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  • 1.
    Arvidsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jonsson, Lars J.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Birkhofer, Klaus
    Lund University.
    Geographic location, not forest type, affects the diversity of spider communities sampled with malaise traps in Sweden2016In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 53, no 3-4, p. 215-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The latitudinal diversity gradient predicts higher species richness at lower latitudes. Here, we utilize the data from a long-term monitoring with malaise traps to analyse if spider communities in Sweden are affected by geographic gradients and if these effects hold independent of forest type. The species richness and the effective number of species in spider communities were not significantly related to the latitudinal gradient. The effective number of species and the taxonomic distinctness of spider communities were related to longitude, with a higher number, but fewer related species in western parts of Sweden. The species and family composition were significantly related to latitude independent of forest type, with a dominance of Linyphiidae individuals and species in the north. Our study demonstrates the suitability of malaise trap sampling to contribute to a better understanding of local spider communities, as several rare and locally new species were recorded in this study.

  • 2.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sex role reversal in a pipefish: female ornaments as amplifying handicaps2000In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reasons for sex role reversal in the pipefish Syngnathus typhle are reviewed. In this species, females compete for males, which are choosier than females. Before mating, females display a sexual ornament, a cross-wise striped pattern along their body sides. This ornament is here shown to be an amplifier that facilitates for males to tell females of different sizes apart (males prefer larger females). When students were asked to compare bar sizes, where bars differed in "ornamentation", accuracy in estimating size was highest with "heavy ornamented" as compared with "intermediate" or "not ornamented" bars. Moreover, bar size was more accurately judged with crosswise than with lengthwise striped bars, explaining why stripes run cross- rather than lengthwise in females. The ornament is probably costly (it reduces crypsis and may be socially provocative), and it is also attractive to males. Thus, the ornament is best described as an amplifying handicap.

  • 3.
    Dowling, Damian K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Mulder, Raoul A.
    Red plumage and its association with reproductive success in red-capped robins2006In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 311-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Red plumage is produced mainly by deposition of carotenoid'pigments into the feathers, and is assumed to be costly. Recent studies suggest red plumage may be a condition-dependent, sexually selected signal. To date, few studies have explored the relationship between carotenoid-based plumage colour and genetic (realised) reproductive success. This is despite the rarity of genetic monogamy among. avian mating systems. We studied. this-relationship. in the red-capped robin (Petroica goodenovii) across two breeding seasons, using spectrophotometric techniques, to score colour and molecular markers to assign paternity. Males with the highest. within-pair. reproductive success during the first season moulted into,the most colourful plumage at the conclusion of that season. We found;no such correlations, when using putative measures of reproductive success, underlining the importance of unambiguous paternity assignment. However, males that moulted into the most, colourful plumage did not go on to attain highest. reproductive success during-the, subsequent breeding season (while displaying this plumage). Instead, variation in male reproductive success was explained by male body condition and age. These results suggest that the information value of male-plumage colour is unpredictable.

  • 4.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Animal Ecology, University of Umeå.
    Lundberg, Per
    Department of Wildlife Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Intraspecific variation in calling, time allocation and energy reserves in breeding male common frogs Rana temporaria1991In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time allocation during breeding was studied in unmated male common frogs Rana temporaria Linnaeus in three populations along a gradient of altitude, climate and length of feeding season. The length of the breeding period decreased with increased altitude. All three populations had low activity levels (0-33% of the time during peak chorusing). Peak chorusing in the lowland population was due to more males participating in the chorus, and not to increased individual calling activity. An increase in mating effort at this time was nevertheless indicated by the males 'using more time for moving in the pond. At both montane localities, males called more sparsely, and not at all at night. During peak chorusing, calling and moving males became significantly rarer with increased altitude. Aggressive males were significantly rarer in the alpine population. Between-locality variation was evident in fat reserves after hibernation and during breeding; the relative fat body mass was significantly higher in lowland males than in mid-altitude and alpine males. We discuss male mating activity (here: calling, mate searching and aggression) in ultimate terms as a trade-off between mate acquisition and survival.

