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  • 1.
    Blaauw, Maarten
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Christen, Andres
    Hall, Valerie
    van der Plicht, Johannes
    A Bayesian framework for age-modelling of radiocarbon-dated peat deposits: case studies from the Netherlands2007In: Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, E-ISSN 1945-5755, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 357-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, Bayesian statistical software has been developed for age-depth modeling (“wiggle-match dating”) ofsequences of densely spaced radiocarbon dates from peat cores. The method is described in non-statistical terms, and is com-pared with an alternative method of chronological ordering of 14C dates. Case studies include the dating of the start of agri-culture in the northeastern part of the Netherlands, and of a possible Hekla-3 tephra layer in the same country. We discussfuture enhancements in Bayesian age modeling.

  • 2. Bonsall, Clive
    et al.
    Cook, Gordon
    Pickard, Catriona
    McSweeney, Kathleen
    Sayle, Kerry
    Bartosiewicz, Laszlo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory.
    Radovanovic, Ivana
    Higham, Thomas
    Soficaru, Andrei
    Boroneant, Adina
    Food for Thought: Re-Assessing Mesolithic Diets in the Iron Gates2015In: Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, E-ISSN 1945-5755, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 689-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in human bone collagen are used routinely to aid in the reconstruction of ancient diets. Isotopic analysis of human remains from sites in the Iron Gates section of the Lower Danube Valley has led to conflicting interpretations of Mesolithic diets in this key region of southeast Europe. One view (Bonsall et al. 1997, 2004) is that diets were based mainly on riverine resources throughout the Mesolithic. A competing hypothesis (Nehlich et al. 2010) argues that Mesolithic diets were more varied with at least one Early Mesolithic site showing an emphasis on terrestrial resources, and riverine resources only becoming dominant in the Later Mesolithic. The present article revisits this issue, discussing the stable isotope data in relation to archaeozoological and radiocarbon evidence.

  • 3.
    Dury, Jack P. R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Eriksson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Fjellström, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Wallerström, Thomas
    Lidén, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    CONSIDERATION OF FRESHWATER AND MULTIPLE MARINE RESERVOIR EFFECTS: DATING OF INDIVIDUALS WITH MIXED DIETS FROM NORTHERN SWEDEN2018In: Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, E-ISSN 1945-5755, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 1561-1585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human burials from the cemetery at the Rounala church, northern Sweden, were radiocarbon (C-14) dated to shed light on the use of the cemetery. Carbon, nitrogen and sulfur stable isotope analysis of bone collagen from 19 distinct individuals indicated that these individuals had a mixed diet consisting of freshwater, marine and terrestrial resources. Dietary modeling using FRUITS was employed to calculate the contributions of the different resources for each individual. These data were then used to calculate individual Delta R values, taking into account freshwater and multiple marine reservoir effects, the latter caused by Baltic and Atlantic marine dietary inputs, respectively. C-14 dating of tissues from modern freshwater fish species demonstrate a lack of a freshwater reservoir effect in the area. Two OxCal models were used to provide endpoint age estimates. The calibrated data suggest that the site's cemetery was most likely in use already from the 14th century, and perhaps until at least the late 18th century.

  • 4.
    Eilers, Gerriet
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Gustavsson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ryderfors, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Mukhtar, Emad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Salehpour, Mehran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    The Radiocarbon Intracavity Optogalvanic Spectroscopy Setup at Uppsala2013In: Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, E-ISSN 1945-5755, Vol. 55, no 3-4, p. 237-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is by far the predominant technology deployed for radiocarbon tracer studies. Applications are widespread from archaeology to biological, environmental, and pharmaceutical sciences. In spite of its excellent performance, AMS is expensive and complicated to operate. Consequently, alternative detection techniques for 14C are of great interest, with the vision of a compact, user-friendly, and inexpensive analytical method. Here, we report on the use of intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy (ICOGS) for measurements of the 14C/12C ratio. This new detection technique was developed by Murnick et al. (2008). In the infrared (IR) region, CO2 molecules have strong absorption coefficients. The IR-absorption lines are narrow in line width and shifted for different carbon isotopes. These properties can potentially be exploited to detect 14CO2, 13CO2, or 12CO2 molecules unambiguously. In ICOGS, the sample is in the form of CO2 gas, eliminating the graphitization step that h is required in most AMS labs. The status of the ICOGS setup in Uppsala is presented. The system is operational but not yet fully developed. Data are presented for initial results that illustrate the dependence of the optogalvanic signal on various parameters, such as background and plasma-induced changes in the sample gas composition.

