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  • 1.
    Bagge, A. S. Lindqvist
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosen, T.
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fahlke, C.
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ehrnborg, C.
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eriksson, B. O.
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moberg, T.
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thiblin, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Forensic Medicine.
    Somatic effects of AAS abuse: A 30-years follow-up study of male former power sports athletes2017In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 20, no 9, p. 814-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between somatic health and former abuse of AAS in former elite male athletes 30 years after the end of their active sports career.

    Design

    Retrospective follow-up study.

    Methods

    N = 996 former elite male athletes were sent a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic variables, previous and past sport activity and lifetime prevalence of seeking professional help for health problems. N = 683 (68.6%) answered the questionnaire. The lifetime prevalence of AAS-abuse was 21% (n = 143), while 79% (n = 540) did not admit having ever used AAS.

    Results

    Former AAS-abuse was associated with tendon ruptures (p = 0.01), depression (p = 0.001), anxiety (p = 0.01) and lower prevalence of prostate hypertrophy (p = 0.01) and decreased libido (p = 0.01). Former advanced AAS-abusers had higher anxiety (p = 0.004) compared to the former less advanced AAS-abusers. Moreover, former advanced AAS-abusers, compared to AAS-naïves, reported more psychiatric problems (p = 0.002), depression (p = 0.003) and anxiety (p = 0.00).

    Conclusions

    A former AAS-abuse seems to be associated with some somatic and mental health problem, although a former less advanced AAS-abuse is related to lower incidence of prostate hypertrophy. The results raise the question whether some of these associations might be dose- and frequency dependent. These findings should however be seen as hypothesis generating and further studies are needed.

  • 2. Beaven, Christopher
    Development and validation of a sensitive immunoassay for the skeletal muscle isoform of creatine kinase2008In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creatine kinase (CK) is a marker of muscle damage and pathology present as multiple tissue-specific circulating isoforms. CK is often measured using enzyme activity assays that are unable to distinguish these isoforms. We have developed an immunoassay specific for the MM isoform of CK, found predominantly in skeletal muscle, which uses very small volumes of plasma (1–2μL). A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for CK-MM was developed using isoform-specific antibodies. Cross-reactivity with CK-BB and MB isoforms was also assessed. The ELISA was validated using plasma samples from a group of athletes, and the measured CK-MM concentrations were correlated with CK enzyme activity assays measured by a contractor using the same samples.

    The CK-MM ELISA has a limit of detection of 0.02ng/mL, an IC50 of 2.3ng/mL, and 5.8% cross-reactivity with CK-MB. CK-MM concentrations measured using this assay correlate well (p<0.0001, Spearman r=0.89) with enzyme activity assays.

    The CK-MM-specific ELISA can be used to help assess skeletal muscle damage independent of enzyme activity or interference from other CK isoforms, leading to more precise studies of muscle biology.

  • 3. Bishop, David
    et al.
    Edge, Johann
    McGawley, Kerry
    Physiological responses during a 9 h sheep shearing world record attempt: A case study2005In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 8, no Supplement, p. 59-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina
    et al.
    PROFITH, University of Granada, Spain; Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Intemann, Timm
    University of Bremen, Germany; Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Labayen, Idoia
    Public University of Navarra, Spain.
    Peinado, Ana B
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Vidal-Conti, Josep
    University of the Balearic Islands, Spain.
    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin
    University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Moliner-Urdiales, Diego
    LIFE reserach group, University Jaume I, Spain.
    Rodriguez Perez, Manuel A
    University of Almeria, Spain.
    Cañete Garcia-Prieto, Jorge
    Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Health and Social Research Center, Spain.
    Fernández-Santos, Jorge Del Rosario
    School of Education, University of Cádiz, Spain.
    Martinez-Tellez, Borja
    PROFITH, University of Granada, Spain.
    Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán
    University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R
    PROFITH, University of Granada, Spain; Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ortega, Francisco B
    PROFITH, University of Granada, Spain; Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Physical fitness reference standards for preschool children: The PREFIT project.2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 430-437, article id S1440-2440(18)30911-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Reference values are necessary for classifying children, for health screening, and for early prevention as many non-communicable diseases aggravate during growth and development. While physical fitness reference standards are available in children aged 6 and older, such information is lacking in preschool children. Therefore, the purposes of this study were (1) to provide sex-and age-specific physical fitness reference standards for Spanish preschool children; and (2) to study sex differences across this age period and to characterise fitness performance throughout the preschool period.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

    METHODS: A total of 3179 preschool children (1678 boys) aged 2.8-6.4 years old from Spain were included in the present study. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT battery.

    RESULTS: Age- and sex-specific percentiles for the physical fitness components are provided. Boys performed better than girls in the cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, and speed-agility tests over the whole preschool period studied and for the different percentiles. In contrast, girls performed slightly better than boys in the balance test. Older children had better performance in all fitness tests than their younger counterparts.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides age- and sex-specific physical fitness reference standards in preschool children allowing interpretation of fitness assessment. Sexual dimorphism in fitness tests exists already at preschool age, and these differences become larger with age. These findings will help health, sport, and school professionals to identify preschool children with a high/very low fitness level, to examine changes in fitness over time, and to analyse those changes obtained due to intervention effects.

  • 5.
    Dent, Jessica R.
    et al.
    Massey Univ, Sch Sport & Exercise, Palmerston North, New Zealand.;Auckland Univ Technol, Sch Sport & Recreat, SPRINZ, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Edge, Johann A.
    Massey Univ, Sch Sport & Exercise, Palmerston North, New Zealand.;Univ Auckland, Dept Sport & Exercise Sci, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Hawke, Emma
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    McMahon, Christopher
    AgResearch Ltd, Ruakura Res Ctr, Hamilton, New Zealand..
    Muendel, Toby
    Massey Univ, Sch Sport & Exercise, Palmerston North, New Zealand..
    Sex differences in acute translational repressor 4E-BP1 activity and sprint performance in response to repeated-sprint exercise in team sport athletes2015In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 730-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The physiological requirements underlying soccer-specific exercise are incomplete and sex-based comparisons are sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a repeated-sprint protocol on the translational repressor 4E-BP1 and sprint performance in male and female soccer players.

    Design: Cross-over design involving eight female and seven male university soccer players.

    Methods: Participants performed four bouts of 6x 30-m maximal sprints spread equally over 40 min. Heart rate, sprint time and sprint decrement were measured for each sprint and during the course of each bout. Venous blood samples and muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were taken at rest, at 15 min and 2 h post-exercise. R

    esults: While males maintained a faster mean sprint time for each bout (P < 0.05) females exhibited a greater decrement in sprint performance for each bout (P < 0.05), indicating a superior maintenance of sprint performance in males, with no sex differences for heart rate or lactate. Muscle analyses revealed sex differences in resting total (P< 0.05) and phosphorylated (P< 0.05) 4E-BP1 Thr37/46, and 15 min post-exercise the 4E-BP1 Thr37/46 ratio decreased below resting levels in males only (P < 0.05), indicative of a decreased translation initiation following repeated sprints.

    Conclusions: We show that females have a larger sprint decrement indicating that males have a superior ability to recover sprint performance. Sex differences in resting 4E-BP1 Thr37/46 suggest diversity in the training-induced phenotype of the muscle of males and females competing in equivalent levels of team-sport competition.

