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  • 1.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Skipperud, Lindis
    Beresford, Nicholas A.
    Barnett, Catherine L.
    Vidal, Miquel
    Education and training in radioecology during the EU-COMET project-successes and suggestions for the future2018In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 140-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2014 Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for Radioecology identified the key challenge in education and training (E&T) as being 'to maintain and develop a skilled workforce in Europe and world-wide, through university candidates and professionals trained within radioecology' since 'scientific research in radioecology and application of that knowledge K requires scientists and workers with adequate competence and appropriate skills.' Radioecology is a multidisciplinary science and E&T is needed by both students and professionals within research, industry and radiation protection. In order to address these needs, the EU COMET project has developed an E&T web platform and arranged a number of field courses, training courses, PhD and MSc courses, refresher courses and workshops, drawing on the COMET consortium to assemble relevant experts. In addition, COMET has been engaged in discussions with stakeholders for more long-term solutions to maintain the sustainability of radioecology E&T after the end of the project. Despite much progress in some areas, many of the challenges outlined in the 2014 SRA remain, mainly due to the lack of sustainable dedicated funding. Future plans within the ALLIANCE radioecology platform and the CONCERT-European Joint Programme for the Integration of Radiation Protection Research must urgently address this lack of sustainability if radioecological competence is to be maintained in Europe.

  • 2. Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Stockhom University.
    Sundell-Bergman, Synnöve
    Larsson, Carl-Magnus
    Assessing ecological effects of radionuclides: data gaps and extrapolation issues2004In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 24, no 4A, p. A139-A155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By inspection of the FASSET database on radiation effects on non-human biota, one of the major difficulties in the implementation of ecological risk assessments for radioactive pollutants is found to be the lack of data for chronic low-level exposure. A critical review is provided of a number of extrapolation issues that arise in undertaking an ecological risk assessment: acute versus chronic exposure regime; radiation quality including relative biological effectiveness and radiation weighting factors; biological effects from an individual to a population level, including radiosensitivity and lifestyle variations throughout the life cycle; single radionuclide versus multi-contaminants. The specificities of the environmental situations of interest (mainly chronic low-level exposure regimes) emphasise the importance of reproductive parameters governing the demography of the population within a given ecosystem and, as a consequence, the structure and functioning of that ecosystem. As an operational conclusion to keep in mind for any site-specific risk assessment, the present state-of-the-art on extrapolation issues allows us to grade the magnitude of the uncertainties as follows: one species to another > acute to chronic = external to internal = mixture of stressors > individual to population > ecosystem structure to function.

  • 3.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Ethics and radiation protection2007In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 147-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle.

  • 4.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Should we protect the most sensitive people?2009In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 211-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) are based on a population average, rather than on the available data for subpopulations. From an ethical point of view, this approach is far from unproblematic. Strong reasons can be given in support of a right for each radiation-exposed person to have the best possible information about the risk to himself or herself, which is often group-specific information. Risk exposures have to be defensible from the perspective of each identifiable group for which a specific risk assessment can be made. Exposing a person to a high risk cannot be justified by pointing out that the risk to an average person would have been much lower. There are two major ways to protect a sensitive group: special standards for the group (differentiated protection) and general standards that are strict enough to protect its members (unified protection). Some major factors that are relevant for the choice between these two protective strategies are identified.

  • 5. Hendry, Jolyon H
    et al.
    Simon, Steven L
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Sohrabi, Mehdi
    Burkart, Werner
    Cardis, Elisabeth
    Laurier, Dominique
    Tirmarche, Margot
    Hayata, Isamu
    Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?2009In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 29, no 2A, p. A29-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of (222)Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case-control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case-control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

  • 6. Higson, D. J.
    et al.
    Wikman, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    On effects of low doses (multiple letters) [3]2004In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 427-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Jones, Celia
    et al.
    Gilek, Michael
    Stockholm University.
    Overview of programmes for the assessment of risks to the environment from ionising radiation and hazardous chemicals2004In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 24, no 4A, p. A157-A177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the FASSET project, a review of existing programmes for the assessment of environmental risks from radioactive or hazardous substances was carried out in order to identify appropriate aspects that could be incorporated into the FASSET framework. The review revealed a number of different approaches, arising from the need to balance the information value of the assessment against the availability of data and the need to keep the assessment manageable. Most of the existing assessment programmes fit into a three-phase approach to environmental risk assessment: problem formulation, assessment and risk characterisation. However, the emphasis on particular assessment phases varies between programmes. The main differences between the different programmes are: the degree of specificity to a particular site, the level of detail of the assessment, the point at which a comparison is made between a criterion intended to represent 'what is acceptable' and a measured or predicted quantity, the choice of end-point for the assessment and the relationship between measurement end-points and assessment end-points. The existing assessment programmes are based on a similar general structure, which is suitable for use as a basis for the FASSET framework. However, certain aspects of the assessment of exposure and effects of ionising contaminants, e.g. dosimetry, require further development before incorporation into such a framework.