  • 5.
    Fontana, Sonia L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Radiocarbon chronologies of Holocene lacustrine sediments from the southern coast of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina2007In: Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, E-ISSN 1945-5755, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 103-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two lacustrine sediment sequences, La Olla 1 and Laguna del Sauce Grande, on the southern coast of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, were investigated for carbon reservoir effects, which may influence age-depth chronologies. Fruits of the submerged macrophyte Ruppia cf. maritima from the La Olla 1 sequence, and gastropod shells of Heleobia parchappii from the Laguna del Sauce Grande core, were radiocarbon dated. In addition, terrestrial plant remains and shells of living specimens were dated to assess the presence and magnitude of a reservoir effect. A reservoir age of about 800 14C yr is estimated for the aquatic plant samples of La Olla 1 for the early Holocene. The reservoir effect is attributed to the inwash of 14C-deficient bicarbonate from the surrounding sand dunes. The decay of marine organisms and salt spray are likely the main sources of 14C-deficient carbon. The magnitude of the reservoir effect is consistent with marine reservoir offsets reported for the region. The 14C measurements on shells of living and fossil specimens of Heleobia parchappii indicate the absence of a reservoir effect at Laguna del Sauce Grande, which may be due to the large size and shallow nature of the lake. This study shows how the reservoir ages of 2 close-by lakes in very similar geological settings can be largely different. These results have significant implications for the interpretation of 14C dates from lacustrine deposits in the region.

  • 6.
    Levin, Maureece J.
    et al.
    Stanford Univ, Stanford Archaeol Ctr, 488 Escondido Mall,Bldg 500, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Seikel, Katherine
    Australian Natl Univ, Dept Archaeol & Nat Hist, Coll Asia & Pacific, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.
    Miles, Aimee
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    A Partial Chronological Sequence of Human Habitation for Pingelap Atoll (Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia)2019In: Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, E-ISSN 1945-5755, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 765-776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pingelap Atoll, 1.8 km(2) in area and nearly 70 km from the nearest island, presents a clear example of anthropogenic niche-building in physically isolated circumstances with limited resources. This paper presents the first radiocarbon (C-14) dates (n=8) from an archaeological project examining settlement and subsistence practices on the atoll, specifically how Pingelapese people have constructed the environment to meet their needs over centuries of occupation. These dates confirm that human occupation of Pingelap occurred by 1700-1550 cal BP (2 sigma) at the latest, only a few centuries after the earliest securely-dated settlement of high islands in the region (Kosrae and Pohnpei), and with strikingly similar timing to another atoll in the region, Mwoakilloa. Evidence of early settlement includes shell tools, ornaments, extensive marine faunal remains, and charred botanical domesticates. These preliminary data build a framework for the settlement history and environment building of Pingelap.

  • 7.
    Lillie, Malcolm
    et al.
    Department of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences, University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX, England, UK.
    Henderson, Rowena
    Budd, Chelsea
    Potekhina, Inna
    Factors influencing the radiocarbon dating of human skeletal remains from the Dnieper river system: Archaeological and stable isotope evidence of diet from the Epipalaeolithic to Eneolithic periods2016In: Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, E-ISSN 1945-5755, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 741-753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has identified the existence of a freshwater reservoir effect influencing the radiocarbon dating of human skeletal remains from the Dnieper region of Ukraine (Lillie et al. 2009). The current study outlines the evidence for freshwater resource exploitation throughout the period ~10,200–3700 cal BC, and presents the available evidence for the existence of dietary offsets in the 14C dates obtained. We have obtained human skeletal material from 54 Epipaleolithic to Mesolithic period individuals and 267 Neolithic to Eneolithic individuals, from 13 cemeteries, since our research in Ukraine began in 1992. Here, we present the initial results of stable isotope analysis of Eneolithic individuals from the Igren VIII cemetery alongside the Epipaleolithic to Eneolithic samples that have previously been analyzed. When contrasted against the evidence from the prehistoric fauna and fish remains studied, and modern fish species from the Dnieper region, we continue to see variability in diets at the population level, both internally and across cemeteries. We also observed temporal variability in human diets across these chronological periods. The fish samples (both archaeological and modern) show a wide range of isotope ratios for both δ13C and δ15N, which could prove significant when interpreting the dietary sources being exploited. This information directly informs the 14C dating program as an inherent degree of complexity is introduced into the dating of individuals whose diets combine freshwater and terrestrial sources in differing quantities and at differing temporal and/or spatial scales (e.g. Bronk Ramsey et al. 2014)

