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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Colliander, Cristian
    Persson, Olle
    Field normalized citation rates, field normalized journal impact and Norwegian weights for allocation of university research funds2012In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 767-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared three different bibliometric evaluation approaches: two citation-based approaches and one based on manual classification of publishing channels into quality levels. Publication data for two universities was used, and we worked with two levels of analysis: article and department. For the article level, we investigated the predictive power of field normalized citation rates and field normalized journal impact with respect to journal level. The results for the article level show that evaluation of journals based on citation impact correlate rather well with manual classification of journals into quality levels. However, the prediction from field normalized citation rates to journal level was only marginally better than random guessing. At the department level, we studied three different indicators in the context of research fund allocation within universities and the extent to which the three indicators produce different distributions of research funds. It turned out that the three distributions of relative indicator values were very similar, which in turn yields that the corresponding distributions of hypothetical research funds would be very similar.

  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, University Library.
    Colliander, Cristian
    Umeå University, Deptartment of Sociology.
    Persson, Olle
    Umeå University, Deptartment of Sociology.
    Field normalized citation rates, field normalized journal impact and Norwegian weights for allocation of university research funds2012In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 767-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared three different bibliometric evaluation approaches: two citation-based approaches and one based on manual classification of publishing channels into quality levels. Publication data for two universities was used, and we worked with two levels of analysis: article and department. For the article level, we investigated the predictive power of field normalized citation rates and field normalized journal impact with respect to journal level. The results for the article level show that evaluation of journals based on citation impact correlate rather well with manual classification of journals into quality levels. However, the prediction from field normalized citation rates to journal level was only marginally better than random guessing. At the department level, we studied three different indicators in the context of research fund allocation within universities and the extent to which the three indicators produce different distributions of research funds. It turned out that the three distributions of relative indicator values were very similar, which in turn yields that the corresponding distributions of hypothetical research funds would be very similar.

  • 3.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Department of e-Resources, University Library, Stockholm University.
    Colliander, Cristian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Persson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Field normalized citation rates, field normalized journal impact and Norwegian weights for allocation of university research funds2012In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 767-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared three different bibliometric evaluation approaches: two citationbased approaches and one based on manual classification of publishing channels into quality levels. Publication data for two universities was used, and we worked with two levels of analysis: article and department. For the article level, we investigated the predictive power of field normalized citation rates and field normalized journal impact with respect to journal level. The results for the article level show that evaluation of journals based on citation impact correlate rather well with manual classification of journals into quality levels. However, the prediction from field normalized citation rates to journal level was only marginally better than random guessing. At the department level, we studied three different indicators in the context of research fund allocation within universities and the extent to which the three indicators produce different distributions of research funds. It turned out that the three distributions of relative indicator values were very similar, which in turn yields that the corresponding distributions of hypothetical research funds would be very similar.

  • 4.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Jarneving, Bo
    Bibliographic coupling, common abstract stems and clustering: a comparison of two document-document similarity approaches in the context of science mapping2008In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 273-290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, University Library.
    Jarneving, Bo
    Bibliographic coupling, common abstract stems and clustering: a comparison of two document-document similarity approaches in the context of science mapping2008In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 273-290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Jarneving, Bo
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Bibliographic coupling, common abstract stems and clustering: a comparison of two document-document similarity approaches in the context of science mapping2008In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 273-290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    School of Education and Communication in Engineering Sciences (ECE), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pagin, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Persson, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen..
    Svedberg, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Bibliometric analysis of two subdomains in philosophy: free will and sorites2015In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 47-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we tested the fruitfulness of advanced bibliometric methods for mapping subdomains in philosophy. The development of the number of publications on free will and sorites, the two subdomains treated in the study, over time was studied. We applied the cocitation approach to map the most cited publications, authors and journals, and we mapped frequently occurring terms, using a term co-occurrence approach. Both subdomains show a strong increase of publications in Web of Science. When we decomposed the publications by faculty, we could see an increase of free will publications also in social sciences, medicine and natural sciences. The multidisciplinary character of free will research was reflected in the cocitation analysis and in the term co-occurrence analysis: we found clusters/groups of cocited publications, authors and journals, and of co-occurring terms, representing philosophy as well as non-philosophical fields, such as neuroscience and physics. The corresponding analyses of sorites publications displayed a structure consisting of research themes rather than fields. All in all, both philosophers involved in this study acknowledge the validity of the various networks presented. Bibliometric mapping appears to provide an interesting tool for describing the cognitive orientation of a research field, not only in the natural and life sciences but also in philosophy, which this study shows.

  • 8.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    School of Education and Communication in Engineering Sciences (ECE), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pagin, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Persson, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen..
    Svedberg, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Bibliometric analysis of two subdomains in philosophy: free will and sorites2015In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 47-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we tested the fruitfulness of advanced bibliometric methods for mapping subdomains in philosophy. The development of the number of publications on free will and sorites, the two subdomains treated in the study, over time was studied. We applied the cocitation approach to map the most cited publications, authors and journals, and we mapped frequently occurring terms, using a term co-occurrence approach. Both subdomains show a strong increase of publications in Web of Science. When we decomposed the publications by faculty, we could see an increase of free will publications also in social sciences, medicine and natural sciences. The multidisciplinary character of free will research was reflected in the cocitation analysis and in the term co-occurrence analysis: we found clusters/groups of cocited publications, authors and journals, and of co-occurring terms, representing philosophy as well as non-philosophical fields, such as neuroscience and physics. The corresponding analyses of sorites publications displayed a structure consisting of research themes rather than fields. All in all, both philosophers involved in this study acknowledge the validity of the various networks presented. Bibliometric mapping appears to provide an interesting tool for describing the cognitive orientation of a research field, not only in the natural and life sciences but also in philosophy, which this study shows.

