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  • 1.
    Alpenberg, Jan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Motives and structure behind capital investments in ice hockey arenas – the Swedish way2020In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 416-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An unprecedented number of large ice hockey arenas were built in Sweden between 2000-2014. This study explores the motives and rationale behind these capital investments in Swedish ice hockey arenas. Based on a multiple data gathering methods, this research conclude that capital investments in sport arenas are primarily driven by the need for rationalization and improvement of events, increasing societal image building through sport and an increasing focus on social enrichment in the competition for attracting citizens and companies to municipalities. Close collaborations between local politicians, club executives and entrepreneurs have provided creative financial solutions for the new arenas. The ice hockey arena projects have been legitimized from a societal perspective through either overly optimistic or manipulated sophisticated capital investment methods, which provided the necessary support for the political decision rationale that has been dominating these projects. A consequence of the arena projects, is an increased commercialization and professionalization of Swedish hockey.

  • 2.
    Andersen Eikje, Cleng
    et al.
    Department of Sports, physical education and outdoor Studies, University college of Southeast Norway, Bø, Norway.
    Horgen, André
    Department of Sports, physical education and outdoor Studies, University college of Southeast Norway, Bø, Norway.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    The organizing and regulation of mountain guiding in Scandinavia 1820–2016, with a glance at the Alps2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 4, SI, p. 555-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we study how mountain guiding was organized and regulated in Scandinavia and the Alps between 1820 and 2015 and focus on the most important di erences and similarities in Scandinavia, and between Scandinavia and the Alps. We conclude that Switzerland and Chamonix (France) represent two di erent systems in the Alps during the nineteenth century. However, through the emergence of national and international guide unions the regulation of mountain guiding in the Alps today appears uni ed, with a close connection between national regulation and mountain guide unions. In Scandinavia, Norway and Sweden historically had similar practices organizing and regulating mountain guiding, where a relatively strong layman tradition emerged during the 1960s and 1970s. In 2008, legal decisions led Sweden to change its system to match the Alp model, while Norway held on to the layman tradition. This leaves mountain guiding in Norway as a distinctly less regulated eld than in France, and Switzerland, as in and Sweden. 

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  • 3.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Bandy v. ice hockey in Sweden2020In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 361-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1920, the year ice hockey was introduced to Sweden in connection with the Olympic Games in Antwerp, the traditional British bandy was already a well established team sport on ice in the country. In the early 1900s it had become popular among the upper classes, both men and women, since its deep connection with nature applied to the time’s sense of nostalgia. The Swedish male bandy cup final, which was first played in 1907, is still the country’s oldest large-scale annual sports event. In the press, comparisons were constantly made between the two sports and bandy and ice hockey were seen as contrasts. This resulted in bandy being regarded as truly Swedish and part of the native culture. Concurrently, the sport spread to the working people in Sweden’s rural manufacturing towns while the capital Stockholm established itself as the centre for ice hockey. Elaborating on Allen Guttmann’s theories on modernization, ice hockey’s higher degree of modernity is presented. Adjusting to the modern world was a struggle for bandy and therefore followers of ice hockey predicted its early demise. Still it survived, however surrounded by an even stronger atmosphere of nature-centred nostalgia. The increasingly Americanized sport of ice hockey, on the other hand, became the main player in the growing commercialization of Swedish sport.

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Hognestad, Hans
    Glocal culture, sporting decline? Globalization and football in Scandinavia2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 4: Sport and Outdoor Life in the Nordic World, p. 704-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter looks at how globalization has affected and shaped the domestic elite level male football cultures of Scandinavia since the game turned more professional in the region. By drawing on empirical examples from the recent histories of Norwegian, Swedish and, to a lesser extent, Danish football, the authors analyse how the sporting cultures of these countries have changed since the 1970s. The amateur ideologies which had previously dominated football in Scandinavia faded during a period when influences from international and especially professional English football intensified. These influences stretched from playing styles to spectator cultures. While these influences initially made clubs and teams from Scandinavia more competitive in international football, the ‘hypercommodification’ which has dominated top level European football in the new millennium has to a large extent affected Scandinavian football in a negative way in term s of sporting competitiveness. Simultaneously the authors argue that global influences have injected significant fuel and new energy to the spectator cultures evident in a large number of Scandinavian football club communities.

  • 5.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Negotiating female fitness doping: Gender, identity and transgressions2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of qualitatively gathered interview material and data from various postings on a pro-doping online community called Flashback, the aim of this article is to describe and analyse how female users of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIED) understand and negotiate their use in relation to gender and the body. Positioned within post-structural feminism, the results show that there is an increasing amount of knowledge that not only targets but is also developed by and for women concerning PIED use. Traditionally scholars have connected female PIED use more or less exclusively to female bodybuilders, but as new body and femininity ideals develop the demographics of female fitness doping are widening. Although PIED use in the context of gym and fitness culture remains primarily a masculine domain, the results point towards a development in which women are increasingly becoming more integrated into a fitness community of PIED users.