  • 8.
    Mellström, Anette
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Muscheler, Raimund
    Lunds universitet.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Ning, Wenxin
    Lund universitet.
    Haltia, Eeva
    Turku university.
    Radiocarbon wiggle-matching of bulk sediments - how accurate can it be?2013In: Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, E-ISSN 1945-5755, Vol. 55, no 2-3, p. 1173-1186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used the radiocarbon wiggle-match dating technique to date the varved sediments of Lake Gyltigesjön in southern Sweden with the main aim to construct an accurate chronology covering the period between about 3000 and 2000 cal BP. Wiggle-match dating was applied to bulk sediments to evaluate the possibility of constructing accurate chronologies in the absence of terrestrial plant macrofossils and when the amount of old carbon in the sediments is unknown. Facilitated by a floating varve chronology and relatively stable 14C reservoir ages, the results show the possibility to assess the contribution of old carbon solely based on the 14C wiggle-matching of bulk sediments. We confirm the wiggle-matched chronology and the 14C reservoir age of approximately 260 yr by cross-checking the results with 14C dating of macrofossils. The obtained calibrated ages based on bulk sediments have an uncertainty range of about 60–65 yr (95.4% confidence interval). This study confirms that 14C wiggle-match dating of bulk sediments is a viable tool when constructing high-resolution chronologies. The method is especially useful in Sun-climate studies since the timing between solar activity variations (expressed as 14C variations) and climate changes can be accurately determined.

  • 9.
    Olsson, Ingrid U.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science.
    Radiocarbon Dating History: Early Days, Questions, and Problems Met2009In: Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, E-ISSN 1945-5755, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 1-43Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    W F Libby's new dating method from the 1940s, based on experience in physics and chemistry, opened possibilities to check and revise chronologies built on other principles than radioactive decay. Libby's method initially implied collaboration with archaeologists to demonstrate that it worked but also with physicists to improve the technique to measure low beta-activities. Chemists, geophysicists, botanists, physiologists, statisticians, and other researchers have contributed to a prosperous interdisciplinary development. Some pitfalls were not recognized from the beginning, although issues such as contamination problems were foreseen by Libby. Pretreatment of samples was discussed very early by de Vries and collaborators. among others. This subject has not yet been abandoned. Closely related to pretreatment is the choice of fraction to be dated and chemicals to be used, especially for accelerator mass spectrometry(AMS) measurements. Calibration against tree rings and comparison with dates obtained using other methods as well as intercomparison projects are partly history but still very actual. The impact by man and climate is also studied since the early days of the method. Also, the carbon cycle has been of great interest. The tools for measurements and statistical analysis have been improved during these first 3 or 4 decades, allowing interpretations not possible earlier. delta C-13 determinations are mostly very important and useful, but sometimes they have been misleading in discussions of the origin of carbon. especially for human tissues-the metabolism was not yet fully understood. The history and development of the method can only be illustrated by selected examples in a survey like this.

  • 10.
    Rodrigues, Luiz F
    et al.
    Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil;Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Macario, Kita D
    Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil.
    Anjos, Roberto M
    Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil.
    Ketzer, João Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Maraschin, Anderson J
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Augustin, Adolpho H
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Moreira, Vinicius N
    Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil.
    dos Santos, Victor H.J.M.
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Muniz, Marcelo C
    Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil.
    Cardoso, Renan P
    Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil.
    Viana, Adriano R
    Petrobras, Brazil.
    Miller, Dennis J
    Petrobras, Brazil.
    Origin and alteration of organic matter in hydrate-bearing sediments of the Rio Grande Cone, Brazil: evidence from biological, physical, and chemical factors.2020In: Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, E-ISSN 1945-5755, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 197-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rio Grande Cone is a major fanlike depositional feature in the continental slope of the Pelotas Basin, Southern Brazil. Two representative sediment cores collected in the Cone area were retrieved using a piston core device. In this work, the organic matter (OM) in the sediments was characterized for a continental vs. marine origin using chemical proxies to help constrain the origin of gas in hydrates. The main contribution of OM was from marine organic carbon based on the stable carbon isotope (δ13C-org) and total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio (TOC:TN) analyses. In addition, the 14C data showed important information about the origin of the OM and we suggest some factors that could modify the original organic matter and therefore mask the “real” 14C ages: (1) biological activity that could modify the carbon isotopic composition of bulk terrestrial organic matter values, (2) the existence of younger sediments from mass wasting deposits unconformably overlying older sediments, and (3) the deep-sediment-sourced methane contribution due to the input of “old” (>50 ka) organic compounds from migrating fluids.