  • 5.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Nummi, Petri
    Department of Applied Biology, University of Helsinki.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Joensuu Game and Fisheries Research.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Department of Animal Ecology, wedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Early breeding teal Anas crecca use the best lakes and have the highest reproductive success2005In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 37-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teal (Anas crecca) broods were studied in 1988-2003 in a boreal watershed comprising 51 permanent wetlands. Brood size of near-fledged ducklings was negatively related to the hatching date, i.e. early pairs had higher reproductive success than late pairs. However, brood size of newly hatched ducklings was not related to the hatching date, implying that the advantage of early breeding is due to processes operating during the brood stage rather than during nesting. Half of the lakes never produced a brood, and among the 26 lakes that actually did, two `preferred' lakes generated 44% of the broods and 55% of the near-fledged ducklings. Early broods were over-represented on such `preferred' lakes, and late broods over-represented on `less preferred' lakes. Our study suggests that lake selection and early nesting may have important fitness consequences in teal.

  • 6.
    Elmhagen, Bodil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Hellström, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Kindberg, Jonas
    Changes in vole and lemming fluctuations in northern Sweden 1960-2008 revealed by fox dynamics2011In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 167-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclic dynamics with extensive spatial synchrony has long been regarded as characteristic of key herbivores at high latitudes. This contrasts to recent reports of fading cycles in arvicoline rodents in boreal and alpine Fennoscandia. We investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of boreal red fox and alpine arctic fox in Sweden as a proxy for the dynamics of their main prey, voles and Norwegian lemming, respectively. We analyse data from five decades, 1960-2008, with wavelets and autocorrelation approaches. Cyclic dynamics were identified with at least one method in all populations (arctic fox n = 3, red fox n = 6). The dynamics were synchronous between populations, or coupled with a 1-yr lag, in 8 of 13 pairwise comparisons. Importantly though, the dynamics were heterogeneous in space and time. All analytical approaches identified fading cycles in the three arctic fox populations and two northern red fox populations. At least one method identified similar patterns in three southern red fox populations. Red fox dynamics were cyclic in the 1970s primarily, while arctic fox dynamics was cyclic until the late 1980s or early 1990s. When cyclic, 4-yr cycles dominated in arctic fox and northern red fox, whilst 3-4-yr cycles was found in southern red foxes. Significant cyclic regimes reappeared in the 1990s or 2000s in two red fox populations and one arctic fox population. Cycles and regionally coupled dynamics appeared associated in northern arctic and red foxes. This study supports accumulating evidence which suggests that cyclic and synchronous patterns in the dynamics of lemmings and voles are nonstationary in space and time. Furthermore, the similar patterns of change in both fox species indicate that persistence of cycles is governed by similar mechanisms in lemmings and voles.

  • 7.
    Fox, Anthony D.
    et al.
    Aarhus University.
    Jonsson, Jon Einar
    University of Iceland.
    Aarvak, Tomas
    Norwegian Ornithological Society .
    Bregnballe, Thomas
    Aarhus University.
    Christensen, Thomas Kjaer
    Aarhus University.
    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann
    Aarhus University.
    Clausen, Preben
    Aarhus University.
    Dalby, Lars
    Aarhus University.
    Holm, Thomas Eske
    Aarhus University.
    Pavon-Jordan, Diego
    University of Helsinki.
    Laursen, Karsten
    Aarhus University.
    Lehikoinen, Aleksi
    University of Helsinki.
    Lorentsen, Svein-Hakon
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research.
    Moller, Anders Pape
    University of Paris .
    Nordstrom, Mikael
    Metsahallitus Pk & Wildlife, Finland.
    Ost, Markus
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Soderquist, Par
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Therkildsen, Ole Roland
    Aarhus University.
    Current and potential threats to Nordic duck populations - a horizon scanning exercise2015In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 193-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the current and future threats to duck populations that breed, stage, moult and/or winter in the Nordic countries. Migratory duck species are sensitive indicators of their changing environment, and their societal value confirms the need to translate signals from changes in their distribution, status and abundance into a better understanding of changes occurring in their wetland environments. We used expert opinion to highlight 25 major areas of anthropogenic change (and touch briefly on potential mitigation measures through nature restoration and reserve management projects) that we consider key issues likely to influence Nordic duck populations now and in the near future to stimulate debate, discussion and further research. We believe such reviews are essential in contributing to development of successful management policy as well as stimulating specific research to support the maintenance of duck species in favourable future conservation status in the face of multiple population pressures and drivers.