  • 8.
    Raaf, C. L.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Translat Med ITM, Med Radiat Phys, Lund, Sweden.
    Tondel, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Isaksson, M.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Radiat Phys, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A model for estimating the total absorbed dose to the thyroid in Swedish inhabitants following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: implications for existing international estimates and future model applications2019In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 522-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The time-integrated absorbed dose to the thyroid gland in the years after a fallout event can indicate the potential excess number of thyroid cancers among young individuals after a radionuclide release. Typical mean values of the absorbed dose to the thyroid have been calculated previously using reported data on radioiodine obtained from air sampling and dairy milk surveys in Sweden after the Chernobyl fallout, not including the contribution from Cs-134 and Cs-137. We have developed a model for Swedish conditions taking these additional dose contributions into account. Our estimate of the average time-integrated absorbed dose to the thyroid, D-th,D-tot, during the first 5 years after fallout ranged from 0.5-4.1 mGy for infants and from 0.3-3.3 mGy for adults. The contribution to D-th,D-tot, from I-131 through inhalation and milk consumption varied considerably among different regions of Sweden, ranging from 9%-79% in infants, and from 4%-58% in adults. The external irradiation and exposure from the ingestion of (CS)-C-134,137 in foodstuffs accounted for the remaining contributions to D-th,D-tot, (i.e. up to 96% for adults). These large variations can be explained by the highly diverse conditions in the regions studied, such as different degrees of fractionation between wet and dry deposition, different grazing restrictions on dairy cattle, and differences in (CS)-C-134,137 transfers through food resulting from differences in the local fallout. It is our conclusion that the main contribution to D-th,D-tot, from nuclear power plant fallout in areas subjected to predominantly wet deposition will be from external exposure from ground deposition, followed by internal exposure from contaminated food containing the long-lived fission product Cs-137 and the neutron-activated fission product (CS)-C-134. The contribution from (CS)-C-134,137 to the thyroid absorbed dose should thus be taken into account in future epidemiological studies.

  • 9.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Falk, Thomas
    KTH.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Challenges, dilemmas, and quality criteria for safety reviews2017In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 279-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five generic dilemmas shared by most safety reviews are identified, namely the complexity dilemma, the specialisation dilemma, the criteria dilemma, the independence dilemma and the ethical dilemma. These dilemmas are not always made sufficiently transparent, which may lead to a too optimistic view of what can be achieved by safety reviews. A two-dimensional characterisation of safety reviews is suggested; the dimensions are the degree of independence and the scope of the review. In conclusion ten quality criteria are proposed that can be used to cope with the dilemmas of conducting safety reviews.

  • 10. Salomaa, Sisko
    et al.
    Prise, Kevin M.
    Atkinson, Michael J.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Stockholm Univ, Ctr Radiat Protect Res..
    Auvinen, Anssi
    Grosche, Bernd
    Sabatier, Laure
    Jourdain, Jean-Rene
    Salminen, Eeva
    Baatout, Sarah
    Kulka, Ulrike
    Rabus, Hans
    Blanchardon, Eric
    Averbeck, Dietrich
    Weiss, Wolfgang
    State of the art in research into the risk of low dose radiation exposure-findings of the fourth MELODI workshop2013In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 589-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fourth workshop of the Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) was organised by STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland. It took place from 12 to 14 September 2012 in Helsinki, Finland. The meeting was attended by 179 scientists and professionals engaged in radiation research and radiation protection. We summarise the major scientific findings of the workshop and the recommendations for updating the MELODI Strategic Research Agenda and Road Map for future low dose research activities.

  • 11.
    Sollazzo, Alice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Shakeri-Manesh, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Fotouhi, Asal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Czub, Joanna
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Jan Kochanowski University, Poland.
    Interaction of low and high LET radiation in TK6 cells-mechanistic aspects and significance for radiation protection2016In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 721-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most environmental, occupational and medical exposures to ionising radiation are associated with a simultaneous action of different radiation types. An open question remains whether radiations of different qualities interact with each other to yield effects stronger than expected based on the assumption of additivity. It is possible that DNA damage induced by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation will lead to an opening of the chromatin structure making the DNA more susceptible to attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the low LET radiation. In such case, the effect of mixed beams should be strongly expressed in cells that are sensitive to ROS. The present investigation was carried out to test if cells with an impaired capacity to handle oxidative stress are particularly sensitive to the effect of mixed beams of alpha particles and x-rays. Clonogenic cell survival curves and mutant frequencies were analysed in TK6 wild type (wt) cells and in TK6 cells with a knocked down hMYH glycosylase. The results showed a synergistic effect of mixed beams on clonogenic cell survival of TK6(wt) but not TK6(MYH)-cells. The frequencies of mutants showed a high degree of interexperimental variability without any indications for synergistic effects of mixed beams. TK6(MYH)-cells were generally more tolerant to radiation exposure with respect to clonogenic cell survival but showed a strong increase in mutant frequency. The results demonstrate that exposure of wt cells to a mixed beam of alpha particles and x-rays leads to a detrimental effect which is stronger than expected based on the assumption of additivity. The role of oxidative stress in the reaction of cells to mixed beams remains unclear.