  • 9.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    School of Education and Communication in Engineering Sciences (ECE), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pagin, Peter
    Department of Philosophy, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Svedberg, Maria
    Department of Philosophy, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bibliometric analysis of two subdomains in philosophy: free will and sorites2015In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 47-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we tested the fruitfulness of advanced bibliometric methods for mapping subdomains in philosophy. The development of the number of publications on free will and sorites, the two subdomains treated in the study, over time was studied. We applied the cocitation approach to map the most cited publications, authors and journals, and we mapped frequently occurring terms, using a term co-occurrence approach. Both subdomains show a strong increase of publications in Web of Science. When we decomposed the publications by faculty, we could see an increase of free will publications also in social sciences, medicine and natural sciences. The multidisciplinary character of free will research was reflected in the cocitation analysis and in the term co-occurrence analysis: we found clusters/groups of cocited publications, authors and journals, and of co-occurring terms, representing philosophy as well as non-philosophical fields, such as neuroscience and physics. The corresponding analyses of sorites publications displayed a structure consisting of research themes rather than fields. All in all, both philosophers involved in this study acknowledge the validity of the various networks presented. Bibliometric mapping appears to provide an interesting tool for describing the cognitive orientation of a research field, not only in the natural and life sciences but also in philosophy, which this study shows.

  • 10.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Persson, Olle
    Tijssen, Robert
    Geographical distance in bibliometric relations within epistemic communities2013In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 771-784Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, University Library.
    Persson, Olle
    Umeå Universitet.
    Tijssen, Robert
    Geographical distance in bibliometric relations within epistemic communities2013In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 771-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientists collaborate increasingly on a global scale. Does this trend also hold for other bibliometric relations such as direct citations, cocitations and shared references? This study examines citation-based relations in publications published in the journal Scientometrics from 1981 to 2010. Different measures of Mean Geographical Distance (MGD) are tested. If we take all citation links into consideration, there is no indication of MGD increase, but when we look at maximum distances of each relation, a weak tendency of increasing MGD could be observed. One major factor behind the lack of growth of mean distances is the form of the distribution of citation links over distances. Our data suggest that the interactions might grow simultaneously for both short and long distances.

  • 12.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Department of e-Resources, University Library, Stockholm University.
    Persson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Tijssen, Robert
    Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS), Leiden University, PO Box 905, 2300 AX Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Geographical distance in bibliometric relations within epistemic communities2013In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 771-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientists collaborate increasingly on a global scale. Does this trend also hold for other bibliometric relations such as direct citations, cocitations and shared references? This study examines citation-based relations in publications published in the journal Scientometrics from 1981 to 2010. Different measures of Mean Geographical Distance (MGD) are tested. If we take all citation links into consideration, there is no indication of MGD increase, but when we look at maximum distances of each relation, a weak tendency of increasing MGD could be observed. One major factor behind the lack of growth of mean distances is the form of the distribution of citation links over distances. Our data suggest that the interactions might grow simultaneously for both short and long distances.

  • 13.
    Akcan, Derya
    et al.
    Swedish Council Health Technology Assessment SBU, Sweden .
    Axelsson, Susanna
    Swedish Council Health Technology Assessment SBU, Sweden .
    Bergh, Christina
    Gothenburg University, Sweden Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden .
    Davidson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rosen, Mans
    Swedish Council Health Technology Assessment SBU, Sweden Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Methodological quality in clinical trials and bibliometric indicators: no evidence of correlations2013In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 297-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citation frequencies and journal impact factors (JIFs) are being used more and more to assess the quality of research and allocate research resources. If these bibliometric indicators are not an adequate predictor of research quality, there could be severe negative consequences for research. To analyse to which extent citation frequencies and journal impact factors correlate with the methodological quality of clinical research articles included in an SBU systematic review of antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery. All 212 eligible original articles were extracted from the SBU systematic review "Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Surgery" and categorized according to their methodological rigourness as high, moderate or low quality articles. Median of citation frequencies and JIFs were compared between the methodological quality groups using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. An in-depth study of low-quality studies with higher citation frequencies/JIFs was also conducted. No significant differences were found in median citation frequencies (p = 0.453) or JIFs (p = 0.185) between the three quality groups. Studies that had high citation frequencies/JIFs but were assessed as low-quality lacked control groups, had high dropout rates or low internal validity. This study of antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery does not support the hypothesis that bibliometric indicators are a valid instrument for assessing methodological quality in clinical trials. This is a worrying observation, since bibliometric indicators have a major influence on research funding. However, further studies in other areas are needed.

  • 14. Andersen, Jens Peter
    et al.
    Hammarfelt, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Price revisited: on the growth of dissertations in eight research fields2011In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 371-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the production of dissertations in eight research fields in the natural sciences, the social sciences and the humanities. In using doctoral dissertations it builds on De Solla Prices seminal study which used PhD dissertations as one of several indicators of scientific growth (Price, Little science, big science, 1963). Data from the ProQuest: Dissertations and Theses database covering the years 1950-2007 are used to depict historical trends, and the Gompertz function was used for analysing the data. A decline in the growth of dissertations can be seen in all fields in the mid-eighties and several fields show only a modest growth during the entire period. The growth profiles of specific disciplines could not be explained by traditional dichotomies such as pure/applied or soft/hard, but rather it seems that the age of the discipline appears to be an important factor. Thus, it is obvious that the growth of dissertations must be explained using several factors emerging both inside and outside academia. Consequently, we propose that the output of dissertations can be used as an indicator of growth, especially in fields like the humanities, where journal or article counts are less applicable.

