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  • 1. Aberg, D.
    et al.
    Hallén, Anders.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Pellegrino, P.
    Svensson, B. G.
    Nitrogen passivation by implantation-induced point defects in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers2001In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 184, no 04-jan, p. 263-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion implantation causes damage to the crystal lattice resulting in the loss of free charge carriers. In this study, low dose implantations using different ions and implantation doses are made to resolve the initial carrier loss in nitrogen-doped epitaxial layers. A strong dependence of compensation on nitrogen concentration is seen, showing that nitrogen is passivated by implantation-induced point defects. An activation energy of 3.2 eV for the dissociation of the passivated nitrogen center is obtained.

  • 2.
    Adam, Stefan
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute Polymerforsch eV, Germany; Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Koenig, Meike
    Leibniz Institute Polymerforsch eV, Germany; Technical University of Dresden, Germany; Karlsruhe Institute Technology, Germany.
    Rodenhausen, Keith Brian
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; Biolin Science Inc, NJ 07652 USA.
    Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen
    Leibniz Institute Polymerforsch eV, Germany.
    Oertel, Ulrich
    Leibniz Institute Polymerforsch eV, Germany.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Leibniz Institute Polymerforsch eV, Germany; University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Stamm, Manfred
    Leibniz Institute Polymerforsch eV, Germany; Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Uhlmann, Petra
    Leibniz Institute Polymerforsch eV, Germany; University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Quartz crystal microbalance with coupled Spectroscopic Ellipsometry-study of temperature-responsive polymer brush systems2017In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 421, p. 843-851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a combined setup of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring together with spectroscopic ellipsometry, the thermo-responsive behavior of two different brush systems (poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) and poly(2-oxazoline)s) was investigated and compared to the behavior of the free polymer in solution. Poly(2-oxazoline)s with three different hydrophilicities were prepared by changing the content of a hydrophilic comonomer. While both polymer types exhibit a sharp, discontinuous thermal transition in solution, in the brush state the transition gets broader in the case of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) and is transformed into a continuous transition for poly(2-oxazoline)s. The position of the transition in solution is influenced by the degree of hydrophilicity of the poly(2-oxazoline). The difference in areal mass detected by quartz crystal microbalance and by spectroscopic ellipsometry, has been attributed to the chain segment density profile of the polymer brushes. Applying this density profile information, for poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) two different swelling stages could be identified, while for poly(2-oxazoline) the transition between a parabolic and more step-wise profile is found continuous. The different swelling characteristics were attributed to the different miscibility behavior types, with the brush state acting similar to a crosslinked system. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Agustsson, J. S.
    et al.
    Arnalds, U. B.
    Ingason, A. S.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Johnsen, K.
    Olafsson, S.
    Gudmundsson, Jon Tomas
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Growth, coalescence, and electrical resistivity of thin Pt films grown by dc magnetron sputtering on SiO22008In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 254, no 22, p. 7356-7360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra thin platinum films were grown by dc magnetron sputtering on thermally oxidized Si (100) substrates. The electrical resistance of the films was monitored in situ during growth. The coalescence thickness was determined for various growth temperatures and found to increase from 1.1 nm for films grown at room temperature to 3.3 nm for films grown at 400 degrees C. A continuous film was formed at a thickness of 2.9 nm at room temperature and 7.5 nm at 400 degrees C. The room temperature electrical resistivity decreases with increased growth temperature, while the in-plain grain size and the surface roughness, measured with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), increase. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the film electrical resistance was explored at various stages during growth.

  • 4. Al Alawai, Reem
    et al.
    Laxman, karthik
    Dastgir, Sarim
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM. Sultan Qaboos University, , Oman.
    Role of bonding mechanisms during transfer hydrogenation reaction on heterogeneous catalysts of platinum nanoparticles supported on zinc oxide nanorods2016In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, p. 200-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For supported heterogeneous catalysis, the interface between a metal nanoparticle and the support plays an important role. In this work the dependency of the catalytic efficiency on the bonding chemistry of platinum nanoparticles supported on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods is studied. Platinum nanoparticles were deposited on ZnO nanorods (ZnO NR) using thermal and photochemical processes and the effects on the size, distribution, density and chemical state of the metal nanoparticles upon the catalytic activities are presented. The obtained results indicate that the bonding at Pt-ZnO interface depends on the deposition scheme which can be utilized to modulate the surface chemistry and thus the activity of the supported catalysts. Additionally, uniform distribution of metal on the catalyst support was observed to be more important than the loading density. It is also found that oxidized platinum Pt(IV) (platinum hydroxide) provided a more suitable surface for enhancing the transfer hydrogenation reaction of cyclohexanone with isopropanol compared to zero valent platinum. Photochemically synthesized ZnO supported nanocatalysts were efficient and potentially viable for upscaling to industrial applications.

  • 5.
    Alam, Anzar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Iggesund Paperboard AB, Iggesund, Sweden.
    Lidén, Joar
    SCA Ortviken AB, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Online surface characterization of paper and paperboards in a wide-range of the spatial wavelength spectrum2012In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 258, no 20, p. 7928-7935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the paper industry, surface topography is the essence of both paper and paperboard, and accurate topographical measurements are equally essential in order to achieve a uniform smooth surface. The traditional laboratory methods measure only a few samples from the entire tambour and there are other obvious limitations to this approach. Online measurements may be of significant value to improve the surface quality throughout the production. Roughness is one of the topography components and the majority of techniques measure paper by means of a single predictor of average roughness, R a which is inadequate in providing a comprehensive characterization of the surface. Measurements, in a wide range ofwavelengths, can characterize topography components such as roughness, waviness, cockling, etc. Online measurements were taken for various grades of 8 paper reels, containing the wireside and topsides for newspaper, and uncoated and coated sides of paperboards. Their surfacecharacterization, in the spatial wavelength spectrum, from 0.1 to 10 mm was obtained. This article presents the online characterizationresults which have efficiently distinguished the surfaces of same family materials including the edge and the middle position reels of fine coatedpaperboard. Online measurements were taken, at Iggesund Paperboard Pilot Coater in Sweden, by using a recently developed OnlineTopography (OnTop) device which is based on the principle of light triangulation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 6. Alam, M. M.
    et al.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Jonsén, P.
    Kaplan, A. F. H.
    Häggblad, H. A.
    The influence of surface geometry and topography on the fatigue cracking behaviour of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints2010In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 256, no 6, p. 1936-1945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser hybrid welding of an eccentric fillet joint causes a complex geometry for fatigue load by 4-point bending. The weld surface geometry and topography were measured and studied in order to understand the crack initiation mechanisms. The crack initiation location and the crack propagation path were studied and compared to Finite Element stress analysis, taking into account the surface macro-and micro-geometry. It can be explained why the root and the upper weld toe are uncritical for cracking. The cracks that initiate from the weld bead show higher fatigue strength than the samples failing at the lower weld toe, as can be explained by a critical radius for the toe below which surface ripples instead determine the main stress raiser location for cracking. The location of maximum surface stress is related to a combination of throat depth, toe radius and sharp surface ripples along which the cracks preferably propagate.

  • 7.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Barsoum, Z.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    The influence of surface geometry and topography on the fatigue cracking behaviour of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints2010In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 265, no 6, p. 1936-1945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser hybrid welding of an eccentric fillet joint causes a complex geometry for fatigue load by four point bending. The weld surface geometry and topography were measured and studied in order to understand the crack initiation mechanisms. The crack initiation location and the crack propagation path were studied and compared to Finite Element stress analysis, taking into account the surface macro- and micro-geometry. It can be explained why the root and the upper weld toe are uncritical for cracking. The cracks that initiate from the weld bead show higher fatigue strength than the samples failing at the lower weld toe, as can be explained by a critical radius for the toe below which surface ripples instead determine the main stress raiser location for cracking. The location of maximum surface stress is related to a combination of throat depth, toe radius and sharp surface ripples along which the cracks preferably propagate.

  • 8. Al-Hamdi, Abdullah M.
    et al.
    Sillanpaa, Mika
    Bora, Tanujjal
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Efficient photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous solution by SnO2:Sb nanoparticles2016In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 370, p. 229-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photodegradation of phenol in the presence of tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles under UV light irradiation is known to be an effective photocatalytic process. However, phenol degradation under solar light is less effective due to the large band gap of SnO2. In this study antimony (Sb) doped tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles were prepared at a low temperature (80 degrees C) by a sol-gel method and studied for its photo catalytic activity with phenol as a test contaminant. The catalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous media was studied using high performance liquid chromatography and total organic carbon measurements. The change in the concentration of phenol affects the pH of the solution due to the by-products formed during the photo-oxidation of phenol. The photoactivity of SnO2:Sb was found to be a maximum for 0.6 wt.% Sb doped SnO2 nanoparticles with 10 mg L-1 phenol in water. Within 2 h of photodegradation, more than 95% of phenol could be removed under solar light irradiation.