  • 11.
    Salehpour, Mehran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Håkansson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Westermark, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Antoni, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET.
    Wikström, Gerhard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Life science application utilizing radiocarbon tracing2013In: Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, E-ISSN 1945-5755, Vol. 55, no 2-3, p. 865-873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiocarbon-based accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facilities at Uppsala University include a measurement center for archaeological applications and a separate entity dedicated to life science research. This paper addresses the latter, with the intention of giving a brief description of the biomedical activities at our laboratory, as well as presenting new data. The ultra-small sample preparation method, which can be used down to a few µg C samples, is outlined and complemented with new results. Furthermore, it is shown that the average secondary ion current performance for small samples can be improved by increasing the distance between the cathode surface and the pressed graphite surface. Finally, data is presented for a new application: Amyloidoses are a group of diseases where the conformational changes in specific proteins’ structure lead to the formation of extracellular deposits that spread and increase in mass and eventually may lead to total organ failure and death. The formation timeframe is unknown and yet it is an important clue for the elucidation of the mechanism. We present results on bomb-peak dating of 4 different types of purified amyloid proteins from human postmortem heart and spleen samples. The data indicates that the average measured age of the carbon originating from the systemic amyloid types studied here correspond to a few years before the death of the subject. This suggests that a major part of the fibril formation takes place during the last few years before death, rather than as an accumulation of amyloid deposits over decades.

  • 12.
    Salehpour, Mehran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Håkansson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Westermark, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Antoni, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET.
    Wikström, Gerhard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Possnert, Possnert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Life science applications utilizing radiocarbon tracing2013In: Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, E-ISSN 1945-5755, Vol. 55, no 2-3, p. 865-873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiocarbon-based accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facilities at Uppsala University include a measurement center for archaeological applications and a separate entity dedicated to life science research. This paper addresses the latter, with the intention of giving a brief description of the biomedical activities at our laboratory, as well as presenting new data. The ultra-small sample preparation method, which can be used down to a few μg C samples, is outlined and complemented with new results. Furthermore, it is shown that the average secondary ion current performance for small samples can be improved by increasing the distance between the cathode surface and the pressed graphite surface. Finally, data is presented for a new application: Amyloidoses are a group of diseases where the conformational changes in specific proteins’ structure lead to the formation of extracellular deposits that spread and increase in mass and eventually may lead to total organ failure and death. The formation timeframe is unknown and yet it is an important clue for the elucidation of the mechanism. We present results on bomb-peak dating of 4 different types of purified amyloid proteins from human postmortem heart and spleen samples. The data indicates that the average measured age of the carbon originating from the systemic amyloid types studied here correspond to a few years before the death of the subject. This suggests that a major part of the fibril formation takes place during the last few years before death, rather than as an accumulation of amyloid deposits over decades.

  • 13. Szidat, S.
    et al.
    Bench, G.
    Bernardoni, V.
    Calzolai, G.
    Czimczik, C. I.
    Derendorp, L.
    Dusek, U.
    Elder, K.
    Fedi, M. E.
    Genberg, J.
    Gustafsson, O.
    Kirillova, E.
    Kondo, M.
    McNichol, A. P.
    Perron, N.
    Santos, G. M.
    Stenstrom, K.
    Swietlicki, E.
    Uchida, M.
    Vecchi, R.
    Wacker, L.
    Zhang, Y. L.
    Prevot, A. S. H.
    INTERCOMPARISON OF C-14 ANALYSIS OF CARBONACEOUS AEROSOLS: EXERCISE 20092013In: Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, E-ISSN 1945-5755, Vol. 55, no 2-3, p. 1496-1509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiocarbon analysis of the carbonaceous aerosol allows an apportionment of fossil and non-fossil sources of airborne particulate matter (PM). A chemical separation of total carbon (TC) into its subfractions organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) refines this powerful technique, as OC and EC originate from different sources and undergo different processes in the atmosphere. Although C-14 analysis of TC, EC, and OC has recently gained increasing attention, interlaboratory quality assurance measures have largely been missing, especially for the isolation of EC and OC. In this work, we present results from an intercomparison of 9 laboratories for C-14 analysis of carbonaceous aerosol samples on quartz fiber filters. Two ambient PM samples and 1 reference material (RM 8785) were provided with representative filter blanks. All laboratories performed C-14 determinations of TC and a subset of isolated EC and OC for isotopic measurement. In general, C-14 measurements of TC and OC agreed acceptably well between the laboratories, i.e. for TC within 0.015-0.025 (FC)-C-14 for the ambient filters and within 0.041 (FC)-C-14 for RM 8785. Due to inhomogeneous filter loading, RM 8785 demonstrated only limited applicability as a reference material for C-14 analysis of carbonaceous aerosols. C-14 analysis of EC revealed a large deviation between the laboratories of 28-79% as a consequence of different separation techniques. This result indicates a need for further discussion on optimal methods of EC isolation for C-14 analysis and a second stage of this intercomparison.