  • 15.
    Andersen, Jens Peter
    et al.
    Aarhus University.
    Hammarfelt, Björn
    Institutionen för ABM, Uppsala Universitet.
    Price revisited: on the growth of dissertations in eight research fields2011In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 371-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the production of dissertations in eight research fields in thenatural sciences, the social sciences and the humanities. In using doctoral dissertations itbuilds on De Solla Prices seminal study which used PhD dissertations as one of severalindicators of scientific growth (Price, Little science, big science, 1963). Data from theProQuest: Dissertations and Theses database covering the years 1950–2007 are used todepict historical trends, and the Gompertz function was used for analysing the data. Adecline in the growth of dissertations can be seen in all fields in the mid-eighties andseveral fields show only a modest growth during the entire period. The growth profiles ofspecific disciplines could not be explained by traditional dichotomies such as pure/appliedor soft/hard, but rather it seems that the age of the discipline appears to be an importantfactor. Thus, it is obvious that the growth of dissertations must be explained using severalfactors emerging both inside and outside academia. Consequently, we propose that theoutput of dissertations can be used as an indicator of growth, especially in fields like thehumanities, where journal or article counts are less applicable.

  • 16.
    Bianchi, Federico
    et al.
    Univ Brescia, Italy.
    Francisco, Grimaldo
    Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Flaminio, Squazzoni
    Univ Brescia, Italy.
    The peer review game: an agent-based model of scientists facing resource constraints and institutional pressures2018In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 116, no 3, p. 1401-1420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at peer review as a cooperation dilemma through a game-theory framework. We built an agent-based model to estimate how much the quality of peer review is influenced by different resource allocation strategies followed by scientists dealing with multiple tasks, i.e., publishing and reviewing. We assumed that scientists were sensitive to acceptance or rejection of their manuscripts and the fairness of peer review to which they were exposed before reviewing. We also assumed that they could be realistic or excessively over-confident about the quality of their manuscripts when reviewing. Furthermore, we assumed they could be sensitive to competitive pressures provided by the institutional context in which they were embedded. Results showed that the bias and quality of publications greatly depend on reviewer motivations but also that context pressures can have a negative effect. However, while excessive competition can be detrimental to minimising publication bias, a certain level of competition is instrumental to ensure the high quality of publication especially when scientists accept reviewing for reciprocity motives.

  • 17. Bjork, Samuel
    et al.
    Offer, Avner
    Söderberg, Gabriel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Time series citation data: the Nobel Prize in economics2014In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 98, no 1, p. 185-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citation time series are not easy to compile from the most popular databases. The Data for Research service of the JSTOR journal database is a large and high-quality sample of citations, weighted towards humanities and social sciences. It provides time series citation data over many decades, back to the origins of the constituent journals. The citation trajectories of Nobel Prize winners in economics are analyzed here from 1930 to 2005. They are described mathematically by means of the Bass model of the diffusion of innovations. A bell-shaped curve provides a good fit with most prize winner citation trajectories, and suggests that economic knowledge follows the typical innovation cycle of adoption, peak, and decline within scholarly careers and shortly afterwards. Several variant trajectories are described.

  • 18. Breimer, Lars H
    et al.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    A longitudinal and cross-sectional study of Swedish biomedical PhD processes 1991-2009 with emphasis on international and gender aspects2010In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 85, no 2, p. 401-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal survey of Swedish biomedical PhDs from 1991 to 2009 found a 2.5-fold increase in biomedical PhD graduates, especially women, and mainly non-MDs, while the number of MDs remained fairly constant. The proportion obtaining a biomedical PhD in Sweden in 2006 was two and a half times that in USA compared to population and three and a half times by GDP, but similar to that of the Netherlands. Female non-MD but not female MD candidates were more likely than men to be examined by female examiners. Fewer of the non-MD than MD women continued to publish in English after their PhD. The median number of authors per paper in a thesis had increased by 1 (from 4 to 5) compared with 15–20 years ago. Swedish biomedical research was already well internationalized in 1991, when 38% of the external examiners came from abroad. This rose to 53% in 2003 but in 2009 had returned to 42%. USA and UK were the most common countries but Australia accounted for 2%. When assessed by connection with foreign research teams, Swedish researchers were also internationally well connected. Studies in other countries are needed to assess how generally applicable these findings are. Our findings suggest that the policy and management of Swedish scientific research systems needs revision to harmonize with the national economic capacity.

  • 19. Breimer, Lars H
    et al.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Considerations for appointing an external examiner of a PhD in the biomedical sciences in Sweden: a questionnaire-based survey2014In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 2039-2049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey of 170 Swedish mentors of PhD-students found that expertise in the research field and avoidance of conflict of interest were big motivators for finding an examiner from abroad for PhD theses. The survey also identified that concern by supervisors for facilitating the career paths of younger scientists in terms of introductions to potential labs for post-doctoral work and obtaining high quality neutral review of one’s research was also important, as was the desire to set up collaborations. An expectation from the management of one’s university of the PR-value of a foreign senior person as examiner also played a part. Although few were willing to admit that PR for one’s own group was a motivating factor. A small fraction of responders expressed concern that, as some of the costs of the PhD-examination were being shifted on to the research groups themselves, this might impact the current situation. Language also played a subordinate role. To get the best out of the visiting examiner, it was important to educate and instruct them in their role in a Swedish PhD-examination protocol. Male supervisors had had more PhD-candidates than female, but they also had used more Sweden-based examiners than their female colleagues. We conclude that using a foreign examiner was motivated by factors that are likely to prevail for the foreseeable future. This Swedish practice may also provide a template for a common standard.