  • 9. Amandusson, H.
    et al.
    Ekedahl, Lars-Gunnar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Effect of CO and O2 on hydrogen permeation through a palladium membrane2000In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 153, no 4, p. 259-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen permeation through a 25-µm thick palladium membrane during continuous exposures of hydrogen together with different combinations of oxygen and carbon monoxide has been studied at membrane temperatures of 100 °C-250 °C (total pressures of 40-150 Torr). Both CO and O2, individually, inhibit hydrogen permeation through the membrane. The cause of the inhibition is, however, somewhat different. CO blocks available hydrogen dissociation sites, while oxygen both blocks dissociation sites and also consumes adsorbed hydrogen through the production of water. When a combination of CO and O2 is supplied together with hydrogen, new reaction pathways will emerge. The carbon dioxide formation will dominate the water forming reaction, and consequently, the blocking effect caused by the formation of water will be suppressed. In a mixture of CO+O2+H2, the hydrogen permeation can become either larger or smaller than that due to only O2+H2 or CO+H2 depending on the CO/O2 ratio. It is thus possible to find a situation where carbon monoxide and oxygen react to form CO2 leaving adsorbed hydrogen free to permeate the membrane.

  • 10.
    Amer, Eynas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Impact of an extended source in laser ablation using pulsed digital holographic interferometry and modelling2009In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 255, no 21, p. 8917-8925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsed digital holographic interferometry has been used to study the effect of the laser spot diameter on the shock wave generated in the ablation process of an Nd:YAG laser pulse on a Zn target under atmospheric pressure. For different laser spot diameters and time delays, the propagation of the expanding vapour and of the shock wave were recorded by intensity maps calculated using the recorded digital holograms. From the latter phase maps, the refractive index and the density field can be derived. A model was developed that approaches the density distribution, in particular the ellipsoidal expansion characteristics. The induced shock wave has an ellipsoid shape that approaches a sphere for decreasing spot diameter. The ellipsoidal shock waves have almost the same centre offset towards the laser beam and the same aspect ratio for different time steps. The model facilitates the derivation of the particle velocity field. The method provides valuable quantitative results that are discussed, in particular in comparison with the simpler point source explosion theory.

  • 11.
    Amer, Eynas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Shaer, M. El
    Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University.
    Comparison of the laser ablation process on Zn and Ti using pulsed digital holographic interferometry2010In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 256, no 14, p. 4633-4641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsed digital holographic interferometry has been used to compare the laser ablation process of a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser pulse (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse duration 12 ns) on two different metals (Zn and Ti) under atmospheric air pressure. Digital holograms were recorded for different time delays using collimated laser light (532 nm) passed through the volume along the target. Numerical data of the integrated refractive index field were calculated and presented as phase maps. Intensity maps were calculated from the recorded digital holograms and are used to calculate the attenuation of the probing laser beam by the ablated plume. The different structures of the plume, namely streaks normal to the surface for Zn in contrast to absorbing regions for Ti, indicates that different mechanisms of laser ablation could happen for different metals for the same laser settings and surrounding gas. At a laser fluence of 5 J/cm2, phase explosion appears to be the ablation mechanism in case of Zn, while for Ti normal vaporisation seems to be the dominant mechanism.

  • 12.
    Anghel, Clara
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Hörnlund, Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Hultquist, Gunnar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Limbäck, Magnus
    Gas phase analysis of CO interactions with solid surfaces at high temperatures2004In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 233, no 1-4, p. 392-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An in situ method including mass spectrometry and labeled gases is presented and used to gain information on adsorption of molecules at high temperatures (>300 degreesC). Isotopic exchange rate in H-2 upon exposure to an oxidized zicaloy-2 sample and exchange rate in CO upon exposure to various materials have been measured. From these measurements, molecular dissociation rates in respective system have been calculated. The influence of CO and N-2 on the uptake rate of H-2 in zirconium and oxidized zicaloy-2 is discussed in terms of tendency for adsorption at high temperatures. In the case of oxidized Cr exposed to CO gas With C-12, C-13, O-16 and O-18, the influence of H2O is investigated with respect to dissociation of CO molecules. The presented data supports a view of different tendencies for molecular adsorption of H2O, CO, N-2, and H-2 molecules on surfaces at high temperatures.

  • 13.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kühne, Philipp
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Knight, Sean
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Hofmann, Tino
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA / Department of Physics and Optical Science, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect in epitaxial graphene detected at terahertz frequencies2017In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 421, p. 357-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect at terahertz (THz) frequencies is employed to determine the free charge carrier properties in epitaxial graphene (EG) with different number of layers grown by high-temperature sublimation on 4H-SiC(0001). We find that one monolayer (ML) EG possesses p-type conductivity with a free hole concentration in the low 1012 cmᅵᅵᅵ2 range and a free hole mobility parameter as high as 1550 cm2/Vs. We also find that 6 ML EG shows n-type doping behavior with a much lower free electron mobility parameter of 470 cm2/Vs and an order of magnitude higher free electron density in the low 1013 cmᅵᅵᅵ2 range. The observed differences are discussed. The cavity-enhanced THz optical Hall effect is demonstrated to be an excellent tool for contactless access to the type of free charge carriers and their properties in two-dimensional materials such as EG.

  • 14.
    Avdeev, M. V.
    et al.
    Joint Inst Nucl Res, Frank Lab Neutron Phys, Dubna 141980, Moscow Reg, Russia..
    Petrenko, V. I.
    Joint Inst Nucl Res, Frank Lab Neutron Phys, Dubna 141980, Moscow Reg, Russia.;Kyiv Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Gapon, I. V.
    Joint Inst Nucl Res, Frank Lab Neutron Phys, Dubna 141980, Moscow Reg, Russia.;Kyiv Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Bulavin, L. A.
    Kyiv Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Vorobiev, Alexey A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Soltwedel, O.
    Max Planck Inst Solid State Res, Outstn MLZ, Garching, Germany..
    Balasoiu, M.
    Joint Inst Nucl Res, Frank Lab Neutron Phys, Dubna 141980, Moscow Reg, Russia.;Natl Inst Phys & Nucl Engn, Bucharest, Romania..
    Vekas, L.
    Acad Romana, Ctr Fundamental & Adv Tech Res, Timisoara Branch, Timisoara, Romania..
    Zavisova, V.
    SAS, Inst Expt Phys, Kosice, Slovakia..
    Kopcansky, P.
    SAS, Inst Expt Phys, Kosice, Slovakia..
    Comparative structure analysis of magnetic fluids at interface with silicon by neutron reflectometry2015In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 352, p. 49-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption of surfactant coated magnetic nanoparticles from highly stable magnetic fluids on crystalline functionalized silicon is studied by neutron reflectometry. Two types of magnetic fluids based on nanomagnetite dispersed and stabilized in non-polar organic solvent (deuterated benzene) and strongly polar solvent (heavy water) are considered. In both cases the interface shows the formation of just one well-defined adsorption layer of nanoparticles, which is insensitive to the effect of the external magnetic field. Still, the particle concentration in the benzene-based fluid is higher in the vicinity to the silicon surface as compared to the bulk distribution. Despite the presence of an aggregate fraction in the water-based system the width of the adsorption layer is consistent with the size of separated particles, thus showing the preferable adsorption of non-aggregated particles.

  • 15. Babonas, G. J.
    et al.
    Reza, A.
    Simkiene, I.
    Sabataityte, J.
    Baran, M.
    Szymczak, R.
    Karlsson, Ulf O.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Suchodolski, Arturas
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Optical properties of Fe-doped silica films on Si2006In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 252, no 15, p. 5391-5394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical properties of Fe-doped silica films on Si were investigated by ellipsometric technique in the region 1-5 eV. Samples were produced by sol-gel method. Precursors were prepared by mixing tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) solution in ethanol and water with aqueous solution of Fe-chloride or Fe-acetate. The coating solution was deposited on Si substrates by spin on technique. The size of Fe-containing nanometric-sized particles depended on technology and varied from 20 to 100 nm. Optical response of complex hybrid samples SiO2:Fe/Si was interpreted in a multi-layer model. In the inverse problem, the Maxwell equations were solved by transfer matrix technique. Dielectric function of Fe-doped silica layers was calculated in the model of effective media. Analysis of optical data has shown that various Fe-oxides formed. Experimental data for films obtained from precursors with Fe-acetate and annealed in hydrogen were well described by the model calculations taking into account a small contribution 1-5% of metal Fe imbedded in silica. The Fe/Fe-O contribution to optical response increased for samples grown from FeCl3-precursor. Ellipsometric data for Fe-doped silica films on Si were interpreted taking into account the structural AFM studies as well as the results of magnetic measurements.