  • 6.
    Edouard, Pascal
    et al.
    Univ Jean Monnet, France; Univ Hosp St Etienne, France; French Athlet Federat FFA, France.
    Junge, Astrid
    MSH, Germany; Swiss Concuss Ctr, Switzerland; Schulthess Clin Zurich, Switzerland.
    Kiss-Polauf, Marianna
    Hungarian Athlet Federat, Hungary; Natl Inst Sport Med, Hungary.
    Ramirez, Christophe
    Royal Spanish Athlet Federat, Spain.
    Sousa, Monica
    Polytechinc Leiria, Portugal.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Business support and Development, Department of Health and Care Development.
    Branco, Pedro
    EAA, Switzerland; IAAF, Monaco.
    Interrater reliability of the injury reporting of the injury surveillance system used in international athletics championships2018In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 894-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The quality of epidemiological injury data depends on the reliability of reporting to an injury surveillance system. Ascertaining whether all physicians/physiotherapists report the same information for the same injury case is of major interest to determine data validity. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the data collection reliability through the analysis of the interrater reliability. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods: During the 2016 European Athletics Advanced Athletics Medicine Course in Amsterdam, all national medical teams were asked to complete seven virtual case reports on a standardised injury report form using the same definitions and classifications of injuries as the international athletics championships injury surveillance protocol. The completeness of data and the Fleiss kappa coefficients for the inter-rater reliability were calculated for: sex, age, event, circumstance, location, type, assumed cause and estimated time-loss. Results: Forty-one team physicians and physiotherapists of national medical teams participated in the study (response rate 89.1%). Data completeness was 96.9%. The Fleiss kappa coefficients were: almost perfect for sex (k = 1), injury location (k = 0.991), event (k = 0.953), circumstance (k = 0,942), and age = 0.870), moderate for type (k = 0.507), fair for assumed cause (k = 0.394), and poor for estimated time loss (k = 0.155). Conclusions: The injury surveillance system used during international athletics championships provided reliable data for "sex", "location", "event", "circumstance", and "age". More caution should be taken for "assumed cause" and "type", and even more for "estimated time-loss". This injury surveillance system displays satisfactory data quality (reliable data and high data completeness), and thus, can be recommended as tool to collect epidemiology information on injuries during international athletics championships. (C) 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Gauffin, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Tillander, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyth, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Operations management Region Östergötland, Research and Development Unit.
    Raysmith, Ben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Maintaining motivation and health among recreational runners: Panel study of factors associated with self-rated performance outcomes at competitions2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 1319-1323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate health-related factors associated with self-rated race performance outcomes among recreational long-distance runners. Design: Panel study. Methods: Data were collected from runners one month before and after a community-level race event including distances from 8 to 42.2 km. The primary outcome measure was self-rated race performance outcome. The explanatory variables represented health complaints suffered during the build-up year, the pre-race month, and the race and among full marathon runners predicted objective performance outcome (mean pace equal to training pace or faster). Multiple logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with the self-rated performance outcome. Results: Two-hundred forty-five runners (29%) provided complete data sets. Seventy-four percent of the runners reached their desired race performance outcome. Achievement of the performance outcome was more likely when having avoided illness during the build-up and pre-race periods (OR = 3.8; 95% CI:1.8-8.0, p amp;lt; 0.001), having avoided per-race injury (OR=3.0; 95% CI:1.2-7.4, p = 0.02) and avoided perrace illness (OR= 4.1; 95% CI:1.3-15, p = 0.020). Having obtained the self-rated performance outcome was also associated with running a shorter distance (OR=3.6; 95% CI: 1.7-8.0,p = 0.001) and being younger than 50 years of age (OR= 2.4; 95% CI:1.1-5.3-8.3, p = 0.03). Having met the predicted objective performance outcome predisposed marathon runners to also obtain the self-rated performance outcome (OR= 4.7, 95% CI: 1.5-16, p amp;lt; 0.01). Conclusions: Having avoided illness during build-up and pre-race was positively associated with self-rated race performance outcome among recreational runners. Adjusting the desired performance outcomes with regard to recent illness and age may help recreational runners to more often achieve their goals and thereby prevent them from leaving the sport. (C) 2019 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Gerber, Markus
    et al.
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Best, Simon
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Meerstetter, Fabienne
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Walter, Marco
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Ludyga, Sebastian
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Brand, Serge
    University of Basel, Switzerland; Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Bianchi, Renzo
    University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
    Madigan, Daniel J.
    York St. John University, United Kingdom.
    Isoard-Gautheur, Sandrine
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Effects of stress and mental toughness on burnout and depressive symptoms: A prospective study with young elite athletes2018In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 1200-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine in a sample of young elite athletes (a) the presence of clinically relevant symptoms of burnout and depression, and (b) a possible interaction of perceived stress and mental toughness in the prediction of burnout and depressive symptoms. Design: 6-month prospective study. Methods: A representative sample of 257 young elite athletes (M = 16.82 years, SD = 1.44, 36% females) was recruited in North–Western Switzerland. 197 athletes were followed-up across a 6-month period. Burnout was assessed with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM), and depression with the 9-item depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Values of ≥4.40 (SMBM) and >14 (PHQ-9) were considered indicative of clinically relevant burnout or depression. Stress perceptions were assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and mental toughness with the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test stress-buffering effects. Results: The percentage of athletes with clinically relevant levels of burnout and depressive symptoms was 12% and 9%, respectively. Both cross-sectional and prospective analyses showed that compared to participants with low mental toughness, those with higher mental toughness scores reported significantly fewer mental health issues, when exposed to high stress. By contrast, when stress levels were low, mental toughness was unrelated to psychological health complaints. Conclusions: About every tenth young elite athlete reported burnout or depressive symptoms of potential clinical relevance. While high perceived stress was associated with increased psychological health complaints, mental toughness was able to off-set some of the negative consequences resulting from high stress exposure.

  • 9.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Univ Granada, Spain.
    Leppanen, Marja H.
    Univ Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Granada, Spain.
    Nystrom, Christine Delisle
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Childrens Hosp Eastern Ontario, Canada.
    Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Ek, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Univ Granada, Spain.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Univ Granada, Spain.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Physical fitness in relation to later body composition in pre-school children2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 574-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    Although physical fitness is considered a marker of health in youth, little is known whether physical fitness in pre-school age is related to later body composition. Thus, this study investigated (i) associations of physical fitness at 4.5 years of age with body composition 12 months later and (ii) whether improvements in physical fitness during the 12-month follow-up were associated with changes in body composition.

    Design

    This study included 142 children, measured at 4.5 and 5.5 years, from the control group of the MINISTOP trial.

    Methods

    Physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower- and upper-body muscular strength and motor fitness) was measured using the PREFIT test battery. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography.

    Results

    In adjusted regression analyses, greater cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-body muscular strength and motor fitness at 4.5 years were associated with a lower fat mass index at 5.5 years (standardized β= −0.182 to −0.229, p ≤ 0.028). Conversely, greater cardiorespiratory fitness, lower- and upper-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness at 4.5 years of age were associated with a higher fat-free mass index (standardized β = 0.255–0.447, p ≤ 0.001). Furthermore, improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-body muscular strength and motor fitness during the 12-month follow-up period were associated with decreases in fat mass index and/or % fat mass.