  • 6.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Negotiating violence: mixed martial arts as a spectacle and sport2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 1183-1197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on qualitative interviews with Mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes and stakeholders, this study aims to investigate the relationship between, on the one hand, MMA as a spectacle and imaginary world, and on the other, the fighters’ experiences of violence, pain and ‘the real’. Analytically, we are influenced by the literature on the spectacle and on hyperreality. The results show that athletes’ negotiations concerning the sport largely connect to a particular way of approaching violence – culturally and in terms of physical experience. On the one hand, there is a desire to portray MMA as a civilized and regulated sport. The athletes develop different strategies by which to handle or renegotiate the physical force and violence in the cage. On the other hand, however, the fighters’ bodily control and management of their fear sometimes breaks down. When the spectacle of the octagon becomes ‘real’, the legitimacy of the sport is questioned.

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  • 7.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Online doping: The new self-help culture of ethnopharmacology2016In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 957-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, but also internationally, official regimes and public health organizations conduct fairly comprehensive antidoping measures. As a consequence, numerous ‘new’ ways to learn about and access these types of drugs have emerged. Social media and different internet forums, for example, have become part of a new self-help culture in which people can anonymously approach these substances, discuss their experiences of using them and minimize the possibility of encounters with the police. This article focuses on how the use of performance- and image-enhancing drugs (PED) is perceived and negotiated socially in the context of an internet-mediated and online community calledFlashback. The results are in accordance with similar studies on internet bodybuilding communities. That is, even though the participants to a certain degree are aware of the risks and health costs of this kind of physical regime, the gains of using PED clearly dominate the discussions. Adding to this research, this article found that in the imaginary world of online bodybuilding a number of ideas about the ‘genetic max’, as well as the ultimate possibility of exceeding one’s limits, and creating something special and extraordinary, circulate. These stories confirm in many ways the legitimate mission of searching for the ultimate bodybuilding adventure, using different means and methods to transcend the limits of the self/body.

  • 8.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Danielsson, Tom
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Becoming an Ironman triathlete: Extreme exercise, gender equality and the family puzzle2018In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 1351-1363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from a qualitative research approach, this article focuses on Swedish amateur Ironman triathletes and their family life. The purpose of the paper is to investigate how an elite amateur lifestyle is upheld and balanced with the demands of a sustainable family and social life. The results indicate that the process of becoming and staying an Ironman creates tensions in intimate relationships, making it hard to bring the family life puzzle together. Although the participants interviewed often talk about family life in terms of sharing things fairly equally, in terms of gender equity and involved parenthood, this seemingly is not always an easy ideal to fulfil in practice. On a broader cultural level, these findings can thus be contextualized in relation to discourses associated with the gendering of families and functions, and, of course, the gender of sport and performance.

  • 9. Aylott, Michael
    et al.
    Aylott, Nicholas
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, Political science.
    A Meeting of Social Science and Football: Measuring the Effects of Three Points for a Win2007In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 205-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, we examine the introduction of three points for a win in senior football, a reform that eventually became universally adopted. We have two objectives. First, we seek to answer the question of whether the effect of the new system has justified its proliferation. The second objective is to present a methodological discussion about how to measure this effect, which involves judgments that many would say are entirely subjective and which, at best, are hard to operationalize - a problem that is not unusual in social science. We measure the ’excitingness’ of football through constructing an index of two distinct features of any match. We then apply the index to our data by combining quantitative analysis with strategic case-selection. Our preliminary findings are that three points for a win does seem to boost football’s excitingness, but that the improvement takes four to five years to take full effect.

  • 10.
    Backman, Jyri
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Jokerit's move to KHL: an odd momentum in the commercialization of Nordic elite ice hockey2020In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 505-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article is set to target several tensions, problems and possibilities in Finnish (and Nordic) men’s elite ice hockey, which have arisen due to increasing commercialization and professionalization. This process has accelerated simultaneously with the recent development and advances of the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL), in addition to the constant and general influences of NHL (i.e., Americanization). Thus, the essay will focus on Jokerit as an illustrative case. To state, Jokerit, founded in 1967, is a powerhouse in Finnish ice hockey, both sport- ingly and financially. The commercialization of Finnish elite ice hockey culminated in 2014/2015 when Jokerit joined KHL. This article reflects on Jokerit’s financial and legal challenges, as well as the commercial press and progress in Nordic elite ice hockey and thus on Jokerit’s drift towards KHL. In addition to these topics, the essay presents and discusses different aspects of the progress of KHL, as well as its reasons and consequences.

