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  • 1.
    Abdelrahman, Islam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Plastic Surgery Unit, Surgery Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.
    Elmasry, Moustafa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Plastic Surgery Unit, Surgery Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Validation of the burn intervention score in a National Burn Centre2018In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Linköping burn score has been used for two decades to calculate the cost to the hospital of each burned patient. Our aim was to validate the Burn Score in a dedicated Burn Centre by analysing the associations with burn-specific factors: percentage of total body surface area burned (TBSA%), cause of injury, patients referred from other (non-specialist) centres, and survival, to find out which of these factors resulted in higher scores. Our second aim was to analyse the variation in scores of each category of care (surveillance, respiration, circulation, wound care, mobilisation, laboratory tests, infusions, and operation).

    We made a retrospective analysis of all burned patients admitted during the period 2000–15. Multivariable regression models were used to analyse predictive factors for an increased daily burn score, the cumulative burn score (the sum of the daily burn scores for each patient) and the total burn score (total sum of burn scores for the whole group throughout the study period) in addition to sub-analysis of the different categories of care that make up the burn score.

    We retrieved 22 301 daily recordings for inpatients. Mobilisation and care of the wound accounted for more than half of the total burn score during the study. Increased TBSA% and age over 45 years were associated with increased cumulative (model R2 0.43, p < 0.001) and daily (model R2 0.61, p < 0.001) burn scores. Patients who died had higher daily burn scores, while the cumulative burn score decreased with shorter duration of hospital stay (p < 0.001).

    To our knowledge this is the first long term analysis and validation of a system for scoring burn interventions in patients with burns that explores its association with the factors important for outcome. Calculations of costs are based on the score, and it provides an indicator of the nurses’ workload. It also gives important information about the different dimensions of the care provided from thorough investigation of the scores for each category.

  • 2.
    Abrahams, M
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, Anestesi.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Oscarsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, Anestesi.
    Sundqvist, Tommy
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology.
    The effects of human burn injury on urinary nitrate excretion. 1999In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 25, p. 29-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Akerlund, Emma
    et al.
    Inst för Experimentell och Klinisk medicin, Linköping.
    Huss, Fredrik R M
    Inst för Experimentell och Klinisk medicin, Linköping.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Inst för Experimentell och Klinisk medicin, Linköping.
    Burns in Sweden: an analysis of 24,538 cases during the period 1987-2004.2007In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 31-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burn care is always progressing, but there is little epidemiological information giving a clear picture of the current number of treated burns in Sweden. This study was conducted to provide an update of patients admitted to hospital with burns in Sweden. Data were obtained for all patients who were admitted to hospitals with a primary or secondary diagnosis of burns (ICD-9/10 codes) from 1 January 1987 to 31 December 2004; 24,538 patients were found. Most of the patients were male (69%), giving a male:female ratio of 2.23:1. Children in the age-group 0-4 years old predominated, and accounted for 27% of the study material. The median length of stay was 3 days. Throughout the period 740 patients (3%) died of their burns. Significant reductions in mortality, incidence, and length of stay were seen during the study, which correlates well with other studies. However, most of the reductions were in the younger age-groups. Men accounted for the improved mortality, as female mortality did not change significantly. We think that the improvement in results among patients admitted to hospital after burns is a combination of preventive measures, improved treatment protocols, and an expanding strategy by which burned patients are treated as outpatients.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gerdin, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Social competence and behaviour problems in burned children2003In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to collect follow-up data on social competence and behavioural problems in a sample of Swedish burned children and to compare the results with normative data from a reference group of children comparable in age, socio-economic status and gender. Parents of 44 children (55% response rate) aged 7-12 years were asked to complete a questionnaire booklet including the Children's Behaviour Questionnaire (CBQ) and the Social Competence Inventory (SCI). Data from the children's teachers were also collected for 20 children using the same booklet. In addition, data on TBSA, localisation of injury, and other background factors were collected. Results showed that the burned children were rated by their parents as showing lesser degrees of social initiative and more externalising problems and concentration problems compared with the control group. Teachers rated the burn injured children as having less prosocial orientation, more externalising problems, and more concentration problems. No clear effects were found for gender and characteristics of the burn injury. Results on the Social Competence Inventory were associated with scores on the Children's Behaviour Questionnaire.The findings are consistent with previous research in that the differences found were relatively small. However, they do call for attention to the possible adverse effects of growing up with a burn injury, but also to the possible pre-morbid characteristics that may be related to the injury.

  • 5.
    Antepohl, Wolfram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine UHL.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Thorfinn, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Interleukin-8 is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid following high-voltage electrical injury with late-onset paraplegia suggesting neuronal damage at the microlevel as causative factor2010In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 36, no 3, p. e7-e9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The patient, a 31-year-old male, sustained an electric burn injury (16 kV, AC/DC) while working with electric power lines. He was acutely admitted to a national burn center in Southeast Sweden, where burns equalling 29% of the total body surface area were noted. The burns were located at the front of the abdomen, upper arms bilaterally, and the left hip region, and the lesions were estimated to be mainly of the dermal type, what was believed initially to be caused mainly by an electric flash. There were no obvious entry or exit sites of the electric current. However, myoglobin in plasma was elevated as a sign of muscular degradation, suggesting that at least some current had passed through the tissues. According to the paramedic report there was an episode of a few minutes of unconsciousness immediately after the injury, but the patient was fully awake and alert on admission. There was no concomitant trauma.

  • 6. Bak, Z
    et al.
    Sjöberg, F
    Eriksson, O
    Steinvall, I
    Janerot-Sjöberg, Birgitta
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Heart Centre, Linköping University Hospital, Sweden.
    Cardiac dysfunction after burns2008In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 603-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Using transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) we investigated the occurrence, and the association of possible abnormalities of motion of the regional wall of the heart (WMA) or diastolic dysfunction with raised troponin concentrations, or both during fluid resuscitation in patients with severe burns.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten consecutive adults (aged 36-89 years, two women) with burns exceeding 20% total burned body surface area who needed mechanical ventilation were studied. Their mean Baux index was 92.7, and they were resuscitated according to the Parkland formula. Thirty series of TEE examinations and simultaneous laboratory tests for myocyte damage were done 12, 24, and 36h after the burn.

    RESULTS: Half (n=5) the patients had varying grades of leakage of the marker that correlated with changeable WMA at 12, 24 and 36h after the burn (p< or =0.001, 0.044 and 0.02, respectively). No patient had WMA and normal concentrations of biomarkers or vice versa. The mitral deceleration time was short, but left ventricular filling velocity increased together with stroke volume.

    CONCLUSION: Acute myocardial damage recorded by both echocardiography and leakage of troponin was common, and there was a close correlation between them. This is true also when global systolic function is not deteriorated. The mitral flow Doppler pattern suggested restrictive left ventricular diastolic function.

  • 7.
    Bak, Zoltan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Unit . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Janerot Sjöberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cardiac dysfunction after burns2008In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 603-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    Using transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) we investigated the occurrence, and the association of possible abnormalities of motion of the regional wall of the heart (WMA) or diastolic dysfunction with raised troponin concentrations, or both during fluid resuscitation in patients with severe burns.

    Patients and methods

    Ten consecutive adults (aged 36–89 years, two women) with burns exceeding 20% total burned body surface area who needed mechanical ventilation were studied. Their mean Baux index was 92.7, and they were resuscitated according to the Parkland formula. Thirty series of TEE examinations and simultaneous laboratory tests for myocyte damage were done 12, 24, and 36 h after the burn.

    Results

    Half (n = 5) the patients had varying grades of leakage of the marker that correlated with changeable WMA at 12, 24 and 36 h after the burn (p ≤ 0.001, 0.044 and 0.02, respectively). No patient had WMA and normal concentrations of biomarkers or vice versa. The mitral deceleration time was short, but left ventricular filling velocity increased together with stroke volume.

    Conclusion

    Acute myocardial damage recorded by both echocardiography and leakage of troponin was common, and there was a close correlation between them. This is true also when global systolic function is not deteriorated. The mitral flow Doppler pattern suggested restrictive left ventricular diastolic function.