  • 12.
    Wikman, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    On effects of low doses: Reply2004In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 428-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Wikman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Trivial risks and the new radiation protection system2004In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection proposes that doses below a certain level should be excluded from the system of protection, without regard to the number of people exposed. As the Commission assumes that there is a risk of harm even from very low doses, the proposal also disregards these very low risks. The arguments for this proposal are examined here. It is argued that the fact that risks are small compared to natural sources cannot be used as justification for accepting them. The principle 'if the risk of harm to the health of the most exposed individual is trivial, then the total risk is trivial-irrespective of how many people are exposed' is analysed. It is found to equivocate on the meaning of the word trivial and to ignore the total risk. It is also argued that the new proposal is not justified by a change from a utilitarian ethic to an ethic based on individual rights. Finally, it is suggested that small doses should only be disregarded if the expected value of harm is small, and the exclusion level should thus depend on the number of people exposed.

  • 14.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Peterson, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Principles of protection: a formal approach for evaluating dose distribution2006In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 69-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     One of the central issues in radiation protection consists in determining what weight should be given to individual doses in relation to collective or aggregated doses. A mathematical framework is introduced in which such assessments can be made precisely in terms of comparisons between alternative distributions of individual doses. In addition to evaluation principles that are well known from radiation protection, a series of principles that are derived from parallel discussions in moral philosophy and welfare economics is investigated. A battery of formal properties is then used to investigate the evaluative principles. The results indicate that one of the new principles, bilinear prioritarianism, may be preferable to current practices, since it satisfies efficiency-related properties better without sacrificing other desirable properties.

  • 15.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Jan Kochanowski University, Poland.
    Bouffler, Simon
    Hauptmann, Michael
    Rajaraman, Preetha
    Considerations on the use of the terms radiosensitivity and radiosusceptibility2018In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 38, no 3, p. N25-N29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The separate use of the terms 'radiosensitivity' and 'radiosusceptibility' has been suggested to describe variability in the risk of, respectively, adverse tissue reactions (deterministic effect) following radiotherapy and radiationinduced cancer (stochastic effect). The aim of this note is to present arguments against such distinction. We feel that it is premature to make a concrete final judgement on these definitions because of the limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying individual sensitivity to both radiation-related cancers and radiation-related tissue injury. Moreover, the exclusive application of 'radiosensitivity' in relation to deterministic effects and the term 'radiosusceptibility' in relation to cancer carries the risk of being wrongly interpreted as evidence for a high, genetically driven sensitivity to radiation in all patients who develop adverse tissue reactions and a high genetic susceptibility to cancer in those who develop radiation-induced malignancies. There is a need for further research to better define these phenomena and their interrelationships.

  • 16.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Obe, G.
    Lisowska, H.
    Czub, J.
    Nievaart, V.
    Moss, R.
    Huiskamp, R.
    Sauerwein, W.
    Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to a mixed beam of low energy neutrons and gamma radiation2012In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 261-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cells exposed to thermal neutrons are simultaneously damaged by radiations with high and low linear energy transfer (LET). A question relevant for the assessment of risk of exposure to a mixed beam is whether the biological effect of both radiation types is additive or synergistic. The aim of the present investigation was to calculate whether the high and low LET components of a thermal neutron field interact when damaging cells. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed to neutrons from the HB11 beam at the Institute for Energy and Transport, Petten, Netherlands, in a 37 degrees C water phantom at varying depths, where the mix of high and low LET beam components differs. Chromosomal aberrations were analysed and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values as well as the expected contributions of protons and photons to the aberration yield were calculated based on a dose response of aberrations in lymphocytes exposed to Co-60 gamma radiation. The RBE for 10 dicentrics per 100 cells was 3 for mixed beam and 7.2 for protons. For 20 dicentrics per 100 cells the respective values were 2.4 and 5.8. Within the limitations of the experimental setup the results indicate that for this endpoint there is no synergism between the high and low LET radiations.

1 - 16 of 16
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