  • 16. Bandyopadhyay, Sulalit
    et al.
    Singh, Gurvinder
    Sandvig, Ioanna
    Sandvig, Axel
    MI Lab and Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Mathieu, Roland
    Kumar, P. Anil
    Glomm, Wilhelm Robert
    Synthesis and in vitro cellular interactions of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles with a crystalline gold shell2014In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 316, p. 171-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fe@Au core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit multiple functionalities enabling their effective use in applications such as medical imaging and drug delivery. In this work, a novel synthetic method was developed and optimized for the synthesis of highly stable, monodisperse Fe@Au NPs of average diameter similar to 24 nm exhibiting magneto-plasmonic characteristics. Fe@Au NPs were characterized by a wide range of experimental techniques, including scanning (transmission) electron microscopy (S(T)EM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The formed particles comprise an amorphous iron core with a crystalline Au shell of tunable thickness, and retain the superparamagnetic properties at room temperature after formation of a crystalline Au shell. After surface modification, PEGylated Fe@Au NPs were used for in vitro studies on olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and human neural stem cells (hNSCs). No adverse effects of the Fe@Au particles were observed post-labeling, both cell types retaining normal morphology, viability, proliferation, and motility. It can be concluded that no appreciable toxic effects on both cell types, coupled with multifunctionality and chemical stability make them ideal candidates for therapeutic as well as diagnostic applications.

  • 17. Bandyopadhyay, Sulalit
    et al.
    Singh, Gurvinder
    Sandvig, Ioanna
    Sandvig, Axel
    Mathieu, Roland
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Kumar Puri, Anil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Glomm, Wilhelm Robert
    Synthesis and in vitro cellular interactions of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles with a crystalline gold shell2014In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 316, p. 171-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fe@Au core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit multiple functionalities enabling their effective use in applications such as medical imaging and drug delivery. In this work, a novel synthetic method was developed and optimized for the synthesis of highly stable, monodisperse Fe@Au NPs of average diameter similar to 24 nm exhibiting magneto-plasmonic characteristics. Fe@Au NPs were characterized by a wide range of experimental techniques, including scanning (transmission) electron microscopy (S(T)EM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The formed particles comprise an amorphous iron core with a crystalline Au shell of tunable thickness, and retain the superparamagnetic properties at room temperature after formation of a crystalline Au shell. After surface modification, PEGylated Fe@Au NPs were used for in vitro studies on olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and human neural stem cells (hNSCs). No adverse effects of the Fe@Au particles were observed post-labeling, both cell types retaining normal morphology, viability, proliferation, and motility. It can be concluded that no appreciable toxic effects on both cell types, coupled with multifunctionality and chemical stability make them ideal candidates for therapeutic as well as diagnostic applications.

  • 18.
    Begunovich, Lyudmila, V
    et al.
    Siberian Fed Univ, 79 Svobodny Av, Krasnoyarsk 660041, Russia..
    Kuklin, Artem, V
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Visotin, Maxim A.
    Siberian Fed Univ, 79 Svobodny Av, Krasnoyarsk 660041, Russia.;Kirensky Inst Phys SB RAS, 50-38 Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036, Russia..
    Kuzubov, Alexander A.
    Tomilin, Felix N.
    Siberian Fed Univ, 79 Svobodny Av, Krasnoyarsk 660041, Russia.;Kirensky Inst Phys SB RAS, 50-38 Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036, Russia..
    Tarasov, Anton S.
    Siberian Fed Univ, 79 Svobodny Av, Krasnoyarsk 660041, Russia.;Kirensky Inst Phys SB RAS, 50-38 Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036, Russia..
    Mikhalev, Yuri G.
    Siberian Fed Univ, 79 Svobodny Av, Krasnoyarsk 660041, Russia..
    Avramov, Pavel, V
    Kyungpook Natl Univ, Dept Chem, 80 Daehakro, Daegu 41566, South Korea..
    Triple VTe2/graphene/VTe2 heterostructures as perspective magnetic tunnel junctions2020In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 510, article id 145315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New perspective 1.4 nm thick spin-polarized triple heterostructures based on graphene sandwiched between two vanadium ditelluride monolayers (VTe2/graphene/VTe2) were studied using ab initio DFT technique. Both possible trigonal prismatic (H-VTe2) and octahedral (T-VTe2) VTe2 phases were considered to design and study graphene-based heterostructures. It was shown that the interaction with graphene changes the electronic structure of 2D T-VTe2 from metallic to half-metallic, making T phase perspective to be used for magnetic tunnel junctions. The electronic subsystem of graphene fragment is slightly hole doped. Calculated tunnel magne-toresistance ratio for the favorable heterostructure configuration estimated within the Julliere model is 220%, which opens a way to use VTe2/graphene/VTe2 as prospective magnetic tunnel junction in novel spintronic nanodevices based on tunnel magnetic resistance and spin transfer torque effects.

  • 19.
    Bellardita, Marianna
    et al.
    Univ Palermo, Schiavello Grillone Photocatalysis Grp, Engn Dept, Viale Sci, I-90128 Palermo, Italy.
    Garlisi, Corrado
    Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Chem Engn, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates;Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Res & Innovat CO2 & H2 RICH Ctr, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates;Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Ctr Membrane & Adv Water Technol, POB 135125, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.
    Ozer, Lütfiye Yildiz
    Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Chem Engn, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates;Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Res & Innovat CO2 & H2 RICH Ctr, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates;Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Ctr Membrane & Adv Water Technol, POB 135125, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.
    Venezia, Anna Maria
    ISMN CNR, Via Ugo Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy.
    Sá, Jacinto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Polish Acad Sci, Inst Phys Chem, Kasprzaka 44-52, PL-01224 Warsaw, Poland.
    Mamedov, Fikret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Palmisano, Leonardo
    Univ Palermo, Schiavello Grillone Photocatalysis Grp, Engn Dept, Viale Sci, I-90128 Palermo, Italy.
    Palmisano, Giovanni
    Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Chem Engn, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates;Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Res & Innovat CO2 & H2 RICH Ctr, POB 127788, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates;Khalifa Univ Sci & Technol, Ctr Membrane & Adv Water Technol, POB 135125, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.
    Highly stable defective TiO2-x with tuned exposed facets induced by fluorine: Impact of surface and bulk properties on selective UV/visible alcohol photo-oxidation2020In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 510, article id 145419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium dioxide samples were prepared in the presence of different amounts of fluorine via hydrothermal method. It has been found that the presence of fluoride influenced the physico-chemical properties of TiO2 in various ways as polymorphic form stability, surface hydroxylation, generation of hydroxyl radicals under irradiation and formation of Ti3+ centers and oxygen vacancies. The generation rate of (OH)-O-center dot radicals was investigated by the photoluminescence technique in the presence of terephthalic acid. X-ray diffractometry indicated that fluorine stabilized the anatase TiO2. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed the presence of fluorine on the surface and the shift of the valence band edge towards less negative potentials, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) confirmed the formation of Ti3+ in the bulk of the photocatalysts, UV-vis spectra showed the extension of the TiO2 photo-response in the visible light region. 2-Propanol degradation and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol partial oxidation were studied as probe reactions by using the home prepared powders as photocatalysts. Surprisingly, the photocatalytic activity resulted to be mainly affected by (OH)-O-center dot radicals formation ability under irradiation, rather than by the presence of {0 0 1} facets, although it cannot be excluded that the latter could influence the ability to form radicals under irradiation.