    Conclusions

    In conclusion, the results of this study provide evidence of the importance of physical fitness early in life. Nevertheless, further studies are needed in order to clarify the influence of physical fitness in the pre-school age with later health outcomes.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-12-07 10:37
  • 10.
    Horwath, Oscar
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Paulsen, Gøran
    The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports, Oslo, Norway & Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Esping, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Seynnes, Olivier
    Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Olsson, M. Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    Isokinetic resistance training combined with eccentric overload improves athletic performance and induces muscle hypertrophy in young ice hockey players.2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 821-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the combined effects of slow isokinetic resistance training and eccentric overload and compare it to traditional resistance training on strength, power, body composition and muscle hypertrophy in young ice hockey players.

    DESIGN: Experimental, randomized trial.

    METHODS: Twenty-two resistance-trained ice hockey players (18±1year) were assigned to either isokinetic resistance training and eccentric overload (ISO/ECC; n=11) or traditional resistance training (TRAD; n=11). Participants underwent supervised progressive resistance training for 8 weeks (2-3 sessions/week) involving lower body multiple-joint exercises (heavy squats and explosive jump squats). The ISO/ECC group performed their training using a computerized robotic engine system (1080 Quantum synchro, Sweden), whereas the TRAD group performed the same resistance exercises with isotonic loading. Before and after the intervention, participants were evaluated in 1RM back squat, loaded jump squats, sprint- and jump performance, body composition and muscle thickness using ultrasound measurement.

    RESULTS: Similar moderate increases in 1RM back squat and power output in the jump squats were found in both the ISO/ECC and TRAD groups (11-17%, P<0.01), whereas only the ISO/ECC group showed improvements in drop jump performance (9.8%, P=0.01). Moreover, similar trivial changes in body composition were observed in both groups, while only the ISO/ECC training group increased muscle thickness in the vastus intermedius (P=0.01) and rectus femoris muscles (P=0.03).

    CONCLUSIONS: Both modalities effectively increased maximal strength and power output, whereas isokinetic resistance training, combined with eccentric overload, improved drop jump performance and induced greater muscle hypertrophy than traditional training in young ice hockey players. © 2019 Sports Medicine Australia

  • 11.
    Ihalainen, Johanna K.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Hackney, A. C.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.
    Taipale, R. S.
    Kajaani University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Changes in inflammation markers after a 10-week high-intensity combined strength and endurance training block in women: The effect of hormonal contraceptive use2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1044-1048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The influence of hormonal contraceptives (HC) on inflammation and body composition after high-intensity combined strength and endurance training was investigated. Design: Active healthy women formed two training groups: HC users (HCU, n = 9) and those who had never used HC (NHC, n = 9). Training included two strength training sessions and two high-intensity interval training sessions per week for 10 weeks. Methods: Before (PRE) and after (POST) the training intervention, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) concentrations were measured. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to estimate fat mass (FM), abdominal fat mass (aFM), and lean mass (LM). Results: Circulating concentrations of hs-CRP decreased significantly in the NHC from pre to post with −0.46 mg l−1 (95% CI: −0.78, −0.14, p = 0.009, ES = 0.434), whereas a significant increase was observed in HCU from pre to post with 0.89 mg l−1 (95% CI: 1.66, 0.12, p = 0.048, ES = 1.988) with a significant between-group difference (p = 0.015). In addition, hs-CRP concentration was significantly higher in HCU than in NHC after training (p = 0.036) at post. Lean mass increased significantly more in NHC than in HCU (p = 0.049). Conclusions: High-intensity combined strength and endurance training can modify inflammation and body composition of women. The present study showed that inflammation, in terms of hs-CRP was higher post training in HCU than NHC, which may be associated with smaller gains in lean mass in response to training. 

  • 12.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad högskola.
    Johnson, Urban
    Linnaeus University.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Altemyr, Mats
    Halmstad University.
    Could level and change in psychosocial stress during a 10-week period predict sport injuries in a junior elite soccer population?: A latent growth curve analysis.2014In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 366-370Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Halmstad Univ.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad Univ.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad Univ.
    Altemyr, Mats
    Halmstad Univ.
    Psychosocial stress as a predictor of injury in elite junior soccer: A latent growth curve analysis2014In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 366-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate by use of a latent growth curve analysis framework whether athletes' individual levels and changes in hassle and uplift levels over a 10-week period could predict injury outcome in an elite junior soccer population. Design: A prospective design with repeated measurement points. Methods: Participants were 101 Swedish elite junior soccer players (67 males and 34 females). Ten sets of measures were taken on a weekly basis during which participants completed the Hassles and Uplifts Scale (HUS). Latent growth curve models were used to examine whether the level and change in psychological stress could predict the frequency of injury over the 10-week period. Results: The results show that injury occurrence was significantly associated with both the initial level of daily hassle and the change in daily hassle. High initial daily hassle levels and a smaller decrease in daily hassles were associated with injury occurrence. Moreover, injury occurrence was significantly associated with a greater decrease in daily uplift. Conclusions: The findings highlight the importance of focusing on state variables using prospective designs and appropriate analysis of within-person change to detect complex and dynamic associations across time in injury-prediction research. (C) 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science & Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Altemyr, Mats
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Psychosocial stress as a predictor of injury in elite junior soccer: A latent growth curve analysis2014In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 366-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate by use of a latent growth curve analysis framework whether athletes' individual levels and changes in hassle and uplift levels over a 10-week period could predict injury outcome in an elite junior soccer population.

    DESIGN: A prospective design with repeated measurement points.

    METHODS: Participants were 101 Swedish elite junior soccer players (67 males and 34 females). Ten sets of measures were taken on a weekly basis during which participants completed the Hassles and Uplifts Scale (HUS). Latent growth curve models were used to examine whether the level and change in psychological stress could predict the frequency of injury over the 10-week period.

    RESULTS: The results show that injury occurrence was significantly associated with both the initial level of daily hassle and the change in daily hassle. High initial daily hassle levels and a smaller decrease in daily hassles were associated with injury occurrence. Moreover, injury occurrence was significantly associated with a greater decrease in daily uplift.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the importance of focusing on state variables using prospective designs and appropriate analysis of within-person change to detect complex and dynamic associations across time in injury-prediction research.

    Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI). Arsenal Performance and Research Team, Arsenal Football Club, United Kingdom & Arsenal Psychology and Research Group, Arsenal Football Club, United Kingdom.
    Kilhage-Persson, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Martindale, Russell
    School of Applied Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom & Arsenal Psychology and Research Group, Arsenal Football Club, United Kingdom.
    Priestley, David
    Arsenal Performance and Research Team, Arsenal Football Club, United Kingdom & Arsenal Psychology and Research Group, Arsenal Football Club, United Kingdom.
    Huijgen, Barbara
    Center for Human Movement Sciences, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Netherlands & Arsenal Psychology and Research Group, Arsenal Football Club, United Kingdom & Department of Psychology, University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Ardern, Clare
    Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Medicine & Health, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden & School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    McCall, Alan
    School of Applied Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom & Performance and Research Department, Arsenal Football Club, London, United Kingdom.
    Predictive ability of psychological factors with future performance of football players: a systematic review with meta-analysis2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This systematic review had 3 key objectives: (1) to investigate whether psychological factors were associated with future football performance (e.g., progression to professional football, better game statistics during the next season); (2) to critically review the methodological approaches used in the included studies and summarize the evidence for the current research question; (3) to provide guidelines for future studies.

    Design: Systematic Review

    Methods: Electronic databases (SPORTDiscus, PubMed and PsycINFO) and previously published systematic and scoping reviews were searched. Only prospective studies were considered for inclusion.