  • 11.
    Backman, Jyri
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Jokerit’s move to KHL: an odd momentum in the commercialization of Nordic elite ice hockey2020In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 505-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article is set to target several tensions, problems and possibilities in Finnish (and Nordic) men’s elite ice hockey, which have arisen due to increasing commercialization and professionalization. This process has accelerated simultaneously with the recent development and advances of the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL), in addition to the constant and general influences of NHL (i.e., Americanization). Thus, the essay will focus on Jokerit as an illustrative case. To state, Jokerit, founded in 1967, is a powerhouse in Finnish ice hockey, both sport- ingly and financially. The commercialization of Finnish elite ice hockey culminated in 2014/2015 when Jokerit joined KHL. This article reflects on Jokerit’s financial and legal challenges, as well as the commercial press and progress in Nordic elite ice hockey and thus on Jokerit’s drift towards KHL. In addition to these topics, the essay presents and discusses different aspects of the progress of KHL, as well as its reasons and consequences.

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  • 12.
    Backman, Jyri
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Malmö University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    The progress of SHL Sport Ltd, in light of ‘Americanization’, juridification and hybridity2020In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 452-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SHL and the Swedish Ice Hockey Federation stand as the principal force or engine behind the commercialization processes in Swedish sport, due to influences from the commercial culture of NHL (i.e., the ‘Americanization’ of sport and society). In addition, the impact of the KHL with regard to player migration has forced the league to look for new commercial alternatives and forms of organization. At the same time, Swedish sport in general is, like ice hockey, basically founded on and ruled by the hegemony of the Swedish Sports Confederation and its basically idealistic values. Thus, SHL is shaped by normative dualism as well as by an incipient commercialization process. The ambition of the following text in this respect is to describe and analyze this dilemma by applying the concepts of juridification and hybridity, in addition to providing general perspectives on the Americanization processes in ice hockey and by testing and illustrating this dilemma by the case of the Växjö Lakers, Ltd/Plc.

  • 13.
    Backman, Jyri
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    The progress of SHL Sport Ltd, in light of ‘Americanization’, juridification and hybridity2020In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 452-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SHL and the Swedish Ice Hockey Federation stand as the principal force or engine behind the commercialization processes in Swedish sport, due to influences from the commercial culture of NHL (i.e., the ‘Americanization’ of sport and society). In addition, the impact of the KHL with regard to player migration has forced the league to look for new commercial alternatives and forms of organization. At the same time, Swedish sport in general is, like ice hockey, basically founded on and ruled by the hegemony of the Swedish Sports Confederation and its basically idealistic values. Thus, SHL is shaped by normative dualism as well as by an incipient commercialization process. The ambition of the following text in this respect is to describe and analyze this dilemma by applying the concepts of juridification and hybridity, in addition to providing general perspectives on the Americanization processes in ice hockey and by testing and illustrating this dilemma by the case of the Växjö Lakers, Ltd/Plc.

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  • 14.
    Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanging up the shirt: an autoethnographic account of disengaging from a social rugby culture2016In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 711-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Violent practices are a common feature of homosocial sporting environments. The objective of the current paper is to explore how one individual disengaged from a sporting community characterized by such practices. An autoethnographic approach involving recollection and interactional exchanges is used to create a realist narrative account which offers insight into the process of disengagement. The narrative focuses on the: (1) ongoing nature of cultural participation; (2) agency and the restriction of ways of being in sports teams and (3) the durable nature of personal characteristics that are learned in sporting environments. These issues are discussed in light of cultural learning theory and specifically, the analytic concept, ‘becoming’. The paper concludes with methodological reflections and a consideration of directions for future research.

  • 15.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Grahn, Karin
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Eva-Carin
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Shifting, crossing and transforming gender boundaries in physical cultures2016In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 615-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the 2013 conference “Gender in Physical Culture” of the ‘Transnational Working Group for the Study of Gender and Sport’, held at the University of Gothenburg, a number of presentations related to how individuals, groups of individuals and organizations challenge and change dominant gender discourses and practices. Several of these presentations have come to form this volume on ‘Gender in Physical Culture: Crossing Boundaries – Reconstituting Cultures’. To begin the volume, the following article outlines how the seven contributions are connected. We present Lamont and Molnàr’s (2002) idea of ‘boundaries’, which they consider as visible and invisible socially constructed borders that create social differences. Such boundaries are, however, malleable. We propose that this flexibility means that ‘gender boundaries in physical cultures’ can be shifted, crossed and transformed. The case studies included in this edition present concrete examples of how this is possible.

  • 16.
    Bergsgard, Nils Asle
    et al.
    Department of Sports, Physical Education and Outdoor Studies, University College of Southeast Norway, Bø, Norway.
    Borodulin, Katja
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Health Monitoring Unit, Helsinki, Finland.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Høyer-Kruse, Jens
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Bundgård Iversen, Evald
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    National structures for building and managing sport facilities: a comparative analysis of the Nordic countries2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 525-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport facilities are instrumental in keeping the population fit and healthy. Governments worldwide are thus engaged in devising policies, programs and projects for building such facilities, with the aim of providing citizens with opportunities for a healthy lifestyle. This feature is prominent in the Nordic countries, which have incorporated sport, leisure and physical activity into their universal welfare models. Understanding policies and politics for building sports facilities has therefore become a cornerstone in the understanding of conditions for sport and physical activity for all. In this paper, we investigate and compare the national structures for building and managing sports facilities in the Nordic countries, in order to add to the understanding of how policies and politics for building sport facilities can add to or hamper the sport-for-all ambitions salient in most of today’s western societies.

