany.
    Pfäffle, Roland
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Koschker, Ann-Cathrin
    Department of Internal Medicine I-Endocrine and Diabetes, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.
    Lohoefner, Felix
    Department of Surgery, Hospital of the German Red Cross, Berlin, Germany.
    Mohaupt, Markus
    Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Gimm, Oliver
    Department of Visceral Surgery, University of Halle, Halle, Germany.
    Jarzab, Barbara
    Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, M. Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice, Poland.
    McWhinney, Sarah R
    Genomic Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA / Department of Genetics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.
    Opocher, Giuseppe
    Istituto Oncologico Veneto Instituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Padova, Italy.
    Januszewicz, Andrzej
    Department of Hypertension, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland.
    Kohlhase, Jürgen
    Institute for Human Genetics and Anthropology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany / Center of Human Genetics, Freiburg, Germany.
    Eng, Charis
    Genomic Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA / Department of Genetics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.
    Neumann, Hartmut P H
    Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center Freiburg, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany.
    Germline NF1 mutational spectra and loss-of-heterozygosity analyses in patients with pheochromocytoma and neurofibromatosis type 1.2007In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 92, no 7, p. 2784-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a pheochromocytoma-associated syndrome. Because of the low prevalence of pheochromocytoma in NF1, we ascertained subjects by pheochromocytoma that also had NF1 in the hope of describing the germline NF1 mutational spectra of NF1-related pheochromocytoma.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: An international registry for NF1-pheochromocytomas was established. Mutation scanning was performed using denaturing HPLC for intragenic variation and quantitative PCR for large deletions. Loss-of-heterozygosity analysis using markers in and around NF1 was performed.

    RESULTS: There were 37 eligible subjects (ages 14-70 yr). Of 21 patients with corresponding tumor available, 67% showed somatic loss of the nonmutated allele at the NF1 locus vs. 0 of 12 sporadic tumors (P = 0.0002). Overall, 86% of the 37 patients had exonic or splice site mutations, 14% large deletions or duplications; 79% of the mutations are novel. The cysteine-serine rich domain (CSR) was affected in 35% but the RAS GTPase activating protein domain (RGD) in only 13%. There did not appear to be an association between any clinical features, particularly pheochromocytoma presentation and severity, and NF1 mutation genotype.

    CONCLUSIONS: The germline NF1 mutational spectra comprise intragenic mutations and deletions in individuals with pheochromocytoma and NF1. NF1 mutations tended to cluster in the CSR over the RAS-GAP domain, suggesting that CSR plays a more prominent role in individuals with NF1-pheochromocytoma than in NF1 individuals without this tumor. Loss-of-heterozygosity of NF1 markers in NF1-related pheochromocytoma was significantly more frequent than in sporadic pheochromocytoma, providing further molecular evidence that pheochromocytoma is a true component of NF1.

  • 12. Beckmann, L
    et al.
    Hüsing, A
    Setiawan, VW
    Amiano, P
    Clavel-Chapelon, F
    Chanock, SJ
    Cox, DG
    Diver, R
    Dossus, L
    Feigelson, HS
    Haiman, C
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Hayes, RB
    Henderson, BE
    Hoover, RN
    Hunter, DJ
    Khaw, K
    Kolonel, LN
    Kraft, P
    Lund, E
    Le Marchand, L
    Peeters, PHM
    Riboli, E
    Stram, D
    Thomas, G
    Thun, MJ
    Tumino, R
    Trichopoulos, D
    Vogel, U
    Willett, WC
    Yeager, M
    Ziegler, R
    Hankinson, SE
    Kaaks, R
    Comprehensive analysis of hormone and genetic variation in 36 genes related to steroid hormone metabolism in pre- and postmenopausal women from the breast and prostate cancer cohort consortium (BPC3)2011In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 96, no 2, p. E360-E367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We confirmed associations between serum levels of SHBG and the SHBG gene and of E1 and E2 and the CYP19 and ESR1 genes. Novel associations were observed between FSHR and DHEAS, E1, and E2 and between AKR1C3 and DHEAS.

  • 13.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    O'Daly, Owen G
    Almèn, Markus S
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Morell, Arvid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Åberg, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Gingnell, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schultes, Bernd
    Hallschmid, Manfred
    Broman, Jan-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Acute Sleep Deprivation Enhances the Brain's Response to Hedonic Food Stimuli: An fMRI Study2012In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 97, no 3, p. E443-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context:

    There is growing recognition that a large number of individuals living in Western society are chronically sleep deprived. Sleep deprivation is associated with an increase in food consumption and appetite. However, the brain regions that are most susceptible to sleep deprivation-induced changes when processing food stimuli are unknown.

    Objective:

    Our objective was to examine brain activation after sleep and sleep deprivation in response to images of food.

    Intervention:

    Twelve normal-weight male subjects were examined on two sessions in a counterbalanced fashion: after one night of total sleep deprivation and one night of sleep. On the morning after either total sleep deprivation or sleep, neural activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging in a block design alternating between high- and low-calorie food items. Hunger ratings and morning fasting plasma glucose concentrations were assessed before the scan, as were appetite ratings in response to food images after the scan.

    Main Outcome Measures:

    Compared with sleep, total sleep deprivation was associated with an increased activation in the right anterior cingulate cortex in response to food images, independent of calorie content and prescan hunger ratings. Relative to the postsleep condition, in the total sleep deprivation condition, the activation in the anterior cingulate cortex evoked by foods correlated positively with postscan subjective appetite ratings. Self-reported hunger after the nocturnal vigil was enhanced, but importantly, no change in fasting plasma glucose concentration was found.

    Conclusions:

    These results provide evidence that acute sleep loss enhances hedonic stimulus processing in the brain underlying the drive to consume food, independent of plasma glucose levels. These findings highlight a potentially important mechanism contributing to the growing levels of obesity in Western society.

  • 14.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Shostak, Anton
    Lange, Tanja
    Brooks, Samantha J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schultes, Bernd
    Born, Jan
    Oster, Henrik
    Hallschmid, Manfred
    Diurnal Rhythm of Circulating Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt/Visfatin/PBEF): Impact of Sleep Loss and Relation to Glucose Metabolism2012In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 97, no 2, p. E218-E222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

     Animal studies indicate that nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase [Nampt/visfatin/pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] contributes to the circadian fine-tuning of metabolic turnover. However, it is unknown whether circulating Nampt concentrations, which are elevated in type 2 diabetes and obesity, display a diurnal rhythm in humans.

    Objective

     Our objective was to examine the 24-h profile of serum Nampt in humans under conditions of sleep and sleep deprivation and relate the Nampt pattern to morning postprandial glucose metabolism.

    Intervention

    Fourteen healthy men participated in two 24-h sessions starting at 1800 h, including either regular 8-h-night sleep or continuous wakefulness. Serum Nampt and leptin were measured in 1.5- to 3-h intervals. In the morning, plasma glucose and serum insulin responses to standardized breakfast intake were determined.

    Main Outcome Measures

     Under regular sleep-wake conditions, Nampt levels displayed a pronounced diurnal rhythm, peaking during early afternoon (P < 0.001) that was inverse to leptin profiles peaking in the early night. When subjects stayed awake, the Nampt rhythm was preserved but phase advanced by about 2 h (P < 0.05). Two-hour postprandial plasma glucose concentrations were elevated after sleep loss (P < 0.05), whereas serum insulin was not affected. The relative glucose increase due to sleep loss displayed a positive association with the magnitude of the Nampt phase shift (r = 0.54; P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    Serum Nampt concentrations follow a diurnal rhythm, peaking in the afternoon. Sleep loss induces a Nampt rhythm phase shift that is positively related to the impairment of postprandial glucose metabolism due to sleep deprivation, suggesting a regulatory impact of Nampt rhythmicity on glucose homeostasis.

  • 15.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Joost, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Aravidis, Christos
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Stenmark Askmalm, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical genetics. Off Medical Serv, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Backman, Ann-Sofie
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Melin, Beatrice
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    von Salome, Jenny
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Zagoras, Theofanis
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Gebre-Medhin, Samuel
    Lund University, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Burman, Pia
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Corticotroph Pituitary Carcinoma in a Patient With Lynch Syndrome (LS) and Pituitary Tumors in a Nationwide LS Cohort2017In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 102, no 11, p. 3928-3932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Lynch syndrome (LS) is a cancer-predisposing syndrome caused by germline mutations in genes involved in DNA mismatch repair (MMR). Patients are at high risk for several types of cancer, but pituitary tumors have not previously been reported. Case: A 51-year-old man with LS (MSH2 mutation) and a history of colon carcinoma presented with severe Cushing disease and a locally aggressive pituitary tumor. The tumor harbored a mutation consistent with the patients germline mutation and displayed defect MMR function. Sixteen months later, the tumor had developed into a carcinoma with widespread liver metastases. The patient prompted us to perform a nationwide study in LS. Nationwide Study: A diagnosis consistent with a pituitary tumor was sought for in the Swedish National Patient Registry. In 910 patients with LS, representing all known cases in Sweden, another two clinically relevant pituitary tumors were found: an invasive nonsecreting macroadenoma and a microprolactinoma (i.e., in total three tumors vs. one expected). Conclusion: Germline mutations in MMR genes may contribute to the development and/or the clinical course of pituitary tumors. Because tumors with MMR mutations are susceptible to treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, we suggest to actively ask for a family history of LS in the workup of patients with aggressive pituitary tumors.