    Results: Eleven published studies that reported 39 effect sizes were included. Psychological factors; task orientation, task-oriented coping strategies and perceptual-cognitive functions had small effects on future performance in football (ds = 0.20-0.29). Due to high risk of bias there were low certainty of evidence for psychological factors relationship with future football performance.

    Conclusions: Psychological factors investigated showed small effects on future football performance, however, there was overall uncertainty in this evidence due to various sources of bias in the included studies. Therefore psychological factors cannot be used as a sole deciding factor in player recruitment, retention, release strategies, however it would appear appropriate to include these in the overall decision-making process. Future, studies with more appropriate and robust research designs are urgently needed to provide more certainty around their actual role. © 2019 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Kristenson, Karolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bjørneboe, John
    Norwegian School Sport Science, Norway.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Andersen, Thor Einar
    Norwegian School Sport Science, Norway.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    No association between surface shifts and time-loss overuse injury risk in male professional football: a prospective cohort study2016In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 218-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate frequent surface shifts, match play on an unaccustomed surface, and climate type as potential risk factors for injury in Scandinavian male professional football.

    Design: Prospective cohort study.

    Methods: 32 clubs from two climate zones, warm temperate (n=19) and snow climates (n=13), were followed during seasons 2010 and 2011. The association between number of surface shifts during fivematch sequences and subsequent overuse injury risk was evaluated with generalized estimating equations. Injury rate was expressed as time loss injuries/1000 hours, and compared between groups with a rate ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI).

    Results: No association was found between the number of surface shifts and subsequent overuse injury risk (risk ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.91-1.12). Grass clubs (grass installed at home venue) had a lower match injury rate when playing away matches on artificial turf vs. away matches on grass (rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.40-0.89). Analyses on the total cohort showed no difference in injury rates between clubs in the two climate zones, but sub-analyses revealed that grass clubs from the snow climate zone had lower training and match injury rates than grass clubs from the warm temperate zone (rate ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.87).

    Conclusions: No influence on injury risk was seen from frequent surface shifts or from playing matches on an unaccustomed surface. Climate type at club home venue had minimal influence on injury rates.

  • 17.
    Larsson, Susanna C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sedentary leisure-time in relation to mortality and survival time2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 562-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the association between sedentary leisure-time and all-cause mortality and differences in survival time.

    Design: Prospective cohort study.

    Methods: Information on sedentary leisure-time, defined as TV viewing and/or sitting reading, was collected from 72 003 Swedish adults who were 45-83 (median 60) years of age and completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline and were followed up for 17 years through linkage with the Swedish Death Register.

    Results: The association between sedentary leisure-time and all-cause mortality was modified by age with a more pronounced association in middle-aged (<60 years of age) than in older adults (>= 60 years of age) (p-interaction <0.001). During follow-up, 3358 and 15 217 deaths occurred in the middle-aged and older age group, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for the highest (>6 h/day) versus lowest category (<1 h/day) of sedentary leisure-time were 1.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-2.30) in middle-aged adults and 1.19 (95% CI 1.05-1.36) in older adults. This corresponded to a difference in survival time of respectively 2.4 (95% CI -4.1 to -0.8) years and 1.5 (95% CI -2.2 to -0.7) years.

    Conclusions: Prolonged sedentary leisure-time was associated with a significantly decreased survival time up to 2.4 years in middle-aged adults. 

  • 18.
    McGawley, Kerry
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. School of Sport Science, Exercise and Health, The University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Bishop, David
    School of Sport Science, Exercise and Health, The University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Oxygen uptake during repeated-sprint exercise2015In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 214-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    Repeated-sprint ability appears to be influenced by oxidative metabolism, with reductions in fatigue and improved sprint times related to markers of aerobic fitness. The aim of the current study was to measure the oxygen uptake (VO2) during the first and last sprints during two, 5 x 6-s repeated-sprint bouts.

    Design

    Cross-sectional study.

    Methods

    Eight female soccer players performed two, consecutive, 5 x 6-s maximal sprint bouts (B1 and B2) on five separate occasions, in order to identify the minimum time (trec) required to recover total work done (Wtot) in B1. On a sixth occasion, expired air was collected during the first and last sprint of B1 and B2, which were separated by trec.

    Results

    The trec was 10.9 ± 1.1 min. The VO2 during the first sprint was significantly less than the last sprint in each bout (p < 0.001), and the estimated aerobic contribution to the final sprint (measured in kJ) was significantly related to VO2max in both B1 (r = 0.81, p = 0.015) and B2 (r = 0.93, p = 0.001). In addition, the VO2 attained in the final sprint was not significantly different from VO2max in B1 (p = 0.284) or B2 (p = 0.448).

    Conclusions

    The current study shows that the VO2 increases from the first to the last of 5 x 6-s sprints and that VO2max may be a limiting factor to performance in latter sprints. Increasing VO2max in team-sport athletes may enable increased aerobic energy delivery, and consequently work done, during a bout of repeated sprints.

  • 19. McGawley, Kerry
    et al.
    Shannon, Oliver
    The effect of carbohydrate feeding during cycling on run performance within a simulated Olympic-distance triathlon2010In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 13, no 6, p. e38-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of carbohydrate ingestion during the cycle leg of a simulated Olympic-distance triathlon (1500-m swim, 40-km cycle, 10-km run) on subsequent running performance. Methods: Five well-trained triathletes (4 male, 1 female) volunteered to participate (mean±SD age: 23.6±4.2 y, body mass: 63.0±7.6 kg and VO2max: 64.0±9.0 ml kg-1 min-1). Participants attended three separate testing sessions separated by at least five days. The first session involved a 1500-m swim time-trial (STT) followed approximately 30 min later by a graded cycle test to exhaustio nfor the evaluation of maximal aerobic power (MAP). The two subsequent sessions required participants to complete a simulated Olympic-distance triathlon involving a 1500-m pool swim to within 5% of the STT, a 40-km stationary cycle at 75% of MAP and a 10-km running time trial. Participants randomly consumed either a 14.4% carbohydrate drink containing 1.2 g min-1 of glucose and 0.6 g min-1 of fructose (CHO) or a fruit squash placebo (PLA) throughout the cycle leg of the triathlon. Fingertip blood samples were collected after every 5 km of the cycle leg and at the end of the run and were subsequently analysed for blood glucose (GLU) and lactate (LAC) concentrations. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and perceived stomach upset (PSU) were also measured after each 5-km cycle period and at the end of the run. Heart rate (HR) was measured throughout the cycle leg only. Results and conclusion: The 10-km run time was 4.2% faster following CHO (38 min 08 s ± 2 min 46 s) compared with PLA (39 min 44 s ±3 min 13 s; P < 0.05). The improved run timewas associated with increased GLU and LAC concentrations in the CHO compared with the PLA trial (P < 0.05), no difference in HR or PSU between trials (P > 0.05) and significantly lower RPE scores in the CHO compared with the PLA trial (P < 0.05). These results show that a 10-km run at the end of an Olympic-distance triathlon may be significantly improved following ingestion of a 14.4% glucose-fructose beverage at a rate of 1.8 g min−1 compared with a fruit squash placebo, with no additional gastro-intestinal stress. This improvement in run performance in the CHO trial may be due to muscle and liver glycogen sparing during the cycle leg, which increased carbohydrate metabolism in the latter stages of the triathlon.