  • 17. Bergsgard, Nils Asle
    et al.
    Norberg, Johan R
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Sports policy and politics: the Scandinavian way2010In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 567-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching objective of this article is to discuss whether or not one can identify a specific Scandinavian sports policy model. First, the sports policy system of the three Scandinavian countries is presented. Then we sketch some common characteristics of the governments' involvement in sports and discuss to what extent sports policies reflect the broader Scandinavian welfare-state policies. The third part discusses whether increased pluralism in sports challenges the prevailing corporatist-like system existing between voluntary organizations and the state and/or the relationship between the executive and legislative within the government. We conclude that in many respects it is meaningful to talk about a specific Scandinavian sports policy model hallmarked by large, national and voluntary sports organizations with a near monopoly on competitive sports on the one hand and a significant involvement in sports from the government on the other. Further, the parliament plays a minor role, and there are few legal restrictions in the field of sports. However, the degree of concentration of power differs among the three countries, the Danish model being more decentralized and dispersed and the Norwegian model more centralized and concentrated, while the Swedish model lies somewhere in between these two.

  • 18.
    Bonhomme, Justin
    et al.
    School of Human Kinetics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Seanor, Michelle
    Human Studies Program, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Schinke, Robert J.
    School of Human Kinetics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    The career trajectories of two world champion boxers: interpretive thematic analysis of media stories2020In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 560-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Athlete development can be described through transitions that mark turning phases throughout athletes’ careers. Our authors explored media data to unpack the career developments of two prominent world champion boxers from their early lives to world championship status. Employing thematic analysis, five themes were identified: (1) weathering hardships of early life (subthemes: the rough life of an innercity kid; abject poverty in war-torn Philippines), (2) entry into sport (subthemes: groomed to fight; boxing to escape poverty), (3) amateur experience (subthemes: Olympic medallist en route to the pros; struggling amateur with dreams of greatness), (4) launching a professional career (impressive American prospect; a charismatic unpolished slugger) and (5) capturing a world title (subthemes: the much-anticipated world champion; the unexpected world champion). This exploration augments our understanding of how two worldrenowned boxers’ career developments were represented through sport media and interpreted by the researchers, suggesting parallel pathways for future career boxers and those who work with them. © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 19.
    Book, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Eskilsson, Lena
    Coming Out in Copenhagen: Homo Sports Events in City Marketing2010In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 314-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intense competition between places means that new and more differentiated marketing strategies are becoming increasingly important in order to attract visitors and other target groups. In order to be seen, gain positive media attention and put the place on the map many cities try to develop marketing concepts based on experiences, among other things. One such strategy used by many places is to focus on sports, including big events and arenas as well as different kinds of sports activities. Another present-day strategy is to highlight and commercialize 'the different', for instance homosexuals. An interesting phenomenon in this context is the merging of sports and homosexuals and the use of this as an economic development strategy. In this essay we analyse the homo sports event World Outgames as an outcome in the intersection between city marketing, the commercialization of sports and the commercialization of homo culture.

  • 20.
    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid
    et al.
    University College of Southeast Norway.
    Andersson, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control. Karolinska institutet.
    Best, James
    Jaeren Psychiatric Center, Norway.
    Høegmark, Simon
    Naturama Museum, Denmark.
    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya
    University of Southern Denmark.
    The use of physical activity, sport and outdoor life as tools of psychosocial intervention: the Nordic perspective2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 4, SI, p. 654-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The core values in the Nordic welfare model are health equality and social inclusion. Individuals with mental disorders and/or a history of substance use disorder are often excluded from the core value of equality. Psychosocial interventions such as physical activity and outdoor life can have several benefits for those suffering from mental disorders. Firstly, such interventions can have therapeutic effects. Secondly, they show benefits for somatic health and the risk of lifestyle-related diseases. Finally, they can provide an environment for experiencing self-efficacy, lead to improved quality of life, and promote the development and building of social relationships. This paper provides a critical review of current evidence for physical activity and outdoor life as psychosocial interventions in psychiatric and substance misuse treatment, with specific examples from Norway, Sweden and Denmark.