  • 8.
    Dahl, Oili
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wickman, Marie
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Department of Neurobiology Care Science and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    The cultural adaptation and validation of a Swedish version of the Satisfaction With Appearance Scale (SWAP-Swe)2014In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 598-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Body image dissatisfaction is a source of stress after burns and it is important to attempt to objectively measure this aspect. Unfortunately, there are no Swedish questionnaires to assess satisfaction of appearance after burns,. Aim: The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Satisfaction With Appearance Scale (SWAP) into Swedish from American English to be used in the context of burn care. Method: The SWAP was translated and cross-cultural adapted inspired by the guidelines by Guillemin. Pre-testing with 13 burn patients was conducted and 90 patients tested the questionnaire in order to determine its psychometric properties. Results: Cronbach's alpha was 0.89 indicating a high level of internal consistency of Swedish SWAP. Test for construct validity showed that length of hospital stay, more severe burns and female gender generated significantly higher scores in SWAP-Swe. The principal-components analysis found similar subscales according to the original SWAP that together accounted for 68% of the total variance. Conclusions: SWAP-Swe is a reliable and valid instrument for use in a Swedish speaking population. The questionnaire was perceived to be relevant for usage in the context of burn care and is well understood by the patients. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Droog, Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, Anestesi.
    Steenbergen, W
    Nederländerna.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, Anestesi.
    Measurement of depth of burns by laser Doppler perfusion imaging2001In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 561-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), is a further development in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Its advantage is that it enables assessment of microvascular blood flow in a predefined skin area rather than, as for LDF, in one place. In many ways this method seems to be more promising than LDF in the assessment of burn wounds. However, several methodological issues that are inherent in the LDPI technique, and are relevant for the assessment of burn depth, must be clarified. These include the effect of scanning distance, curvature of the tissue, thickness of topical wound dressings, and pathophysiological effects of skin colour, blisters, and wound fluids. Furthermore, we soon realised that to examine the perfusion image generated by LDPI adequately the process of analysis was appreciably improved by the simultaneous use of digital photography. In the present investigation we used both in vitro and in vivo models and also examined burned patients, and found that the listed factors all significantly affected the LDPI output signal. However, if these factors are known to the examiner, most of them can be adjusted for. If the technique is further improved by minimizing such effects and by reducing the practical difficulties of applying it to a burned patient in the burns unit, the technique may find uses in everyday clinical decision-making.

  • 10.
    Elmasry, Moustafa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Suez Canal University, Egypt.
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Abdelrahman, Islam Mohamedy
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Suez Canal University, Egypt.
    Olofsson, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Changes in patterns of treatment of burned children at the Linkoping Burn Centre, Sweden, 2009-20142017In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 1111-1119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Children are a relatively large group among patients with burns in Sweden. We changed the management of childrens burns to a flexible, outpatient-based plan. The aim was to follow up the outpatient management for childrens burns during the period 20092014, and track it, to find out to what extent the patients had been treated flexibly as outpatients, and to clarify the reasons behind those who did not fit in the plan. Methods: Descriptive retrospective analysis dividing the patients into three groups: inpatients only, flexible management, and outpatients. Other variables recorded included: age, sex, percentage total body surface area burned (TBSA%), percentage full thickness burn (FTB%), cause of burn, county of residence, operations required, number of visits to the outpatient department, costs, and duration of overnight stay in the hospital. Results: The study group included 620 children: nine were managed strictly as inpatients, 204 as flexible outpatients, and 407 strictly as outpatients. Among the total there were 269 children who came from remote areas (43%), and of these 260 were treated as outpatients and flexible outpatients. Median TBSA% in the whole group was 1 (10th-90th centile 0-9) with the biggest median TBSA% 12 (5-38) in the inpatient group. The most common cause of injury was scalds (332/620,-54%). Costs/patient (US$) was lower in the flexible outpatient group than in the inpatient group (median 10 557 (3213-35802) and 35343 (7344-66554), respectively). Conclusion: Based on the results, we expect that the flexible outpatient treatment plan for children with minor to moderate burns can be expanded in the future. The results encourage us to continue the service and to further reduce duration of stay in hospital below the level already achieved (25% of the whole period of care). (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Elmasry, Moustafa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Suez Canal University, Egypt .
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Letter: "Is the length of time in acute burn surgery associated with poorer outcomes?"2014In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 772-773Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 12.
    Fransen, Jian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Huss, Fredrik R. M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery. Univ Uppsala Hosp, Dept Plast & Maxillofacial Surg, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Lennart E.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Clin Microbiol, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Rydell, Ulf
    Linkoping Univ, Inst Clin & Expt Med, Infect Dis, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linkoping Univ, Inst Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linkoping Univ, Inst Clin & Expt Med, Infect Dis, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility in a Swedish Burn Center 1994-20122016In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1295-1303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with burn trauma are at risk for infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria (ABR) with subsequent increase in morbidity and mortality. As part of the Swedish strategic program against antibiotic resistance in intensive care (ICU-Strama), we have surveyed the distribution of species and ABR in isolates from patients admitted to a Swedish burn center at Linkoping University Hospital from 1994 through 2012. In an international comparison Strama has been successful in reducing the antibiotic consumption among animals and humans in primary care. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiotic consumption pressure and resistance rates in a Swedish burn unit. Methods: Microbiology data, total body surface area (TBSA), patient days, and mortality were collected from a hospital database for all patients admitted to the Burn Center at the University Hospital of Linkoping from April 1994 through December 2012. Results: A total of 1570 patients were admitted with a mean annual admission rate of 83 patients (range: 57-152). 15,006 microbiology cultures (approximately 10 per patient) were collected during the study period and of these 4531 were positive (approximately 3 per patient). The annual mean total body surface area (TBSA) was 13.4% (range 9.5-18.5) with an annual mortality rate of 5.4% (range 1-8%). The MRSA incidence was 1.7% (15/866) which corresponds to an MRSA incidence of 0.34/1000 admission days (TAD). Corresponding figures were for Escherichia coli resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins (ESBL phenotype) 8% (13/170) and 0.3/TAD, Klebsiella spp. ESBL phenotype 5% (6/134) and 0.14/TAD, carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa 26% (56/209) and 1.28/TAD, and carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. 3% (2/64) and 0.04/TAD. Conclusions: Our results show a sustained low risk for MRSA and high, although not increasing, risk for carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa.

  • 13.
    Fransen, Jian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Huss, Fredrik R. M.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; University of Uppsala Hospital, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lennart E
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rydell, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility in a Swedish Burn Center 1994-20122016In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1295-1303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with burn trauma are at risk for infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria (ABR) with subsequent increase in morbidity and mortality. As part of the Swedish strategic program against antibiotic resistance in intensive care (ICU-Strama), we have surveyed the distribution of species and ABR in isolates from patients admitted to a Swedish burn center at Linkoping University Hospital from 1994 through 2012. In an international comparison Strama has been successful in reducing the antibiotic consumption among animals and humans in primary care. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiotic consumption pressure and resistance rates in a Swedish burn unit. Methods: Microbiology data, total body surface area (TBSA), patient days, and mortality were collected from a hospital database for all patients admitted to the Burn Center at the University Hospital of Linkoping from April 1994 through December 2012. Results: A total of 1570 patients were admitted with a mean annual admission rate of 83 patients (range: 57-152). 15,006 microbiology cultures (approximately 10 per patient) were collected during the study period and of these 4531 were positive (approximately 3 per patient). The annual mean total body surface area (TBSA) was 13.4% (range 9.5-18.5) with an annual mortality rate of 5.4% (range 1-8%). The MRSA incidence was 1.7% (15/866) which corresponds to an MRSA incidence of 0.34/1000 admission days (TAD). Corresponding figures were for Escherichia coli resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins (ESBL phenotype) 8% (13/170) and 0.3/TAD, Klebsiella spp. ESBL phenotype 5% (6/134) and 0.14/TAD, carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa 26% (56/209) and 1.28/TAD, and carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. 3% (2/64) and 0.04/TAD. Conclusions: Our results show a sustained low risk for MRSA and high, although not increasing, risk for carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Fransén, Jian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Huss, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Nilsson, L
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Sustained Low Frequency ofAntibiotic-Resistant Pathogens on a Swedish Burn Unit 1994-20122017In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Fredriksson, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Huss, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Unit . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Transplantation of cultured human keratinocytes in single cell suspension: a comparative in vitro study of different application techniques2008In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 212-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transplantation of autologous cultured keratinocytes in single cell suspension is useful in the treatment of burns. The reduced time needed for culture, and the fact that keratinocytes in suspension can be transported from the laboratory to the patient in small vials, thus reducing the costs involved and be stored (frozen) in the clinic for transplantation when the wound surfaces are ready, makes it appealing. We found few published data in the literature about actual cell survival after transplantation of keratinocytes in single cell suspension and so did a comparative in vitro study, considering commonly used application techniques. Human primary keratinocytes were transplanted in vitro in a standard manner using different techniques. Keratinocytes were counted before and after transplantation, were subsequently allowed to proliferate, and counted again on days 4, 8, and 14 by vital staining. Cell survival varied, ranging from 47% to >90%, depending on the technique. However, the proliferation assays showed that the differences in numbers diminished after 8 days of culture. Our findings indicate that a great number of cells die during transplantation but that this effect is diminished if cells are allowed to proliferate in an optimal milieu. A burned patient’s wounds cannot be regarded as the optimal milieu, and using less harsh methods of transplantation may increase the take rate and wound closing properties of autologous keratinocytes transplanted in a single cell suspension.