  • 8. Franzén, M.
    et al.
    Larsson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Ecological Botany.
    Pollen harvesting and reproductive rates in specialized solitary bees2007In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 405-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Andrena humilis is an endangered oligolectic solitary bee and has declined in recent decades throughout western Europe. The aim of this study was to explore the pollen harvesting pattern and to determine the reproductive rate in specialized andrenid bees. We measured the amount of pollen required to produce one brood-cell, the pollen harvesting rate and compared our results with data for other specialized andrenid bee species. Pollen-foraging trips were registered and the activity events (entering, leaving or digging) recorded at the nests. The mean number of pollen-foraging trips per day was 5.3 and an average bee nest was active (and open) 88 min day(-1). The bees were highly efficient in harvesting pollen and spent on average 10.7 min to complete one pollen-foraging trip. Most pollen-foraging trips (77%) were completed in less than 15 min. The duration of pollen-foraging trips increased over the day, presumably because pollen became more costly to harvest. Based on pollen counts (pollen loads on bees and pollen provisions) an average bee required 3.85 foraging trips to complete one brood cell and one bee managed to accomplish 1.37 brood cells in one day with suitable weather. In the literature we found data on an additional 19 specialized andrenid bee species. Andrena humilis seems to be extremely efficient compared with most other species, with an average trip for pollen lasting almost one hour (average for andrenid bees = 46 min). An extremely low reproductive rate seems to be a common trait among specialized bees in the family Andrenidae with an average 0.9 offspring produced per day and less than ten offspring produced during the whole lifetime. The high degree of specialisation and the low reproductive rate among andrenid bees can explain the severe decline in many species today.

  • 9.
    Goropashnaya, Anna V.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Conservation Biology and Genetics.
    Fedorov, Vadim B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Conservation Biology and Genetics.
    Seifert, Bernhard
    Pamilo, Pekka
    Phylogeography and population structure in the ant Formica exsecta (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) across Eurasia as reflected by mitochondrial DNA variation and microsatellites2007In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 462-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phylogeography and population structure of the ant Formica exsecta was studied across Eurasia by using mtDNA sequences and microsatellite genotypes. The phylogeny based on 1.5 kb mtDNA fragment including the cytochrome b and part of the ND6 gene showed significant division (1.63% of nucleotide divergence) between a haplotype from Tibet and all other haplotypes. Similar to findings in diverse array of species associated with forest in Eurasia, the mtDNA phylogeny revealed no evidence for vicariant events due to separation in different forest refugia over glacial periods. The haplotype network includes several small clades (with 2-4 haplotypes in each) with geographically limited distribution, but one geographical region may have received haplotypes from two or more of such clades. This pattern could indicate mixing of different gene pools during postglacial colonization of Europe from different forest refugia or from an ancestral source with some spatial genetic differentiation. The genealogy and the haplotype frequencies suggest postglacial colonization of Siberia from a single refugial source of limited size. Maternal and biparental DNA markers indicated a moderate but significant level of population differentiation (mtDNA Phi(ST) = 0.42, microsatellite F-ST = 0.13) across Eurasia. However, no correlation between genetic differentiation estimated for mtDNA and microsatellites was found among the populations. Considerable reduction in microsatellite genetic diversity was found in the small population of F. exsecta in England, giving some basis to classify this population as near threatened.