  • 20.
    Breimer, Lars H.
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital. Division of Clinical Chemistry, Dept of Laboratory Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Division of Clinical Chemistry, Dept of Laboratory Medicine, Örebro University Hospital (USÖ), Örebro, Sweden; Dept of Medical Biosciences/Clinical Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Considerations for appointing an external examiner of a PhD in the biomedical sciences in Sweden: a questionnaire-based survey2014In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 2039-2049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey of 170 Swedish mentors of PhD-students found that expertise in the research field and avoidance of conflict of interest were big motivators for finding an examiner from abroad for PhD theses. The survey also identified that concern by supervisors for facilitating the career paths of younger scientists in terms of introductions to potential labs for post-doctoral work and obtaining high quality neutral review of one's research was also important, as was the desire to set up collaborations. An expectation from the management of one's university of the PR-value of a foreign senior person as examiner also played a part. Although few were willing to admit that PR for one's own group was a motivating factor. A small fraction of responders expressed concern that, as some of the costs of the PhD-examination were being shifted on to the research groups themselves, this might impact the current situation. Language also played a subordinate role. To get the best out of the visiting examiner, it was important to educate and instruct them in their role in a Swedish PhD-examination protocol. Male supervisors had had more PhD-candidates than female, but they also had used more Sweden-based examiners than their female colleagues. We conclude that using a foreign examiner was motivated by factors that are likely to prevail for the foreseeable future. This Swedish practice may also provide a template for a common standard.

  • 21. Breimer, Lars
    et al.
    Leksell, Janeth
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Longitudinal and cross-sectional study of registered nurses in Sweden who undertake a PhD showing that nurses continue to publish in English after their PhD but male nurses are more productive than female nurses2011In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 337-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A review of 649 PhDs undertaken by Swedish nurses and midwives found no evidence that they stop publishing in English after their PhD. The proportion of 70% for any publication in English was similar to that of MDs. A higher proportion of male than female nurses were high publishers of six or more (52% vs. 23%) and eight or more papers (44% vs. 14%) in a 5 year period. The standard of the PhDs of Swedish nurses was comparable to those of other biomedical PhDs and was consistent in pattern over the past two decades. The gender pattern of external examiners of female nurses evolved in that 1992–94, 75% were men, during 1996–97, 54% were men and from 2000 onwards 46% were men. Nurses were examined by foreign examiners in 20% of examinations. They came primarily from Norway and USA.

  • 22.
    Brodin Danell, Jenny-Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Reception of integrative and complementary medicine (ICM) in scientific journals: a citation and co-word analysis2014In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 98, no 2, p. 807-821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even if integrative and complementary medicine (ICM) is a growing scientific field, it is also a highly contested area in terms of scientific legitimacy. The aim of this article is to analyze the reception of ICM research in scientific journals. Is this kind of research acknowledged outside the ICM context, for example, in general or specialized medicine? What is the impact of ICM research? and Is it possible to identify any shift in content, from the original ICM research to the documents where it is acknowledged? The material consisted of two sets: documents published in 12 ICM journals in 2007; and all documents citing these documents during the years 2007-2012. These sets were analyzed with help from citation and co-word analysis. When analyzing the citation pattern, it was clear that a majority of the cited documents were acknowledged in journals and documents that could be related to research areas outside the ICM context, such as pharmacology & pharmacy and plant science-even if the most frequent singular journals and subject categories were connected to ICM. However, after analyzing the content of cited and citing documents, it was striking how similar the content was. It was also evident that much of this research was related to basic preclinical research, in fields such as cell biology, plant pharmacology, and animal experiments.

  • 23.
    Brodin Danell, Jenny-Ann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Danell, Rickard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Publication activity in complementary and alternative medicine2009In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 80, no 2, p. 539-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we analyse how research on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) break through into one established scientific arena, namely academic journals. With help from bibliometric methods we analyse publication of CAM articles, in the Medline database, during the period 1966–2007. We also analyse the general content of the articles and in what journals they get published. We conclude that the publication activity of CAM articles increases rapidly, especially in the late 1990s, and that the changing growth rate is not due to the general expansion of Medline. The character of CAM articles has changed towards more clinical oriented research, especially in subfields such as acupuncture and musculoskeletal manipulations. CAM articles are found both in core clinical journals and in specialized CAM journals. Even though a substantial part of the articles are published in CAM journals, we conclude that the increasing publication activity is not restricted to the expansion of these specialized journals.

  • 24.
    Colliander, Cristian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Umeå University Library.
    Ahlgren, Per
    Department of Statistics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Comparison of publication-level approaches to ex-post citation normalization2019In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 283-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we compare two sophisticated publication-level approaches to ex-post citation normalization: an item-oriented approach and an approach falling under the general algorithmically constructed classification system approach. Using articles published in core journals in Web of Science (SCIE, SSCI & A&HCI) during 2009 (n=955,639), we first examine, using the measure Proportion explained variation (PEV), to what extent the publication-level approaches can explain and correct for variation in the citation distribution that stems from subject matter heterogeneity. We then, for the subset of articles from life science and biomedicine (n=456,045), gauge the fairness of the normalization approaches with respect to their ability to identify highly cited articles when subject area is factored out. This is done by utilizing information from publication-level MeSH classifications to create high quality subject matter baselines and by using the measure Deviations from expectations (DE). The results show that the item-oriented approach had the best performance regarding PEV. For DE, only the most fine-grained clustering solution could compete with the item-oriented approach. However, the item-oriented approach performed better when cited references were heavily weighted in the similarity calculations.