  • 16.
    Fredriksson, Camilla
    et al.
    Inst för Experimentell och Klinisk medicin, Linköping.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Inst för Experimentell och Klinisk medicin, Linköping.
    Huss, Fredrik
    Inst för Experimentell och Klinisk medicin, Linköping.
    Transplantation of cultured human keratinocytes in single cell suspension: a comparative in vitro study of different application techniques.2008In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 212-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transplantation of autologous cultured keratinocytes in single cell suspension is useful in the treatment of burns. The reduced time needed for culture, and the fact that keratinocytes in suspension can be transported from the laboratory to the patient in small vials, thus reducing the costs involved and be stored (frozen) in the clinic for transplantation when the wound surfaces are ready, makes it appealing. We found few published data in the literature about actual cell survival after transplantation of keratinocytes in single cell suspension and so did a comparative in vitro study, considering commonly used application techniques. Human primary keratinocytes were transplanted in vitro in a standard manner using different techniques. Keratinocytes were counted before and after transplantation, were subsequently allowed to proliferate, and counted again on days 4, 8, and 14 by vital staining. Cell survival varied, ranging from 47 to >90%, depending on the technique. However, the proliferation assays showed that the differences in numbers diminished after 8 days of culture. Our findings indicate that a great number of cells die during transplantation but that this effect is diminished if cells are allowed to proliferate in an optimal milieu. A burned patient's wounds cannot be regarded as the optimal milieu, and using less harsh methods of transplantation may increase the take rate and wound closing properties of autologous keratinocytes transplanted in a single cell suspension.

  • 17. García Barreiro, J
    et al.
    Rodriguez Lorenzo, Andres
    Cal, M
    Alvarez, A
    Martelo Villar, F
    Treatment of postoperative pain for burn patients with intravenous analgesia in continuous perfusion using elastomeric infusors2005In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 67-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Postoperative pain after surgery with patients suffering from burns tends to be moderate or severe, and its treatment requires a combination of high-strength analgesics (opioids) with others having different action mechanisms according to the concept of multimodal analgesia.

    AIMS: In this article we propose the use of continuous intravenous analgesia with morphine using elastomeric infusors at fixed dose for the treatment of this kind of pain. An evaluation is made of its analgesic efficacy, side effects and level of satisfaction.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A study was made of 17 burn patients operated on in our unit who received continuous intravenous analgesia during the postoperative period, with morphine at 1mg/h, using elastomeric infusors for a period of 24h. Its analgesic efficacy was analysed using the visual analogical scale (VAS) at different moments; side effects and the level of acceptance by the patient was also evaluated.

    RESULTS: The results confirm a good analgesic effect after 2h from starting perfusion (VAS < 3). The side effects reveal a similar or lesser incidence to the use of morphine in bolus or using the PCA system, and in no cases did they require treatment to be halted. The level of acceptance of the procedure by patients was good.

    CONCLUSION: This method reveals a high level of analgesic efficacy in the postoperative period with burn patients in this study. However, it is important to note the lower results obtained in the first hours of perfusion, and proposing a heavy initial dose of analgesics when starting perfusion. This is presented as an efficient analgesic method that is easy to apply, has a low cost, and the possibility of extending its indications to ambulatory treatment.

  • 18.
    Gauffin, Emelie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital. Linkoping Univ, Burn Ctr, Dept Hand Plast & Intens, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Öster, Caisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linkoping Univ, Burn Ctr, Dept Hand Plast & Intens, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Gerdin, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) early after injury predicts long-term pain after burn2016In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1781-1788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic pain after burn can have severe physical and psychological effects on former patients years after the initial injury. Although the issue of pain after burn has gained increased attention over the past years, prospective, longitudinal studies are scarce. Our aim was to prospectively investigate consecutive burn patients for pain severity over time and to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of post-burn pain to 2-7 years after the burn. As an additional aim, the effects of burn and individual-related factors, especially health related Quality of Life (HRQoL), were investigated.

    Method: Sixty-seven consecutive burn patients were assessed during acute care at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, as well as at 2-7 years post-burn. HRQoL, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric disorders were investigated. During the interviews that took place 2-7 years after the injury (mean 4.6 1.9 years), current chronic post-burn pain was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF).

    Results: One-third of the patients still reported pain 2-7 years after the injury. Pain severity and interference with daily life were mainly mild to moderate though they were found to be associated with significantly lower HRQoL. Chronic pain after bum was associated with both burn- and individual-related factors. In logistic regression analysis HRQoL at 3 and 12 months and symptoms of PTSD at 12 months were independent factors in predicting chronic pain after burn.

    Conclusion: Pain after burn becomes a chronic burden for many former burn patients and decreases HRQoL. A novel finding in this study was that HRQoL assessed early after burn was a predictor for the development of chronic pain. This finding may help to predict future pain problems and serve as an indicator for pain preventive measures.

  • 19.
    Gerdin, Bengt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Sjoberg, Folke
    Professor Gosta Arturson (1927-2013)2013In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 1654-1655Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Gerdin, Bengt
    et al.
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Professor Gösta Arturson (1927–2013): Obituary2013In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 1654-1655Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21. Gustafson, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Birgisson, Agust
    Junker, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns.
    Huss, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Salemark, Lars
    Johnson, Hans
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Employing human keratinocytes cultured on macroporous gelatin spheres to treat full thickness-wounds: An in vivo study on athymic rats2007In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 726-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing cutaneous wounds with sufficient epidermis to prevent infections and fluid loss is one of the most challenging tasks associated with surgical treatment of burns. Recently, application of cultured keratinocytes in this context has allowed this challenge to be met without several of the limitations connected with the use of split-thickness skin grafts. The continuous development of this novel approach has now revealed that transplantation of cultured autologous keratinocytes as single-cell suspensions exhibits several advantages over the use of cultured epidermal grafts. However, a number of methodological problems remain to be solved, primarily with regards to the complexity of culturing these cells, loss of viability and other negative effects during their preparation and transportation, the relatively long period of time required following transplantation to obtain a sufficiently protective epidermis. In the present investigation we attempted to eliminate these limitations by culturing the keratinocytes on macroporous gelatin spheres. Accordingly, the efficacies of normal human keratinocytes in single-cell suspension or growing on macroporous gelatin spheres, as well as of split-thickness skin grafts in healing wounds on athymic rats were compared. Human keratinocytes were found to adhere and proliferate efficiently both on the surface and within the pores of such spheres. Transplantation of such cells adherent to the spheres resulted in significantly more rapid formation of a stratified epidermis than did transplantation of single-cell suspensions or spheres alone. Twenty-three days after transplantation, the epidermis formed from the cells bound to the spheres was not as thick as the epidermis on wounds covered with split-thickness skin grafts, but significantly thicker than on wounds to which single-cell suspensions, spheres alone or no transplant at all was applied. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridisation revealed that the transplanted keratinocytes, both those adherent to gelatin spheres and those in single-cell suspension, were components of the newly formed epidermis. These findings indicate that application of biodegradable macroporous spheres may prove to be of considerable value in designing cell-based therapies for the treatment of acute and persistent wounds. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI.