  • 21.
    Carlman, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Hjalmarsson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    A sport for all programme in school: girls’ experience.2018In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 416-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines a Swedish Sport for All Programme (SAP) in school. We use a case study to discuss girls’ debut in alternative sports programme organized in collaboration between school and the sports movement. The empirical data are derived from repeated focus group interviews with one group of seven 10-year-old girls participating in one SAP. The analyses focus on their subjective experiences and how broader gender structures influence these experiences. Drawing on the results of this study, we argue that certain sports can be interpreted as oppressive activities that produce asymmetric power relationships between different groups of children. Simultaneously, the girls see the idea of sports as joyful activities, without male abuse and oppression or hierarchical gender relationships. Based on the girls’ accounts, we claim that both the leaders and the children actively reproduce gender stereotypes in the SAP.

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  • 22.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Re(con)fusion of law and sport in light of ‘seriousness’ and ‘trivialization’2014In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 1317-1333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes a firm departure in the thesis of the juridification of sport. By initially presenting two cases that highlight the logics and problems in the interaction between sport and the law, we receive a fertile soil for analysing the rationalization processes, as well as the trivialization processes, that emerge in light of the commercialization of sport, the ‘eventification’ of society and when, consequently, the ‘law goes pop’. The analysis and the reflections are completed by mixing the thesis of Huizinga’s cultural analysis of play and sport, with Sherwin’s analysis of the trivialization of law. Interestingly, we find, in addition to the prominent rationalization process, tendencies of a comparable ‘trivialization process’.

  • 23.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Malmö University, Sweden.
    'Science Slam' and sportification processes in science2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1623-1637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport's relation to society could be grasped in its connection to science. Thus, there seem to exist two parallel processes: the scientification of sport and the sportification of science. Undoubtedly, science has become an important part in the development of sport, particularly in elite sport. As regards the relation between science and sport, an opposite trend has also been observed, in which sport logic influences the (popular) presentation of science. In this respect, this essay talks about the 'sportification of science', by making reference to 'Science Slam' and 'Grand Prix in Science'.

  • 24.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    'Science Slam' and sportification processes in science2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1623-1637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport's relation to society could be grasped in its connection to science. Thus, there seem to exist two parallel processes: the scientification of sport and the sportification of science. Undoubtedly, science has become an important part in the development of sport, particularly in elite sport. As regards the relation between science and sport, an opposite trend has also been observed, in which sport logic influences the (popular) presentation of science. In this respect, this essay talks about the 'sportification of science', by making reference to 'Science Slam' and 'Grand Prix in Science'.

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  • 25.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    The Representation of Virtues in Sport Novels and Digital Sport2010In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 274-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to capture the significance of norms and virtues in computer games, with a major focus on digital sports, in relation to the traditional representations of sports in novels. The socio-legal design tells us that popular culture, as a discursive and normative agenda, has a vital moral impact on individuals in relation to virtues and values, an influence that is as good as the authority of formal law. By comparing the representation of sports in novels and digital sports, the essay discusses the transition of virtues

  • 26.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Backman, Jyri
    Malmö University.
    The blend of normative uncertainty and commercial immaturity in Swedish ice hockey2015In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 290-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By describing and analysing normative uncertainties and the commercial immaturity in Swedish ice hockey (Swedish Hockey League/Swedish Ice Hockey Association), this article focuses on the tension and dialectics in Swedish sport; increasingly greater commercial attempts (i.e. entrepreneurship, ‘Americanization’, multi-arenas, innovations and public limited companies) have to be mixed with a generally non-profit making organization (e.g. the Swedish Sports Confederation) and its traditional values of health, democracy and youth sports and fosterage. In this respect, the elite ice hockey clubs are situated in a legal culture of two parallel norm systems: the tradition of selfregulation in sport and in civil law (e.g. commercial law). Indeed, the incoherent blend of idealism and commercialism in Swedish elite hockey appears to be fertile ground for hazardous (sports) management and indebtedness. This mix of ‘uncertainty’ and ‘immaturity’ has given rise to various financial trickeries and negligence, which have subsequently developed into legal matters. Consequently, the legal system appears to have become a playground for Swedish ice hockey. This article reflects on the reasons and the rationale in this frictional development by focusing on a legal case that comes under the Business Reorganisation Act. The analysis reveals support for a ‘soft’ juridification process in Swedish ice hockey in order to handle the charging tension of the two parallel norm systems.