  • 10.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Dessborn, Lisa
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Jonzén, Niclas
    Department of Theoretical Ecology, Lund University.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Joensuu.
    Valkama, Jari
    Finnish Museum of Natural History, Helsinki.
    Survival estimates, mortality patterns, and population growth of Fennoscandian mallards Anas platyrhynchos2008In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 483-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term mallard capture-recapture data from Sweden and Finland were analyzed to describe temporal mortality patterns and reasons. We used program MARK and Seber models to estimate annual survival (S) and recovery (r) rates. Survival rates were used in a Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the correspondence between observed and predicted annual population sizes of a Finnish sub-population. About 90% of recovered birds died from hunting. Most recoveries were from the hunting season, and more males than females were shot. Predation was the most common cause of natural mortality. Finnish capture-recapture data fitted best the global model in which survival and recovery vary with age and sex. Annual survival and recovery rates for adult and juvenile males and females were overlapping, ranging from 0.46 to 0.90 (survival) and 0.07 to 0.17 (recovery), whereas pulli had lower survival rates (0.21-0.42). Pulli that were successfully sexed at the time of ringing had higher recovery rates (female pulli: 0.23; male pulli: 0.32) than juveniles and adults. Density-dependent fledgling production was detected in the Finnish sub-population and was accounted for in the Monte Carlo simulation, which estimated predicted breeding population size quite well, although one of the observed annual values (2003) fell outside the 95% confidence limits.

  • 11.
    Gyllenberg, Mats
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Hanski, Ilkka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lindström, Torsten
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Conditional reproductive strategies under variable environmental conditions2017In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 54, no 1-4, p. 193-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the framework of adaptive dynamics we consider the evolution by natural selection of reproductive strategies in which individualsmay adjust their reproductive behaviour in response to changing environmental conditions. As a specific example we consider a discrete-time model in which possible fluctuations in the environmental conditions are caused by predator-prey interaction. Our main findings include: 1) Coexistence between two fixed strategies (i.e., strategies that do not adjust to changing environmental conditions) is impossible. There exists a best fixed strategy, which invades and ousts all other fixed strategies. 2) A necessary condition for conditional (adjustable) strategies to evolve is that there are fluctuations in the environmental conditions. Predator-prey interactions may cause such fluctuations and under natural assumptions there exists an optimal conditional strategy which is uninvadable and invades and ousts allother strategies.

  • 12.
    Hemborg, Christer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Ecology.
    Merilä, Juha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Reproductive investment and moult-breeding overlap in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis: an experimental approach1999In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We manipulated brood sizes of 132 pairs of the collared flycatcher to investigate whether or not an investment in reproduction was traded against an investment and timing of the post-nuptial moult. Our manipulations did not affect the probability of moult-breeding overlap in males, and there was no effect on their moult scores at fledging time of the young. Males and young birds initiated moult earlier than females and old birds, respectively. Very few females started moulting during the period of nestling care. Reproductive success in terms of recruitment rate of fledglings was independent of parental moult stage during reproduction, which indicates that the manipulation did not induce a trade-off between moult and post-fledging care. Furthermore, the survival probability of adults was independent of brood size manipulations and their moult stage at fledging time. Thus, our brood size manipulations showed no evidence for a trade-off between reproductive and moult investments in the collared flycatcher.