  • 22.
    Gustafson, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Kirurgiska vetenskaper, KI.
    Birgisson, Agust
    Inst för Experimentell och Klinisk medicin, Linköping.
    Junker, Johan
    Inst för Experimentell och Klinisk medicin, Linköping.
    Huss, Fredrik
    Salemark, Lars
    Johnson, Hans
    Inst för Experimentell och Klinisk medicin, Linköping.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Inst för Experimentell och Klinisk medicin, Linköping.
    Employing human keratinocytes cultured on macroporous gelatin spheres to treat full thickness-wounds: an in vivo study on athymic rats.2007In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 726-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing cutaneous wounds with sufficient epidermis to prevent infections and fluid loss is one of the most challenging tasks associated with surgical treatment of burns. Recently, application of cultured keratinocytes in this context has allowed this challenge to be met without several of the limitations connected with the use of split-thickness skin grafts. The continuous development of this novel approach has now revealed that transplantation of cultured autologous keratinocytes as single-cell suspensions exhibits several advantages over the use of cultured epidermal grafts. However, a number of methodological problems remain to be solved, primarily with regards to the complexity of culturing these cells; loss of viability and other negative effects during their preparation and transportation; the relatively long period of time required following transplantation to obtain a sufficiently protective epidermis. In the present investigation we attempted to eliminate these limitations by culturing the keratinocytes on macroporous gelatin spheres. Accordingly, the efficacies of normal human keratinocytes in single-cell suspension or growing on macroporous gelatin spheres, as well as of split-thickness skin grafts in healing wounds on athymic rats were compared. Human keratinocytes were found to adhere and proliferate efficiently both on the surface and within the pores of such spheres. Transplantation of such cells adherent to the spheres resulted in significantly more rapid formation of a stratified epidermis than did transplantation of single-cell suspensions or spheres alone. Twenty-three days after transplantation, the epidermis formed from the cells bound to the spheres was not as thick as the epidermis on wounds covered with split-thickness skin grafts, but significantly thicker than on wounds to which single-cell suspensions, spheres alone or no transplant at all was applied. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridisation revealed that the transplanted keratinocytes, both those adherent to gelatin spheres and those in single-cell suspension, were components of the newly formed epidermis. These findings indicate that application of biodegradable macroporous spheres may prove to be of considerable value in designing cell-based therapies for the treatment of acute and persistent wounds.

  • 23.
    Horna Strand, Angelica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Rubertsson, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Huss, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Mani, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Epidermal exfoliation of over 95% after a burn in an 18-month-old boy: Case report and review of the literature2016In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 42, no 2, p. E18-E23Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report concerns an 18-month-old boy who presented with a 6% total body surface area scald. The subject of this report is unique in that he developed the largest exfoliation described in literature. After 3 days an epidermal exfoliation with the appearance of a deliberately inflicted scald developed. As the exfoliation progressed to over 95% total body surface area the suspicion of child abuse or neglect could be abandoned. The diagnosis Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome was set, due to the finding of Staphylococcus aureus on swabs, the lack of mucosal engagement, and the patient's age. The boy's skin healed within 3 weeks. The few reports published are all case reports and most frequently described visually infected burns with smaller epidermal exfoliations, and clinically based exfoliation diagnosis. S. aureus often cause burn wound infections that can lead to complications caused by cross-infection. It is important for burn surgeons and intensive care specialists to be aware of the increased possibility of Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome occurring in patients who have a reduced barrier to infection such as burn patients and also, that the diagnosis can be difficult to make.

  • 24.
    Johansson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bäckryd, Emmanuel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Granerus, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology UHL.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Urinary excretion of histamine and methylhistamine after burns2012In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 1005-1009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The increased vascular permeability seen after burn contribute to morbidity and mortality as it interferes with organ function and the healing process. Large efforts have been made to explore underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that generate increased vascular permeability after burns. Many different substances have been proposed as mediators of which histamine, serotonin and oxygen radicals are claimed most important. However, no specific blocker has convincingly been shown to be clinically effective. Early work has claimed increased histamine plasma-concentrations in humans after burn and data from animal models pointed at histamine as an important mediator. Modern human clinical studies investigating the role of histamine as a mediator of the generalized post burn increase in vascular permeability are lacking. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethod: We examined histamine turnover by measuring the urinary excretion of histamine and methyl histamine for 48 h after burns in 8 patients (mean total burn surface area 24%). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Over time, in this time frame and compared to healthy controls we found a small increase in the excretion of histamine, but no increase of its metabolite methylhistamine. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Our findings do not support that histamine is an important mediator of the increased systemic vascular permeability seen after burn.

  • 25.
    Johansson, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology. Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Östersund Hospital, Research and Development Unit, Jämtland County Council, Östersund, Sweden.
    Bäckryd, Emmanuel
    Granerus, Göran
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Urinary excretion of histamine and methylhistamine after burns.2012In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 38, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The increased vascular permeability seen after burn contribute to morbidity and mortality as it interferes with organ function and the healing process. Large efforts have been made to explore underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that generate increased vascular permeability after burns. Many different substances have been proposed as mediators of which histamine, serotonin and oxygen radicals are claimed most important. However, no specific blocker has convincingly been shown to be clinically effective. Early work has claimed increased histamine plasma-concentrations in humans after burn and data from animal models pointed at histamine as an important mediator. Modern human clinical studies investigating the role of histamine as a mediator of the generalized post burn increase in vascular permeability are lacking.

    METHOD: We examined histamine turnover by measuring the urinary excretion of histamine and methyl histamine for 48 h after burns in 8 patients (mean total burn surface area 24%).

    RESULTS: Over time, in this time frame and compared to healthy controls we found a small increase in the excretion of histamine, but no increase of its metabolite methylhistamine.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support that histamine is an important mediator of the increased systemic vascular permeability seen after burn.

  • 26.
    Johansson, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology. Department of Perioperative Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lindbom, Lennart
    Herwald, Heiko
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Neutrophil-derived heparin binding protein--a mediator of increased vascular permeability after burns?2009In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 35, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased vascular permeability and oedema formation constitute a major clinical challenge following burns. Several clinical studies show that leukocytes are systemically activated following burns. Neutrophils have the capability to increase vascular permeability via mechanisms thought to involve the release of heparin binding protein (HBP). We hypothesised that HBP is elevated in plasma after major burns due to a systemic inflammatory response and investigated plasma-HBP concentrations in 10 severely burned patients daily for 1 week following the burn. Five-fold higher levels in plasma-HBP concentration compared to a control group were detected on the first day after injury, followed by a steep reduction in the time-period that corresponds to the last part of the hyperpermeability phase. These data are in accordance with the hypothesis that HBP may function as a mediator of the early burn-induced increase in vascular permeability, and call for further studies to confirm a possible cause-and-effect relationship between HBP and oedema formation following burns.

  • 27.
    Johansson, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology. Department of Perioperative Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Florence
    Bodelsson, Mikael
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Dynamics of leukocyte receptors after severe burns: an exploratory study.2011In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 37, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Patients with burns are susceptible to organ failure, and there is indirect evidence that leukocytes may contribute to this process. They may change the expression of cell-surface receptors after certain stimuli, for example, the burn. We therefore aimed to assess the changes induced by the burn in the expression of leukocyte cell-surface receptors CD11b, CD14, CD16, and CD62L on the surface of PMNs and monocytes. We also wanted to examine the dynamics of this activation during the first week after the burn, and to relate it to the size of the injury.

    METHODS: Ten patients with burns of >15% (TBSA) were included in the study. Blood samples were collected on arrival and every consecutive morning during the first week. Healthy volunteers acted as controls.