  • 20.
    Bergström, David
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Powell, John
    Laser Expertise Ltd., Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology.
    The absorptance of steels to Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG laser light at room temperature2007In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 253, no 11, p. 5017-5028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of absorptance is important for the analysis and modelling of laser-material interactions. Unfortunately, most of the absorptance data presently available considers only polished pure metals rather than the commercially available (unpolished, oxidised) alloys, which are actually being processed in manufacturing. This paper presents the results of absorptance measurements carried out at room temperature on as-received engineering grade steels including hot and cold rolled mild steel and stainless steels of various types. The measurements were made using an integrating sphere with an Nd:YLF laser at two wavelengths (1053 and 527 nm, which means that the results are also valid for Nd:YAG radiation at 1064 and 532 nm). The absorptance results obtained differ considerably from existing data for polished, pure metals and should help improve the accuracy of laser-material interaction models. Some clear trends were identified; for all materials studied, the absorptance was considerably higher than the previously published values for the relevant pure metals with polished surfaces. For all 15 samples the absorptance was higher for the green than for the infrared wavelength. No clear trend correlating the absorptance with the roughness was found for mild steel in the roughness range Sa 0.4-5.6 μm. A correlation between absorptance and roughness was noted for stainless steel for Sa values above 1.5 μm.

  • 21.
    Bergström, David
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Powell, John
    Laser Expertise Ltd., Acorn Park Industrial Estate, Nottingham.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    The absorptance of steels to Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG laser light at room temperature2007In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 253, no 11, p. 5017-5028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of absorptance is important for the analysis and modelling of laser-material interactions. Unfortunately, most of the absorptance data presently available considers only polished pure metals rather than the commercially available (unpolished, oxidised) alloys, which are actually being processed in manufacturing. This paper presents the results of absorptance measurements carried out at room temperature on as-received engineering grade steels including hot and cold rolled mild steel and stainless steels of various types. The measurements were made using an integrating sphere with an Nd:YLF laser at two wavelengths (1053 and 527 nm, which means that the results are also valid for Nd:YAG radiation at 1064 and 532 nm). The absorptance results obtained differ considerably from existing data for polished, pure metals and should help improve the accuracy of laser-material interaction models. Some clear trends were identified; for all materials studied, the absorptance was considerably higher than the previously published values for the relevant pure metals with polished surfaces. For all 15 samples the absorptance was higher for the green than for the infrared wavelength. No clear trend correlating the absorptance with the roughness was found for mild steel in the roughness range Sa 0.4-5.6 μm. A correlation between absorptance and roughness was noted for stainless steel for Sa values above 1.5 μm.

  • 22.
    Berner, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics I.
    Lidbaum, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Ledung, G.
    Åhlund, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics V.
    Nilson, Katharina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics V.
    Schiessling, Joachim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics V.
    Gelius, Ulrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics I.
    Bäckwall, J. E.
    Puglia, Carla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics, Physics V.
    Oscarsson, Sven
    Electronic and structural studies of immobilized thiol-derivatized cobalt porphyrins on gold surfaces2007In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 253, no 18, p. 7540-7548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The immobilisation of thiol-derivatized cobalt porphyrins on gold surfaces has been studied in detail by means of combined scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). S-thioacetyl has been used as a protective group for the thiol. Different routes for deprotection of the acetyl groups were performed in acidic and in basic conditions. The results show the formation of monolayer films for the different preparation schemes. The immobilisation of the molecules on the gold surface takes place through the thiol-linkers by the formation of multiple thiolate bonds. In the case of layers formed with protected porphyrins approximately 60% of the linkers are bonded to the gold surface whereas for deprotected layers the amount of bonded linkers is increased up to about 80%. STM measurements revealed that the molecules arrange in a disordered overlayer and do not exhibit mobility on the gold surface. Annealing experiments have been performed in order to test the stability of the porphyrin layers. Disordered patterns have been observed in the STM images after annealing at T = 400 °C. XPS revealed that the sulphur content disappeared completely after annealing at T = 180 °C and that the molecules did undergo significant modifications.

  • 23.
    Bertuccio, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.
    Torrisi, Lorenzo
    University of Messina, Italy.
    Lanzieri, Claudio
    Selex Sistemi Integrati S.p.A., Rome, Italy.
    Silicon carbide detector for laser-generated plasma radiation2013In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 272, p. 128-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the performance of a Silicon Carbide (SiC) detector in the acquisition of the radiation emittedby laser generated plasmas. The detector has been employed in time of flight (TOF) configuration withinan experiment performed at the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS). The detector is a 5 mm2 area 100 nmthick circular Ni SiC Schottky junction on a high purity 4H-SiC epitaxial layer 115 μm thick. Currentsignals from the detector with amplitudes up to 1.6 A have been measured, achieving voltage signals over 80 V on a 50 Ω load resistance with excellent signal to noise ratios. Resolution of few nanoseconds hasbeen experimentally demonstrated in TOF measurements. The detector has operated at 250 V DC biasunder extreme operating conditions with no observable performance degradation.

  • 24. Bexell, U.
    et al.
    Olsson, M.
    Sundell, P. E.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Carlsson, P.
    Hellsing, A.
    A ToF-SIMS study of linseed oil bonded to mercapto silane treated aluminium2004In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 231-2, p. 362-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ToF-SIMS has been used to analyse an aluminium surface treated with a vegetable oil using a mercapto silane as a coupling agent between the aluminium substrate and the vegetable oil. The coupling between the vegetable oil and the mercapto silane was obtained through a photoinduced thiol-ene reaction using UV-radiation. The ToF-SIMS results show that the desired thiolene reaction has taken place between the unsaturated parts of the vegetable oil and the thiol groups of the mercapto silane via the thiol-ene reaction forming a surface film.

  • 25.
    Bexell, Ulf
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Carlsson, Per
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Tribological Characterisation of an Organic Coating by the use of ToF-SIMS2003In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 203-204, p. 596-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ToF-SIMS has been used to analyse tribological induced chemical changes of organic coatings deposited on steel strip hot-dip coated with a 55.0% Al–43.4% Zn–1.6% Si alloy (Aluzink). The organic coating was a styrene–acrylic co-polymer containing different forming additives. The forming properties of the organic coatings were evaluated with modified scratch testing. The friction curves show that organic coated hot-dip coated steel displays significantly better tribological properties, i.e. lower coefficient of friction and lower wear, as compared to hot-dip coated steel. Furthermore, the organic coatings showing the highest material transfer tendency also show the highest wear. ToF-SIMS spectra show that a transfer film consisting of species from the organic coating is formed on the ball counter surface. Finally, a combination of SEM and ToF-SIMS analysis shows that mechanical failure of the coating dominates, i.e. no tribochemical changes of the coatings could be detected in the wear track.

  • 26.
    Bexell, Ulf
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Stanciu, V.
    Warnicke, P.
    Östh, M.
    Svedlindh, P.
    ToF-SIMS depth profiling of (Ga,Mn)As capped with amorphous arsenic: effects of annealing time2006In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 252, no 19, p. 7252-7254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of annealing time on an amorphous As cap layer and the depth distribution of Mn atoms have been investigated. The results show that a 1600 Å thick As cap layer is completely desorbed after 3 h of annealing time. The depth distributions of Mn indicate that interstitial Mn atoms have diffused to the outer surface and being passivated. The thickness of the Mn passivation layer was around 90 Å.

  • 27. Beyhaghi, Maryam
    et al.
    Kiani-Rashid, Ali-Reza
    Kashefi, Mehrdad
    Khaki, Jalil Vandati
    Jonsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Mechanical Metallurgy.
    Effect of powder reactivity on fabrication and properties of NiAl/Al2O3 composite coated on cast iron using spark plasma sintering2015In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 344, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Powder mixtures of Ni, NiO and Al are ball milled for 1 and 10 h. X-ray diffractometry and differential thermal analysis show that while ball milling for 1 h produced mechanically activated powder; 10 h ball milling produced NiAl and Al2O3 phases. Dense NiAl/Al2O3 composite coatings are formed on gray cast iron substrate by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The effect of powder reactivity on microstructure, hardness and scratch hardness of NiAl/Al2O3 coatings after SPS is discussed. Results show that in the coating sample made of mechanically activated powder in situ synthesis of NiAl/Al2O3 composite coating is fulfilled and a thicker well-formed diffusion bond layer at the interface between coating and substrate is observed. The diffusion of elements across the bond layers and phase evolution in the bond layers were investigated. No pores or cracks were observed at the interface between coating layer and substrate in any of samples. Higher Vickers hardness and scratch hardness values in coating made of 10 h ball milled powder than in coating fabricated from 1 h ball milled powder are attributed to better dispersion of Al2O3 reinforcement particles in NiAl matrix and nano-crystalline structure of NiAl matrix. Scratched surface of coatings did not reveal any cracking or spallation at coating-substrate interface indicating their good adherence at test conditions.