  • 20. McGawley, Kerry
    et al.
    Taylor, Daniel
    The effect of short-term sprint-interval training on repeated-sprint ability2010In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 13, no 6, p. e52-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether short-term sprint-interval training (SIT) would enhance repeated-sprint ability (RSA) via improvements in power output, work decrement and oxygen uptake in recovery. Methods: Eight male, recreational team-sport players (mean±SD age: 21±2 y, body mass: 78.1±4.3 kg) completed a repeated-sprint test (RST) and a graded cycle test to exhaustion for the evaluation of VO2max before and after two weeks of SIT. The RST consisted of 7×5-s cycle sprints interspersed with 25 s of passive recovery. Peak power output (PP), mean power output (MP), decrement in MP (MPdec) and total work done (TWD) were recorded. In addition, VO2 was measured during the 25-s passive recovery periods between each sprint. The SIT involved six sessions (three sessions per week) of 4, 5 or 6 × 30-s, all-out sprints interspersed with 4.5 min of light recovery. The number of sprint repetitions increased by one after every two training sessions. Results and conclusion: Although there was no change in PP for any of the 7×5-s sprints following SIT (P > 0.05) there were significant increases in MP for each of the 7×5-s sprints (P < 0.05) and in TWD during the RST (mean±SD: 7.6±3.0 versus 29.4±2.6 kJ from pre- to post-training; P < 0.05). The MPdec decreased from 12.4 ±6.8 to 7.4±2.9% from pre- to post-training (P < 0.05) but VO2 between sprints was unchanged (P > 0.05). Furthermore, VO2max was not different following training (45.7±7.7 versus 45.0±5.4 mLkg-1 min-1 from pre- to post-training; P > 0.05). These findings suggest that short-term SIT may be an effective intervention for improving RSA within team-sport athletes via increases in work done during each sprint and reductions in the decrement in work done over a series of sprints. This does not appear to be due to greater oxygen uptake during the 25-s recovery periods between sprints or improvements in peak power. Other metabolic adaptations to SIT that maintain muscle force during high-intensity exercise may explain the current findings.

  • 21. McGawley, Kerry
    et al.
    Tyler, Ken
    The effect of water immersion on the recovery of team-sport-specific exercise2010In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 13, no 6, p. e51-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of two hydrotherapy techniques, cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast-water therapy (CWT), on the recovery of team-sport-specific exercise tests following muscle-damaging exercise. Methods: Seven male, team-sport players (mean±SD age: 21±2 y, body mass:76.8±7.2 kg) completed a preliminary familiarisation trial for three team-sport-specific exercise tests (TESTS), which included an all-out 30-m sprint test, two agility T-tests (left and right) and a vertical jump test. Three experimental trials were subsequently carried out, each separated by one week, using a counter-balanced cross-over design. On each visit a resting fingertip blood sample and a rating of perceived muscle soreness (PMS) was collected. Participants then performed the TESTS, followed by a 5-min rest period. A repeated sprint exercise (RSE) protocol was then performed to induce muscle damage, which comprised of 15 × 30-m sprints with a 10-m deceleration zone. Sprints were separated by 1 min. A second fingertip blood sample and PMS score was collected immediately after the RSE and a second set of TESTS were performed 10 min after the RSE. Participants then received either CWI, CWT or no water immersion (CON). The next day (24–28 h later) a final fingertip blood sample and PMS score was collected and a final set of TESTS were completed. Results and conclusion: There were no changes in plasma CK over time and no significant interaction effects between the three intervention groups (P > 0.05). The PMS increased from baseline to 24–28 h in the CON group (P < 0.05), but was not different from baseline at 24–28 h for the CWI or CWT groups (P > 0.05). The PMS was significantly higher for CON compared with CWT after 24–28 h (P < 0.05), but no other differences were found between groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in performance during the TESTS between the three intervention groups across any of the three time points (pre RSE, post RSE or after 24–28 h; P > 0.05). These data suggest that the RSE may not have induced sufficient muscle damage to increase plasma CK levels, which may explain why the recovery interventions did not have a significant effect on performance of the TESTS. However, the differences in PMS changes indicate that hydrotherapy may be effective in suppressing the perception of muscle soreness when biochemical and performance markers are unchanged.

  • 22.
    McIntosh, Andrew
    et al.
    The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Patton, Declan
    The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    McCrory, Paul
    Patterns of brain loading in concussive impacts in football2010In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 13, no Supplement 1, p. e64-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have analysed and reported on the dynamics of concussive and non-concussive impacts in football using rigid body methods. This is a unique data set on concussion as it contains unhelmeted impacts. However, the underlying brain loading remains unclear due to limitations in these methods. Finite element analysis offers the possibility of studying the stress-strain characteristics of the brain arising from selected head impacts. Objective: To study patterns of brain loading in concussive impacts in football. Specifically to examine the location of the highest strain, e.g. cortical and sob-cortical, and relate these to symptomatic presentation. Method: Acceleration outputs from rigid body modelling of head impacts were applied to the KTH finite element human head model. The model was validated against cadaveric data for intracranial pressure, relative brain motion, and intracerebral acceleration. The model geometry mirrors the structure of the brain and other intracranial structures. The mesh comprises 26,898 nodes, 11,476 brick elements, 7939 shell and membrane elements, 22 2-node truss elements. Tissues properties were considered including: skull, brain (grey and white matter), meninges, cerebro-spinal fluid. The data set of 27 concussive and 9 non-concussive head impacts will be included in the analysis. The model is run using LSDyna. Stress–strain patterns are assessed by region and level. Results: Impacts with an estimated energy of up to 123 J and head acceleration up to 180 gravities are analysed. The results will report on the estimated brain stress-strain patterns and a comparison between the regions of greatest loading and symptomatic presentation, e.g. loss of consciousness and posturing. Discussion: This method offers new insights into the patho-mechanics and pathogenesis of concussion. A greater understanding of the patho-mechanics will lead to methods to reduce the incidence of concussion.

  • 23.
    Norrbrand, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Johannesson, Björn
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Extensive increase of metabolic demand while walking wearing night vision goggles in hilly terrain2017In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 20, article id S77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The motivation for the foot-borne soldiers to carry out nighttime operations may be to reduce heat strain. We have previously found elevated metabolic demand (+7 %), and hence endogenous heat production, during walking on a flat gravel road in darkness wearing Night Vision Goggles (NVG) compared with wearing a headlamp. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of wearing NVG while walking in a hilly forest terrain, and compare results between skilled and unskilled NVG users.

    Methods: A group of cadets, i.e. unskilled (5 men, 6 women, age: 23±3 yrs, height: 172±10 cm, weight: 75±12 kg) and skilled NVG users (9 men, age: 26±2 yrs, height: 184±6 cm, weight: 84±5 kg) participated. At night time, subjects walked 1.1 km at a self-selected comfortable pace in a hilly forest, following a trail in the uphill part, and walking on the under bush in the downhill part. Walks were performed wearing either a headlamp (Light), monocular NVG (MNVG), binocular NVG (BNVG), or MNVG and 25 kg extra weight (backpack and body armor). Oxygen uptake, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion and walking speed were measured. To evaluate walking economy, oxygen uptake was expressed in relation to body mass and distance covered (VO2 mL·kg-1·km-1). 