  • 27.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Backman, Jyri
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    The Blend of normative uncertainty and commercial Immaturity in Swedish ice hockey2015In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 290-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By describing and analysing normative uncertainties and the commercial immaturity in Swedish ice hockey (Swedish Hockey League/Swedish Ice Hockey Association), this article focuses on the tension and dialectics in Swedish sport; increasingly greater commercial attempts (i.e. entrepreneurship, ‘Americanization’, multi-arenas, innovations and public limited companies) have to be mixed with a generally non-profit making organization (e.g. the Swedish Sports Confederation) and its traditional values of health, democracy and youth sports and fosterage. In this respect, the elite ice hockey clubs are situated in a legal culture of two parallel norm systems: the tradition of self-regulation in sport and in civil law (e.g. commercial law). Indeed, the incoherent blend of idealism and commercialism in Swedish elite hockey appears to be fertile ground for hazardous (sports) management and indebtedness. This mix of ‘uncertainty’ and ‘immaturity’ has given rise to various financial trickeries and negligence, which have subsequently developed into legal matters. Consequently, the legal system appears to have become a playground for Swedish ice hockey. This article reflects on the reasons and the rationale in this frictional development by focusing on a legal case that comes under the Business Reorganisation Act. The analysis reveals support for a ‘soft’ juridification process in Swedish ice hockey in order to handle the charging tension of the two parallel norm systems.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 28.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Backman, Jyri
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics. Malmö university, Sweden.
    Stark, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Introduction: the progress of elite ice hockey beyond the NHL2020In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 355-360Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Special Issue: The Progress of Elite Ice Hockey, Beyond NHL: A Focus on (G)local culture(s), Migration, Entrepreneurship, Americanization and Oligarchism. Guest Editors: Bo Carlsson, Jyri Backman and Tobias Stark

  • 29.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Backman, Jyri
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Stark, Tobias
    Introduction: the progress of elite ice hockey beyond the NHL2020In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 355-360Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction to Special Issue: The Progress of Elite Ice Hockey, Beyond NHL: A Focus on (G)local culture(s), Migration, Entrepreneurship, Americanization and Oligarchism. Guest Editors: Bo Carlsson, Jyri Backman and Tobias Stark

  • 30.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    The position and relevance of sport studies: an introduction2014In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 17, p. 1225-1233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume will tactically put the stubborn challenge of defining sport in ‘intellectual brackets’ and instead reflect on the position and relevance of sport science – of studying and analysing sport

  • 31.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Jonasson, Kalle
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Kutte
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Introduction: the blend of science and sport2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1497-1500Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jonasson, Kalle
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Jönsson, Kutte
    Department of Sport Sciences, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Introduction: the blend of science and sport2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1497-1500Article in journal (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 33.
    Carlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Teacher Education (LUT), Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Lindfelt, Mikael
    Legal and Moral Pluralism: Normative Tensions in a Nordic Sport Model in Transition2010In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 718-733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a departure from sport ethics and sociology of law this article deals with norms, rules, ethical principles and legal instruments that have an influence on the development of sport. The subject is connected to the Nordic regulation of sport, with a tradition of self-regulation and internal dispute resolutions; recently this 'autonomy' has been challenged by the interests of the market, different political pressures and by ethical discourses in the civil society. This is conceptualized as a state of normative tension and a 'sport model' in transition. The ethical departure focuses on the phenomenology of sport, illuminating internal values important to sport and the development of different conflict resolutions within sport organisations. The socio-legal perspective places sport in a social and normative context, focussing on various normative sources exterior to sport that will have an impact on the development of sport.

  • 34. Clark, Becky
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    A global perspective on disparity of gender anddisability for deaf female athletes2018In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 64-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the significance of gender and disability issues has graduallyincreased in the global society during the past three decades,there are only few studies with regard to the deaf community andsport. This article examines the level of Deaf or Hard-of-Hearingwomen’s participation in sports and the factors for their continuedunderrepresentation. The WomenSport International’s Task Force onDeaf and Hard of Hearing Girls and Women in Sport conducted aworld-wide survey to determine and assess the needs of deaf andhard of hearing girls and women in sport. A snapshot of the resultsand issues and future aspirations are provided.

  • 35.
    Diehl, Robert
    et al.
    Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.
    Poczwardowski, Artur
    University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Sport.
    O’Neil, Adam
    Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.
    Haberl, Peter
    United States Olympic Committee, Sport Performance Division, Colorado Spring, CO, USA.
    Transitioning to and thriving at the Olympic Training Center, Colorado Springs: Phases of an adaptive transition2020In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 678-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was focused on the process of an adaptive transition to the Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs, CO (further – the OTC) and guided by the research question: What were the dynamic transition experiences of elite resident-athletes that constituted their successful transition to the OTC? A retreatment of Poczwardowski, Diehl, O’Neil, Cote, & Haberl’s (2014) semi-structured interviews with six accomplished resident-athletes was conducted through the lens of the athletic career transition model (Stambulova, 2003) to propose a temporally based Transition to the OTC (further – the TOTC) empirical framework. The TOTC describes the successful transition as having four phases – preparation, assimilation, adaptation, and thriving – involving the dynamic interactions between the resident-athletes and the OTC programs/staff influencing the perceived transition challenges, barriers, resources, coping strategies, and outcomes throughout the four phases. Based on the TOTC, future research on the transitioning to residential training centers is outlined, and practical applications for the OTC staff, coaches, and sport psychologists (e.g., developmentally relevant intake protocols, strengths-based interventions, and orientation materials) are proposed. © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 36.
    Edwards, Bob
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, East Carolina University (ECU), USA.
    Corte, Ugo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Commercialization and Lifestyle Sport: Lessons from Twenty Years of Freestyle BMX in ProTown, USA2010In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 13, no 7-8, p. 1135-1151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research on lifestyle sport and commercialization reveals a problematic and complex relationship. The analysis presented here examines the development and impact of commercialization on a unique and influential local BMX scene over a 20-year period. Three forms of commercialization - paraphernalia, movement and mass market - are identified and their varying influences on the mobilization and development of this lifestyle sport are analysed. Findings reveal that lifestyle-sport insiders actively collaborate in each form of commercialization, especially movement commercialization which has the potential to build alternative lifestyle-sport institutions and resist adverse commercial influences. This research conceptualizes freestyle BMX as a social movement within the resource-mobilization perspective and relies upon a combination of direct and participant observation recorded through field notes and augmented by 25 in-depth interviews. The combination of analytical tools and methodological approach can help shed further light on the complex dynamics of commercialization in lifestyle sports.