  • 28. Birgerson, J.
    et al.
    Lindsjö, A.
    Selo Mustafa, Muhammed
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Grehk, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Skarp, Kent
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Spectroscopic study of chemically stabilized dichroic thin crystal films2004In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 236Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Birgerson, Jonas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Lindsjö, A
    Selo Mustafa, Muhammed
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Grehk, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Skarp, Kent
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Spectroscopic study of chemically stabilized dichroic thin crystal films2004In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, no 236, p. 444-450Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Karlsson, Susanne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Analytical Chemistry .
    Allard, E
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Photodesorption of fulvic acid from iron oxide surfaces into aqueous solutions2001In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 174, no 2, p. 166-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photodesorption of thin films of fulvic acid adsorbed on planar iron oxide surfaces was monitored by ellipsometry. Description was first observed at 546 nm, and additional fractions of the adsorbed acid left the surfaces at 405 and 365 nm Similar kinetics for photodesorption was observed from metallic iron films and from porous iron oxide prepared electrochemically by deposition on porous silicon substrates. Soluble photoproducts leaving the surface H ere monitored by UV absorbance spectroscopy at 200 nm Gaseous products were not detected by mass spectrometry but the results seemed to indicate that net all of the photoproducts entered the liquid phase. Of the metal films tested which adsorbed fulvic acid from aqueous solution (Fe. Cr, Ni, Al, and Pt), it was only iron which exhibited a photodesorption effect. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Björström, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Svante
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Andersson, Mats
    Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry/Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Vertical phase separation in spin-coated films of a low bandgap polyfluorene/PCBM blend: Effects of specific substrate interaction2007In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 253, no 8, p. 3906-3912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the effect of the substrate on the vertical phase separation in spin-coated thin films of poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-5,5-40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10,30-benzothiadiazole] (APFO-3) blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Compositional depth profiles of the films are measured by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).We found that changing the substrate from silicon to gold affects the composition profile near the substrate interface. This is caused by a specific interaction between the polymer (APFO-3) and the gold surface, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The composition profile in the area away from the substrate interface, as well as the enrichment of the free surface with APFO-3, remain however unaffected by the choice of substrate. The vertical composition was also analysed for APFO-3:PCBM films spin-coated on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated with a thin layer of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS).

  • 32.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Chemical, mechanical and antibacterial properties of silver nanocluster/silica composite coated textiles for safety systems and aerospace applications2014In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 317, no Oct, p. 131-139Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Bocelli, S
    et al.
    Guizzetti, G.
    Marabelli, F.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Petersson, Sture
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Experimental identification of the optical phonon of CoSi2 in the infrared1995In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 91, no 1-4, p. 30-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A weak but clear optical structure was detected at 329 cm−1 by both reflectance and transmittance measurements in the far infrared on a 430 Å film of CoSi2 grown on Si(100). This is the first observation of the IR vibrational mode of the cubic structure of CoSi2 and the result is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations. In order to characterize the sample, the reflectance was extended up to 5.2 × 104 cm−1 and the refractive index was also directly obtained in a more limited spectral range by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The IR structure was then quantitatively analyzed by means of a fit procedure, obtaining the values of ω0 = 327 cm−1 for the phonon energy, of γ = 10.5 cm−1 for the damping parameter and of 0.006 electronic charges for the screened effective ionic charge.

  • 34.
    Borges, J.
    et al.
    Czech Tech Univ, Fac Elect Engn, Dept Control Engn, Tech 2, CR-16635 Prague 6, Czech Republic..
    Rodrigues, M. S.
    Univ Minho, Ctr Fis, P-4710057 Braga, Portugal.;Inst Pedro Nunes, Lab Ensaios Desgaste & Mat, P-3030199 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Lopes, C.
    Univ Minho, Ctr Fis, P-4710057 Braga, Portugal..
    Costa, D.
    Univ Minho, Ctr Fis, P-4710057 Braga, Portugal..
    Couto, F. M.
    Norte Fluminense State Univ, Phys Sci Lab, BR-28013602 Campos, RJ, Brazil..
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Martins, B.
    Inst Pedro Nunes, Lab Ensaios Desgaste & Mat, P-3030199 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Duarte, N.
    Inst Pedro Nunes, Lab Ensaios Desgaste & Mat, P-3030199 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Dias, J. P.
    Inst Pedro Nunes, Lab Ensaios Desgaste & Mat, P-3030199 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Cavaleiro, A.
    Univ Coimbra, Dept Mech Engn, SEG CEMUC, P-3030788 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Polcar, T.
    Czech Tech Univ, Fac Elect Engn, Dept Control Engn, Tech 2, CR-16635 Prague 6, Czech Republic.;Univ Southampton, Natl Ctr Adv Tribol Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, Hants, England..
    Macedo, F.
    Univ Minho, Ctr Fis, P-4710057 Braga, Portugal..
    Vaz, F.
    Univ Minho, Ctr Fis, P-4710057 Braga, Portugal..
    Thin films composed of Ag nanoclusters dispersed in TiO2: Influence of composition and thermal annealing on the microstructure and physical responses2015In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 358, p. 595-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noble metal powders containing gold and silver have been used for many centuries, providing different colours in the windows of the medieval cathedrals and in ancient Roman glasses. Nowadays, the interest in nanocomposite materials containing noble nanoparticles embedded in dielectric matrices is related with their potential use for a wide range of advanced technological applications. They have been proposed for environmental and biological sensing, tailoring colour of functional coatings, or for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Most of these applications rely on the so-called localised surface plasmon resonance absorption, which is governed by the type of the noble metal nanoparticles, their distribution, size and shape and as well as of the dielectric characteristics of the host matrix. The aim of this work is to study the influence of the composition and thermal annealing on the morphological and structural changes of thin films composed of Ag metal clusters embedded in a dielectric TiO2 matrix. Since changes in size, shape and distribution of the clusters are fundamental parameters for tailoring the properties of plasmonic materials, a set of films with different Ag concentrations was prepared. The optical properties and the thermal behaviour of the films were correlated with the structural and morphological changes promoted by annealing. The films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering and in order to promote the clustering of the Ag nanoparticles the as-deposited samples were subjected to an in-air annealing protocol. It was demonstrated that the clustering of metallic Ag affects the optical response spectrum and the thermal behaviour of the films.

  • 35. Bratus, V. Y.
    et al.
    Petrenko, T. T.
    von Bardeleben, H. J.
    Kalinina, E. V.
    Hallén, Anders.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Vacancy-related defects in ion-beam and electron irradiated 6H-SiC2001In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 184, no 04-jan, p. 229-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A brief review is given on EPR study of irradiation-induced defects in SiC. The results of low-temperature study of Ky1 and Ky2 centers reveal for both of them the C-S symmetry, spin S = 1/2 and close coincidence of the g-tensor components. For Ky2 defect the principal values of g-tensor have been determined as g(z) = 2.0048, g(x) = 2.0022 and g(y) = 2.0037, where z and x directions reside in the (11 (2) over bar0) plane and the z-axis makes up an angle 65 degrees with the c-axis. The same residence of z- and x-axis and an angle 59 degrees are found for Ky1 center, g(z) = 2.0058, g(x) = 2.0025 and g(y) = 2.0023. A comparison of experimental and calculated hyperfine (HF) parameters is presented which suggests that Ky2 and Ky1 defects can be assigned to the positively charged carbon vacancy in 6H-SiC. The EPR study of defects created along the Al+ ion track in n-type 6H-SiC shows that lineshape, linewidth and integral intensity of the EPR signal reflect the state of damaged layer generated by ion implantation. A variation of defect density with annealing is reported and defect origin is discussed.