  • 16.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Kalmar Cty Hosp, Dept Internal Med, S-39185 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Joost, Patrick
    Lund Univ, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Oncol & Pathol, S-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    Aravidis, Christos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Stenmark, Marie Askmalm
    Linkoping Univ, Div Clin Genet, Dept Clin & Expt Med, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.;Off Med Serv, Dept Clin Genet, S-22184 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Div Clin Genet, Dept Lab Med, S-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    Backman, Ann-Sofie
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Ctr Digest Dis, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Inst Med, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Melin, Beatrice
    Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, Oncol, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    von Salome, Jenny
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Genet, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zagoras, Theofanis
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Pathol & Genet, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Gebre-Medhin, Samuel
    Lund Univ, Div Clin Genet, Dept Lab Med, S-22184 Lund, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Genet, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Burman, Pia
    Lund Univ, Dept Endocrinol, Skane Univ Hosp, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Corticotroph Pituitary Carcinoma in a Patient With Lynch Syndrome (LS) and Pituitary Tumors in a Nationwide LS Cohort2017In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 102, no 11, p. 3928-3932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Lynch syndrome (LS) is a cancer-predisposing syndrome caused by germline mutations in genes involved in DNA mismatch repair (MMR). Patients are at high risk for several types of cancer, but pituitary tumors have not previously been reported. Case: A 51-year-old man with LS (MSH2 mutation) and a history of colon carcinoma presented with severe Cushing disease and a locally aggressive pituitary tumor. The tumor harbored a mutation consistent with the patient's germline mutation and displayed defect MMR function. Sixteen months later, the tumor had developed into a carcinoma with widespread liver metastases. The patient prompted us to perform a nationwide study in LS. Nationwide Study: A diagnosis consistent with a pituitary tumor was sought for in the Swedish National Patient Registry. In 910 patients with LS, representing all known cases in Sweden, another two clinically relevant pituitary tumors were found: an invasive nonsecreting macroadenoma and a microprolactinoma (i.e., in total three tumors vs. one expected). Conclusion: Germline mutations in MMR genes may contribute to the development and/or the clinical course of pituitary tumors. Because tumors with MMR mutations are susceptible to treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, we suggest to actively ask for a family history of LS in the workup of patients with aggressive pituitary tumors.

  • 17. Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Joost, Patrick
    Aravidis, Christos
    Stenmark, Marie Askmalm
    Backman, Ann-Sofie
    Melin, Beatrice
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    von Salome, Jenny
    Zagoras, Theofanis
    Gebre-Medhin, Samuel
    Burman, Pia
    Corticotroph Pituitary Carcinoma in a Patient With Lynch Syndrome (LS) and Pituitary Tumors in a Nationwide LS Cohort2017In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 102, no 11, p. 3928-3932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Lynch syndrome (LS) is a cancer-predisposing syndrome caused by germline mutations in genes involved in DNA mismatch repair (MMR). Patients are at high risk for several types of cancer, but pituitary tumors have not previously been reported.

    Case: A 51-year-old man with LS (MSH2 mutation) and a history of colon carcinoma presented with severe Cushing disease and a locally aggressive pituitary tumor. The tumor harbored a mutation consistent with the patient’s germline mutation and displayed defect MMR function. Sixteen months later, the tumor had developed into a carcinoma with widespread liver metastases. The patient prompted us to perform a nationwide study in LS.

    Nationwide Study: A diagnosis consistent with a pituitary tumor was sought for in the Swedish National Patient Registry. In 910 patients with LS, representing all known cases in Sweden, another two clinically relevant pituitary tumors were found: an invasive nonsecreting macroadenoma and a microprolactinoma (i.e., in total three tumors vs. one expected).

    Conclusion: Germline mutations in MMR genes may contribute to the development and/or the clinical course of pituitary tumors. Because tumors with MMR mutations are susceptible to treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, we suggest to actively ask for a family history of LS in the workup of patients with aggressive pituitary tumors.

  • 18.
    Benn, Diana E
    et al.
    Department of Cancer Genetics, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital and University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia.
    Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule
    Department of Genetics, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, L’Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U36, Collège de France, University Paris 5, Paris 75015, France.
    Reilly, Jennifer R
    Department of Cancer Genetics, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital and University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia.
    Bertherat, Jérôme
    Department of Endocrinology, INSERM U567, Hôpital Cochin Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, University Paris 5, Paris 75014, France.
    Burgess, John
    Department of Endocrinology, Royal Hobart Hospital, Tasmania 7001, Australia.
    Byth, Karen
    National Health and Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia.
    Croxson, Michael
    Department of Endocrinology, Greenlane Clinical Centre, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Dahia, Patricia L M
    Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229-3900.
    Elston, Marianne
    Department of Endocrinology, Waikato Hospital, Hamilton, New Zealand.
    Gimm, Oliver
    Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle 06097, Germany.
    Henley, David
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia.
    Herman, Philippe
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris, Paris 75010, France.
    Murday, Victoria
    West of Scotland, Regional Genetics Services, Yorkhill G3 8SJ, Scotland.
    Niccoli-Sire, Patricia
    Department of Endocrinology, Hôpital de la Timone, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille 13385, France.
    Pasieka, Janice L
    Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada T2N 1N4.
    Rohmer, Vincent
    Department of Endocrinology, Hôpital d’Angers, Angers 49033, France.
    Tucker, Kathy
    Hereditary Cancer Clinic, Prince of Wales Hospital and School of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia.
    Jeunemaitre, Xavier
    Department of Genetics, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, L’Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U36, Collège de France, University Paris 5, Paris 75015, France.
    Marsh, Deborah J
    Department of Cancer Genetics, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital and University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia.
    Plouin, Pierre-François
    Department Hypertension, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, L’Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U36, Collège de France, University Paris 5, Paris 75015, France.
    Robinson, Bruce G
    Department of Endocrinology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney 2065, Australia.
    Clinical presentation and penetrance of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes.2006In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 91, no 3, p. 827-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: The identification of mutations in genes encoding peptides of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes has necessitated clear elucidation of genotype-phenotype associations.

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine genotype-phenotype associations in a cohort of patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) or subunit D (SDHD) mutations.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The International SDH Consortium studied 116 individuals (83 affected and 33 clinically unaffected) from 62 families with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes and SDHB or SDHD mutations. Clinical data were collected between August 2003 and September 2004 from tertiary referral centers in Australia, France, New Zealand, Germany, United States, Canada, and Scotland.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data were collected on patients with pheochromocytomas and/or paragangliomas with respect to onset of disease, diagnosis, genetic testing, surgery, pathology, and disease progression. Clinical features were evaluated for evidence of genotype-phenotype associations, and penetrance was determined.

    RESULTS: SDHB mutation carriers were more likely than SDHD mutation carriers to develop extraadrenal pheochromocytomas and malignant disease, whereas SDHD mutation carriers had a greater propensity to develop head and neck paragangliomas and multiple tumors. For the index cases, there was no difference between 43 SDHB and 19 SDHD mutation carriers in the time to first diagnosis (34 vs. 28 yr, respectively; P = 0.3). However, when all mutation carriers were included (n = 112), the estimated age-related penetrance was different for SDHB vs. SDHD mutation carriers (P = 0.008).

    CONCLUSIONS: For clinical follow-up, features of SDHB mutation-associated disease include a later age of onset, extraadrenal (abdominal or thoracic) tumors, and a higher rate of malignancy. In contrast, SDHD mutation carriers, in addition to head and neck paragangliomas, should be observed for multifocal tumors, infrequent malignancy, and the possibility of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma.

  • 19.
    Bergens, Oscar
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Cardiorespiratory Fitness Does Not Offset Adiposity-Related Systemic Inflammation in Physically Active Older Women2019In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 104, no 9, p. 4119-4126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: Chronic inflammation increases diabetes risk and may be exacerbated by excess adipose tissue. Whether cardiovascular fitness can offset chronic inflammation associated with excess adipose tissue in older adults is unclear.

    OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to examine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on links between adiposity and pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers related to metabolic risk in physically active older women.

    DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional study comprising older community-dwelling women (n = 109; age, 65-70 yr).

    MAIN OUTCOME: Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using a standardized submaximal test and participants were categorized into high and low adiposity-related metabolic risk (body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and total fat mass). The inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-18, adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α) were analyzed.

    RESULTS: Regardless of adiposity measure, women in the metabolic high-risk group had significantly (P<0.05) elevated CRP and lower adiponectin levels. Levels of IL-6 and MIP1-α were significantly elevated in the high-risk group defined by WHR and total fat mass. IL-18 level was significantly elevated in the high-risk group based on WHR only. Importantly, a high cardiorespiratory fitness level did not attenuate the detrimental links between adiposity measures and inflammation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, cardiorespiratory fitness does not offset the detrimental links between adiposity and several inflammatory biomarkers related to metabolic risk in physically active older women. Reducing abdominal adipose tissue in older adults should be emphasized in efforts aiming to attenuate age-related systemic inflammation and metabolic risk regardless of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  • 20.
    Bergman, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Alendronate use and the risk of nonvertebral fracture during glucocorticoid therapy: a retrospective cohort study2018In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 306-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Glucocorticoids increase the risk of nonvertebral fracture, but no clinical trial has shown that nonvertebral fractures can be prevented by co-administration of an anti-osteoporotic drug.

    Objective: To estimate the effect of alendronate on the risk of nonvertebral fracture in older adults taking oral glucocorticoids.

    Design: Retrospective cohort study using national Swedish registers.

    Setting: Hospitalized care and ambulatory specialist care.

    Patients: Among adults aged 50 years or older (N=3,347,959), we identified those who initiated oral glucocorticoid therapy from 2006 through 2011 (≥2.5 mg/day of prednisone or equivalent for ≥91 days). The final analysis included 16,890 alendronate users and 16,890 nonusers, who were matched using time-dependent propensity scores.