    RESULTS: PMN CD11b expression was increased. The extent of PMN CD11b expression correlated negatively to the size of the full thickness burn. Monocyte CD14 expression increased initially but there was no relation to the size of the burn. PMN CD16 expression decreased initially during the first days and the decrease was related to burn size. CD62L did not vary depending on the burn in either PMN or monocytes during the first week after the burn.

    CONCLUSION: This study showed that specific receptors on the surface of leukocytes (PMN CD11b, monocyte CD14 and PMN CD16) are affected by the burn. Expression of PMN CD11b and CD16 are related to burn size. Burn-induced effects on the expression of PMN receptors, such as PMN CD11b and CD16, may contribute to burn-induced infection susceptibility.

  • 28. Liffner, G
    et al.
    Bak, Zoltan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Reske, A
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Inhalation injury assessed by score does not contribute to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in burn victims2005In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 263-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To establish the incidence, mortality, and time of onset of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in relation to extent of burn and inhalation injury in patients who required mechanical ventilation. Design: Data about burn and inhalation injury were recorded prospectively whereas ARDS and multiple organ dysfunction were assessed by review of patient charts. Setting: National burn intensive care unit at Linköping University Hospital, Sweden (a tertiary referral hospital). Patients: Between 1993 and 1999, we studied all patients with thermal injury (n = 553) who required mechanical ventilation for more than two days (n = 91). Measurements and results: Out of the thirty-six burn victims who developed ARDS (40%), 25 (70%) did so early post burn (in less than 6 days). Patients with ARDS had higher multiple organ dysfunction scores (mean 10.5) than those who did not develop ARDS (mean 5.6) (p < 0.01). The probable presence of inhalation injury as assessed by an inhalation lung injury score (ILIS) did not contribute to the development of ARDS. Mortality tended to be higher in patients who developed ARDS (14%) compared to those who did not (6%, p = 0.2). Conclusions: In our burn patients the incidence of ARDS was high whereas mortality was low. We found no association between inhalation injury as assessed using the ILIS and development of ARDS. Our data support a multi-factorial origin of ARDS in burn victims as a part of a multiple organ failure event. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  • 29.
    Lindahl, Filip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tesselaar, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Assessing paediatric scald injuries using Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging2013In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 662-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The use of objective methods for assessment of burns is limited. Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) is a non-invasive technique for instant measurement of tissue perfusion, making it potentially valuable for early prediction of burn wound outcome.

    Aim

    To evaluate the influence of technical factors on perfusion and to measure perfusion in burns 0–14 days post-burn and compare this with the outcome of the burn wound at 14 days after burn.

    Method

    The effect of room light, camera distance and camera angle was studied using a suspension of polystyrene particles. LSCI measurements were performed on 45 scald burns and 32 uninjured areas 0–14 days after burn.

    Result

    Technical factors had no clinically relevant effect on measured perfusion. Burns that healed within 14 days had a higher perfusion during the first week post-burn than burns that healed after 14 days or underwent surgery. The difference in perfusion was largest 4–7 days after burn.

    Conclusion

    LSCI allows for robust, instant measurement of burns and can easily be applied in a clinical setting. Differences in perfusion during the first week post-burn are related to the outcome after 14 days.

  • 30.
    Lindahl, Olof Anton
    et al.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Umeå University Hospital and Linköping University, Sweden.
    Zdolsek, Joachim
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ängquist, Karl-Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Human postburn oedema measured with the impression method1993In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 479-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The course of tissue swelling in human non-injured skin after burn injury was investigated with a non-invasive impression method that measures force and tissue fluid translocation during mechanical compression of the skin. Time-dependent changes in the fluid translocation and the interstitial-pressure related to impression force were measured on 11 occasions, during 3 weeks, in seven patients postburn. A mathematical model was fitted to the impression force curves and the parameters of the model depicted the time-dependent compartmental fluid shift in the postburn generalized oedema. Tissue fluid translocation increased significantly (P < 0.05) up to a maximum value after 6 days postburn and declined thereafter. This indicated a continuous increase in the generalized postburn oedema for the first 6 days postburn. Impression force at 3 weeks postburn was significantly lower (P < 0.001) as compared with the half-day postburn value, indicating an increased tissue pressure during the first days postburn. Parameter analysis indicated a flux of water-like fluid from the vasculature to the interstitial space during the first 6 days postburn. The spread of the values registered between different measurement sites was, however, large.

  • 31. Lindahl, Olof
    et al.
    Zdolsek, Joachim
    University Hospital, Linkoping, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery, and Burns.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    University Hospital, Linkoping, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery, and Burns.
    Ängquist, Karl-Axel
    Umeå University, Department of Physiology.
    Human postburn oedema measured with the impression method1993In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 479-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The course of tissue swelling in human non-injured skin after burn injury was investigated with a non-invasive impression method that measures force and tissue fluid translocation during mechanical compression of the skin. Time-dependent changes in the fluid translocation and the interstitial-pressure related to impression force were measured on 11 occasions, during 3 weeks, in seven patients postburn. A mathematical model was fitted to the impression force curves and the parameters of the model depicted the time-dependent compartmental fluid shift in the postburn generalized oedema. Tissue fluid translocation increased significantly (P < 0.05) up to a maximum value after 6 days postburn and declined thereafter. This indicated a continuous increase in the generalized postburn oedema for the first 6 days postburn. Impression force at 3 weeks postburn was significantly lower (P < 0.001) as compared with the half-day postburn value, indicating an increased tissue pressure during the first days postburn. Parameter analysis indicated a flux of water-like fluid from the vasculature to the interstitial space during the first 6 days postburn. The spread of the values registered between different measurement sites was, however, large.