  • 37.
    Ekberg, Johan
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    Strange, Michael
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Global Political Studies (GPS).
    What happened to the protests?: The surprising lack of visible dissent during the Sochi Winter Olympics2017In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 532-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the build-up to the Sochi Olympics, there was substantial anticipation that its legacy would be dominated by dissent and political controversies rather than gold-winning performances. Yet, when the torch was lit, far fewer of those expected controversies ignited. In turning to International Relations theory (IR), the article argues the Sochi Olympics evidenced a tension between, on one hand, a tight process of political management by Russian state representatives, the organizing committee and the International Olympic Committee, whilst on the other hand utilizing certain key norms to help ensure consent. Utilizing a Social Constructivist emphasis on norms as key tools for conducting global politics, the analysis shows how that tension incorporated well-recognized ideas from both the IR schools of Realism and Liberalism to silence protesters. In evidencing the value-added of drawing upon other schools of thought outside conventional sports analysis, the article illustrates a new way for conducting research in Olympic studies.

  • 38.
    Ekengren, Johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Ryba, Tatania
    Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Composite vignettes of Swedish male and female professional handball players’ career paths2020In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 595-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe gender-specific career paths of Swedish professional handball players. A reanalysis of Ekengren et al. (2018) career interviews with nine male and nine female players led to creating two composite vignettes using the athletes’ own words, accounted for typical features in the male and female players’ career paths. Seven themes were identified in the analysis of the men’s transcripts and eight themes derived from the women’s transcripts. Further, the themes of both vignettes were aligned with career stages described in our previous study (Ekengren et al. 2018). The male players’ vignette is interpreted as a performance narrative congruent with elite handball culture that promotes performance success and profitable professional contracts. The female players’ vignette is more holistic, embracing handball, studies, motherhood, and how they ought to be as Swedish women. Recommendations for future research are provided. © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 39.
    Ekholm, David
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Governing by means of sport for social change and social inclusion: demarcating the domains of problematization and intervention2018In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 1777-1794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the rationality of a sport-based intervention in Sweden promoting social change and social inclusion is explored. By examining statements made by representatives of the intervention, the article outlines the domains where problems are located and where social change and governing is presumed to take place. Discursive formations such as ‘the self’, ‘the family’, ‘the community’ and ‘the place’ are problematized in distinct ways and consequently formed as domains of governing intervention. These domains are made particular from the rest of society based on a presumed lack of integration as well as articulations of otherness. These deviances are pointed out and remedied within the frames of the established social order – it is, according to the discourse, not society that should be reformed, it is the individuals, the families and communities that should reform or adapt. Within the frames of such a discourse, major social reforms are neither conceivable nor desired.

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  • 40.
    Ekholm, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Dahlstedt, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Julia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Problematizing the absent girl: sport as a means of emancipation and social inclusion2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 1043-1061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Absence from sport participation among girls from ethno-cultural minorities is often highlighted as an inclusion policy challenge. Based on 35 interviews with community sports coaches, managers and partners, we explore how the absence of girls is problematized in four Swedish sports-based interventions, focusing on how problems, as well as the means and the ends of social inclusion, are articulated. The girls are assessed as being in need of social change due to their alleged social exclusion. Absence is explained by "patriarchal norms" as well as by the introvert conduct of the girls themselves. Girls-only sports activities performed by female coaches as role models are described as a way for girls to gain social inclusion and to become emancipated from subjugating norms. In conclusion, participation in community sport is highlighted in discourse as crucial for adopting powers of emancipation. A similar discourse could be recognized elsewhere, inside and outside the realm of sport.