    Main Outcome Measure: Nonvertebral fracture. This was not pre-specified.

    Results: Over a median follow-up of 14.5 months, the incidence rate of nonvertebral fracture was 2.0 cases per 100 person-years in alendronate users and 2.4 cases in nonusers. This difference corresponded to a 16% lower rate in users (hazard ratio 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.94). For hip fractures specifically, the rate was 34% lower in alendronate users relative to nonusers (hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.78). The association of alendronate use with a lower risk of nonvertebral fracture was strongest in patients who received high doses of glucocorticoid.

    Conclusion: Alendronate use was associated with a lower risk of nonvertebral fracture, including hip fracture. Similar, but not statistically significant, associations have been reported in meta-analyses of clinical trials.

  • 21. Bjarnason, R
    et al.
    Andersson, B
    Kim, H S
    Olsson, B
    Swolin-Eide, D
    Wickelgren, R
    Kriström, B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Carlsson, B
    Albertsson-Wikland, K
    Carlsson, L M S
    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein increases in serum after the start of growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children.2004In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 89, no 10, p. 5156-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both GH and IGF-I stimulate bone growth, but the molecular mechanisms mediating their effects on the growth plate are not fully understood. We measured gene expression by microarray analysis in primary cultured human chondrocytes treated with either GH or IGF-I. One of the genes found to be up-regulated by both GH and IGF-I was that encoding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). This protein is predominantly found in the extracellular matrix of cartilage. Mutations in the COMP gene have been associated with syndromes of short stature. To verify that COMP is regulated by GH in vivo, we measured COMP levels in serum in short children treated with GH. The study included 113 short prepubertal children (14 girls and 99 boys) with a mean (+/- sd) age of 8.84 +/- 2.76 yr, height sd score of -2.74 +/- 0.67, and IGF-I sd score of -1.21 +/- 1.07 at the start of GH administration. Serum levels of COMP were 1.58 +/- 0.28, 1.83 +/- 0.28 (P < 0.0001), 1.91 +/- 0.28 (P < 0.0001), 1.78 +/- 0.28 (P < 0.001), and 1.70 +/- 0.24 (P < 0.05) microg/ml at baseline and after 1 wk and 1, 3, and 12 months, respectively. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that COMP expression is up-regulated by both GH and IGF-I in primary cultured human chondrocytes. Furthermore, serum levels of COMP increase after the start of GH treatment in short children.

  • 22. Bjornsdottir, Sigridur
    et al.
    Sundstrom, Anders
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    Blomqvist, Paul
    Kampe, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Autoimmunity.
    Bensing, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Autoimmunity.
    Drug Prescription Patterns in Patients With Addison's Disease: A Swedish Population-Based Cohort Study2013In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 98, no 5, p. 2009-2018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: There are no published data on drug prescription in patients with Addison's disease ( AD). Objective: Our objective was to describe the drug prescription patterns in Swedish AD patients before and after diagnosis compared with population controls. Design and Setting: We conducted a population-based cohort study in Sweden. Patients: Through the Swedish National Patient Register and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, we identified 1305 patients with both a diagnosis of AD and on combination treatment with hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate and fludrocortisone. Direct evidence of the AD diagnosis from patient charts was not available. We identified 11 996 matched controls by the Register of Population. Main Outcome Measure: We determined the ratio of observed to expected number of patients treated with prescribed drugs. Results: Overall, Swedish AD patients received more prescribed drugs than controls, and 59.3% of the AD patients had medications indicating concomitant autoimmune disease. Interestingly, both before and after the diagnosis of AD, patients used more gastrointestinal medications, antianemic preparations, lipid-modifying agents, antibiotics for systemic use, hypnotics and sedatives, and drugs for obstructive airway disease (all P values < .05). Notably, an increased prescription of several antihypertensive drugs and high-ceiling diuretics was observed after the diagnosis of AD. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal symptoms and anemia, especially in conjunction with autoimmune disorders, should alert the physician about the possibility of AD. The higher use of drugs for cardiovascular disorders after diagnosis in patients with AD raises concerns about the replacement therapy.

  • 23.
    Bjornsdottir, Sigridur
    et al.
    Dept Mol Med & Surg, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundstrom, Anders
    Dept Clin Epidemiol Unit, Dept Med, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    Örebro University Hospital. Dept Clin Epidemiol Unit, Dept Med, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Paul
    Dept Clin Epidemiol Unit, Dept Med, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kampe, Olle
    Dept Med Sci, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bensing, Sophie
    Dept Mol Med & Surg, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept Med Sci, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Drug Prescription Patterns in Patients With Addison's Disease: A Swedish Population-Based Cohort Study2013In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 98, no 5, p. 2009-2018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: There are no published data on drug prescription in patients with Addison's disease ( AD). Objective: Our objective was to describe the drug prescription patterns in Swedish AD patients before and after diagnosis compared with population controls. Design and Setting: We conducted a population-based cohort study in Sweden. Patients: Through the Swedish National Patient Register and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, we identified 1305 patients with both a diagnosis of AD and on combination treatment with hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate and fludrocortisone. Direct evidence of the AD diagnosis from patient charts was not available. We identified 11 996 matched controls by the Register of Population. Main Outcome Measure: We determined the ratio of observed to expected number of patients treated with prescribed drugs. Results: Overall, Swedish AD patients received more prescribed drugs than controls, and 59.3% of the AD patients had medications indicating concomitant autoimmune disease. Interestingly, both before and after the diagnosis of AD, patients used more gastrointestinal medications, antianemic preparations, lipid-modifying agents, antibiotics for systemic use, hypnotics and sedatives, and drugs for obstructive airway disease (all P values < .05). Notably, an increased prescription of several antihypertensive drugs and high-ceiling diuretics was observed after the diagnosis of AD. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal symptoms and anemia, especially in conjunction with autoimmune disorders, should alert the physician about the possibility of AD. The higher use of drugs for cardiovascular disorders after diagnosis in patients with AD raises concerns about the replacement therapy.

  • 24.
    Björklund, Peyman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Krajisnik, Tijana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Internal Medicine.
    Åkerström, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Larsson, Tobias E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Internal Medicine.
    Type I membrane Klotho expression is decreased and inversely correlated to serum calcium in primary hyperparathyroidism2008In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 93, no 10, p. 4152-4157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The type I membrane protein Klotho was recently shownto mediate PTH secretion in parathyroid cells in response tolow extracellular calcium. In contrast, Klotho inhibits PTHsecretion indirectly through the action of fibroblast growthfactor-23. Abnormal Klotho expression in parathyroid disordersremains to be elucidated.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine: 1) Klothoexpression in parathyroid adenomas from patients with primaryhyperparathyroidism (pHPT) compared to normal tissue; and 2)its relation to the serum calcium and PTH levels.

    Design: Surgically removed parathyroid glands (n = 40) and fournormal parathyroid tissue specimens were analyzed for KlothomRNA and protein levels by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry.In vitro effects of calcium on Klotho mRNA expression were studiedin bovine parathyroid cells.

    Results: Klotho mRNA levels were significantly decreased (n= 23) or undetectable (n = 17) in parathyroid adenomas comparedto normal tissues (P < 0.001). Reduced Klotho protein expressionwas confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Klotho mRNA levels wereinversely correlated to serum calcium (r = –0.97; P <0.0001), and calcium dose-dependently decreased Klotho mRNAexpression in normal parathyroid cells in vitro (P < 0.01).Serum calcium was the only significant marker of Klotho expressionin multivariate analysis with calcium, phosphate, PTH, and adenomaweight as independent variables.

    Conclusions: Parathyroid Klotho expression is decreased or undetectablein pHPT. We provide evidence that 1) serum calcium is stronglyassociated with parathyroid Klotho expression in pHPT; and 2)abnormal PTH secretion in hypercalcemic pHPT subjects is mediatedby Klotho-independent mechanisms.

  • 25.
    Björklund, Peyman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Åkerström, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Accumulation of nonphosphorylated β-catenin and c-myc in primary and uremic secondary hyperparathyroid tumors2007In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 338-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) resulting from parathyroid tumors is a common endocrine disorder with incompletely understood etiology, affecting about 1% of the adult population, with an even higher prevalence for elderly individuals. In renal failure, secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) occurs with multiple tumor development as a result of calcium and vitamin D regulatory disturbance. OBJECTIVE: Aberrant Wnt/beta-catenin signaling with accumulation of beta-catenin in the cytoplasm/nucleus is involved in the development of a variety of neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is activated in parathyroid adenomas of pHPT and in hyperplastic glands from uremic patients with sHPT. DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and DNA sequencing were performed. RESULTS: beta-Catenin was accumulated in all analyzed parathyroid tumors (n = 47) from patients with pHPT and from patients with HPT secondary to uremia. The accumulation included nonphosphorylated, stabilized (transcriptionally active) beta-catenin. The overexpression was not related to increased beta-catenin mRNA levels. A protein-stabilizing mutation in exon 3 of beta-catenin (S37A) was detected in three of 20 pHPT tumors (15%). No mutation was detected in secondary hyperplastic glands (n = 20), and no evidence for truncated adenomatosis polyposis coli proteins was found in adenomas and secondary hyperplastic glands. Mutations in other Wnt signaling components leading to beta-catenin accumulation, other than in beta-catenin itself, are therefore anticipated. The beta-catenin target gene c-myc was overexpressed in a substantial fraction of the parathyroid tumors. CONCLUSION: Our results strongly suggest that modifications in the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway may be involved in the development of hyperparathyroidism.