  • 13. Hoglund, J
    Lek-kin in birds - provoking theory and surprising new results2003In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 249-253Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Järemo, Johannes
    Lund University.
    A model on the evolution of cryptobiosis2003In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 331-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cryptobiosis is an ametabolic state of life entered by some lower organisms (among metazoans mainly rotifers, tardigrades and nematodes) in response to adverse environmental conditions. Despite a long recognition of cryptobiotic organisms, the evolutionary origin and life history consequences of this biological phenomenon have remained unexplored. We present one of the first theoretical models on the evolution of cryptobiosis, using a hypothetical population of marine tardigrades that migrates between open sea and the tidal zone as the model framework. Our model analyses the conditions under which investments into anhydrobiotic (cryptobiosis induced by desiccation) functions will evolve, and which factors affect the optimal level Of Such investments. In particular, we evaluate how the probability of being exposed to adverse conditions (getting stranded) and the consequences for survival Of Such exposure (getting desiccated) affects the option for cryptobiosis to evolve. The optimal level of investment into anhydrobiotic traits increases with increasing probability of being stranded as well as with increasing negative survival effects of being stranded. However, our analysis shows that the effect on survival of being stranded is a more important parameter than the probability of stranding for the evolution of anhydrobiosis. The existing, although limited, evidence from empirical studies seems to support some of these predictions.

  • 15. Kaikusalo, A.
    et al.
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    The Arctic Fox Population in Finnish Lapland During 30 Years, 1964-931995In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 69-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have monitored the number of arctic foxes and microtine rodents in northern Finland for 30 years. Arctic fox densities were estimated by inventories at den sites, and microtine abundance by snap trapping. Time series analyses showed that the arctic fox population fluctuated widely but always close together with the microtines in a five year cycle. However, there was no time lag in the numerical response of foxes on microtines. The strong dependence on microtines was confirmed by analyses of faecal droppings and food remains at dens. In summer time microtines consisted in average of 45% of the diet and reindeer 30%, but during winters reindeer was the most important food source with 45% compared to 15% for microtines. There was a surprising positive correlation between number of voles and reindeer carcasses, suggesting competition or alternatively an external correlation from e.g. weather. Mean litter size of the arctic fox was also highly dependent on microtine abundance but decreased during the study period despite that food resources had not changed. Further, when microtines had high densities during two consecutive years, arctic foxes only responded to the first year. A feeding experiment resulted in an increase in number of red foxes but had no or little effect on arctic foxes. So, it is difficult to single out one explanation to the decline and second year effect. Food was probably not involved and we do not know if diseases and parasites have been involved. However, both competition and predation, primarily from the red fox, may be responsible together with climatic or weather changes.

  • 16.
    Kauhala, Kaarina
    et al.
    LUKE.
    Kurkilahti, Mika
    LUKE.
    Ahola, Markus
    LUKE.
    Herrero, Annika
    LUKE.
    Karlsson, Olle
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of.
    Kunnasranta, Mervi
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Tillikainen, Raisa
    Metsähallitus.
    Vetemaa, Markus
    Estonian Marine Institute.
    Age, sex and body condition of Baltic grey seals: Are problem seals a random sample of the population?2015In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 52, p. 103-114Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Linløkken, Arne
    et al.
    Hedmark College, Department of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, Norway.
    Holt Seeland, Per Arne
    Hedmark College, Department of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, Norway.
    Growth and production of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) responding to biomass removal1996In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 33, p. 427-435Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Lohmus, Mare
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sundström, L. Fredrik
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Dress for success: human facial expressions are important signals of emotions2009In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 75-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to test how emotions affect individual neutral facial expressions and the reliability of humans to read these expressions, we photographed faces of 25 women wearing clothes in which they felt attractive, unattractive, or comfortable while expressing an emotionally neutral face. Men found the faces of women in attractive clothes the most attractive, whereas the faces of women in comfortable and unattractive clothes were ranked as intermediate and least attractive, respectively, even though the clothes were not visible in the photographs. Our results demonstrate that despite very subtle effects, the emotional state of women is perceived by men and that the two sexes are concordant on the signal sent and received. We show a close connection between exterior attributes, confidence, and how a person is perceived by others.