  • 32.
    Mirdell, Robin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Farnebo, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Tesselaar, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Accuracy of laser speckle contrast imaging in the assessment of pediatric scald wounds2018In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 90-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Changes in microvascular perfusion in scalds in children during the first four days, measured with laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), are related to the time to healing and need for surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of LSCI on different days after injury in the prediction of healing outcome and if the accuracy can be improved by combining an early and a late measurement. Also, the accuracy of LSCI was compared with that of clinical assessment. Methods: Perfusion was measured between 0-24h and between 72-96h using LSCI in 45 children with scalds. On the same occasions, burn surgeons assessed the burns as healing amp;lt; 14days or healing amp;gt; 14days/surgery. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed for the early and late measurement and for the double measurement (DM) using two different methods. Results: Sensitivity and specificity were 92.3% (95% CI: 64.0-99.8%) and 78.3% (95% CI: 69.985.3%) between 0-24h, 100% (95% CI: 84.6-100%) and 90.4% (95% CI: 83.8-94.9%) between 72-96h, and was 100% (95% CI: 59.0-100%) and 100% (95% CI: 95.1-100%) when combining the two measurements into a modified perfusion trend. Clinical assessment had an accuracy of 67%, Cohens k=0.23. Conclusion: The perfusion in scalds between 72-96h after injury, as measured using LSCI, is highly predictive of healing outcome in scalds when measured. The predictive value can be further improved by incorporating an early perfusion measurement within 24h after injury. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-08-07 10:43
  • 33.
    Mirdell, Robin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Iredahl, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Farnebo, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Tesselaar, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Microvascular blood flow in scalds in children and its relation to duration of wound healing: A study using laser speckle contrast imaging2016In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 648-654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Microvascular perfusion changes in scalds in children during the first weeks after injury is related to the outcome of healing, and measurements of perfusion, based on laser Doppler imaging, have been used successfully to predict the need for excision and grafting. However, the day-to-day changes in perfusion during the first weeks after injury have not to our knowledge been studied in detail. The aim of this study, based on a conservative treatment model where excision and grafting decisions were delayed to day 14 after injury, was to measure changes in perfusion in scalds using laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) during the first three weeks after injury. Methods: We measured perfusion with LSCI in 34 patients at regular intervals between 6 h after injury until complete reepithelialization or surgery. Duration of healing was defined as the time to complete reepithelialization. Results: Less perfusion, between 6 and 96 h after injury, was associated with longer duration of healing with the strongest association occurring between 72 and 96 h. Burns that healed within 14 days had relatively high initial perfusion, followed by a peak and subsequent slow decrease. Both the maximum perfusion and the time-to-peak were dependent on the severity of the burn. Burns that needed excision and grafting had less initial perfusion and a gradual reduction over time. Conclusion: The perfusion in scalds in children shows characteristic patterns during the first weeks after injury depending on the duration of wound healing, the greatest difference between wounds of different severity being on the 4th day. Perfusion should therefore preferably be measured on the fourth day if it is to be used in the assessment of burn depth. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Bak, Zoltan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Letter: Patient controlled sedation using a standard protocol for dressing changes in burns: Patients preference, procedural details and a preliminary safety evaluation. Are studies always adequately powered and analyzed? Response2010In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 948-950Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 35.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Liköping University hospital.
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Bak, Zoltan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Unit . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Patient controlled sedation using a standard protocol for dressing changes in burns: Patients' preference, procedural details and a preliminary safety evaluation2008In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 929-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patient controlled sedation (PCS) enables patients to titrate doses of drugs by themselves during different procedures involving pain or discomfort. Methods: We studied it in a prospective crossover design using a fixed protocol without lockout time to examine it as an alternative method of sedation for changing dressings in burned patients. Eleven patients with >10% total burn surface area (TBSA) had their dressings changed, starting with sedation by an anaesthetist (ACS). The second dressing change was done with PCS (propofol/alfentanil) and the third time the patients had to choose ACS or PCS. During the procedures, data on cardiopulmonary variables, sedation (bispectral index), pain intensity (VAS), procedural details, doses of drugs, and patients' preferences were collected to compare the two sedation techniques. Results: The study data indicated that wound care in burned patients is feasible with a standardized PCS protocol. The patients preferred PCS to ACS on the basis of self-control, and because they had less discomfort during the recovery period. Wound care was also considered adequate by the staff during PCS. No respiratory (respiratory rate/transcutaneous PCO2) or cardiovascular (heart rate/blood pressure) adverse events were recorded at any time during any of the PCS procedures. The doses of propofol and alfentanil and BIS index decrease were less during PCS than ACS. Procedural pain was higher during PCS but lower after the procedure. Conclusion: We suggest that PCS using a standard protocol is an interesting alternative to anaesthetist-provided sedation during dressing changes. It seems effective, saves resources, is safe, and at same time is preferred by the patients. The strength of these conclusions is, however, hampered by the small size of this investigation and therefore further studies are warranted. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI.

  • 36. Nilsson, Heléne
    et al.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    Vikström, Tore
    Bengtsson, Eva
    Thorfinn, Johan
    Huss, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Kildal, Morten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Simulation-assisted burn disaster planning2013In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 1122-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the Swedish medical systems response to a mass casualty burn incident in a rural area with a focus on national coordination of burn care. Data were collected from two simulations of a mass casualty incident with burns in a rural area in the mid portion of Sweden close to the Norwegian border, based on a large inventory of emergency resources available in this area as well as regional hospitals, university hospitals and burn centres in Sweden and abroad. The simulation system Emergo Train System® (ETS) was used and risk for preventable death and complications were used as outcome measures: simulation I, 18.5% (n = 13) preventable deaths and 15.5% (n = 11) preventable complications; simulation II, 11.4% (n = 8) preventable deaths and 11.4% (n = 8) preventable complications. The last T1 patient was evacuated after 7 h in simulation I, compared with 5 h in simulation II. Better national coordination of burn care and more timely distribution based on the experience from the first simulation, and possibly a learning effect, led to a better patient outcome in simulation II. The experience using a system that combines both process and outcome indicators can create important results that may support disaster planning.

  • 37.
    Nilsson, Heléne
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vikström, Tore
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Eva
    Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thorfinn, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Huss, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Kildal, Morten
    Department of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Simulation-assisted burn disaster planning2013In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 1122-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the Swedish medical systems response to a mass casualty burn incident in a rural area with a focus on national coordination of burn care. Data were collected from two simulations of a mass casualty incident with burns in a rural area in the mid portion of Sweden close to the Norwegian border, based on a large inventory of emergency resources available in this area as well as regional hospitals, university hospitals and burn centres in Sweden and abroad. The simulation system Emergo Train System (R) (ETS) was used and risk for preventable death and complications were used as outcome measures: simulation I, 18.5% (n = 13) preventable deaths and 15.5% (n = 11) preventable complications; simulation II, 11.4% (n = 8) preventable deaths and 11.4% (n = 8) preventable complications. The last T1 patient was evacuated after 7 h in simulation I, compared with 5 h in simulation II. Better national coordination of burn care and more timely distribution based on the experience from the first simulation, and possibly a learning effect, led to a better patient outcome in simulation II. The experience using a system that combines both process and outcome indicators can create important results that may support disaster planning.

  • 38. Orwelius, L.
    et al.
    Willebrand, Mimmie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Gerdin, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Fredrikson, M.
    Sjoberg, F.
    Long term health-related quality of life after burns is strongly dependent on pre-existing disease and psychosocial issues and less due to the burn itself2013In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 229-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is reduced after a burn, and is affected by coexisting conditions. The aims of the investigation were to examine and describe effects of coexisting disease on HRQoL, and to quantify the proportion of burned people whose HRQoL was below that of a reference group matched for age, gender, and coexisting conditions. Method: A nationwide study covering 9 years and examined HRQoL 12 and 24 months after the burn with the SF-36 questionnaire. The reference group was from the referral area of one of the hospitals. Results: The HRQoL of the burned patients was below that of the reference group mainly in the. mental dimensions, and only single patients were affected in the physical dimensions. The factor that significantly affected most HRQoL dimensions (n = 6) after the burn was unemployment, whereas only smaller effects could be attributed directly to the burn. Conclusion: Poor HRQoL was recorded for only a small number of patients, and the decline were mostly in the mental dimensions when compared with a group adjusted for age, gender, and coexisting conditions. Factors other than the burn itself, such as mainly unemployment and pre-existing disease, were most important for the long term HRQoL experience in these patients.

  • 39.
    Orwelius, Lotti
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Willebrand, M
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Gerdin, B
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ekselius, L
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Long term health-related quality of life after burns is strongly dependent on pre-existing disease and psychosocial issues and less due to the burn itself2013In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 229-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is reduced after a burn, and is affected by coexisting conditions. The aims of the investigation were to examine and describe effects of coexisting disease on HRQoL, and to quantify the proportion of burned people whose HRQoL was below that of a reference group matched for age, gender, and coexisting conditions.

    Method

    A nationwide study covering 9 years and examined HRQoL 12 and 24 months after the burn with the SF-36 questionnaire. The reference group was from the referral area of one of the hospitals.

    Results

    The HRQoL of the burned patients was below that of the reference group mainly in the mental dimensions, and only single patients were affected in the physical dimensions. The factor that significantly affected most HRQoL dimensions (n = 6) after the burn was unemployment, whereas only smaller effects could be attributed directly to the burn.

    Conclusion

    Poor HRQoL was recorded for only a small number of patients, and the decline were mostly in the mental dimensions when compared with a group adjusted for age, gender, and coexisting conditions. Factors other than the burn itself, such as mainly unemployment and pre-existing disease, were most important for the long term HRQoL experience in these patients.

  • 40.
    Osborne, Candice L.
    et al.
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.
    Petersson, Christina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Graham, James E.
    Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.
    Meyer, Walter J.
    Shriners Hospital for Children, Shriners Burn Hospital, Galveston, Texas, USA.
    Simeonsson, Rune J.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication. FPG Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Suman, Oscar E.
    Shriners Hospital for Children, Shriners Burn Hospital, Galveston, Texas, USA.
    Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.
    Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.
    The multicenter benchmarking study of burn injury: A content analysis of the outcome measures using the international classification of functioning, disability and health2016In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 1396-1403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To link, classify and describe the content of the Multicenter Benchmarking Study Burn Outcomes Questionnaires (BOQ) using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to determine if the information garnered provides researchers with the data necessary to develop a comprehensive understanding of life after burns.