  • 26.
    Björn, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Sundström-Poromaa, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Nyberg, Sigrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Bäckström, Gunnel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Increase of estrogen dose deteriorates mood during progestin phase in sequential hormonal therapy2003In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 88, no 5, p. 2026-2030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have indicated that the addition of progestinsduring sequential hormonal replacement therapy (HRT)causes negative mood and physical symptoms. History of premenstrualsyndrome, type of progestin, and dose of progestinhave thus far been shown to influence the progestin-inducedadverse mood symptoms during HRT.

    The aim of this study was to compare adverse mood effectsof two different doses of estradiol, in combination with a progestin,during postmenopausal HRT. Twenty-eight perimenopausalwomen were included in this randomized, doubleblind,crossover study comparing 2- or 3-mg continuousestradiol, with an addition of 10 mg medroxyprogesteroneacetate on d 17–28 during each treatment cycle. The mainoutcome measures were mood and physical symptoms kept ona daily rating scale. Together with the progestin, the higherdose of estrogen caused significantly more negative moodsymptoms than the lower dose. Tension, irritability, and depressedmood were all significantly augmented during theprogestin phase of cycles with 3mg estradiol (P<0.001). Physicalsymptoms also increased during the progestin phase of3-mg estradiol cycles (P<0.001), whereas positive mood symptomswere less affected. The only positive mood that changedwith estrogen dose was friendliness, which decreased duringthe progestin phase of high estradiol cycles compared withcycles with lower estradiol (P < 0.05).

    Our conclusion is that an increase of the estrogen doseaccentuates negativemoodand physical symptoms during theprogestin phase of sequential hormonal therapy.

  • 27. Björnsdottir, Sigridur
    et al.
    Cnattingius, Sven
    Brandt, Lena
    Nordenström, Anna
    Ekbom, Anders
    Kämpe, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Bensing, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Addison's Disease in Women Is a Risk Factor for an Adverse Pregnancy Outcome2010In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 95, no 12, p. 5249-5257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Autoimmune Addison's disease(AAD) tends to affect young and middle-aged women. It is not known whether the existence of undiagnosed or diagnosed AAD influences the outcome of pregnancy. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the number of children and pregnancy outcomes in individuals with AAD and controls. Design and Setting: We conducted a population-based historical cohort study in Sweden. Patients: Through the Swedish National Patient Register and the Total Population Register, we identified 1,188 women with AAD and 11,879 age-matched controls who delivered infants between 1973 and 2006. Main Outcome Measures: We measured parity and pregnancy outcome. Results: Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for infants born to mothers with deliveries 3 yr or less before the diagnosis of AAD were 2.40 [95% confidence interval (Cl), 1.27-4.53] for preterm birth (<= 37 wk), 3.50 (95% Cl, 1.83-6.67) for low birth weight (<2500 g), and 1.74 (95% Cl, 1.02-2.96) for cesarean section. Compared to controls, women who gave birth after their AAD diagnosis were at increased risk of both cesarean delivery (adjusted OR, 2.35; 95% Cl, 1.68-3.27) and preterm delivery (adjusted OR, 2.61; 95% Cl, 1.69-4.05). Stratifying by isolated AAD and concomitant type 1 diabetes and/or autoimmune thyroid disease in the mother did not essentially influence these risks. There were no differences in risks of congenital malformations or infant death. Women with AAD had a reduced overall parity compared to controls (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Clinically undiagnosed and diagnosed AAD both entail increased risks of unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. AAD also influences the number of childbirths.

  • 28. Bolinder, Jan
    et al.
    Ljunggren, Östen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Metabolic Bone Diseases.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Wilding, John
    Langkilde, Anna Maria
    Sugg, Jennifer
    Parikh, Shamik
    Effects of dapagliflozin on body weight, total fat mass, and regional adipose tissue distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control on metformin2012In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 1020-1031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context:

    Dapagliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, reduces hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by increasing urinary glucose excretion, and weight loss is a consistent associated finding.

    Objectives:

    Our objectives were to confirm weight loss with dapagliflozin and establish through body composition measurements whether weight loss is accounted for by changes in fat or fluid components.

    Design and Setting:

    This was a 24-wk, international, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with ongoing 78-wk site- and patient-blinded extension period at 40 sites in five countries.

    Patients:

    Included were 182 patients with T2DM (mean values: women 63.3 and men 58.6 yr of age; hemoglobin A1c 7.17%, body mass index 31.9 kg/m2, and body weight 91.5 kg) inadequately controlled on metformin.

    Intervention:

    Dapagliflozin 10 mg/d or placebo was added to open-label metformin for 24 wk.

    Main Outcome Measures:

    Primary endpoint was total body weight (TBW) change from baseline at wk 24. Key secondary endpoints were waist circumference and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry total-body fat mass (FM) changes from baseline at wk 24, and patient proportion achieving body weight reduction of at least 5% at wk 24. In a subset of patients, magnetic resonance assessment of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and sc adipose tissue (SAT) volume and hepatic lipid content were also evaluated.

    Results:

    At wk 24, placebo-corrected changes with dapagliflozin were as follows: TBW, −2.08 kg [95% confidence interval (CI) = −2.84 to −1.31; P < 0.0001]; waist circumference, −1.52 cm (95% CI = −2.74 to −0.31; P = 0.0143); FM, −1.48 kg (95% CI = −2.22 to −0.74; P = 0.0001); proportion of patients achieving weight reduction of at least 5%, +26.2% (95% CI = 15.5 to 36.7; P < 0.0001); VAT, −258.4 cm3 (95% CI = −448.1 to −68.6; nominal P = 0.0084); SAT, −184.9 cm3 (95% CI = −359.7 to −10.1; nominal P = 0.0385). In the dapagliflozin vs. placebo groups, respectively, serious adverse events were reported in 6.6 vs. 1.1%; events suggestive of vulvovaginitis, balanitis, and related genital infection in 3.3 vs. 0%; and lower urinary tract infections in 6.6 vs. 2.2%.

    Conclusions:

    Dapagliflozin reduces TBW, predominantly by reducing FM, VAT and SAT in T2DM inadequately controlled with metformin.

  • 29. Bollerslev, Jens
    et al.
    Jansson, Svante
    Mollerup, Charlotte L.
    Nordenström, Jörgen
    Lundgren, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Torring, Ove
    Varhaug, Jan-Erik
    Baranowski, Marek
    Aanderud, Sylvi
    Franco, Celina
    Freyschuss, Bo
    Isaksen, Gunhild A.
    Ueland, Thor
    Rosen, Thord
    Medical observation, compared with parathyroidectomy, for asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: A prospective, randomized trial2007In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 92, no 5, p. 1687-1692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The clinical presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) has changed during the last half century, and the diagnosis is now more often made by chance in patients with no specific symptoms. Objective: The present study is a randomized, controlled trial that investigates the effects of parathyroidectomy or medical observation in mild asymptomatic pHPT on morbidity and quality of life (QoL). Design/Setting/Patients: A total of 191 patients (26 men) with asymptomatic pHPT [mean age 64.2 +/- 7.4 (SD) yr] were recruited in the study and randomized to medical observation (serum calcium level 2.69 +/- 0.08 mmol/liter) or surgery (2.70 +/- 0.08 mmol/liter). We here report baseline and 1 (n = 119) and 2 yr data (n = 99) on those who Results: At baseline, the patients had significantly lower QoL (SF-36) and more psychological symptoms, compared with age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. The two groups were similar at baseline, and no clinically significant changes in these parameters were seen during the observation time. Calcium and PTH normalized after surgery. The areal bone mineral density increased in the group randomized to operation, whereas the bone mineral density remained stable in the medical observation group. No change in kidney function (creatinine) or blood pressure was observed longitudinally or between the groups. Conclusions: Asymptomatic patients with mild pHPT have decreased QoL and more psychological symptoms than normal controls. No benefit of operative treatment, compared with medical observation, was found on these measures so far.

  • 30.
    Borgström, Birgit
    et al.
    Dept of Pediatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hreinsson, Julius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Rasmussen, Carsten
    Sheikhi, Maryam
    Fried, Gabriel
    Keros, Victoria
    Fridström, Margareta
    Hovatta, Outi
    Fertility preservation in girls with turner syndrome: prognostic signs of the presence of ovarian follicles2009In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: Many girls with Turner syndrome have follicles in their ovaries at adolescence. Objective: Our objective was to study which girls might benefit from ovarian tissue freezing for fertility preservation. Design: Clinical and laboratory parameters and ovarian follicle counts were analyzed among girls referred by 25 pediatric endocrinologists. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Fifty-seven girls with Turner syndrome, aged 8-19.8 yr, were studied at a university hospital. Interventions: Ovarian tissue was biopsied laparoscopically, studied for the presence of follicles, and cryopreserved. Blood samples were drawn for hormone measurements. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence of follicles in the biopsied tissue related to age, signs of spontaneous puberty, karyotype, and serum concentrations of gonadotropins and anti-Müllerian hormone were assessed. RESULTS: Ovarian biopsy was feasible in 47 of the 57 girls. In 15 of the 57 girls (26%), there were follicles in the tissue piece analyzed histologically. Six of seven girls (86%) with mosaicism, six of 22 (27%) with structural chromosomal abnormalities, and three of 28 with karyotype 45X (10.7%) had follicles. Eight of the 13 girls (62%) with spontaneous menarche had follicles, and 11 of the 19 girls (58%) who had signs of spontaneous puberty had follicles. The age group 12-16 yr had the highest proportion of girls with follicles. Normal FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations for age and pubertal stage were more frequent in girls with follicles. CONCLUSIONS: Signs of spontaneous puberty, mosaicism, and normal hormone concentrations were positive and statistically significant but not exclusive prognostic factors as regards finding follicles.