  • 19.
    Lundkvist, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Karlsson, F
    Dispersing diving beetles (Dytiscidae) in agricultural and urban landscapes in south-eastern Sweden2002In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 109-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flying dytiscids were trapped in an agricultural landscape with wetlands in different successional stages and in two urban landscapes with young wetlands. We compared the faunas in air and in water. Hydroporus and Agabus were the most frequently trapped genera in air. Most species were trapped near water in the agricultural landscape, species characteristic of later successional stages were common in air and dominated in water. In the urban landscapes, species were mainly trapped far from water and species known to colonise new waters were common in air and in the youngest waters. Overall, females and immature adults were more common in flight catches during April-July than during August-October. Our results indicate that urbanisation would result in a less diverse fauna, but may lead to an assemblage dominated by species that are infrequent in agricultural landscapes. To obtain a rich wetland insect fauna, a wide range of wetland types is required at the landscape scale.

  • 20. Meissner, Kristian
    et al.
    Juntunen, Antti
    Malmqvist, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Muotka, Timo
    Predator-prey interactions in a variable environment: responses of a caddis larva and its blackfly prey to variations in stream flow2009In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 193-204Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Predator-prey studies in streams have traditionally focused on mayfly-stonefly interactions in relatively constant flow conditions. In reality, however, lotic prey encounter multiple types of predators, most of which are restricted to low-velocity microhabitats. By contrast, some invertebrate prey may occur in very high current velocities. For example, many blackfly species are able to feed at velocities of 100 cm s(-1), whereas even moderate currents reduce the hunting efficiency of their invertebrate predators. The caddisfly larvae of the genus Rhyacophila, however, may be an exception to the pattern of reducing predator efficiency with increasing velocity. Using a combination of laboratory and field experiments and behavioral field observations, we examined the interaction between predatory Rhyacophila caddis larvae and larval blackflies along a velocity gradient of 20-120 cm s(-1). In laboratory experiments, Rhyacophila preferred currents slower than 50 cm s(-1) while blackflies exhibited a wide tolerance of currents and frequently occurred in currents exceeding 100 cm s(-1). In direct field observations, total activity and distance moved by Rhyacophila were similar at all current velocity regimes tested, but frequency of predation attempts on blackflies was lowest at the highest velocities (> 100 cm s(-1)). In a field colonization study, blackflies avoided substrates with the slowest velocities (< 40 cm s(-1)), as also did the caddis larvae. Only velocities approaching 100 cm s(-1) provide blackflies with refuge from predation by Rhyacophila. Being able to maneuver across a wide range of velocities, Rhyacophila may have more pervasive effects on their prey than other lotic invertebrate predators.

  • 21.
    Milbrink, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rapid growth response of the Arctic charr to changing environmental conditions is not the result of a population bottleneck2013In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 385-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested if within-lake differences in individual growth in an Arctic charr population before and after nutrient enrichment was due to a population bottleneck, for example as a result of strong selection for growth in a limited part of the population. The positive change in growth pattern after treatment was not coincident with a reduction in microsatellite variability, and various genetic estimators of demographic change did not indicate changes in population size. This suggests that the change in growth was not a result of only a limited part of the population responding, but an overall response.

  • 22. Nordengren, C
    et al.
    Hofgaard, A
    Ball, J P
    Availability and quality of herbivore winter browse in relation to tree height and snow depth2003In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 305-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vertical distribution of biomass, nutrients, and concentrations of secondary defence compounds in the current annual growth of the main winter forage trees (birch and willows) of herbivores was studied in the mountain range of northern Scandinavia. In addition, forage availability in relation to snow accumulation was studied throughout winter. The quantity and quality of forage improved with the height of the trees, i.e. biomass and nitrogen concentrations increased, and fibre decreased. The concentration of defensive compounds increased with height for willow, but decreased for birch. Shoots of willow were of better quality than of birch. The negative effect of the higher levels of total defensive compounds in birch may to some extent be balanced by their higher nutrient content and total forage biomass as compared with that of willow, however willow had more available biomass within the heights browsed by herbivores. Although snow accumulation had significant effects on forage availability, the effects within the entire height range browsed by herbivores were small.