  • 25.
    Colliander, Cristian
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Sociol, Inforsk, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Univ Lib, Umea, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. KTH Royal Inst Technol, KTH Lib, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparison of publication-level approaches to ex-post citation normalization2019In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 283-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we compare two sophisticated publication-level approaches to ex-post citation normalization: an item-oriented approach and an approach falling under the general algorithmically constructed classification system approach. Using articles published in core journals in Web of Science (SCIE, SSCI & A&HCI) during 2009 (n=955,639), we first examine, using the measure Proportion explained variation (PEV), to what extent the publication-level approaches can explain and correct for variation in the citation distribution that stems from subject matter heterogeneity. We then, for the subset of articles from life science and biomedicine (n=456,045), gauge the fairness of the normalization approaches with respect to their ability to identify highly cited articles when subject area is factored out. This is done by utilizing information from publication-level MeSH classifications to create high quality subject matter baselines and by using the measure Deviations from expectations (DE). The results show that the item-oriented approach had the best performance regarding PEV. For DE, only the most fine-grained clustering solution could compete with the item-oriented approach. However, the item-oriented approach performed better when cited references were heavily weighted in the similarity calculations.

  • 26.
    Colliander, Cristian
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Sociol, Inforsk, Umea, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Univ Lib, Umea, Sweden..
    Ahlgren, Per
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Department for Library services, Language and ARC, Library, Publication Infrastructure. Uppsala Univ, Dept Stat, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Comparison of publication-level approaches to ex-post citation normalization2019In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 283-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we compare two sophisticated publication-level approaches to ex-post citation normalization: an item-oriented approach and an approach falling under the general algorithmically constructed classification system approach. Using articles published in core journals in Web of Science (SCIE, SSCI & A&HCI) during 2009 (n=955,639), we first examine, using the measure Proportion explained variation (PEV), to what extent the publication-level approaches can explain and correct for variation in the citation distribution that stems from subject matter heterogeneity. We then, for the subset of articles from life science and biomedicine (n=456,045), gauge the fairness of the normalization approaches with respect to their ability to identify highly cited articles when subject area is factored out. This is done by utilizing information from publication-level MeSH classifications to create high quality subject matter baselines and by using the measure Deviations from expectations (DE). The results show that the item-oriented approach had the best performance regarding PEV. For DE, only the most fine-grained clustering solution could compete with the item-oriented approach. However, the item-oriented approach performed better when cited references were heavily weighted in the similarity calculations.

  • 27. Colliander, Cristian
    et al.
    Ahlgren, Per
    Stockholm University.
    Experimental comparison of first and second-order similarities in a scientometric context2012In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 90, no 2, p. 675-685Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Colliander, Cristian
    et al.
    Ahlgren, Per
    Stockholm University, University Library. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Experimental comparison of first and second-order similarities in a scientometric context2012In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 90, no 2, p. 675-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of similarity between objects plays a role in several scientific areas. In this article, we deal with document-document similarity in a scientometric context. We compare experimentally, using a large dataset, first-order with second-order similarities with respect to the overall quality of partitions of the dataset, where the partitions are obtained on the basis of optimizing weighted modularity. The quality of a partition is defined in terms of textual coherence. The results show that the second-order approach consistently outperforms the first-order approach. Each difference between the two approaches in overall partition quality values is significant at the 0.01 level.

  • 29.
    Colliander, Cristian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ahlgren, Per
    Department of e-Resources, University Library, Stockholm University.
    Experimental comparison of first and second-order similarities in a scientometric context2012In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 90, no 2, p. 675-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of similarity between objects plays a role in several scientific areas. In this article, we deal with document–document similarity in a scientometric context. We compare experimentally, using a large dataset, first-order with second-order similarities with respect to the overall quality of partitions of the dataset, where the partitions are obtained on the basis of optimizing weighted modularity. The quality of a partition is defined in terms of textual coherence. The results show that the second-order approach consistently outperforms the first-order approach. Each difference between the two approaches in overall partition quality values is significant at the 0.01 level.

  • 30.
    Danell, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Stratification among Journals in Management Research: A Bibliometric Study of Interaction between European and American Journals2000In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 23-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tho key features of science are its rapid growth and its continuous differentiation. The establishment of new journals can be seen as an expression of both growth and differentiation. In this study of the network among management journals, the focus is on forms of differentiation, i.e., the relationship between stratification and specialization in a network of journals. The question asked in this study is whether the different position of American and European journals corresponds with different levels of specialization. A tendency toward such a structuration of the journal network would indicate an interregional integration of management research. Articles published in six of the most influential American and European journals covering the period from 1981 to 1998 have been downloaded. The findings in this study indicate that even though European journals formed a periphery in relation to the American journals in terms of clearly asymmetrical exchange relations, it was the European journals that seemed to be more comprehensive in scope. The tendency during the investigated period indicated differentiation in terms of segmentation rather than specialization.

  • 31.
    Danell, Rickard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Engwall, L.
    Persson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The first mover and the challenger: The relationship between two journals in organization research1997In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many new journals are started in response to increasing specialization and limited space in existing journals. In this study two journals in organization research are studied,Administrative Science Quarterly as the first mover in the field andOrganization Studies as the challenger. It is shown that the new journal gradually differ from the old in terms of the national origin of its authors as well as the documents cited. It is concluded that the scientific journal market may not mirror the copy-cat behaviour found among newspapers or companies in other markets.

  • 32.
    Danell, Rickard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Career prospects for female university researchers have not improved2013In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 94, no 3, p. 999-1006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are fewer female than male professors in the world (21–79 distribution in the country of examination). The unequal distribution of male and female professors has usually been taken to indicate that men and women have not had equal opportunities to achieve professorship. At the same time, the increase in the proportion of female professors has been taken as evidence that academia is becoming more gender equal. It is possible that both of these assumptions are flawed, and that the gender distribution among professors is the result of demographic inertia, i.e., affected by the previous distribution of men and women within the system, and how fast the distribution has changed.This study examines whether the chances, for men and women, of becoming a full professor changes over time, and whether gender differences may possibly depend on early career events. It concludes that women are significantly less likely than men to become professors and that this situation is not improving over time. In spite of policies that have tried to increase the proportion of female professors, the chances of a woman becoming a professor do not change over time. We also show that these gender differences in promotion rate can be attributed to early career events.