  • 31. Borota, OC
    The expression of E-cadherin in somatotroph pituitary adenomas is related to tumor size, invasiveness, and somatostatin analog response.2010In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Brabant, Georg
    et al.
    Krogh Rasmussen, Ase
    Biller, Beverly M K
    Buchfelder, Michael
    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla
    Forssmann, Kristin
    Jonsson, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Koltowska-Häggström, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Maiter, Dominique
    Saller, Bernhard
    Toogood, Andy
    Clinical implications of residual growth hormone (GH) response to provocative testing in adults with severe GH deficiency2007In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 92, no 7, p. 2604-2609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The diagnosis of GH deficiency (GHD) in adults is based on provocative tests of GH release, all influenced by clinical factors. It is unknown whether the amount of residual GH reserve under the cutoff value has any physiological implication.

    Objectives: We used a large pharmacoepidemiological database of adult GHD (KIMS) and tested the impact of confounding factors on GH release of no greater than 3 µg/liter after an insulin tolerance test (ITT) and evaluated its potential physiological role.

    Design, Settings, and Patients: A total of 1098 patients fulfilled the criteria of having a GH peak of no greater than 3 µg/liter during ITT as well as documented IGF-I levels.

    Outcomes: The impact of underlying hypothalamic-pituitary disease, age, gender, body weight, as well as treatment modalities such as irradiation on peak GH level to ITT was evaluated, and the correlations between GH peak and targets of GH action were analyzed.

    Results: The GH response to ITT was regulated by gender, age, and the number of additional pituitary deficiencies. In a multivariate evaluation, the extent of hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction was the most important single predictor of GH peak in ITT. GH peaks in ITT were positively related to IGF-I levels and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, as well as inversely to triglycerides.

    Conclusions: Even in adult severe GHD, GH release appears to be regulated by factors defined to play an important role in normal GH secretion. The impact of very low GH release on IGF-I and lipid parameters indicates a persistent physiological role of low GH concentrations in severely affected patients with GHD.

  • 33.
    Brodin, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Hadziosmanovic, Nermin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Berglund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Holte, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Antimüllerian hormone levels are strongly associated with live-birth rates after assisted reproduction2013In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 1107-1114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Previous studies have suggested that antimullerian hormone (AMH) levels are positively associated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome through their relationship with oocyte yield and not by reflecting oocyte or embryo quality. Objective: The aim was to investigate whether AMH levels are associated with pregnancy and live-birth rates and whether the results may also reflect qualitative aspects of oocytes and embryos. Design: The study was a prospective cohort study between April 2008 and June 2011. Setting: The study was done at a university-affiliated private infertility center. Patients: The study cohort consisted of 892 consecutive women undergoing 1230 IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Intervention(s): AMH levels, analyzed using the DSL ELISA kit, were statistically adjusted for repeated treatments and age and analyzed for associations with treatment outcome. Main Outcome Measures: Pregnancy rates, live-birth rates, and stimulation outcome parameters were measured. Results: AMH was log-normally distributed with a mean (SD) of 2.3 (2.5) ng/mL. Live-birth rates per started cycle (mean [95% confidence interval]) increased log-linearly from 10.7% [7.2-14.1] for AMH < 0.84 ng/mL (25th percentile) to 30.8% [25.7-36.0] for AMH > 2.94 ng/mL (75th percentile), P-trend < .0001, being superior in women with polycystic ovaries. These findings were significant also after adjustments were made for age and oocyte yield. AMH was also associated with ovarian response variables and embryo scores. Conclusions: AMH is strongly associated with live-birth rates after IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection. AMH may therefore serve as a prognostic factor for the chance of a pregnancy and live birth. Treatment outcome was superior in patients with polycystic ovaries. The findings also indicate that AMH may partially comprise information about oocyte quality.

  • 34.
    Brozzetti, Annalisa
    et al.
    Univ Perugia, Dept Internal Med, I-06126 Perugia, Italy..
    Alimohammadi, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatology and Venereology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Morelli, Silvia
    Univ Perugia, Dept Internal Med, I-06126 Perugia, Italy..
    Minarelli, Viviana
    Univ Perugia, Dept Internal Med, I-06126 Perugia, Italy..
    Hallgren, Asa
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Ctr Mol Med, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Giordano, Roberta
    Univ Turin, Dept Med Sci, Div Endocrinol Diabetol & Metab, I-10126 Turin, Italy..
    De Bellis, Annamaria
    Univ Naples 2, Endocrinol Unit, Dept Cardiothorac & Resp Sci, I-80132 Naples, Italy..
    Perniola, Roberto
    V Fazzi Reg Hosp, Dept Pediat Neonatal Intens Care, I-73100 Lecce, Italy..
    Kämpe, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Autoimmunity. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Falorni, Alberto
    Univ Perugia, Dept Internal Med, I-06126 Perugia, Italy.
    Autoantibody Response Against NALP5/MATER in Primary Ovarian Insufficiency and in Autoimmune Addison's Disease2015In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 100, no 5, p. 1941-1948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: NACHT leucine-rich-repeat protein 5 (NALP5)/maternal antigen that embryo requires (MATER) is an autoantigen in hypoparathyroidism associated with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) but is also expressed in the ovary. Mater is an autoantigen in experimental autoimmune oophoritis. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the frequency of NALP5/MATER autoantibodies (NALP5/MATER-Ab) in women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and in patients with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) and to evaluate whether inhibin chains are a target for autoantibodies in POI. Methods: Autoantibodies against NALP5/MATER and inhibin chains-alpha and -beta A were determined by radiobinding assays in 172 patients with AAD without clinical signs of gonadal insufficiency, 41 women with both AAD and autoimmune POI [steroidogenic cell autoimmune POI (SCA-POI)], 119 women with idiopathic POI, 19 patients with APS1, and 211 healthy control subjects. Results: NALP5/MATER-Ab were detected in 11 of 19 (58%) sera from APS1 patients, 12 of 172 (7%) AAD sera, 5 of 41 (12%) SCA-POI sera, 0 of 119 idiopathic POI sera and 1 of 211 healthy control sera (P < .001). None of 160 POI sera, including 41 sera from women with SCA-POI and 119 women with idiopathic POI, and none of 211 healthy control sera were positive for inhibin chain-alpha/beta A autoantibodies. Conclusions: NALP5/MATER-Ab are associated with hypoparathyroidism in APS1 but are present also in patients with AAD and in women with SCA-POI without hypoparathyroidism. Inhibin chains do not appear to be likely candidate targets of autoantibodies in human POI.

  • 35. Bruenner, Yvonne F.
    et al.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Freiherr, Jessica
    Intranasal Insulin Reduces Olfactory Sensitivity in Normosmic Humans2013In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 98, no 10, p. E1626-E1630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: High densities of insulin receptors are found throughout the human brain, including the olfactory bulb, an essential brain area for odor processing. This brain region is the phylogenetically oldest part of the olfactory central nervous system. Objective: We hypothesized that enhanced brain insulin signaling would modulate olfactory processing in humans. Design: We applied a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced within-subject design. Setting: This study was conducted in the research unit of a university hospital. Interventions/Participants/Main Outcome Measures: A single dose of either insulin (40 IU) or placebo was intranasally administered to 17 normal-weight normosmic participants (7 women). Subjects' olfactory abilities were examined by means of an olfactory threshold test (odorant n-butanol) and an olfactory discrimination test. In addition, circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels were measured. Results: After intranasal insulin administration, subjects' sensitivity for the odorant n-butanol was significantly decreased compared with that for the placebo condition (-13%; P = .025), whereas olfactory discrimination ability was not (P = .841). While serum insulin and serum cortisol were not altered after intranasal insulin administration, there was a small but significant drop in plasma glucose levels. Importantly, a correlational analysis demonstrated that this treatment-induced drop in plasma glucose was not related to the effects of intranasal insulin on olfactory sensitivity. Conclusions: These findings suggest that intranasal insulin impairs olfactory sensitivity for a non-food odorant, whereas no such effects were found for olfactory discrimination. Thus, variations in brain insulin signaling most likely have implications for the olfactory threshold of normosmic humans. Bearing in mind the fact that insulin acts as an anorexigenic signal in the human brain, further studies are needed to test whether intranasal insulin also impairs the ability of humans to perceive food-related odors.

  • 36. Bruenner, Yvonne F.
    et al.
    Kofoet, Anja
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Freiherr, Jessica
    Central Insulin Administration Improves Odor-Cued Reactivation of Spatial Memory in Young Men2015In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 212-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Insulin receptors are ubiquitously found in the human brain, comprising the olfactory bulb, essential for odor processing, and the hippocampus, important for spatial memory processing. Objective: The present study aimed at examining if intranasal insulin, which is known to transiently increase brain insulin levels in humans, would improve odor-cued reactivation of spatial memory in young men. Design: We applied a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced within-subject design. Setting: The study was conducted at the research unit of a university hospital. Interventions/Participants/Main Outcome Measures: Following intranasal administration of either insulin (40 I.U.) or placebo, male subjects (n = 18) were exposed to eight odors. During each odor exposure, a green-colored field was presented on a 17-in. computer screen. During immediate recall (comprising 3 runs), the participants were re-exposed to each odor cue, and were asked to select the corresponding field (with visual feedback after each response). The delayed recall was scheduled similar to 10 min later (without feedback). To test if insulin's putative effect on odor-place memory would be domain-specific, participants also performed a separate place and odor recognition task. Results: Intranasal insulin improved the delayed but not immediate odor-cued recall of spatial memory. This effect was independent of odor type and in the absence of systemic side effects (eg, fasting plasma glucose levels remained unaltered). Place and odor recognition were unaffected by the insulin treatment. Conclusions: These findings suggest that acute intranasal insulin improves odor-cued reactivation of spatial memory in young men.