    Results: In both groups, VO2 (mL·kg-1·km-1) was higher in all three conditions with limited vision (MNVG; BNVG; Backpack) than in the Light condition, both during the Uphill (MNVG/BNVG; skilled: +25/+24%, unskilled: +35/+28%) and Downhill part (MNVG/BNVG; skilled: +42/+44%, unskilled: +67/+51%). In the Backpack condition, the inter-group difference in mechanical efficiency was maintained or exaggerated: Uphill (skilled: +46%, unskilled: +80%), Downhill (skilled: +70%, unskilled: +115%). The skilled NVG users walked faster, but there was no difference in heart rate between groups. In the unskilled, heart rate was higher in the MNVG and BNVG than in the Light condition during the Downhill part. Likewise, in the unskilled, the rate of perceived exertion was higher in the MNVG and BNVG than in the Light condition. 

    Conclusions: Despite that in darkness foveal vision is markedly improved by NVG, it appears that the mechanical efficiency during walking in hilly terrain is markedly lower whilst wearing NVG than with full vision, regardless of whether the soldier is a skilled or unskilled NVG user.

  • 24.
    Perera, Nirmala
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Federat Univ Australia, Australia; Univ Oxford, England; Ctr Sport Exercise and Osteoarthrit Res Versus Arth, England; La Trobe Univ, Australia.
    Kemp, Joanne L.
    Federat Univ Australia, Australia; La Trobe Univ, Australia.
    Joseph, Corey
    Monash Hlth, Australia.
    Finch, Caroline F.
    Edith Cowan Univ, Australia.
    Epidemiology of hospital-treated cricket injuries sustained by women from 2002-2003 to 2013-2014 in Victoria, Australia2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 11, p. 1213-1218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To present the first comprehensive epidemiological profile of hospital-treated injuries sustained by female cricketers from 2002-2003 to 2013-2014 in Victoria, Australia. Design: Analysis of routinely collected hospital data (detailed case-series). Methods: A retrospective analysis of hospital-treatment data associated with cricket injuries sustained by women between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2014, inclusive were extracted from databases held by the Victorian Injury Surveillance Unit in Australia. Results: Over the 12-year period, 668 cases were treated in Victoria. Of these, 547 were emergency department (ED)-presentations. There were 121 hospital-admissions, of which, the length of stay was amp;lt;2 days for 78.5% cases. All cases were treated and released, and no fatalities were reported. The 10-14 year age group most frequently presented to ED (19.9%) and were most commonly admitted to hospital (16.5% of the total admissions). Fractures were the most common cause of hospital-admissions (47.1%) but only accounted for 17.2% of the ED-presentations. Dislocations, sprains and strains, were the most common (36.4%) cause of ED-presentations. The head was the most commonly injured anatomical location (27.8% of ED-presentations and 28.1% of hospital-admissions), followed by the wrist and hand (27.8% ED-presentations and 17.4% hospital-admissions). Conclusions: These findings provide the first overview of the nature of injuries requiring hospital attendance in female cricketers, and a foundation to inform the development of targeted injury prevention programs for female cricketers. (C) 2019 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Perera, Nirmala
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Federat Univ Australia, Australia; Univ Oxford, England; La Trobe Univ, Australia; Ctr Sport Exercise and Osteoarthrit Res Versus Arth, England.
    Kountouris, Alex
    Cricket Australia, Australia.
    Kemp, Joanne L.
    La Trobe Univ, Australia.
    Joseph, Corey
    Monash Hlth, Australia.
    Finch, Caroline F.
    Edith Cowan Univ, Australia.
    The incidence, prevalence, nature, severity and mechanisms of injury in elite female cricketers: A prospective cohort study2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1014-1020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Incidence, prevalence, nature, severity and mechanisms of injury in elite female cricketers over two seasons from March 2014 to March 2016, inclusive. Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: Injury data collected via Cricket Australias Athlete Management System on all elite female players over two seasons were analysed. Profiles of the nature, anatomical location and mechanism of injuries were presented according to dominant player position. Injury incidence rates were calculated based on match playing hours. Results: There were 600 medical-attention injuries; with 77.7% players reporting amp;gt;= 1 injury. There were 79.5% acute injuries compared to gradual onset injuries. Of the all medical-attention injuries, 20.2% led to time-loss; 34.7% were match-time-loss injuries. Match injury incidence was 424.7 injuries/10,000 h for all injuries and 79.3 injuries/10,000 h for time-loss injuries. Of all the injuries, 31.8% were muscle injuries and 16.0% joint sprains. Wrist and hand (19.8%), lumbar spine (16.5%) and knee (14.9%) injuries were the most common time-loss injuries. Six players sustained lumber spine bone stress injury that resulted in the most days missed due to injury (average 110.5 days/injury). Conclusions: There is a need to focus on specific injuries in female cricket, including thigh, wrist/hand and knee injuries because of their frequency, and lumbar spine injuries because of their severity. (C) 2019 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 26.
    Petrone, Nicola
    et al.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Candiotto, Gianluca
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Marzella, Edoardo
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Uriati, Federico
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Carraro, Giovanni
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Feasibility of using a novel instrumented human head surrogate to measure helmet, head and brain kinematics and intracranial pressure during multidirectional impact tests2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no S1, p. S78-S84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Aim of the work is to present the feasibility of using an Instrumented Human Head Surrogate (IHHS-1) during multidirectional impacts while wearing a modern ski helmet. The IHHS-1 is intended to provide reliable and repeatable data for the experimental validation of FE models and for the experimental evaluation of modern helmets designed to enhance the degree of protection against multidirectional impacts. Design: The new IHHS-1 includes 9 triaxial MEMS accelerometers embedded in a silicone rubber brain, independently molded and presenting lobes separation and cerebellum, placed into an ABS skull filled with surrogate cerebrospinal fluid. A triaxial MEMS gyroscope is placed at the brain center of mass. Intracranial pressure can be detected by eight pressure sensors applied to the skull internal surface along a transversal plane located at the brain center of mass and two at the apex. Additional MEMS sensors positioned over the skull and the helmet allow comparison between outer and inner structure kinematics and surrogate CSF pressure behavior. Methods: The IHHS-1 was mounted through a Hybrid III neck on a force platform and impacted with a striker connected to a pendulum tower, with the impact energies reaching 24J. Impact locations were aligned with the brain center of mass and located in the back (sagittal axis), right (90° from sagittal axis), back/right (45°), and front right (135°) locations. Following dynamic data were collected: values of the linear accelerations and angular velocities of the brain, skull and helmet; intracranial pressures inside the skull. Results: Despite the relatively low intensity of impacts (HIC at skull max value 46), the skull rotational actions reached BrIC values of 0.33 and angular accelerations of 5216 rad/s2, whereas brain angular acceleration resulted between 1,44 and 2,1 times lower with similar values of BrIC. Conclusions: The IHHS-1 is a physical head surrogate that can produce repeatable data for the interpretation of inner structures behavior during multidirectional impacts with or without helmets of different characteristics. 

  • 27. Schneiders, Anthony G.
    et al.
    Sullivan, S. John
    Kvarnström, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Olsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Ydén, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Marshall, Stephen
    The effect of footwear and sports-surface on dynamic neurological screening for sport-related concussion2010In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 382-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) is a standardised global assessment for the identification of sport-related concussion (SRC). An integral component of the SCAT is the neurological screen, which contains the assessment of motor performance including gait evaluation. However, it is not known how performance of gait is affected by the surface/footwear interactions encountered in various sporting environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of footwear and sporting surface on the time to perform a standardised Tandem Gait (TG) task. One hundred and eight amateur athletes were recruited, and three common sports-surfaces (grass, hardwood court, artificial turf) were compared. All groups were tested barefoot and with sports-surface specific footwear. Mixed model ANOVA, controlling for covariates and including a post hoc Bonferroni procedure, was used to investigate the influence of footwear and sports-surface on TG time. The study demonstrated that times for a defined TG task in healthy athletes depended on footwear, sports-surface, and the specific athletic population. The study demonstrated a significant interaction (F(2.104) = 3.35, p = 0.039) between groups (grass, hardwood court and artificial turf), and times were faster wearing footwear compared to barefoot (F(2.138) = 26.31, p = 0.001). In contrast to the footwear conditions, there was no statistical difference between the barefoot conditions on any of the sport-surfaces. These findings suggest that clinicians should standardise footwear and the testing surface at baseline in order to accurately assess motor performance tests when SRC is suspected.