    Methods: Two ICF linking experts used a standardized linking technique endorsed by the World Health Organization to link all BOQ concepts to the ICF. Linking results were analyzed to determine the comprehensiveness of each of the five measures.

    Results: The activities and participation component was most frequently addressed followed by the body functions component. Environmental factors are not extensively covered and body structures are not addressed. ICF chapter and category distribution were skewed and varied between assessments. The majority of BOQ items are of the health status perspective.

    Conclusion: BOQ item composition could be improved with a more even distribution of pertinent ICF topics. Assessment authors may consider addressing the impact of environmental factors on participation. Including body structure concepts would allow investigators to track structural deformation and/or developmental delay. Generally speaking, this data should not be used to examine quality of life outcomes.

  • 41.
    Othman, Nasih
    et al.
    Sulaimani Polytech University, Iraq.
    Kendrick, Denise
    University of Nottingham, England.
    Al-Windi, Ahmad
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Childhood burns in Sulaimaniyah province, Iraqi Kurdistan: A prospective study of admissions and outpatients2015In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 394-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While it is globally observed that young children are at a higher risk of burn injuries, little is known about childhood burns in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to describe the epidemiology of burns amongst pre-school children in this region. Methods: A prospective study was undertaken from November 2007 to November 2008 involving all children aged 0-5 years attending the burns centre in Sulaimaniyah province for a new burn injury whether treated as an outpatient or admitted to hospital. Results: 1,122 children attended the bums centre of whom 944 (84%) were interviewed (male 53%, female 47%). Mean age was 1.9 years with children aged 1 year comprising 32% and those aged 2 years comprising 21% of the sample. The incidence of bums was 1044/100,000 person-years (1030 in females and 1057 in males). Mechanisms of injury included scalds (80%), contact burns (12%) flames (6%) and other mechanisms (2%). Almost 97% of burns occurred at home including 43% in the kitchen. Winter was the commonest season (36%) followed by autumn (24%). There were 3 peak times of injury during the day corresponding to meal times. The majority of bums were caused by hot water (44%) and tea (20%) and the most common equipment/products responsible were tea utensils (41%). There were 237 admissions with an admission rate of 95 per 100,000 person-years. Scald injuries accounted for most admissions (84%). Median total body surface area affected by the burn or scald (TBSA) was 11% and median hospital stay was 7 days. In-hospital mortality was 8%. Mortality rate was 4% when TBSA was less than= 25%, and 100% when TBSA was over 50%. Conclusion: Burn incidence is high in young children especially those aged 1-2 years. Preventive interventions targeted at families with young children and focusing on home safety measures could be effective in reducing childhood burns.

  • 42. Parment, Karin
    et al.
    Zetterberg, Anna
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Bakteman, Karin
    Steinwall, Ingrid
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Long-term immunosuppression in burned patients assessed by in vitro neutrophil oxidative burst (Phagoburst®)2007In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 865-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess the duration and magnitude of immunosuppression induced by burns as measured by the neutrophil oxidative burst in vitro. Design: Prospective exploratory cohort study. Setting: Tertiary referral unit, University Hospital, Linkoping, Sweden (National Burn Unit). Patients and healthy volunteers (controls): Twenty-eight subjects consecutively admitted to the Burn Unit. The mean total burn surface area (TBSA%) was 36 (range 13-87) and mean age 44 years (range 14-89). Patients' data were collected prospectively in the burn unit, which also included sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score. Interventions: None. Measurements and results: To assess the changes in the oxidative capacity of neutrophils after the burn, blood samples for the Phagoburst® analysis were taken on admission and at least once every second week for the duration of stay in hospital and thereafter monthly up to 12 months after the burn. Neutrophils were stimulated in vitro by Escherichia coli, phorbol 12-phorbol myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and peptide N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP). Oxidative burst was measured by flow cytometry. Oxidative capacity of the neutrophils decreased similarly for all three stimulants: there was a pathological decrease shortly after admission, with the lowest value occurring between days 7 and 10, followed by a gradual recovery during the ensuing months. Full recovery (to the values of the controls) was seen first 3.5 months after the burn. Using multiple regression, we found that only age and time since the burn significantly (p < 0.05) affected the oxidative burst. White cell count (WCC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) values returned to reference ranges long before the oxidative burst. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that immunosuppression in those injured by burns, as assessed by the in vitro oxidative burst of neutrophils, remains long after the event of the burn (up to 3.5 months after burn). Absence of correlations to TBSA%, FTB%, blood transfusion, opiates provided, and multiple organ failure score and laboratory infection variables together with the finding that decreased oxidative burst was uniform after the injury, suggesting that this immunosuppression is primarily due to the general metabolic response rather than recurring infections. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI.

  • 43.
    Pompermaier, Laura
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology.
    Elmasry, Moustafa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. The Plastic Surgery Unit, Surgery Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.
    Thorfinn, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Burned patients who die from causes other than the burn affect the model used to predict mortality: a national exploratory study2018In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 280-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The Baux score - the sum of age and total body surface area burned (TBSA %) - is a good predictor of mortality has a high specificity but low sensitivity. Our aim was to examine the causes of death in patients who die with Baux scores of <100, which may explain the lower sensitivity and possibly affect the prediction of mortality.

    METHODS: All patients admitted to our centre for burn care from 1993 to 2015 (n=1946) were included in this retrospective, descriptive, exploratory study. The study group comprised those patients who died with Baux scores of <100 (n=23), and their medical charts were examined for the cause of death and for coexisting diseases.

    RESULTS: Crude mortality was 5% (93/1946) for the overall cohort, and a quarter of the patients who died (23/93) had Baux scores of less than 100 (range 64-99). In this latter group, flame burns were the most common (18/23), the median (10th-90th centile) age was 70 (46-86) years and for TBSA 21 (5.0-40.5) %, of which 7 (0-27.0) % of the area was full thickness. The main causes of death in 17 of the 23 were classified as "other than burn", being cerebral disease (n=9), cardiovascular disease (n=6), and respiratory failure (n=2). Among the remaining six (burn-related) deaths, multiple organ failure (predominantly renal failure) was responsible. When we excluded the cases in which the cause of death was not related to the burn, the Baux mortality prediction value improved (receiver operating characteristics area under the curve, AUC) from 0.9733 (95% CI 0.9633-0.9834) to 0.9888 (95% CI 0.9839-0.9936) and the sensitivity estimate increased from 45.2% to 53.9%.

    CONCLUSION: Patients with burns who died with a Baux score <100 were a quarter of all the patients who died. An important finding is that most of these deaths were caused by reasons other than the burn, usually cerebrovascular disease. This may be the explanation why the sensitivity of the Baux score is low, as factors other than age and TBSA % explain the fatal outcome.

  • 44.
    Pompermaier, Laura
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Elmasry, Moustafa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Suez Canal University, Egypt.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Response to comments on: Burned patients who die from causes other than the burn affect the model used to predict mortality: A national exploratory study2017In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 43, no 8, p. 1827-1827Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 45.
    Pompermaier, Laura
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Inclusion of coexisting morbidity in a TBSA% and age based model for the prediction of mortality after burns does not increase its predictive power2015In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1868-1876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Several models for predicting mortality have been developed for patients with burns, and the most commonly used are based on age and total body surface area (TBSA%). They often show good predictive precision as depicted by high values for area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). However the effect of coexisting morbidity on such prediction models has not to our knowledge been thoroughly examined. We hypothesised that adding it to a previously published model (based on age, TBSA%, full thickness burns, gender, and need for mechanical ventilation) would further improve its predictive power. Methods: We studied 772 patients admitted during the period 1997-2008 to the Linkoping University Hospital, National Burn Centre with any type of burns. We defined coexisting morbidity as any of the medical conditions listed in the Charlson list, as well as psychiatric disorders or drug or alcohol misuse. We added coexisting medical conditions to the model for predicting mortality (age, TBSA%, and need for mechanical ventilation) to determine whether it improved the model as assessed by changes in deviances between the models. Results: Mean (SD) age and TBSA% was 35 (26) years and 13 (17) %, respectively. Among 725 patients who survived, 105 (14%) had one or more coexisting condition, compared with 28 (60%) among those 47 who died. The presence of coexisting conditions increased with age (p &lt; 0.001) among patients with burns. The AUC of the mortality prediction model in this study, based on the variables age, TBSA%, and need for mechanical ventilation was 0.980 (n = 772); after inclusion of coexisting morbidity in the model, the AUC improved only marginally, to 0.986. The model was not significantly better either. Conclusion: Adding coexisting morbidity to a model for prediction of mortality after a burn based on age, TBSA%, and the need for mechanical ventilation did not significantly improve its predictive value. This is probably because coexisting morbidity is automatically adjusted for by age in the original model. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  • 46.
    Pompermaier, Laura
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thorfinn, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology.
    Long-term survival after burns in a Swedish population2017In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 157-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: As widely reported, the progress in burn care during recent decades has reduced the hospital mortality. The effect of the burns on long-term outcome has not received so much attention, and more study is indicated. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the long-time survival among patients who had been treated for burns.