  • 37.
    Bruserud, Oyvind
    et al.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, N-5012 Bergen, Norway..
    Oftedal, Bergithe E.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, N-5012 Bergen, Norway..
    Landegren, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Autoimmunity. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Erichsen, Martina M.
    Haukeland Hosp, Dept Med, N-5021 Bergen, Norway..
    Bratland, Eirik
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, N-5012 Bergen, Norway..
    Lima, Kari
    Akershus Univ Hosp, Dept Med, N-1747 Nordbyhagen, Norway.;Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol, N-0372 Oslo, Norway..
    Jorgensen, Anders P.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol, N-0372 Oslo, Norway..
    Myhre, Anne G.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, N-0424 Oslo, Norway..
    Svartberg, Johan
    Univ Hosp North Norway, Div Internal Med, N-9019 Tromso, Norway.;Artic Univ Norway, Univ Tromso, Inst Clin Med, N-9019 Tromso, Norway..
    Fougner, Kristian J.
    St Olavs Hosp, Dept Endocrinol, N-7006 Trondheim, Norway..
    Bakke, Asne
    Stavanger Univ Hosp, Dept Med, N-4011 Stavanger, Norway..
    Nedrebo, Bjorn G.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, N-5012 Bergen, Norway.;Haugesund Hosp, Dept Med, N-5504 Haugesund, Norway..
    Mella, Bjarne
    Ostfold Hosp, Dept Med, N-1603 Fredrikstad, Norway..
    Breivik, Lars
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, N-5012 Bergen, Norway..
    Viken, Marte K.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Immunol, N-0372 Oslo, Norway.;Univ Oslo, N-0372 Oslo, Norway..
    Knappskog, Per M.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, N-5012 Bergen, Norway.;Haukeland Hosp, Ctr Med Genet & Mol Med, N-5021 Bergen, Norway..
    Marthinussen, Mihaela C.
    Univ Bergen, Fac Med & Dent, Dept Clin Dent, N-5021 Bergen, Norway.;Oral Hlth Ctr Expertise Western Norway, N-5021 Bergen, Norway..
    Lovas, Kristian
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, N-5012 Bergen, Norway.;Haukeland Hosp, Dept Med, N-5021 Bergen, Norway..
    Kampe, Olle
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wolff, Anette B.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, N-5012 Bergen, Norway..
    Husebye, Eystein S.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, N-5012 Bergen, Norway.;Haukeland Hosp, Dept Med, N-5021 Bergen, Norway..
    A Longitudinal Follow-up of Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 12016In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 101, no 8, p. 2975-2983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a childhood-onset monogenic disease defined by the presence of two of the three major components: hypoparathyroidism, primary adrenocortical insufficiency, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Information on longitudinal follow-up of APS1 is sparse. Objective: To describe the phenotypes of APS1 and correlate the clinical features with autoantibody profiles and autoimmune regulator (AIRE) mutations during extended follow-up (1996-2016). Patients: All known Norwegian patients with APS1. Results: Fifty-two patients from 34 families were identified. The majority presented with one of the major disease components during childhood. Enamel hypoplasia, hypoparathyroidism, and CMC were the most frequent components. With age, most patients presented three to five disease manifestations, although some had milder phenotypes diagnosed in adulthood. Fifteen of the patients died during follow-up (median age at death, 34 years) or were deceasedsiblingswithahighprobability of undisclosed APS1. All except three had interferon-omega) autoantibodies, and allhadorgan-specific autoantibodies. The most common AIRE mutation was c.967_979del13, found in homozygosity in 15 patients. A mild phenotype was associated with the splice mutation c.879+1G>A. Primary adrenocortical insufficiency and type 1 diabetes were associated with protective human leucocyte antigen genotypes. Conclusions: Multiple presumable autoimmune manifestations, in particular hypoparathyroidism, CMC, and enamel hypoplasia, should prompt further diagnostic workup using autoantibody analyses (eg, interferon-omega) and AIRE sequencing to reveal APS1, even in adults. Treatment is complicated, and mortality is high. Structured follow-up should be performed in a specialized center.

  • 38.
    Burman, P
    et al.
    Skånes University Hospital Malmö Lund, Sweden .
    Mattsson, A F
    Pfizer Health AB, Sweden .
    Johannsson, G
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Hoybye, C
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden .
    Holmer, H
    Central Hospital Kristianstad, Sweden .
    Dahlqvist, P
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Berinder, K
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden .
    Engstrom, B E
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Ekman, Bertil
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Erfurth, E M.
    Skånes University Hospital Malmö Lund, Sweden .
    Svensson, J
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Wahlberg, J
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, F A
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Deaths Among Adult Patients With Hypopituitarism: Hypocortisolism During Acute Stress, and De Novo Malignant Brain Tumors Contribute to an Increased Mortality2013In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 98, no 4, p. 1466-1475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased standardized mortality rate. The basis for this has not been fully clarified. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjective: To investigate in detail the cause of death in a large cohort of patients with hypopituitarism subjected to long-term follow-up. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDesign and Methods: All-cause and cause-specific mortality in 1286 Swedish patients with hypopituitarism prospectively monitored in KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) 1995-2009 were compared to general population data in the Swedish National Cause of Death Registry. In addition, events reported in KIMS, medical records, and postmortem reports were reviewed. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMain Outcome Measures: Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated, with stratification for gender, attained age, and calendar year during follow-up. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: An excess mortality was found, 120 deaths vs 84.3 expected, SMR 1.42 (95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.70). Infections, brain cancer, and sudden death were associated with significantly increased SMRs (6.32, 9.40, and 4.10, respectively). Fifteen patients, all ACTH-deficient, died from infections. Eight of these patients were considered to be in a state of adrenal crisis in connection with death (medical reports and post-mortem examinations). Another 8 patients died from de novo malignant brain tumors, 6 of which had had a benign pituitary lesion at baseline. Six of these 8 subjects had received prior radiation therapy. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Two important causes of excess mortality were identified: first, adrenal crisis in response to acute stress and intercurrent illness; second, increased risk of a late appearance of de novo malignant brain tumors in patients who previously received radiotherapy. Both of these causes may be in part preventable by changes in the management of pituitary disease. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98: 1466-1475, 2013)

  • 39. Burman, P.
    et al.
    Mattsson, A. F.
    Johannsson, G.
    Höybye, C.
    Holmer, H.
    Dahlqvist, P.
    Berinder, K.
    Edén Engström, Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism.
    Ekman, B.
    Erfurth, E. M.
    Svensson, J.
    Wahlberg, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Karlsson, F. A.
    Deaths Among Adult Patients With Hypopituitarism: Hypocortisolism During Acute Stress, and De Novo Malignant Brain Tumors Contribute to an Increased Mortality2013In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 98, no 4, p. 1466-1475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased standardized mortality rate. The basis for this has not been fully clarified. Objective: To investigate in detail the cause of death in a large cohort of patients with hypopituitarism subjected to long-term follow-up. Design and Methods: All-cause and cause-specific mortality in 1286 Swedish patients with hypopituitarism prospectively monitored in KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) 1995-2009 were compared to general population data in the Swedish National Cause of Death Registry. In addition, events reported in KIMS, medical records, and postmortem reports were reviewed. Main Outcome Measures: Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated, with stratification for gender, attained age, and calendar year during follow-up. Results: An excess mortality was found, 120 deaths vs 84.3 expected, SMR 1.42 (95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.70). Infections, brain cancer, and sudden death were associated with significantly increased SMRs (6.32, 9.40, and 4.10, respectively). Fifteen patients, all ACTH-deficient, died from infections. Eight of these patients were considered to be in a state of adrenal crisis in connection with death (medical reports and post-mortem examinations). Another 8 patients died from de novo malignant brain tumors, 6 of which had had a benign pituitary lesion at baseline. Six of these 8 subjects had received prior radiation therapy. Conclusion: Two important causes of excess mortality were identified: first, adrenal crisis in response to acute stress and intercurrent illness; second, increased risk of a late appearance of de novo malignant brain tumors in patients who previously received radiotherapy. Both of these causes may be in part preventable by changes in the management of pituitary disease.

  • 40. Burman, P.
    et al.
    Mattsson, A. F.
    Johannsson, G.
    Höybye, C.
    Holmer, H.
    Dahlqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Berinder, K.
    Engström, B. E.
    Ekman, B.
    Erfurth, E. M.
    Svensson, J
    Wahlberg, J.
    Karlsson, F. A.
    Deaths among adult patients with hypopituitarism: hypocortisolism during acute stress, and de novo malignant brain tumors contribute to an increased mortality2013In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 98, no 4, p. 1466-1475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased standardized mortality rate. The basis for this has not been fully clarified.

    Objective: To investigate in detail the cause of death in a large cohort of patients with hypopituitarism subjected to long-term follow-up.

    Design and Methods: All-cause and cause-specific mortality in 1286 Swedish patients with hypopituitarism prospectively monitored in KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) 1995-2009 were compared to general population data in the Swedish National Cause of Death Registry. In addition, events reported in KIMS, medical records, and postmortem reports were reviewed.