  • 28.
    Suijkerbuijk, Mathijs A. M.
    et al.
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Orthopaed Surg, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Ponzetti, Marco
    Univ Aquila, Dept Biotechnol & Appl Clin Sci, Laquila, Italy.
    Rahim, Masouda
    Univ Cape Town, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Human Biol, Div Exercise Sci & Sports Med, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Posthumus, Michael
    Univ Cape Town, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Human Biol, Div Exercise Sci & Sports Med, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Umea Univ, Dept Community Med & Rehabil, Umea, Sweden.
    Stattin, Evalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nilsson, Kjell G.
    Umea Univ, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci, Umea, Sweden.
    Teti, Anna
    Univ Aquila, Dept Biotechnol & Appl Clin Sci, Laquila, Italy.
    Meuffels, Duncan E.
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Orthopaed Surg, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    van der Eerden, Bram J. C.
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Dept Internal Med, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Collins, Malcolm
    Univ Cape Town, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Human Biol, Div Exercise Sci & Sports Med, Cape Town, South Africa.
    September, Alison, V
    Univ Cape Town, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Human Biol, Div Exercise Sci & Sports Med, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Functional polymorphisms within the inflammatory pathway regulate expression of extracellular matrix components in a genetic risk dependent model for anterior cruciate ligament injuries2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 11, p. 1219-1225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the functional effect of genetic polymorphisms of the inflammatory pathway on structural extracellular matrix components (ECM) and the susceptibility to an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Design: Laboratory study, case-control study. Methods: Eight healthy participants were genotyped for interleukin (IL)1B rs16944 C> Tand IL6 rs1800795 G >C and classified into genetic risk profile groups. Differences in type I collagen (COL1A1), type V collagen (COL5A1), biglycan (BGN) and decorin (DCN) gene expression were measured in fibroblasts either unstimulated or following IL-1 beta, IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha treatment. Moreover, a genetic association study was conducted in: (i) a Swedish cohort comprised of 116 asymptomatic controls (CON) and 79 ACL ruptures and (ii) a South African cohort of 100 CONs and 98 ACLs. Participants were genotyped for COL5A1 rs12722 C >T, IL1B rs16944 C >T, IL6 rs1800795 G> C and IL6R rs2228145 G >C. Results: IL1B high-risk fibroblasts had decreased BGN (p = 0.020) and COL5A1 (p = 0.012) levels after IL-1 beta stimulation and expressed less COL5A1 (p = 0.042) following TNF-alpha treatment. Similarly, unstimulated IL6 high-risk fibroblasts had lower COL5A1 (p = 0.012) levels than IL6 low-risk fibroblasts. In the genetic association study, the COL5A1-IL1B-IL6 T-C-G (p = 0.034, Haplo-score 2.1) and the COL5A1-IL1B-1L6R T-C-A (p = 0.044, Haplo-score: 2.0) combinations were associated with an increased susceptibility to ACL injury in the Swedish cohort when only male participants were evaluated. Conclusions: This study shows that polymorphisms within genes of the inflammatory pathway modulate the expression of structural and fibril-associated ECM components in a genetic risk depended manner, contributing to an increased susceptibility to ACL injuries. (C) 2019 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 29. Suijkerbuijk, Mathijs A. M.
    et al.
    Ponzetti, Marco
    Rahim, Masouda
    Posthumus, Michael
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Stattin, Evalena
    Nilsson, Kjell G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Teti, Anna
    Meuffels, Duncan E.
    van der Eerden, Bram J. C.
    Collins, Malcolm
    September, Alison V.
    Functional polymorphisms within the inflammatory pathway regulate expression of extracellular matrix components in a genetic risk dependent model for anterior cruciate ligament injuries.2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 11, p. 1219-1225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the functional effect of genetic polymorphisms of the inflammatory pathway on structural extracellular matrix components (ECM) and the susceptibility to an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury.

    DESIGN: Laboratory study, case-control study.

    METHODS: Eight healthy participants were genotyped for interleukin (IL)1B rs16944 C>T and IL6 rs1800795 G>C and classified into genetic risk profile groups. Differences in type I collagen (COL1A1), type V collagen (COL5A1), biglycan (BGN) and decorin (DCN) gene expression were measured in fibroblasts either unstimulated or following IL-1β, IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α treatment. Moreover, a genetic association study was conducted in: (i) a Swedish cohort comprised of 116 asymptomatic controls (CON) and 79 ACL ruptures and (ii) a South African cohort of 100 CONs and 98 ACLs. Participants were genotyped for COL5A1 rs12722 C>T, IL1B rs16944 C>T, IL6 rs1800795 G>C and IL6R rs2228145 G>C.

    RESULTS: IL1B high-risk fibroblasts had decreased BGN (p=0.020) and COL5A1 (p=0.012) levels after IL-1β stimulation and expressed less COL5A1 (p=0.042) following TNF-α treatment. Similarly, unstimulated IL6 high-risk fibroblasts had lower COL5A1 (p=0.012) levels than IL6 low-risk fibroblasts. In the genetic association study, the COL5A1-IL1B-IL6 T-C-G (p=0.034, Haplo-score 2.1) and the COL5A1-IL1B-IL6R T-C-A (p=0.044, Haplo-score: 2.0) combinations were associated with an increased susceptibility to ACL injury in the Swedish cohort when only male participants were evaluated.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that polymorphisms within genes of the inflammatory pathway modulate the expression of structural and fibril-associated ECM components in a genetic risk depended manner, contributing to an increased susceptibility to ACL injuries.