  • 23.
    Nummi, Petri
    et al.
    Department of Applied Zoology, University of Helsinki.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Department of Animal Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Evo Game Research Station.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Department of Animal Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Occurrence and density of mallard and green-winged teal in relation to prey size distribution and food abundance1995In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 385-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied patterns of prey size and abundance among 60 lakes that differed with respect to occupancy by mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and teal (A. crecca crecca). Size distributions of prey in lakes with and without mallards did not differ in the way they deviated from the prey size distribution found in the average diet of the species; the same was true also for teal. However, in lakes with abundant food, average teal diet differed more from what was found in the environment than in lakes with less prey; in the mallard there were no differences in this respect. The densities of mallard and teal correlated positively rather than negatively with each other irrespective of food abundance, suggesting that interspecific competition, at least in ecological time, between the species may not be important in determing their abundance and distribution.

  • 24.
    Pöysä, Hannu
    et al.
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Evo Game Research Station.
    Sjöberg, Kjell
    Department of Animal Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University, Department of Mathematics and Science.
    Nummi, Petri
    Department of Applied Zoology, University of Helsinki.
    Pair formation among experimentally introduced mallards Anas platyrhynchos reflects habitat quality2001In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 179-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from two independent field experiments, we address whether pair formation in introduced mallards Anas platyrhynchos is associated with habitat quality, specifically food limitation at the brood stage. Based on the concentration of total phosphorous in the water, the study lakes were divided into two groups, 'poor' and 'rich'. In one of the experiments we used mallard ducklings imprinted on humans to study mass change of ducklings in poor and rich lakes, respectively. It turned out that ducklings foraging on poor lakes gained less mass than ducklings foraging on rich lakes, the division of lakes thus reflecting habitat quality at the brood stage. Introduced mallards formed heterosexual pairs on lakes that were, in a relative sense, high-quality brood habitats, whereas they did not on lakes of low-quality brood habitat. Pair formation thus seemed to reflect the suitability of habitat for breeding.

  • 25.
    Rautio, Pasi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Bergvall, Ulrika A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tuomi, Juha
    Kesti, Kari
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Food selection by herbivores and neighbourhood effects in the evolution of plant defences2012In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 49, no 1-2, p. 45-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies have reported how neighbouring plants may influence herbivory on palatable or unpalatable plants. Such neighbourhood effects can have important evolutionary consequences as they may either promote the evolutionary stability of plant defences or, alternatively, select against the fixation of plant defences and instead promote a stable polymorphism of palatable and unpalatable plants. These consequences depend on whether the difference in herbivore damage between unpalatable and palatable plants is smaller or, alternatively, greater when the neighbours are unpalatable instead of palatable. Such relations can arise when the neighbourhood effects are non-parallel among palatable and unpalatable plants. We outline two basic situations of non-parallel neighbourhood effects and illustrate how they can come about. A detailed dissection of these interactions reveals that there are several qualitatively distinct mechanisms that promote either evolutionary stability of plant defences or alternatively polymorphism. Our classification of mechanisms can be used to clarify and explain observations obtained in the field of plant herbivore interactions and predator prey interactions, both at the population and the community level.

  • 26. Rintamaki, P T
    et al.
    Hoglund, J
    Alatalo, R V
    Lundberg, A
    Correlates of male mating success on black grouse (Tetrao tetrix L.) leks2001In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 99-109Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Suominen, O
    et al.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Impacts of semi-domesticated reindeer on structure of tundra and forest communities in Fennoscandia: a review2000In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 233-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grazing and trampling by semi-domesticated reindeer are important factors controlling vegetation in northern Fennoscandia. In this article we review Nordic studies on the effects of reindeer on vegetation and animal communities. The studies have shown clear effects on vegetation, especially on Cladina lichen dominated sites. Cladina is the main forage of reindeer during winter and dominates climax vegetation in dry site types in the absence of reindeer. Reindeer can even affect galling and ground-dwelling invertebrates. Due to the special relationship between reindeer and Cladina majority of the research has concentrated on winter grazing on Cladina, but there are some studies of summer grazing which have also shown substantial changes in vegetation. Reindeer grazing increases richness and diversity of vegetation and invertebrate assemblages in most cases, but this influence depends on site type and grazing intensity. The enriching effect seems to be strongest at moderate grazing intensity.