  • 33.
    Ding, Jielan
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Sci Lib, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, 19A Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Ahlgren, Per
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Department for Library services, Language and ARC, Library, Publication Infrastructure. National Science Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.
    Yang, Liying
    Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Sci Lib, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China..
    Yue, Ting
    Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Sci Lib, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, 19A Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Disciplinary structures in Nature, Science and PNAS: journal and country levels2018In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 116, no 3, p. 1817-1852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes, using Web of Science publications and two time periods (2004-2006 and 2014-2016), the disciplinary structures in the three prestigious journals Nature, Science and PNAS, compared with two baselines: Non-NSP_Multi (multidisciplinary publications that have other source journals than Nature, Science and PNAS), and Non-Multi (publications assigned to other categories than Multidisciplinary). We analyze the profiles at two levels, journal and country. The results for the journal level show that for Nature and Science, the publications are considerably less concentrated to certain disciplines compared to PNAS. Biology is the dominant discipline for all the three journals. Nature and Science have similar publication shares in Medicine, Geosciences, Physics, Space science, and Chemistry. The publications of PNAS are highly concentrated to two disciplines: Biology and Medicine. Compared with Non-NSP_Multi and Non-Multi, the shares of Biology in NSP journals are higher, whereas the share of Medicine is lower. At the country level, 14 countries are included, among them the five BRICS countries. With respect to the NSP journals, the emphasis disciplines (in terms of world share of publications) of most countries other than USA are the disciplines in which USA has its weakest performance. The disciplinary structures of USA and of most of the other studied countries therefore tend to be different. Regarding Non-NSP_Multi and Non-Multi, the shapes of the disciplinary structures of the 14 countries can be roughly grouped into three groups, while there are more types of shapes for the countries in the NSP journals. For all five units of analysis, the discipline structures of most countries generally change only slightly between different time periods. The structures of some BRICS countries, however, change to a relatively large extent.

  • 34.
    Falk Delgado, Alberto
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Falk Delgado, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Home institution bias in the New England Journal of Medicine?: A noninferiority study on citation rates2018In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 607-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, in the four top journals of humanities, an institutional bias towards publication of authors from Harvard and Yale was shown. The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is today the highest ranked general medical journal. It is unknown if there exists institutional bias favoring publication of articles originating from Harvard University, since the NEJM is produced by the Massachusetts Medical Society with close connections to the Harvard University. We examined if studies originating from the Harvard University published in the NEJM were noninferior in terms of citation rates compared to articles with an origin outside Harvard University. We evaluated original research articles published in the NEJM in 2000 up until June 2001. A two-sample noninferiority test based on the primary endpoint of citations was performed. Twenty-two studies were affiliated to the Harvard University and 280 studies were not affiliated to the Harvard University. The mean number of citations for Harvard affiliated studies was 625 (95% CI 358-952, median 354) and for non-Harvard affiliated studies 493 (95% CI 421-569, median 303). The mean difference was not statistically different between affiliations, but fulfilled the requirements for noninferiority [132 (95% CI - 138-402, P = 0.343), Delta 200]. In summary, citation rates were comparable between studies origination from the Harvard University compared to non-Harvard Institutions. Based on these results there appears to be low risk of institutional bias in the publishing process of original studies in the NEJM.

  • 35.
    Falk Delgado, Alberto
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Garretson, Gregory
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    Delgado, Anna Falk
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The language of peer review reports on articles published in the BMJ, 2014-2017: an observational study2019In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 120, no 3, p. 1225-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To analyse the words and expressions used in peer reviews of manuscripts that were later published as original research in the BMJ. Secondary aims were to estimate the differences in net sentiment between peer review reports on manuscripts subject to one or more rounds of peer review and and review reports on initially rejected manuscripts that were accepted after appeal. This observational study included all peer review reports published in the BMJ from September 2014 until the end of 2017. The study analysed the frequency of specific words in peer review reports for accepted manuscripts, identifying the most commonly occurring positive and negative words and their context, as well as the most common expressions. It also quantified differences in net sentiment in peer review reports between manuscripts accepted after appeal and manuscript accepted without appeal. The dataset consisting of 1716 peer review reports contained 908,932 word tokens. Among the most frequent positive words were "well", "important", "clear", "while the negative words included "risk", "bias", and "confounding". The areas where the reviewer makes the most positive and negative comments included: "well-written paper", "well-written manuscript", "this is an important topic", "answers an important question", "high risk of bias" and "selection bias". The sentiment analysis revealed that manuscripts accepted after appeal had lower scores on review reports for joy and positive sentiment, in addition to having higher scores for negative words expressing sadness, fear, disgust and anger compared with manuscripts that were not initially rejected. Peer review comments were mainly related to methodology rather than the actual results. Peer review reports on initially rejected manuscripts were more negative and more often included expressions related to a high risk of bias.

  • 36.
    Glänzel, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Danell, Rickard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Persson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The decline of Swedish neuroscience: Decomposing a bibliometric national science indicator2003In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 197-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have reported on a steady decline of Sweden's relative citation impact in almost all science fields, above all in the life sciences. The authors attempt to shed light on the observed decline in Swedish neuroscience through a detailed citation analysis at different level of aggregations. Thus national citation data are decomposed to the institutional, departmental and individual level. Both, the decomposition of national science indicators and changing collaboration patterns in Swedish neuroscience reveal interesting details on the 'anatomy' of a decline.