    Main Outcome Measures: Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated, with stratification for gender, attained age, and calendar year during follow-up.

    Results: An excess mortality was found, 120 deaths vs 84.3 expected, SMR 1.42 (95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.70). Infections, brain cancer, and sudden death were associated with significantly increased SMRs (6.32, 9.40, and 4.10, respectively). Fifteen patients, all ACTH-deficient, died from infections. Eight of these patients were considered to be in a state of adrenal crisis in connection with death (medical reports and post-mortem examinations). Another 8 patients died from de novo malignant brain tumors, 6 of which had had a benign pituitary lesion at baseline. Six of these 8 subjects had received prior radiation therapy.

    Conclusion: Two important causes of excess mortality were identified: first, adrenal crisis in response to acute stress and intercurrent illness; second, increased risk of a late appearance of de novo malignant brain tumors in patients who previously received radiotherapy. Both of these causes may be in part preventable by changes in the management of pituitary disease.

  • 41.
    Carling, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Correa, P
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hessman, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hedberg, J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Skogseid, Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Internal Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Lindberg, D
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Rastad, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Åkerström, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Parathyroid MEN 1 gene mutations in relation to clinical characteristics of non-familial primary hyperparathyroidism1998In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 83, no 8, p. 2960-2963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biochemical signs and severity of symptoms of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) differ among patients, and little is known of any coupling of clinical characteristics of nonfamilial pHPT to genetic abnormalities in the parathyroid tumors. Mutations in the recently identified MEN1 gene at chromosome 11q13 have been found in parathyroid tumors of nonfamilial pHPT. Using microsatellite analysis for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 11q13 and DNA sequencing of coding exons, the MEN1 gene was studied in 49 parathyroid lesions of patients with divergent symptoms, operative findings, histopathological diagnosis, and biochemical signs of nonfamilial pHPT. Allelic loss at 11q13 was detected in 13 tumors, and 6 of them demonstrated previously unrecognized somatic missense and frameshift deletion mutations of the MEN1 gene. Many of the detected mutations would most likely result in a nonfunctional menin protein, consistent with a tumor suppressor mechanism. Clinical and biochemical characteristics of HPT were apparently unrelated to the presence or absence of LOH and the MEN1 gene mutations. However, the demonstration of LOH at 11q13 and MEN1 gene mutations in small parathyroid adenomas of patients with slight hypercalcemia and normal serum PTH levels suggest that altered MEN1 gene function may also be important for the development of mild sporadic pHPT.

  • 42.
    Carling, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Szabo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Bai, Mei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Ridefelt, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Gustavsson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Trivedi, Sunita
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Brown, Edward M.
    Dahl, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Rastad, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Familial hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria caused by a novel mutation in the cytoplasmic tail of the calcium receptor2000In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 85, no 5, p. 2042-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Familial hyperparathyroidism (HPT), characterized by hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria, and familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) are the most common causes of hereditary hypercalcemia. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) regulates PTH secretion and renal calcium excretion. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of the gene cause FHH, whereas CaR gene mutations have not been demonstrated in HPT. In a kindred with 20 affected individuals, the hypercalcemic disorder segregated with inappropriately higher serum PTH and magnesium levels and urinary calcium levels than in unaffected members. Subtotal parathyroidectomy revealed parathyroid gland hyperplasia/adenoma and corrected the biochemical signs of the disorder in seven of nine individuals. Linkage analysis mapped the condition to markers flanking the CaR gene on chromosome 3q. Sequence analysis revealed a mutation changing phenylalanine to leucine at codon 881 of the CaR gene, representing the first identified point mutation located within the cytoplasmic tail of the CaR. A construct of the mutant receptor (F881L) was expressed in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293), and demonstrated a right-shifted dose-response relationship between the extracellular and intracellular calcium concentrations. The hypercalcemic disorder of the present family is caused by an inactivating point mutation in the cytoplasmic tail of the CaR and displays clinical characteristics atypical of FHH and primary HPT.

  • 43. Carlzon, Daniel
    et al.
    Svensson, Johan
    Petzold, Max
    Karlsson, Magnus K.
    Ljunggren, Östen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrinology and mineral metabolism.
    Tivesten, Asa
    Mellstrom, Dan
    Ohlsson, Claes
    Both Low and High Serum IGF-1 Levels Associate With Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Elderly Men2014In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 99, no 11, p. E2308-E2316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Most previous prospective studies suggest that low serum IGF-1 associates with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events whereas other studies suggest that high serum IGF-1 associates with increased risk of CVD events. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that not only low, but also high serum IGF-1 levels associate with increased risk of CVD events in elderly men. Setting and Design: Serum IGF-1 levels were measured in 2901 elderly men (age 69-81 years) included in the Swedish cohort of the prospective, population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS), Sweden cohort. Data for CVD events were obtained from national Swedish registers with no loss of followup. Results: During followup (median, 5.1 y) 589 participants experienced a CVD event. The association between serum IGF-1 and risk of CVD events was nonlinear, and restricted cubic spline Cox regression analysis revealed a U-shaped association between serum IGF-1 levels and CVD events (P < .01 for nonlinearity). Low as well as high serum IGF-1 (quintile 1 or 5 vs quintiles 2-4) significantly associated with increased risk for CVD events (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.25, 95% confidence interval, [CI], 1.02-1.54; and HR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.10-1.66, respectively). These associations remained after adjustment for prevalent CVD and multiple risk factors. High serum IGF-1 associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events but not with risk of cerebrovascular events. Conclusions: Both low and high serum IGF-1 levels are risk markers for CVD events in elderly men. The association between high serum IGF-1 and CVD events is mainly driven by CHD events.

  • 44.
    Casar-Borota, Olivera
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Heck, Ansgar
    Schulz, Stefan
    Nesland, Jahn Marthin
    Ramm-Pettersen, Jon
    Lekva, Tove
    Alafuzoff, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Bollerslev, Jens
    Expression of SSTR2a, but not of SSTRs 1, 3, or 5 in Somatotroph Adenomas Assessed by Monoclonal Antibodies Was Reduced by Octreotide and Correlated With the Acute and Long-Term Effects of Octreotide2013In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 98, no 11, p. E1730-E1739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Reduced expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in somatotroph adenomas and their potential down-regulation after medical treatment may explain the unsatisfactory response to octreotide in particular acromegalic patients. The expression of SSTRs other than SSTR2a has not been studied in large, unselected cohorts using novel rabbit monoclonal antibodies. Objective: We aimed to determine the expression of SSTRs 1, 2a, 3, and 5 in somatotroph adenomas, to correlate expression with clinical characteristics and the response to octreotide, and to ascertain whether preoperative octreotide treatment affected SSTR expression. Design, Setting, Patients: The study included 78 adenomas from patients operated on consecutively during 2000 to 2010. After exclusion of 13 patients, immunohistochemical analysis with rabbit monoclonal antibodies against SSTRs 1, 2a, 3, and 5 (clones UMB-7, -1, -5, and -4) was performed on 65 adenomas. Intervention: Twenty-eight patients received preoperative octreotide, and 37 patients were operated on without pretreatment. Twenty-six patients were randomized to direct surgery (n = 13) or to octreotide pretreatment (n = 13). Main Outcome Measure: SSTR expression was evaluated using a 12-grade scoring system. The responses to the octreotide test dose (GH reduction) and to 6 months of octreotide (IGF-I reduction) were measured. Results: The majority of adenomas showed membranous expression of SSTRs 2a and 5. SSTR2a expression was reduced in the pretreated group and correlated with the acute octreotide test results and the effect of octreotide treatment. In a linear regression model with SSTR2 a expression as the determinant, the correlation with the acute test response improved after adjustment for medical pretreatment. Conclusion: Rabbit monoclonal antibodies are reliable markers of SSTRs in somatotroph adenomas. SSTR2a expression correlated with the response to octreotide and was reduced after octreotide treatment, indicating the need for adjustment when SSTR2a expression is correlated with baseline characteristics. Evaluation of SSTR subtypes may be an important aspect of improving the medical treatment for acromegaly.

  • 45.
    Casar-Borota, Olivera
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. Oslo University Hospital, University of Oslo and Uppsala University.
    Heck, Ansgar
    Schulz, Stefan
    Nesland, Jahn Marthin
    Ramm-Pettersen, Jon
    Lekva, Tove
    Alafuzoff, Irina
    Bollerslev, Jens
    Expression of SSTR2a, but not of SSTRs 1, 3, or 5 in Somatotroph Adenomas Assessed by Monoclonal Antibodies Was Reduced by Octreotide and Correlated With the Acute and Long-Term Effects of Octreotide2013In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 98, no 11, p. E1730-E1739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Reduced expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in somatotroph adenomas and their potential down-regulation after medical treatment may explain the unsatisfactory response to octreotide in particular acromegalic patients. The expression of SSTRs other than SSTR2a has not been studied in large, unselected cohorts using novel rabbit monoclonal antibodies. Objective: We aimed to determine the expression of SSTRs 1, 2a, 3, and 5 in somatotroph adenomas, to correlate expression with clinical characteristics and the response to octreotide, and to ascertain whether preoperative octreotide treatment affected SSTR expression. Design, Setting, Patients: The study included 78 adenomas from patients operated on consecutively during 2000 to 2010. After exclusion of 13 patients, immunohistochemical analysis with rabbit monoclonal antibodies against SSTRs 1, 2a, 3, and 5 (clones UMB-7, -1, -5, and -4) was performed on 65 adenomas. Intervention: Twenty-eight patients received preoperative octreotide, and 37 patients were operated on without pretreatment. Twenty-six patients were randomized to direct surgery (n = 13) or to octreotide pretreatment (n = 13). Main Outcome Measure: SSTR expression was evaluated using a 12-grade scoring system. The responses to the octreotide test dose (GH reduction) and to 6 months of octreotide (IGF-I reduction) were measured. Results: The majority of adenomas showed membranous expression of SSTRs 2a and 5. SSTR2a expression was reduced in the pretreated group and correlated with the acute octreotide test results and the effect of octreotide treatment. In a linear regression model with SSTR2 a expression as the determinant, the correlation with the acute test response improved after adjustment for medical pretreatment. Conclusion: Rabbit monoclonal antibodies are reliable markers of SSTRs in somatotroph adenomas. SSTR2a expression correlated with the response to octreotide and was reduced after octreotide treatment, indicating the need for adjustment when SSTR2a expression is correlated with baseline characteristics. Evaluation of SSTR subtypes may be an important aspect of improving the medical treatment for acromegaly.