  • 30.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Finch, Caroline F.
    Federat University of Australia, Australia.
    Bichenbach, Jerome
    Queens University, Canada.
    Edouard, Pascal
    University Hospital St Etienne, France; University of Lyon, France.
    Bargoria, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Moi University, Kenya.
    Branco, Pedro
    IAAF, Monaco.
    Manuel Alonso, Juan
    IAAF, Monaco; Aspetar, Qatar.
    Meta-narrative analysis of sports injury reporting practices based on the Injury Definitions Concept Framework (IDCF): A review of consensus statements and epidemiological studies in athletics (track and field)2015In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 643-650Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Consistency in routines for reporting injury has been a focus of development efforts in sports epidemiology for a long time. To gain an improved understanding of current reporting practices, we applied the Injury Definitions Concept Framework (IDCF) in a review of injury reporting in a subset of the field. Design: Meta-narrative review. Methods: An analysis of injury definitions reported in consensus statements for different sports and studies of injury epidemiology in athletics (track and field) published in PubMed between 1980 and 2013 was performed. Separate narratives for each of the three reporting contexts in the IDCF were constructed from the data. Results: Six consensus statements and 14 studies reporting on athletics injury epidemiology fulfilled the selection criteria. The narratives on sports performance, clinical examination, and athlete self-report contexts were evenly represented in the eligible studies. The sports performance and athlete self-report narratives covered both professional and community athletes as well as training and competition settings. In the clinical examination narrative, data collection by health service professionals was linked to studies of professional athletes at international championships. Conclusions: From an application of the IDCF in a review of injury reporting in sports epidemiology we observed a parallel usage of reporting contexts in this field of research. The co-existence of reporting methodologies does not necessarily reflect a problematic situation, but only provided that firm precautions are taken when comparing studies performed in the different contexts. (C) 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 31. Tomaz, S. A.
    et al.
    Jones, R. A.
    Hinkley, T.
    Bernstein, S. L.
    Twine, R.
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Norris, S. A.
    Draper, C. E.
    Gross motor skills of South African preschool-aged children across different income settings2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 689-694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: No studies have investigated gross motor skill (GMS) proficiency of preschool-aged children across different income settings in South Africa. Research from high-income countries suggests that children from low-income settings display poorer GMS proficiency compared to higher-income peers. This study aimed to (1) describe GMS proficiency of preschool-aged children in urban high-income (UH), urban low-income (UL) and rural low-income (RL) settings; and (2) explore differences in proficiency between income settings and sex.

    Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Methods: The Test of Gross Motor Development-Edition 2 (TGMD-2) was used to assess GMS. The TGMD-2 gross motor quotient, standardised scores and raw scores were used to describe proficiency.

    Results: GMS proficiency was assessed in n = 259 3-6-year-old children (n = 46 UH, n = 91 UL, n =122 RL). Overall, 93% of the children were classified as having 'average' or better GMS. According to TGMD-2 standardised scores, the RL children performed significantly better than UH and UL children (p = 0.028 and p= 0.009, respectively). RL children were significantly more proficient than UH and UL children in the strike and horizontal jump when comparing raw scores. Overall, boys performed significantly better than girls in the strike, stationary dribble, kick and leap when comparing raw scores (all p <0.001).

    Conclusions: This study reports high GMS proficiency in preschool-aged children across income settings in South Africa. The factors associated with higher GMS in low-income settings are not immediately obvious. Thus, future research should explore potential factors and identify opportunities to ensure that GMS proficiency is capitalised on as preschool-aged children enter formal schooling. (C) 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 32. Wennman, Heini
    et al.
    Härkänen, Tommi
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Jousilahti, Pekka
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Mäki-Opas, Tomi
    Männistö, Satu
    Tolonen, Hanna
    Valkeinen, Heli
    Borodulin, Katja
    Change and determinants of total and context specific sitting in adults: a 7-year longitudinal study2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, article id S1440-2440(19)30643-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the stability and determinants of total and context specific sitting in a follow-up of adults.

    DESIGN: Longitudinal study.

    METHODS: Participants in the DILGOM cohort (n=3735, men 45%), reported daily sitting in five contexts (work-related, in vehicle, at home by the TV, at home at the computer, and elsewhere) in 2007 and 2014. Sociodemographic background, lifestyle and health were assessed in 2007. Total sitting comprised the sum of context specific sitting. Changes in, and determinants of context specific sitting, stratified by baseline age into young middle-aged (<53 years); late middle-aged (53-68 years) and older-aged (>68 years) were estimated by generalized linear mixed models.

    RESULTS: In 2007, total daily sitting was 7h 26min, 6h 16min, and 6h 3min in young middle-aged, late middle-aged and older-aged groups, respectively. Over 7 years, total sitting decreased on average by 26min. Sitting at the computer increased by 7-17min. The late middle-aged group also increased sitting by the TV, and decreased total, work-related, vehicle and elsewhere sitting. Occupational status determined context specific sitting, but somewhat differently in young and late middle-aged groups. Poor self-rated health determined less work-related and more sitting by the TV in the young, whereas good health determined less work-related sitting in the late middle-aged group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported sitting is a fairly stable behavior, with the exception for the late middle-aged group, where all context specific and total sitting changed significantly. Occupational status and health determined changes in sitting; however, somewhat differently by age group.

  • 33.
    Windt, Johann
    et al.
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Khan, Karim M.
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    McCall, Alan
    Edinburgh Napier Univ, Scotland; Arsenal Football Club, England.
    Zumbo, Bruno D.
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    Does player unavailability affect football teams match physical outputs? A two-season study of the UEFA champions league2018In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 525-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Player unavailability negatively affects team performance in elite football. However, whether player unavailability and its concomitant performance decrement is mediated by any changes in teams match physical outputs is unknown. We examined whether the number of players injured (i.e. unavailable for match selection) was associated with any changes in teams physical outputs. Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: Between-team variation was calculated by correlating average team availability with average physical outputs. Within-team variation was quantified using linear mixed modelling, using physical outputs - total distance, sprint count (efforts over20 km/h), and percent of distance covered at high speeds (amp;gt;14 km/h) - as outcome variables, and player unavailability as the independent variable of interest. To control for other factors that may influence match physical outputs, stage (group stage/knockout), venue (home/away), score differential, ball possession (%), team ranking (UEFA Club Coefficient), and average team age were all included as covariates. Results: Teams average player unavailability was positively associated with the average number of sprints they performed in matches across two seasons. Multilevel models similarly demonstrated that having 4 unavailable players was associated with 20.8 more sprints during matches in 2015/2016, and with an estimated 0.60-0.77% increase in the proportion of total distance run above 14 km/h in both seasons. Player unavailability had a possibly positive and likely positive association with total match distances in the two respective seasons. Conclusions: Having more players injured and unavailable for match selection was associated with an increase in teams match physical outputs. (C) 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Åkesdotter, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Eloranta, Sandra
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Franck, Johan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The prevalence of Mental Health Problems in elite athletes2019In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The first aim was to examine mental health problems (MHP) in elite athletes addressing prevalence, sex-differences, onset, recurrent episodes, help-seeking, symptoms of specific disorders and previous psychiatric diagnoses. The second aim was to investigate if sport-specific instruments could indicate clinical levels of psychiatric symptoms.

    Design

    Cross-sectional survey.

    Methods

    Elite athletes (representing different Swedish national teams and applying for a university scholarship (n = 333) answered a web-based survey. Females represented 58.9%. Mean age was 24.6(±3.1) years and 77.2% were individual-and 22.8% team-sport athletes.

    Results

    Lifetime prevalence of MHP was 51.7% (females 58.2%, males 42.3%). Point prevalence was 11.7% (females 13.8%, males 8.8%). Onset of first MHP episode peaked at age 19 with 50% of onsets between ages 17–21. Recurrent episodes were common, and females sought help more than males (females 37.8%, males 16.8%). Overall 19.5% reached the clinical cut-offs for symptoms of anxiety and/or depression (females 26.0%, males 10.2%). Previous psychiatric diagnoses existed among 8.1% (females 10.7%, males 4.4%). A depressive disorder, an eating disorder or a trauma and stress related disorder (self-reported as burnout) were most common. Finally, most sport-specific instruments (80%) demonstrated a fair diagnostic accuracy compared to clinically validated instruments.

    Conclusions

    Lifetime prevalence of MHP was reported by more than half of the athletes. Symptoms manifested in young age and recurrent episodes were common. Sport-specific instruments indicating when symptoms reach clinical levels are potentially useful for data summary purposes on a group level, but without sufficiently high sensitivity and specificity to be recommend for applied work with athletes.

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