  • 28.
    Taylor, Alexandra K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Hellström, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Effects of trap density and duration on vole abundance indices2011In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 45-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate if patterns of immigration by voles into removal plots on the third day of trapping are evident in the grey-sided vole, and if altering the number of traps at each station will result in increased precision of the vole abundance estimate. Traps were placed using the small quadrat method, with one, three, or five traps placed at each corner. Traps were checked twice a day for five days. Mixed-effect models were used to investigate the relationship between the number of traps and the length of time the traps were out on the abundance index. There was no difference between having three or five traps. Having one trap resulted in an inflated estimate. Five traps had the highest number of successful trapping events, reducing the number of zeros in the data set and leaving fewer individuals unaccounted. There was a peak in catches on the third day, driven by younger individuals and by males. These are suspected immigrants that are exploiting the territories left by individuals trapped in the first two days, suggesting this is not a closed system.

  • 29. Tegelström, Håkan
    et al.
    Wyöni, Per-Ivan
    Ryttman, Hans
    Thin-layer Isoelectric Focusing as a Tool for Higher Category Systematics1982In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 203-207Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Tinnert, Jon
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Population-specific effects of interbreeding and admixture on reproductive decisions and offspring quality2016In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 53, no 1-2, p. 55-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated interbreeding and admixture in Tetrix subulata grasshoppers from two maternal origin populations that differed in life-history and dispersal traits. We compared reproductive output of females that had been experimentally mated with males from the same or from a different population. Interbreeding affected clutch size and number of clutches; in one population females in the admixed treatment produced smaller clutches, in the other population females in the admixed treatment produced more clutches. Behavioral observations indicated that individuals can discriminate scents emitted by individuals from different populations; such that females might adjust reproductive allocation depending on male origin. However, hatchability of eggs and survival of nymphs were not affected by the mating treatment. Admixture influenced the production of viable offspring in the F2 generation, but the effect was opposite in the two populations of maternal origin. Results suggested that responses to interbreeding and admixture can differ between populations within a species.

  • 31. van den Brink, Valentijn
    et al.
    Bokma, Folmer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Morphometric shape analysis using learning vector quantization neural networks: an example distinguishing two microtine vole species2011In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 359-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Closely related species may be very difficult to distinguish morphologically, yet sometimes morphology is the only reasonable possibility for taxonomic classification. Here we present learning-vector-quantization artificial neural networks as a powerful tool to classify specimens on the basis of geometric morphometric shape measurements. As an example, we trained a neural network to distinguish between field and root voles from Procrustes transformed landmark coordinates on the dorsal side of the skull, which is so similar in these two species that the human eye cannot make this distinction. Properly trained neural networks misclassified only 3% of specimens. Therefore, we conclude that the capacity of learning vector quantization neural networks to analyse spatial coordinates is a powerful tool among the range of pattern recognition procedures that is available to employ the information content of geometric morphometrics.

  • 32. Vennerström, Pia
    et al.
    Söderhäll, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Cerenius, Lage
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    The origin of two crayfish plague (Aphanomyces astaci) epizootics in Finland on noble crayfish, Astacus astacus1998In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 43-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fungus identified as Aphanomyces astaci was isolated from two crayfish plague epizootics among noble crayfish, Astacus astacus, in Central Finland. The isolated fungal strains from Vaikkojoki, Kaavi and Iso-Suojarvi, Saarijarvi were able to kill healthy

  • 33.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Wesley-Hunt, Gina D.
    Carnivoran ecomorphology: patterns below the family level2014In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 51, p. 259-268Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 33 of 33
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