  • 46.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Osler, Megan E.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Voisin, Sarah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Broman, Jan-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Vogel, Heike
    German Inst Human Nutr Potsdam Rehbrucke, Dept Expt Diabetol, D-14558 Nuthetal, Germany.;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Physiol, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, S-41137 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Dickson, Suzanne L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Physiol, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, S-41137 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Zierath, Juleen R.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Schioth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Acute Sleep Loss Induces Tissue-Specific Epigenetic and Transcriptional Alterations to Circadian Clock Genes in Men2015In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 100, no 9, p. E1255-E1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Shift workers are at increased risk of metabolic morbidities. Clock genes are known to regulate metabolic processes in peripheral tissues, eg, glucose oxidation. Objective: This study aimed to investigate how clock genes are affected at the epigenetic and transcriptional level in peripheral human tissues following acute total sleep deprivation (TSD), mimicking shift work with extended wakefulness. Intervention: In a randomized, two-period, two-condition, crossover clinical study, 15 healthy men underwent two experimental sessions: x sleep (2230-0700 h) and overnight wakefulness. On the subsequent morning, serum cortisol was measured, followed by skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies for DNA methylation and gene expression analyses of core clock genes (8MAL1, CLOCK, CRYT, PERT). Finally, baseline and 2-h post-oral glucose load plasma glucose concentrations were determined. Main Outcome Measures: In adipose tissue, acute sleep deprivation vs sleep increased methylation in the promoter of CRY1 (+4%; P =.026) and in two promoter-interacting enhancer regions of PERT (+15%; P =.036; +9%; P =.026). In skeletal muscle, TSD vs sleep decreased gene expression of BMALT (-18%; P =.033) and CRY1 (-22%; P =.047). Concentrations of serum cortisol, which can reset peripheral tissue clocks, were decreased (2449 932 vs 3178 723 nmol/L; P =.039), whereas postprandial plasma glucose concentrations were elevated after TSD (7.77 1.63 vs 6.59 1.32 mmol/L; P =.011). Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that a single night of wakefulness can alter the epigenetic and transcriptional profile of core circadian clock genes in key metabolic tissues. Tissue-specific clock alterations could explain why shift work may disrupt metabolic integrity as observed herein.

  • 47. Cromer, M. Kyle
    et al.
    Starker, Lee F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Choi, Murim
    Udelsman, Robert
    Nelson-Williams, Carol
    Lifton, Richard P.
    Carling, Tobias
    Identification of Somatic Mutations in Parathyroid Tumors Using Whole-Exome Sequencing2012In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 97, no 9, p. E1774-E1781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The underlying molecular alterations causing sporadic parathyroid adenomas that drive primary hyperparathyroidism have not been thoroughly defined.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of somatic mutations driving tumor formation and progression in sporadic parathyroid adenoma using whole-exome sequencing.

    Design: Eight matched tumor-constitutional DNA pairs from patients with sporadic parathyroid adenomas underwent whole-exome capture and high-throughput sequencing. Selected genes were analyzed for mutations in an additional 185 parathyroid adenomas.

    Results: Four of eight tumors displayed a frame shift deletion or nonsense mutation in MEN1, which was accompanied by loss of heterozygosity of the remaining wild-type allele. No other mutated genes were shared among the eight tumors. One tumor harbored a Y641N mutation of the histone methyltransferase EZH2 gene, previously linked to myeloid and lymphoid malignancy formation. Targeted sequencing in the additional 185 parathyroid adenomas revealed a high rate of MEN1 mutations (35%). Furthermore, this targeted sequencing identified an additional parathyroid adenoma that contained the identical, somatic EZH2 mutation that was found by exome sequencing.

    Conclusion: This study confirms the frequent role of the loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 11 and MEN1 gene alterations in sporadic parathyroid adenomas and implicates a previously unassociated methyltransferase gene, EZH2, in endocrine tumorigenesis.

  • 48.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Norlén, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Antonodimitrakis, Pantelis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Welin, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine oncology.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Eriksson, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine oncology.
    Multiple and Secondary Hormone Secretion in Patients With Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours2016In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 445-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT:

    As a group, neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) secrete many different peptide hormones, yet heretofore each NET patient is typically thought to produce at most one hormone that causes a distinct hormonal syndrome. A minority of patients have multiple hormones at diagnosis and may also develop secondary hormone secretion at a later stage.

    OBJECTIVES:

    The objectives of the study were to determine the frequency and to describe the impact of multiple and secondary hormone secretion in sporadic gasteroenteropancreatic NET patients.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

    This was a retrospective analysis of patients (n = 972) with gasteroenteropancreatic NET treated at Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. Patients with the secretion of multiple hormones at diagnosis and/or those developing secondary hormone secretion during the disease course were identified and studied in further detail.

    RESULTS:

    In pancreatic NETs (PNETs), a total of 19 of 323 patients (6%) had secretion of multiple hormones at diagnosis, and 14 of 323 (4%) had secondary changes during the disease course. These phenomena occurred exclusively in patients with an advanced disease stage, and secondary hormones were detected in a close time span with progressive disease. Patients with secondary insulin hypersecretion had increased morbidity as well as reduced survival (P < .002). In contrast, multiple and secondary hormone secretion was rarely seen in NETs of the small intestine with 0 and 1 of 603 cases, respectively.

    CONCLUSION:

    Diversity of PNET hormone secretion either at diagnosis or during the disease course occurred in a minority of patients (9.3%). These phenomena had a major impact on patient outcome both through increased morbidity and mortality. Our results support that patients with metastatic PNETs should be monitored for clinical symptoms of secondary hormone secretion during the disease course.

  • 49.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Verdugo, Alberto Delgado
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Maharjan, Rajani
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Stalberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Granberg, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Somatic Mutations in H-RAS in Sporadic Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Identified by Exome Sequencing2013In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 98, no 7, p. E1266-E1271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Up to 60% of pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) are associated with either somatic or germline mutations in established PCC and PGL susceptibility loci. Most unexplained cases are characterized by an increased activity of the RAS/RAF/ERK signaling pathway. Mutations in RAS subtypes H, K, and N are common in human cancers; however, previous studies have been inconsistent regarding the mutational status of RAS in PCC and PGL. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify novel disease causing genes in PCC and PGL tumors. Design, setting, and participants: Four benign and sporadic PCC and PGL tumors were subjected to whole exome sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq Platform. Sequences were processed by CLC genomics 4.9 bioinformatics software and the acquired list of genetic variants was filtered against the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer database. Findings were validated in an additional 78 PCC and PGL tumor lesions. Results: Exome sequencing identified 2 cases with somatic mutations in the H-RAS. In total, 6.9% (n = 4/58) of tumors negative for mutations in major PCC and PGL loci had mutations in H-RAS: G13R, Q61K, and Q61R. There were 3 PCC and 1 PGL; all had sporadic presentation with benign tumor characteristics and substantial increases in norepinephrine and/or epinephrine. H-RAS tumors were exclusively found in male patients (P = .007). Conclusions: We identified recurrent somatic H-RAS mutations in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Tumors with H-RAS mutations had activation of the RAS/RAF/ERK signaling pathway and were associated with male PCC patients having benign and sporadic disease characteristics. H-RAS could serve as a prognostic and predictive marker as well as a novel therapeutic target.

  • 50.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Variability of vascular endothelial growth factor in normal human breast tissue in vivo during the menstrual cycle2003In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 88, no 6, p. 2695-2698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to sex steroids increases the risk of breast cancer, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Angiogenesis is crucial in tumor development and progression. Very little is known about the regulation of angiogenesis in the normal breast. Vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) has a key stimulatory role in angiogenesis. Interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in vivo. These factors function in autocrine/paracrine pathways, therefore, direct measurements in the target tissue are needed. I measured VEGF and IP-10 in normal human breast tissue in situ in healthy women, using microdialysis, in the follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In breast tissue, VEGF levels increased in the luteal phase, compared with the follicular phase (17.8+/-4 pg/ml to 34+/-9 pg/ml, P<0.05). Plasma VEGF did not show a cyclic variation (10.6&PLUSMN,2.8 pg/ml vs. 14.6&PLUSMN,3.5 pg/liter, P=0.3). IP-10 levels did not vary during the menstrual cycle either in breast tissue (65&PLUSMN,17 pg/ml vs. 75&PLUSMN,21 pg/ml, P=0.6) or in plasma (64&PLUSMN,7 pg/ml vs. 81&PLUSMN,10 pg/ml, P=0.06). The data suggests that, in the luteal phase, VEGF and IP-10, in the normal human breast, exhibit a proangiogenic profile. This may be one mechanism by which sex steroids contribute to breast cancer development.

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