  • 14. Szidat, S.
    et al.
    Bench, G.
    Bernardoni, V.
    Calzolai, G.
    Czimczik, C. I.
    Derendorp, L.
    Dusek, U.
    Elder, K.
    Fedi, M. E.
    Genberg, J.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kirillova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kondo, M.
    McNichol, A. P.
    Perron, N.
    Santos, G. M.
    Stenstrom, K.
    Swietlicki, E.
    Uchida, M.
    Vecchi, R.
    Wacker, L.
    Zhang, Y. L.
    Prévôt, A. S. H.
    Intercomparison of 14C Analysis of Carbonaceous Aerosols: Exercise 20092013In: Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, E-ISSN 1945-5755, Vol. 55, no 2-3, p. 1496-1509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiocarbon analysis of the carbonaceous aerosol allows an apportionment of fossil and non-fossil sources of airborne particulate matter (PM). A chemical separation of total carbon (TC) into its subfractions organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) refines this powerful technique, as OC and EC originate from different sources and undergo different processes in the atmosphere. Although C-14 analysis of TC, EC, and OC has recently gained increasing attention, interlaboratory quality assurance measures have largely been missing, especially for the isolation of EC and OC. In this work, we present results from an intercomparison of 9 laboratories for C-14 analysis of carbonaceous aerosol samples on quartz fiber filters. Two ambient PM samples and 1 reference material (RM 8785) were provided with representative filter blanks. All laboratories performed C-14 determinations of TC and a subset of isolated EC and OC for isotopic measurement. In general, C-14 measurements of TC and OC agreed acceptably well between the laboratories, i.e. for TC within 0.015-0.025 (FC)-C-14 for the ambient filters and within 0.041 (FC)-C-14 for RM 8785. Due to inhomogeneous filter loading, RM 8785 demonstrated only limited applicability as a reference material for C-14 analysis of carbonaceous aerosols. C-14 analysis of EC revealed a large deviation between the laboratories of 28-79% as a consequence of different separation techniques. This result indicates a need for further discussion on optimal methods of EC isolation for C-14 analysis and a second stage of this intercomparison.

  • 15. Vybornov, A.
    et al.
    Zaitseva, G.
    Kovaliukh, N.
    Kulkova, M.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Skripkin, V.
    Chronological problems with neolithization of the northern caspian sea area and the forest-steppe povolzhye region2012In: Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, E-ISSN 1945-5755, Vol. 54, no 3-4, p. 795-799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steppe and forest-steppe areas of the Povolzhye area (Caucasus and central Asia) bear much interest for the Neolithic in connection with the productive economy of the region at the time. Recent data have allowed correction of the region's chronology. A number of C-14 dates denote the existence of the Neolithic in this territory as early as the 5th to 6th millennium BP. However, some questions are still under debate and require further data to clarify.

  • 16. Zaitseva, G.
    et al.
    Skripkin, V.
    Kovaliukh, N.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Dolukhanov, P.
    Vybornov, A.
    Radiocarbon dating of neolithic pottery2009In: Radiocarbon, ISSN 0033-8222, E-ISSN 1945-5755, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 795-801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The direct measurement of organic matter included in archaeological pottery may yield a reliable assessment of age. The main problem consists in the identification of possible origins and assessment of distortion for the age of organic inclusions. Our experiments show that shells included in pottery fabrics are strongly influenced by the reservoir effect, which may reach 500 yr or more. Other organic inclusions, such as lake ooze, do not visibly distort the age. The obtained series of radiocarbon dates have been used for the assessing the age of the early stages of pottery manufacture in southern Russia.

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