  • 41.
    Ekholm, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlstedt, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnbäck, Julia
    Department of Social Studies, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Problematizing the absent girl: sport as a means of emancipation and social inclusion2019In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 1043-1061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Absence from sport participation among girls from ethno-cultural minorities is often highlighted as an inclusion policy challenge. Based on 35 interviews with community sports coaches, managers and partners, we explore how the absence of girls is problematized in four Swedish sports-based interventions, focusing on how problems, as well as the means and the ends of social inclusion, are articulated. The girls are assessed as being in need of social change due to their alleged social exclusion. Absence is explained by “patriarchal norms” as well as by the introvert conduct of the girls them- selves. Girls-only sports activities performed by female coaches as role models are described as a way for girls to gain social inclusion and to become emancipated from subjugating norms. In conclusion, participation in community sport is highlighted in discourse as cru- cial for adopting powers of emancipation. A similar discourse could be recognized elsewhere, inside and outside the realm of sport.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-07-13 00:08
  • 42.
    Ferry, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    School sport in Sweden: what is it, and how did it come to be?2013In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 805-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish sports model has traditionally meant that schools are responsible for all children's and young people's physical education, while the sports movement is responsible for the voluntary training and competition in sport. In recent years, this model seems to have changed since schools increasingly offers training in sports during the school day,school sport. This article describes the development of the Swedish school sport system in relation to major school reforms during the last three decades; reforms that have meant that the school system has been decentralized and market-adapted. This article also argues that sport under the period has gained a new meaning for schools. The main conclusions are that societal changes have enabled the sports movement an increased influence on school sport and that the Swedish sports model has changed. In particular, the ideological distinction between school physical education and voluntary competitive sport has been challenged.

  • 43.
    Ferry, Magnus
    et al.
    GIH, Stockholm.
    Meckbach, Jane
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm.
    School sport in Sweden: what is it, and how did it come to be?2013In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 805-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish sports model has traditionally meant that schools are responsible for all children's and young people's physical education, while the sports movement is responsible for the voluntary training and competition in sport. In recent years, this model seems to have changed since schools increasingly offers training in sports during the school day, school sport. This article describes the development of the Swedish school sport system in relation to major school reforms during the last three decades; reforms that have meant that the school system has been decentralized and market-adapted. This article also argues that sport under the period has gained a new meaning for schools. The main conclusions are that societal changes have enabled the sports movement an increased influence on school sport and that the Swedish sports model has changed. In particular, the ideological distinction between school physical education and voluntary competitive sport has been challenged.

  • 44.
    Hansen, Lars Funch
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Language and Linguistics (SPS).
    Local Circassian reactions to the 2014 Sochi Olympic Winter Games2017In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 518-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates how a mega-sports event such as the Sochi Olympics can generate renewed spaces for production of knowledge and counter-branding for marginalized groups. As the indigenous people of the area, the Circassians in different ways, locally and transnationally, used the 2014 Sochi Olympics to promote greater knowledge of local Circassian history. Such knowledge was for many decades suppressed, during the Soviet period as well as afterwards, in the Russian Federation. This paper discusses cases of Circassian counter-branding of local history that were observed in connection with the Sochi Olympics and in opposition to the Russian Olympics project. The paper contends that the processes of counter-branding made visible local indigenous knowledge that even the authorities in Sochi have gradually come to accept.

  • 45.
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Lis Hartel: an extraordinary equestrian2017In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 1030-1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to analyse the life story of the Danish equestrian Lis Hartel. Hartel was an international top rider as proven by her silver medals in the Olympic Games in 1952 and 1956. She was one of few women competing at this level in a gender-mixed sport, the first woman to win an Olympic medal in the dressage event, and the only equestrian competitor who had suffered from polio. She also developed therapeutic training methods that inspired others. To understand Hartel’s status as an extraordinary sportswoman, her extreme efforts, training methods and high level of performance must be contextualized. In this article, the analysis of her life story focuses on how her accomplishments challenged contemporary constructions of gender and the body, as well as how her public persona was negotiated. The analytical framework has been informed by insights from gender and disability studies and the new biography.

  • 46.
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Hedenborg White, Manon
    Changes and variations in patterns of gender relations in equestrian sports during the second half of the twentieth century2012In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 302-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to explain changes and variations in patterns of gender relations over time and space, the article analyses women's and men's participation rates in equestrian sports focusing on equestrianism in the Olympic Games 1952–2000 with an emphasis on Britain and Sweden. More men than women compete in Olympic equestrianism, although the number of female riders has increased over time and gender patterns vary within equestrianism. A majority of competitive dressage riders are women. Also, British women were involved in equestrian sports earlier than Swedish women. A comparison between Britain and Sweden provides insight into how national politics and cultural context shape gender relations. The destabilization of the societal gender order brought about by the First World War and the Second World War may have disrupted the gender order in equestrianism, creating opportunities for some female riders. Furthermore, governmental support or lack thereof is likely to have influenced female and male participation patterns.

  • 47.
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Pfister, Gertrud
    Introduction2012In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 283-286Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Pfister, Gertrud
    Introduction2017In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 995-997Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Pfister, Gertrud
    Introduction: Special Issue - Gender, Media, Sport2015In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 131-135Article in journal (Other academic)
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    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    Changes and variations in patterns of gender relations in equestrian sports during the second half of the twentieth century2012In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 302-319Article in journal (Refereed)
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