  • 36.
    Briley, Chad
    et al.
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Mock, Alyssa
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Korlacki, Rafal
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Hofmann, Tino
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Schubert, Eva
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Schubert, Mathias
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Effects of annealing and conformal alumina passivation on anisotropy and hysteresis of magneto-optical properties of cobalt slanted columnar thin films2017In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 421, p. 320-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present magneto-optical dielectric tensor data of cobalt and cobalt oxide slanted columnar thin films obtained by vector magneto-optical generalized ellipsometry. Room-temperature hysteresis magnetization measurements were performed in longitudinal and polar Kerr geometries on samples prior to and after a heat treatment process with and without a conformal Al2O3 passivation coating. The samples have been characterized by generalized ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy in conjuncture with density functional theory. We observe strongly anisotropic hysteresis behaviors, which depend on the nanocolumn and magnetizing field orientations. We find that deposited cobalt films that have been exposed to heat treatment and subsequent atmospheric oxidation into Co3O4, when not conformally passivated, reveal no measurable magneto-optical properties while cobalt films with passivation coatings retain highly anisotropic magneto-optical properties (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 37.
    Brohede, Ulrika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Zhao, Shuxi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Mihranyan, Albert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Forsgren, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    A novel graded bioactive high adhesion implant coating2009In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 255, no 17, p. 7723-7728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     One method to increase the clinical success rate of metal implants is to increase their bone bonding properties, i.e. to develop a bone   bioactive surface leading to reduced risks of interfacial problems.   Much research has been devoted to modifying the surface of metals to   make them become bioactive. Many of the proposed methods include   depositing a coating on the implant. However, there is a risk of coating failure due to low substrate adhesion. This paper describes a method to obtain bioactivity combined with a high coating adhesion via   a gradient structure of the coating. Gradient coatings were deposited   on Ti (grade 5) using reactive magnetron sputtering with increasing   oxygen content. To increase the grain size in the coating, all coatings   were post annealed at 385 degrees C. The obtained coating exhibited a gradual transition over 70 nm from crystalline titanium oxide (anatase)  at the surface to metallic Ti in the substrate, as shown using  cross-section transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron   spectroscopy depth pro. ling. Using scratch testing, it could be shown that the adhesion to the substrate was well above 1 GPa. The bioactivity of the coating was verified in vitro by the spontaneous   formation of hydroxylapatite upon storage in phosphate buffer solution at 37 degrees C for one week.   The described process can be applied to implants irrespective of bulk  metal in the base and should introduce the possibility to create safer permanent implants like reconstructive devices, dental, or spinal implants.

  • 38.
    Bruckner, Barbara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics. Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, IEP AOP, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Bauer, Peter
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, IEP AOP, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    The impact of surface oxidation on energy spectra of keV ions scattered from transition metals2019In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 479, p. 1287-1292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying the initial stages of surface oxidation is of great relevance to understand how oxygen alters the physical and chemical properties at the interface of the host material to the environment and is therefore, crucial for improvement in manifold technological applications. We investigated the influence of surface oxygen on ion spectra recorded for keV noble gas ions backscattered from metal surfaces in low energy ion scattering (LEIS). Initially pure Zn and Ta surfaces, chosen for their well-characterized properties in ion-neutralization in LEIS, have been oxidized and ion spectra for pure and oxidized surfaces have been compared. Oxygen on the surface significantly influences shape and intensity of the backscattered ion spectrum at all energies: for both metal systems, the surface scattered ion yield of the metal is drastically decreasing under oxygen presence. The observed decrease, however, cannot be explained by the reduction in the surface areal density of the metal constituents exclusively. At least for Zn an additional significant change in charge exchange behavior is necessary to explain the observations. In contrast to the generally observed decrease in the yield of ions scattered from the outermost surface, the change in shape and intensity of the reionization background are found to show opposing trends and different energy dependencies for Zn and Ta.

  • 39.
    Bukaluk, A.
    et al.
    Instytut Matematyki I Fizyki, Akademia Techniczno-Rolnicza, Ul. K., Bydgoszcz, Poland.
    Wronkowska, A.A.
    Instytut Matematyki I Fizyki, Akademia Techniczno-Rolnicza, Ul. K., Bydgoszcz, Poland.
    Wronkowski, A.
    Instytut Matematyki I Fizyki, Akademia Techniczno-Rolnicza, Ul. K., Bydgoszcz, Poland.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Firszt, F.
    Instytut Fizyki, Uniw. Mikolaja Kopernika, Ul. G., Torun, Poland.
    Legowski, S.
    Instytut Fizyki, Uniw. Mikolaja Kopernika, Ul. G., Torun, Poland.
    Meczynska, H.
    Meczynska, H., Instytut Fizyki, Uniw. Mikolaja Kopernika, Ul. G., Torun, Poland.
    Szatkowski, J.
    Instytut Fizyki, Uniw. Mikolaja Kopernika, Ul. G., Torun, Poland.
    Auger electron spectroscopy, ellipsometry and photoluminescence investigations of Zn1-XBeXSe alloys2001In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 175-176, p. 531-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, properties of the Zn1-XBeXSe crystals grown from the melt by the high-pressure Bridgman method are reported. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used for determination of the complex dielectric function of Zn1-XBeXSe. On the basis of the photon energy dependence of the dielectric function, the energy gaps of alloys containing different beryllium concentrations have been evaluated. Measurements of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra allowed to find the excitonic gap in the investigated alloys. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) with simultaneous argon ion sputtering has been used for determination of surface composition. AES investigations allowed to make predictions concerning distribution of particular elements in the samples. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • 40.
    Canestraro, Carla Daniele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Oliveira, Marcela M.
    Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal do Paraná.
    Valaski, Rogerio
    Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná.
    da Silva, Marcus V. S.
    Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia.
    David, Denis G. F.
    Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia.
    Pepe, Iuri
    Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia.
    Ferreira da Silva, Antonio
    Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia.
    Roman, Lucimara S.
    Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná.
    Persson, Clas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Strong inter-conduction-band absorption in heavily fluorine doped tin oxide2008In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 255, no 5, p. 1874-1879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical, electrical and structural properties of thin. film tin oxide (TO), F-doped tin oxide (FTO; n(F) approximate to 6 x 10(20) cm (3)) and highly F-doped tin oxide (hFTO; n(F) approximate to 10 x 10(20) cm (3)), grown by spray pyrolysis technique, are studied by atomic force microscopy, Hall effect, X-ray. fluorescence and transmission/reflection measurements. The resistivity (rho = 32 x 10 (4) Omega cm for intrinsic tin oxide) shows intriguing characteristics when F concentration n(F) is increased (rho = 6 x 10 (4) Omega cm for FTO but 25 x 10 (4) Omega cm for hFTO) whereas the carrier concentration is almost constant at high F concentration (n(c) approximate to 6 x 10(20) cm (3) for FTO and hFTO). Thus, F seems to act both as a donor and a compensating acceptor in hFTO. The high carrier concentration has a strong effect on the optical band-edge absorption. Whereas intrinsic TO has room-temperature band-gap energy of E-g approximate to 3.2 eV with an onset to absorption at about 3.8 eV, the highly doped FTO and hFTO samples show relatively strong absorption at 2-3 eV. Theoretical analysis based on density functional calculations of FTO reveals that this is not a defect state within the band-gap region, but instead a consequence of a hybridization of the F donor states with the host conduction band in combination with a band. filling of the lowest conduction band by the free carriers. This allows photon-assisted inter-conduction band transitions of the free electrons to energetically higher and empty conduction bands, producing the below-gap absorption peak.

  • 41.
    Chakarov, D V
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Hellsing, B
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Kasemo, B
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Photos induced desorption and intercalation of potassium atoms deposited on graphite(0001)1996In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 106, p. 186-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to the photodesorption phenomenon previously observed for single K atoms from a graphite surface covered with a monolayer of potassium we present new results related to the photon stimulated interaction of potassium with graphite, which concerns alternative routes for energy relaxation of the photo excited K adatoms: photoinduced intercalation. The desorption yield has a threshold at h omega approximate to 3 eV and a maximum at h omega(max) approximate to 4.9 eV, Polarization measurements indicate a substrate-mediated mechanism. The coverage dependence suggests that only the ionic 2D, K-phase is photo active. The proposed mechanism includes attachment of photo-generated hot electrons to the K 4s adsorbate resonance of energy E(res). Assuming an analogous excitation process we discuss different mechanisms for the K photo intercalation and possible applications of the photon stimulated doping of carboneous materials at low temperature.

  • 42. Chaudhary, Shilpi
    et al.
    Kamra, Tripta
    Uddin, Khan Mohammad Ahsan
    Snezhkova, Olesia
    Jayawardena, H. Surangi N.
    Yan, Mingdi
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Montelius, Lars
    Schnadt, Joachim
    Ye, Lei
    Controlled short-linkage assembly of functional nano-objects2014In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 300, p. 22-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we report a method that allows the deterministic, photo-controlled covalent assembly of nanoparticles directly on surface. As a model system, we study the conjugation of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles on a glass surface and confirm that the immobilized nanoparticles maintain their molecular recognition functionality. The glass slide was first modified with perfluorophenylazide and then used to bind MIP nanoparticles under UV irradiation. After each step the surface was analyzed by water contact angle measurement, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and/or synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MIP nanoparticles immobilized on the glass surface remained stable and maintained specific binding for the template molecule, propranolol. The method developed in this work allows MIP nanoparticles to be directly coupled to a flat surface, offering a straightforward means to construct robust chemical sensors. Using the reported photo conjugation method, it is possible to generate patterned assembly of nanoparticles using a photomask. Since perfluorophenylazide-based photochemistry works with all kinds of organic material, the method developed in this work is expected to enable immobilization of not only MIPs but also other kinds of organic and inorganic-organic core-shell particles for various applications involving photon or electron transfer.