    METHODS: We studied 1487 patients who were discharged alive from the Linköping University Hospital Burn Centre during the period 1993 until the end of December 2012. We used Cox's regression analysis to study the effect of burns on long-term survival after adjustment for different factors.

    RESULTS: Age and a full-thickness burn were significantly associated with mortality after discharge (p<0.001), whereas percentage of total body surface area burned (TBSA %), need for mechanical ventilation, and gender were not. Less than 1% of the patients with burns (13/1487) died within 30 days of discharge and a total of 176/1487 (12%) died during follow-up.

    CONCLUSION: Age and full-thickness burns reduce the long-time survival after discharge from the Burn Centre, whereas the effect of TBSA% and need for artificial ventilation ends with discharge.

  • 47.
    Rakar, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Krammer, Markus P.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Human melanocytes mitigate keratinocyte-dependent contraction in an in vitro collagen contraction assay2015In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 1035-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scarring is an extensive problem in burn care, and treatment can be especially complicated in cases of hypertrophic scarring. Contraction is an important factor in scarring but the contribution of different cell types remains unclear. We have investigated the contractile behavior of keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts by using an in vitro collagen gel assay aimed at identifying a modulating role of melanocytes in keratinocyte-mediated contraction. Cells were seeded on a collagen type I gel substrate and the change in gel dimensions were measured over time. Hematoxylin and Eosin-staining and immunohistochemistry against pan-cytokeratin and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor showed that melanocytes integrated between keratinocytes and remained there throughout the experiments. Keratinocyte- and fibroblast-seeded gels contracted significantly over time, whereas melanocyte-seeded gels did not. Co-culture assays showed that melanocytes mitigate the keratinocyte-dependent contraction (significantly slower and 18-32% less). Fibroblasts augmented the contraction in most assays (approximately 6% more). Non-contact co-cultures showed some influence on the keratinocyte-dependent contraction. Results show that mechanisms attributable to melanocytes, but not fibroblasts, can mitigate keratinocyte contractile behavior. Contact-dependent mechanisms are stronger modulators than non-contact dependent mechanisms, but both modes carry significance to the contraction modulation of keratinocytes. Further investigations are required to determine the mechanisms involved and to determine the utility of melanocytes beyond hypopigmentation in improved clinical regimes of burn wounds and wound healing.

  • 48.
    Rådman, Lisa
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Physiotherapy, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nilsagård, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Neurosensory findings among electricians with self-reported remaining symptoms after an electrical injury: A case series2016In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1712-1720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Symptoms described in previous studies indicate that electrical injury can cause longstanding injuries to the neurosensory nerves. The aim of the present case series was to objectively assess the profile of neurosensory dysfunction in electricians in relation to high voltage or low voltage electrical injury and the "no-let-go phenomenon".

    Methods: Twenty-three Swedish male electricians exposed to electrical injury were studied by using a battery of clinical instruments, including quantitative sensory testing (QST). The clinical test followed a predetermined order of assessments: thermal perceptions thresholds, vibration perception thresholds, tactile gnosis (the Shape and Texture Identification test), manual dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test), and grip strength. In addition, pain was studied by means of a questionnaire, and a colour chart was used for estimation of white fingers.

    Results: The main findings in the present case series were reduced thermal perceptions thresholds, where half of the group showed abnormal values for warm thermal perception and/or cold thermal perception. Also, the tactile gnosis and manual dexterity were reduced. High voltage injury was associated with more reduced sensibility compared to those with low voltage.

    Conclusion: Neurosensory injury can be objectively assessed after an electrical injury by using QST with thermal perception thresholds. The findings are consistent with injuries to small nerve fibres. In the clinical setting thermal perception threshold is therefore recommended, in addition to tests of tactile gnosis and manual dexterity (Purdue Pegboard).

  • 49. Rådman, Lisa
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar
    Nilsagård, Ylva
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Neurosensory findings among electricians with self-reported remaining symptoms after an electrical injury: A case series2016In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1712-1720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Symptoms described in previous studies indicate that electrical injury can cause longstanding injuries to the neurosensory nerves. The aim of the present case series was to objectively assess the profile of neurosensory dysfunction in electricians in relation to high voltage or low voltage electrical injury and the "no-let-go phenomenon".

    METHODS: Twenty-three Swedish male electricians exposed to electrical injury were studied by using a battery of clinical instruments, including quantitative sensory testing (QST). The clinical test followed a predetermined order of assessments: thermal perceptions thresholds, vibration perception thresholds, tactile gnosis (the Shape and Texture Identification test), manual dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test), and grip strength. In addition, pain was studied by means of a questionnaire, and a colour chart was used for estimation of white fingers.

    RESULTS: The main findings in the present case series were reduced thermal perceptions thresholds, where half of the group showed abnormal values for warm thermal perception and/or cold thermal perception. Also, the tactile gnosis and manual dexterity were reduced. High voltage injury was associated with more reduced sensibility compared to those with low voltage.

    CONCLUSION: Neurosensory injury can be objectively assessed after an electrical injury by using QST with thermal perception thresholds. The findings are consistent with injuries to small nerve fibres. In the clinical setting thermal perception threshold is therefore recommended, in addition to tests of tactile gnosis and manual dexterity (Purdue Pegboard).

  • 50.
    Samuelsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Abdiu, Avni
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Wackenfors, Angelica
    Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery Linköpings Universitet.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Unit . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Serotonin kinetics in patients with burn injuries: A comparison between the local and systemic responses measured by microdialysis-A pilot study2008In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 617-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate serotonin (5HT) locally in burned and uninjured skin (intracutaneous) by microdialysis, and simultaneously record urinary and blood values in the same subjects. For comparison, serotonin values were also measured in skin of healthy controls. Design and setting: An experimental study in burned patients with of more than 25% TBSA (total burn surface area) % in an 8-bed tertiary burns unit, serving about 3.5 million persons. Patients and methods: Six subjects with a median TBSA% of 59% (range 33.5-90), and five healthy controls were examined by intracutaneous microdialysis of the skin. Results: 5HT was increased in burned patients, compared with controls. This increase was tenfold in skin and was noted both in uninjured and burned skin. The highest values were recorded on day 1 (median 16.1 nmol in uninjured and 9.5 nmol in burned skin) and day 2 (15.6 nmol in uninjured and 13.4 nmol in burned skin). A rapid reduction was noted on day 3 (4.9 nmol in uninjured and 3.8 nmol in burned skin). The corresponding value for control subjects was 1.3 nmol. The 5HT in blood was twice normal on day 2, and gradually reduced on days 3 and 4 (3189, 3035 and 2573 nmol, respectively). Urinary 5HT concentrations were increased only on day 2 at 1755 nmol and thereafter returned to the normal range on days 3 and 4 (1248 and 1344 nmol, respectively). Conclusions: We showed that microdialysis may be used in the critical care of burns, and local skin serotonin concentrations examined continuously for several days. The findings of significantly raised tissue serotonin concentrations, compared to that in blood and urine, suggests that serotonin may be important in local vascular control and formation of oedema. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI.

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