  • 37.
    Gunnarsson Lorentzen, David
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Webometrics benefitting from web mining? An investigation of methods and applications of two research fields2014In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 99, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a cross-field literature review and comparison of the fields webometrics (cybermetrics) and web (data) mining.

  • 38.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    University of Gothenburg.
    How expensive is Big Science?: Consequences of using simple publication counts in performance assessment of large scientific facilities2014In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 483-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the nuclear era and the Cold War superpower competition have long since passed, governments are still investing in Big Science, although these large facilities are nowadays mostly geared towards areas of use closer to utility. Investments in Big Science are also motivated not only by promises of scientific breakthroughs but also by expectations (and demands) of measurable impact, and with an emerging global market of competing user-oriented Big Science facilities, quantitative measures of productivity and quality have become mainstream. Among these are rather simple and one-sided publication counts. This article uses publication counts and figures of expenditure for three cases that are disparate but all represent the state-of-the-art of Big Science of their times, discussing at depth the problems of using simple publication counts as a measure of performance in science. Showing, quite trivially, that Big Science is very expensive, the article also shows the absurd consequences of consistently using simple publication counts to display productivity and quality of Big Science, and concludes that such measures should be deemed irrelevant for analyses on the level of organizations in science and replaced by qualitative assessment of the content of the science produced.

  • 39.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    Department for Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Introducing 'facilitymetrics': A first review and analysis of commonly used measures of scientific leadership among synchrotron radiation facilities worldwide2013In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 96, no 2, p. 497-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Big Science accelerator complexes are no longer mere tools for nuclear and particle physics, but modern-day experimental resources for a wide range of natural sciences and often named instrumental to scientific and technological development for innovation and economic growth. Facilities compete on a global market to attract the best users and facilitate the best science, and advertise the achievement of their users as markers of quality and productivity. Thus a need has risen for (quantitative) quality assessment of science on the level of facilities. In this article, we examine some quantitative performance measurements frequently used by facilities to display quality: technical reliability, competition for access, and publication records. We report data from the world's three largest synchrotron radiation facilities from the years 2004-2010, and discuss their meaning and significance by placing them in proper context. While we argue that quality is not possible to completely capture in these quantitative metrics, we acknowledge their apparent importance and, hence, we introduce and propose facilitymetrics as a new feature of the study of modern big science, and as a new empirical focus for scientometrical study, in the hope that future studies can contribute to a deeper, much-needed analysis of the topic.

  • 40.
    Hammarfelt, Björn
    Institutionen för ABM, Uppsala Universitet.
    Interdisciplinarity and the intellectual base of literature studies: citation analysis of highly cited monographs2011In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 705-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies interdisciplinarity and the intellectual base of 34 literaturejournals using citation data from Web of Science. Data from two time periods, 1978–1987and 1998–2007 were compared to reveal changes in the interdisciplinary citing ofmonographs. The study extends the analysis to non-source publications; using the classificationof monographs to show changes in the intellectual base. There is support forincreased interdisciplinary citing of sources, especially to the social sciences, and changesin the intellectual base reflect this. The results are explained using theories on the intellectualand social organization of scientific fields and the use of bibliometric methods onthe humanities is discussed. The article demonstrates how citation analysis can provideinsights into the communication patterns and intellectual structure of scholarly fields in thearts and humanities.

  • 41.
    Hammarfelt, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Interdisciplinarity and the intellectual base of literature studies: citation analysis of highly cited monographs2011In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 705-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies interdisciplinarity and the intellectual base of 34 literature journals using citation data from Web of Science. Data from two time periods, 1978-1987 and 1998-2007 were compared to reveal changes in the interdisciplinary citing of monographs. The study extends the analysis to non-source publications; using the classification of monographs to show changes in the intellectual base. There is support for increased interdisciplinary citing of sources, especially to the social sciences, and changes in the intellectual base reflect this. The results are explained using theories on the intellectual and social organization of scientific fields and the use of bibliometric methods on the humanities is discussed. The article demonstrates how citation analysis can provide insights into the communication patterns and intellectual structure of scholarly fields in the arts and humanities.

  • 42.
    Hammarfelt, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM. Borås University.
    Using altmetrics for assessing research impact in the humanities2014In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 1419-1430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prospects of altmetrics are especially encouraging for research fields in the humanities that currently are difficult to study using established bibliometric methods. Yet, little is known about the altmetric impact of research fields in the humanities. Consequently, this paper analyses the altmetric coverage and impact of humanities-oriented articles and books published by Swedish universities during 2012. Some of the most common altmetric sources are examined using a sample of 310 journal articles and 54 books. Mendeley has the highest coverage of journal articles (61 %) followed by Twitter (21 %) while very few of the publications are mentioned in blogs or on Facebook. Books, on the other hand, are quite often tweeted while both Mendeley’s and the novel data source Library Thing’s coverage is low. Many of the problems of applying bibliometrics to the humanities are also relevant for altmetric approaches; the importance of non-journal publications, the reliance on print as well the limited coverage of non-English language publications. However, the continuing development and diversification of methods suggests that altmetrics could evolve into a valuable tool for assessing research in the humanities.