  • 43.
    Chen, Ruei-San
    et al.
    National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
    Tang, Chih-Che
    Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic transport properties in aluminum indium nitride nanorods grown by magnetron sputter epitaxy2013In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 285, p. 625-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic transport properties of the wide-bandgap aluminum indium nitride (AlInN) nanorods (NRs) grown by ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputter epitaxy (MSE) have been studied. The conductivities of the ternary compound nanostructure locates at the value of 15 Q-1 cm -1, which is respectively one and two orders of magnitude lower than the binary GaN and InN counterparts grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The very shallow donor level/band with the activation energy at 11 + 2 meV was obtained by the temperature-dependent measurement. In addition, the photoconductivity has also been investigated. The photoconductive (PC) gain of the NRs device can reach near 2400 under a low bias at 0.1 V and the light intensity at 100W m-2 for ultraviolet response in vacuum. The power-insensitive gain and ambience-dependent photocurrent are also observed, which is attributed to the probable surfacecontrolled PC mechanism in this ternary nitride nanostructure.

  • 44.
    Chen, Y
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.
    Gan, C.H.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.
    Wang, L.X.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.
    Yu, G.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Laser surface modified ductile iron by pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam with two-dimensional array distribution2005In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 245, no 1-4, p. 316-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel modification layer on the surface of pearlite-ferrite matrix ductile iron was fabricated under irradiation of Nd:YAG laser beam equipped with self-designed diffractive optical element (DOE) which produces a 5×5 two-dimensional array distribution at the focal plane. The microstructure of the layer along the surface and the direction of the layer depth had obvious gradient distribution, and therefore the two-dimensional microhardness map of the layer alternated higher hardness with lower hardness. The results showed that the novel modification layer is expected to have excellent combination of strength and toughness

  • 45.
    Cheng, Jie
    et al.
    Tsinghua Univ, State Key Lab Tribol, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.;Beijing Inst Technol, Sch Mech & Vehicular Engn, Laser Micro Nano Fabricat Lab, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Huang, Shuo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Li, Yang
    Tsinghua Univ, Dept Chem, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Tongqing
    Tsinghua Univ, State Key Lab Tribol, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Xie, Lile
    Tsinghua Univ, State Key Lab Tribol, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Xinchun
    Tsinghua Univ, State Key Lab Tribol, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    RE (La, Nd and Yb) doped CeO2 abrasive particles for chemical mechanical polishing of dielectric materials: Experimental and computational analysis2020In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 506, article id 144668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ce3+ in CeO2, rather than Ce4+, is believed to provide assistance to the breaking up of Si-O bond during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of silica. In the paper, lanthanide metals (La, Nd and Yb) doped CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by modified incipient impregnation method in order to improve the content of Ce3+ in CeO2 as polishing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments and density function theory (DFT) calculation demonstrate this approach could achieve surface doping of CeO2 nanoparticles, and facilitates the formation of oxygen vacancy and Ce3+ content. CMP experiments show that the polishing rate and the surface quality of silica wafer are obviously improved by using the doped CeO2 as abrasive particles. Especially for Nd/CeO2, content of Ce3+ increases from 0.146 to 0.235, the polishing rate of silica is accelerated by 29.6% in alkaline slurries, and a better surface quality (Sa = 9.6 angstrom) is obtained.

  • 46.
    Cheng, Yajuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Zhao, Zhe
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Controllable fabrication of large-area 2D colloidal crystal masks with large size defect-free domains based on statistical experimental design2014In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 313, p. 144-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large-area hexagonal packed monolayer of silica spheres with consistent defect-free domains of a size larger than 3000 mu m(2) was prepared by spin coating on glass substrates with the assistance of experimental design and statistical analysis. The ratio of the defect-free monolayer area to the square of sphere diameter is nearly two times of the previously reported maximum values. Several parameters involved in the spin coating systems were investigated. The results indicated that the relative humidity and the rotational speed of the first step of the spin coating had the most important impact on the ordering degree of the prepared monolayer. Furthermore, the ordering degree of the obtained monolayer increased with a decreased relative humidity. In addition, it reached an optimal value when the first rotational speed during spin coating reached a value of 1000 rpm. From this study, it can be concluded that statistical experimental design is an efficient strategy, especially for multi-factor phenomenon studies.

  • 47.
    Cheng, Yajuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Wang, Jing
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jösson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Zhao, Zhe
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Improvement and optimization of the growth quality of upright ZnOrod arrays by the response surface methodology2015In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 351, p. 451-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Response surface methodology was employed to guide the growth of ZnO rod arrays. With its assistance, the growth quality of the obtained samples was improved dramatically. The morphologies evolved from sparsely, randomly oriented rods to dense and upright rod arrays. Moreover, the significant parameters for ZnO rod arrays growth and their optimal regions were also determined. Furthermore, with the optimized parameters, the obtained aspect ratio of the vertically aligned ZnO rod arrays reached a value of 31. This is relatively a high value of ZnO rod arrays synthesized by wet chemical methods without capping agents in neutral solutions.

  • 48. Chow, Winnie W. Y.
    et al.
    Herwik, Stanislav
    Ruther, Patrick
    Gothelid, Emmanuelle
    Oscarsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bio-polymer coatings on neural probe surfaces: Influence of the initial sample composition2012In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 258, no 20, p. 7864-7871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of the study of hyaluronic acid (HyA) coating on two structural materials, silicon oxide (dielectric) surface and platinum (Pt) surface used for fabrication of probes developed for neurological investigations in the framework of the EU-project NeuroProbes. The silicon-based neural probes consist of multiple Pt electrodes on the probe shafts for neural recording applications. HyA coatings were proposed to apply on the probe surfaces to enhance the biocompatibility [1]. This study aims at understanding the influence of the initial composition of the probe surface on the structure and morphology of HyA coating. HyA was chemically functionalized by SS-pyridin using (N-Succinimidyl 3-[2-pyridyldithio]-propionate) (SPDP) and was immobilized on the surfaces via a covalent bond. The dielectric and Pt surfaces were derivatized by use of (3-mercaptopropyl) methyldimethoxysilane (MPMDMS). The silanol groups in MPMDMS bind to the dielectric surface, leaving the thiol groups at the uppermost surface and the thiol groups then bind covalently to the functionalized HyA. On the Pt surface, it is the thiol group which binds on the Pt surface. The coated surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A well-defined HyA layer was observed on both dielectric and Pt surfaces. The coating of two molecular weights (340 kDa and 1.3 MDa) of HyA was examined. The influence of the silanized layer on the HyA coating was also investigated.

  • 49.
    Chow, Winnie W. Y.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Surface and Interface Science.
    Herwik, Stanislav
    Ruther, Patrick
    Göthelid, Emmanuelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Surface and Interface Science.
    Oscarsson, Sven
    Bio-polymer coatings on neural probe surfaces: Influence of the initial sample composition2012In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 258, no 20, p. 7864-7871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of the study of hyaluronic acid (HyA) coating on two structural materials, silicon oxide (dielectric) surface and platinum (Pt) surface used for fabrication of probes developed for neurological investigations in the framework of the EU-project NeuroProbes. The silicon-based neural probes consist of multiple Pt electrodes on the probe shafts for neural recording applications. HyA coatings were proposed to apply on the probe surfaces to enhance the biocompatibility [1]. This study aims at understanding the influence of the initial composition of the probe surface on the structure and morphology of HyA coating. HyA was chemically functionalized by SS-pyridin using (N-Succinimidyl 3-[2-pyridyldithio]-propionate) (SPDP) and was immobilized on the surfaces via a covalent bond. The dielectric and Pt surfaces were derivatized by use of (3-mercaptopropyl) methyldimethoxysilane (MPMDMS). The silanol groups in MPMDMS bind to the dielectric surface, leaving the thiol groups at the uppermost surface and the thiol groups then bind covalently to the functionalized HyA. On the Pt surface, it is the thiol group which binds on the Pt surface. The coated surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A well-defined HyA layer was observed on both dielectric and Pt surfaces. The coating of two molecular weights (340 kDa and 1.3 MDa) of HyA was examined. The influence of the silanized layer on the HyA coating was also investigated. 

  • 50.
    Coll, M.
    et al.
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB, Campus UAB, Cerdanyola Del Valles 08193, Catalonia, Spain.
    Fontcuberta, J.
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB, Campus UAB, Cerdanyola Del Valles 08193, Catalonia, Spain.
    Althammer, M.
    Bayer Akad Wissensch, Walther Meissner Inst, D-85748 Garching, Germany;Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Bibes, M.
    Univ Paris Sud, Univ Paris Saclay, Thales, Unite Mixte Phys,CNRS, F-91767 Palaiseau, France.
    Boschker, H.
    Max Planck Inst Solid State Res, Heisenbergstr 1, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany.
    Calleja, A.
    OXOLUTIA SL, Avda Castell Barbera 26,Tellers 13,Nau 1, Barcelona 08210, Spain.
    Cheng, G.
    Univ Sci & Technol China, CAS Key Lab Microscale Magnet Resonance, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China;Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Modern Phys, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China;Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Phys & Astron, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA;Pittsburgh Quantum Inst, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.
    Cuoco, M.
    Univ Salerno, CNR SPIN, IT-84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy;Univ Salerno, Dipartimento Fis ER Caianiello, IT-84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy.
    Dittmann, R.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst PGI 7, D-52425 Julich, Germany.
    Dkhil, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CNRS UMR 8580, Cent Supelec, Lab Struct Proprietes & Modelisat Solides, F-91190 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    El Baggari, I
    Cornell Univ, Dept Phys, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.
    Fanciulli, M.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Mat Sci, Milan, Italy.
    Fina, I
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB, Campus UAB, Cerdanyola Del Valles 08193, Catalonia, Spain.
    Fortunato, E.
    Univ NOVA Lisboa UNL, FCT, Dept Ciencia Mat, CENIMAT i3N, Lisbon, Portugal;CEMOP UNINOVA, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Frontera, C.
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB, Campus UAB, Cerdanyola Del Valles 08193, Catalonia, Spain.
    Fujita, S.
    Kyoto Univ, Kyoto 6158520, Japan.
    Garcia, V
    Univ Paris Sud, Univ Paris Saclay, Thales, Unite Mixte Phys,CNRS, F-91767 Palaiseau, France.
    Goennenwein, S. T. B.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Inst Festkorperphys, D-01062 Dresden, Germany;Tech Univ Dresden, Ctr Transport & Devices Emergent Mat, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Grollier, J.
    Univ Paris Sud, Univ Paris Saclay, Thales, Unite Mixte Phys,CNRS, F-91767 Palaiseau, France.
    Gross, R.
    Bayer Akad Wissensch, Walther Meissner Inst, D-85748 Garching, Germany;Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany;NIM, D-80799 Munich, Germany.
    Hagfeldt, A.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Herranz, G.
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB, Campus UAB, Cerdanyola Del Valles 08193, Catalonia, Spain.
    Hono, K.
    NIMS, Res Ctr Magnet & Spintron Mat, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050047, Japan.
    Houwman, E.
    Univ Twente, MESA Inst Nanotechnol, NL-7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.
    Huijben, M.
    Univ Twente, MESA Inst Nanotechnol, NL-7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.
    Kalaboukhov, A.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Microtechnol & Nanosci, MC2, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Keeble, D. J.
    Univ Dundee, Sch Sci & Engn, Carnegie Lab Phys, SUPA, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland.
    Koster, G.
    Univ Twente, MESA Inst Nanotechnol, NL-7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.
    Kourkoutis, L. F.
    Kavli Inst Cornell Nanoscale Sci, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA;Cornell Univ, Sch Appl & Engn Phys, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.
    Levy, J.
    Bayer Akad Wissensch, Walther Meissner Inst, D-85748 Garching, Germany;Pittsburgh Quantum Inst, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.
    Lira-Cantu, M.
    CSIC, Catalan Inst Nanosci & Nanotechnol ICN2, Campus UAB, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain;BIST, Campus UAB, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain.
    MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Mat Sci & Met, 27 Charles Babbage Rd, Cambridge CB3 0FS, England.
    Mannhart, Jochen
    Max Planck Inst Solid State Res, Heisenbergstr 1, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany.
    Martins, R.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Mat Sci, Milan, Italy;IMM CNR, MDM Lab, Agrate Brianza, Italy.
    Menzel, S.
    Pittsburgh Quantum Inst, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.
    Mikolajick, T.
    NaMLab gGmbH, Noethnitzer Str 64, D-01187 Dresden, Germany;Tech Univ Dresden, Chair Nanoelect Mat, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Napari, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Mat Sci & Met, 27 Charles Babbage Rd, Cambridge CB3 0FS, England.
    Nguyen, M. D.
    Univ Twente, MESA Inst Nanotechnol, NL-7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Paillard, C.
    Univ Arkansas, Phys Dept, Fayetteville, AR 72701 USA.
    Panigrahi, S.
    Univ NOVA Lisboa UNL, FCT, Dept Ciencia Mat, CENIMAT i3N, Lisbon, Portugal;CEMOP UNINOVA, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Rijnders, G.
    Univ Twente, MESA Inst Nanotechnol, NL-7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.
    Sanchez, F.
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB, Campus UAB, Cerdanyola Del Valles 08193, Catalonia, Spain.
    Sanchis, P.
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Nanophoton Technol Ctr, Camino Vera S-N, E-46022 Valencia, Spain.
    Sanna, S.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Energy Storage & Convers, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.
    Schlom, D. G.
    Cornell Univ, Dept Phys, Lab Atom & Solid State Phys, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA;Cornell Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.
    Schroeder, U.
    NaMLab gGmbH, Noethnitzer Str 64, D-01187 Dresden, Germany.
    Shen, K. M.
    Kavli Inst Cornell Nanoscale Sci, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA;Cornell Univ, Dept Phys, Lab Atom & Solid State Phys, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.
    Siemon, A.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Werkstoffe Elektrotech IWE 2, D-52066 Aachen, Germany.
    Spreitzer, M.
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Adv Mat Dept, Jamova Cesta 39, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.
    Sukegawa, H.
    NIMS, Res Ctr Magnet & Spintron Mat, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050047, Japan.
    Tamayo, R.
    OXOLUTIA SL, Avda Castell Barbera 26,Tellers 13,Nau 1, Barcelona 08210, Spain.
    van den Brink, J.
    IFW Dresden, Inst Theoret Solid State Phys, Helm Holtzstr 20, D-01069 Dresden, Germany.
    Pryds, N.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Energy Storage & Convers, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.
    Granozio, F. Miletto
    CNR SPIN, Naples Unit, Complesso Univ Monte St Angelo,Via Cinthia, IT-80126 Naples, Italy.
    Towards Oxide Electronics: a Roadmap2019In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 482, p. 1-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the end of a rush lasting over half a century, in which CMOS technology has been experiencing a constant and breathtaking increase of device speed and density, Moore's law is approaching the insurmountable barrier given by the ultimate atomic nature of matter. A major challenge for 21st century scientists is finding novel strategies, concepts and materials for replacing silicon-based CMOS semiconductor technologies and guaranteeing a continued and steady technological progress in next decades. Among the materials classes candidate to contribute to this momentous challenge, oxide films and heterostructures are a particularly appealing hunting ground. The vastity, intended in pure chemical terms, of this class of compounds, the complexity of their correlated behaviour, and the wealth of functional properties they display, has already made these systems the subject of choice, worldwide, of a strongly networked, dynamic and interdisciplinary research community. Oxide science and technology has been the target of a wide four-year project, named Towards Oxide-Based Electronics (TO-BE), that has been recently running in Europe and has involved as participants several hundred scientists from 29 EU countries. In this review and perspective paper, published as a final deliverable of the TO-BE Action, the opportunities of oxides as future electronic materials for Information and Communication Technologies ICT and Energy are discussed. The paper is organized as a set of contributions, all selected and ordered as individual building blocks of a wider general scheme. After a brief preface by the editors and an introductory contribution, two sections follow. The first is mainly devoted to providing a perspective on the latest theoretical and experimental methods that are employed to investigate oxides and to produce oxide-based films, heterostructures and devices. In the second, all contributions are dedicated to different specific fields of applications of oxide thin films and heterostructures, in sectors as data storage and computing, optics and plasmonics, magnonics, energy conversion and harvesting, and power electronics.

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