  • 43.
    Hammarfelt, Björn
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Institutionen för ABM, Uppsala Universitet.
    Using altmetrics for assessing research impact in the humanities2014In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 1419-1430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prospects of altmetrics are especially encouraging for research fields in thehumanities that currently are difficult to study using established bibliometric methods. Yet,little is known about the altmetric impact of research fields in the humanities. Consequently,this paper analyses the altmetric coverage and impact of humanities-orientedarticles and books published by Swedish universities during 2012. Some of the mostcommon altmetric sources are examined using a sample of 310 journal articles and 54books. Mendeley has the highest coverage of journal articles (61 %) followed by Twitter(21 %) while very few of the publications are mentioned in blogs or on Facebook. Books,on the other hand, are quite often tweeted while both Mendeley’s and the novel data sourceLibrary Thing’s coverage is low. Many of the problems of applying bibliometrics to thehumanities are also relevant for altmetric approaches; the importance of non-journalpublications, the reliance on print as well the limited coverage of non-English languagepublications. However, the continuing development and diversification of methods suggeststhat altmetrics could evolve into a valuable tool for assessing research in thehumanities.

  • 44.
    Hammarfelt, Björn
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Using altmetrics for assessing research impact in the humanities2014In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 1419-1430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prospects of altmetrics are especially encouraging for research fields in the humanities that currently are difficult to study using established bibliometric methods. Yet, little is known about the altmetric impact of research fields in the humanities. Consequently, this paper analyses the altmetric coverage and impact of humanities-oriented articles and books published by Swedish universities during 2012. Some of the most common altmetric sources are examined using a sample of 310 journal articles and 54 books. Mendeley has the highest coverage of journal articles (61 %) followed by Twitter (21 %) while very few of the publications are mentioned in blogs or on Facebook. Books, on the other hand, are quite often tweeted while both Mendeley’s and the novel data source Library Thing’s coverage is low. Many of the problems of applying bibliometrics to the humanities are also relevant for altmetric approaches; the importance of non-journal publications, the reliance on print as well the limited coverage of non-English language publications. However, the continuing development and diversification of methods suggests that altmetrics could evolve into a valuable tool for assessing research in the humanities.

  • 45. Heidler, Richard
    et al.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. Department of Business Administration, Lund University, Sweden.
    Qualifying the performance evaluation of Big Science beyond productivity, impact and costs2015In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 295-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of quantitative performance measures to evaluate the productivity, impact and quality of research has spread to almost all parts of public R&D systems, including Big Science where traditional measures of technical reliability of instruments and user oversub- scription have been joined by publication counts to assess scientific productivity. But such performance assessment has been shown to lead to absurdities, as the calculated average cost of single journal publications easily may reach hundreds of millions of dollars. In this article, the issue of productivity and impact is therefore further qualified by the use of additional measures such as the immediacy index as well as network analysis to evaluate qualitative aspects of the impact of contemporary Big Science labs. Connecting to previous work within what has been called ‘‘facilitymetrics’’, the article continues the search for relevant biblio- metric measures of the performance of Big Science labs with the use of a case study of a recently opened facility that is advertised as contributing to ‘‘breakthrough’’ research, by using several more measures and thus qualifying the topic of performance evaluation in contem- porary Big Science beyond simple counts of publications, citations, and costs. 

  • 46.
    Jarneving, Bo
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    A comparision of two bibliometric mehods for the mapping of the research front2005In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 245-263Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Jarneving, Bo
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    A variation of the calculation of the first author cocitation strength in author cocitation analysis2008In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 485-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The method of author cocitation analysis (ACA) was first presented by White and Griffith in 1981 as a “literature measure of intellectual structure” and its applicability for the mapping of areas of science has since then been tested in various bibliometric science mapping studies. In this study, an experimental method of calculating the first or single author cocitation frequency is presented and compared with the standard method. Applying Ward’s method of clustering, the analysis revealed that the two approaches did not produce similar results and a tentative interpretation of deviations was that the experimental method provided with a more detailed depiction of the specialty structure. It was also concluded that a number of additional research questions need to be resolved before a comprehensive understanding of the suggested method’s merits and demerits is reached.

  • 48.
    Jarneving, Bo
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Regional research and foreign collaboration2010In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 83, no 1, p. 295-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by the merging of four Swedish counties to a larger administrative and political unit with increased responsibilities, a comprehensive study of regional–foreign research collaboration was carried out. Various multivariate methods were applied for the depiction of collaborative networks of various compositions and at various levels of aggregation. Other aspects investigated concerned the influence of institutions and countries on regional–foreign collaboration and the relation between collaboration and research fields. Findings showed that foreign research collaboration was concentrated to three major regional institutions, each with a characteristic collaborative context. The influence of domestic collaboration was notable with regard to medical research while collaboration within the field of physics and astronomy was characteristic for pure regional–foreign collaboration, which was the dominating type of research collaboration throughout the period of observation (1998–2006).

  • 49.
    Jarneving, Bo
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    The cognitive structure of current cardiovascular research2001In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 365-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a citation analysis of the cognitive structure of current cardiovascularresearch. Used methods are co-citation analysis, bibliographic coupling and quantitative analysisof title words. Tables and graphs reveal: (1) The journal co-citation structure; (2) the cognitivecontent and the bibliometric structure of clusters based on co-citation; (3) the cognitive contentand the bibliometric structure of clusters based on bibliographic coupling. A predominance ofdifferent research aspects on coronary artery disease was found in clusters based on co-citations aswell as in clusters based on bibliographic coupling.

  • 50.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Hammarfelt, Björn
    Swedish School of Library and Information Science (SSLIS), University of Borås, Sweden.
    Steinhauer, H. Joe
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Olson, Nasrine
    Swedish School of Library and Information Science (SSLIS), University of Borås, Sweden.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    Swedish School of Library and Information Science (SSLIS), University of Borås, Sweden.
    Nolin, Jan
    Swedish School of Library and Information Science (SSLIS), University of Borås, Sweden.
    Modeling uncertainty in bibliometrics and information retrieval: an information fusion approach2015In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 2255-2274Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 81
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