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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Per
    University College of Borås.
    A note on search formulation redundancy1998In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 352-354Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Börjesson, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Beyond information policy: Conflicting documentation ideals in extra-academic knowledge making practices2016In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 674-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore and explicate documentation ideals parallel to information policy, and by means of this analysis demonstrate how the concept “documentation ideals” is an analytical tool for engaging with political and institutional contexts of information practices.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a case study of documentation ideals in a debate about quality in archaeological documentation. The methodology draws on idea analysis, and on the science and technology studies’ controversy studies approach.

    Findings – The paper explicates three documentation ideals, how these ideals allocate responsibility for documentation to different actors, how the ideals assign roles to practitioners, and how the ideals point to different beneficiaries of the documentation. Furthermore, the analysis highlights ideas about two different means to reach the documentation ideals.

    Research limitations/implications – The case’s debate reflects opinions of Northern European professionals.

    Social implications – The paper illuminates how documentation ideals tweak and even contest formal information policy in claims on the documentation and on the practitioners doing documentation.

    Originality/value – Documentation ideal analysis is crucial as a complement to formal information policy analysis and to analysis guided by practice theory in attempts to understand the contexts of information practices and documentation, insights central for developing information literacies.

  • 3.
    Börjesson, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Grey literature – grey sources?: Nuancing the view on professional documentation: the case of Swedish archaeology2015In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 1158-1182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aims at nuancing the perception about professional documentation (a.k.a. ‘grey literature’), assuming perception of documentation being a cultural aspect of accessibility.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study explores variations within the archaeological report genre through a bibliometric analysis of source use. Source characteristics are explored as well as correlations between report authors and source originators. Statistical frequency distribution is complemented by a correspondence analysis and a k-Means cluster analysis to explore patterns. The patterns are interpreted as ‘frames of references’ and related to circumstances for archaeological work. The study also discusses source representations.

    Findings

    The source use patterns reveal a latent variation, not visible in the general analysis: a professional/academic frame of reference (mainly among authors affiliated with incorporated businesses and sole proprietorships) and an administrative frame of reference (mainly among authors affiliated with government agencies, foundations and member associations) emerge.

    Research limitations/implications

    The study focuses on Swedish field evaluation reports. Future research could 1) test the results in relation to other types of reports, and 2) go beyond the document perspective to explore source use in documentation practices.

    Social implications

    The results on variations in frames of references among report writers have implication for report readers and user. The results should also be considered in archaeology management and policy-making. On the level of source representation the results call for clarifications of vague representations and possibly omitted sources.

    Originality/value

    This study contextualises archaeological information use and focuses on variations in professional archaeology which has received little previous research attention. The bibliometric approach complements previous qualitative studies of archaeological information.

  • 4.
    Francke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Sundin, Olof
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Limberg, Louise
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Debating Credibility: The Shaping of Information Literacies in Upper Secondary School2011In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 675-694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The article concerns information literacies in an environment characterised by the two partly competing and contradictory cultures of print and digital. The aim is to provide a better understanding of the ways in which students assess the credibility of sources they use in school, with a particular interest in how they treat participatory genres. Design/methodology/approach - An ethnographic study of a school class’s project work was conducted through observations, interviews, and log books in blog form. The analysis was influenced by a socio-cultural perspective. Findings - The study provides increased empirically based understanding of students’ information literacy practices. Four non-exclusive approaches to credibility stemming from control, balance, commitment, and multiplicity were identified. Originality/value - The study adds to the understanding of how credibility is assessed in school environments with a particular focus on how digital and participatory genres are treated.

  • 5.
    Golub, Koraljka
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Automated subject classification of textual web documents2006In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 350-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– To provide an integrated perspective to similarities and differences between approaches to automated classification in different research communities (machine learning, information retrieval and library science), and point to problems with the approaches and automated classification as such.

    Design/methodology/approach– A range of works dealing with automated classification of full‐text web documents are discussed. Explorations of individual approaches are given in the following sections: special features (description, differences, evaluation), application and characteristics of web pages.

    Findings– Provides major similarities and differences between the three approaches: document pre‐processing and utilization of web‐specific document characteristics is common to all the approaches; major differences are in applied algorithms, employment or not of the vector space model and of controlled vocabularies. Problems of automated classification are recognized.

    Research limitations/implications– The paper does not attempt to provide an exhaustive bibliography of related resources.

    Practical implications– As an integrated overview of approaches from different research communities with application examples, it is very useful for students in library and information science and computer science, as well as for practitioners. Researchers from one community have the information on how similar tasks are conducted in different communities.

    Originality/value– To the author's knowledge, no review paper on automated text classification attempted to discuss more than one community's approach from an integrated perspective.

  • 6.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Hansson, Joacim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Seldén, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Cult of the "I": Organizational symbolism and curricula in three Scandinavian iSchools with comparisons to three American2017In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 48-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of the paper is to analyse three Scandinavian iSchools in Denmark, Norway and Sweden with regard to their intentions of becoming iSchools and curriculum content in relation to these intentions. By doing so, a picture will be given of the international expansion of the iSchool concept in terms of organisational symbolism and practical educational content. In order to underline the approaches of the Scandinavian schools, comparisons are made to three American iSchools.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study is framed through theory on organisational symbolism and the intentions of the iSchool movement as formulated in its vision statements. Empirically, the study consists of two parts: close readings of three documents outlining the considerations of three Scandinavian LIS schools before applying for the iSchool status, and statistical analysis of 427 syllabi from master level courses at three Scandinavian and three American iSchools.

    Findings

    All three Scandinavian schools, analysed, have recently become iSchools, and though some differences are visible, it is hard to distinguish anything in their syllabi as carriers of what can be described as an iSchool identity. In considering iSchool identity, it instead benefits on a symbolic level that are most prominent, such as branding, social visibility and the possible attraction of new student groups. The traditionally strong relation to national library sectors are emphasised as important to maintain, specifically in Norway and Sweden.

    Research limitations/implications

    The study is done on iSchools in Denmark, Norway and Sweden with empirical comparison to three American schools. These comparisons face the challenge of meeting the educational system and programme structure of each individual country. Despite this, findings prove possible to use as ground for conclusions, although empirical generalisations concerning, for instance, other countries must be made with caution.

    Practical implications

    This study highlights the practical challenges met in international expansion of the iSchool movement, both on a practical and symbolic level. Both the iSchool Caucus and individual schools considering becoming iSchools may use these findings as a point of reference in development and decision making.

    Originality/value

    This is an original piece of research from which the results may contribute to the international development of the iSchool movement, and extend the theoretical understanding of the iSchool movement as an educational and organisational construct.

  • 7.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    University of Bath.
    Lykke, Marianne
    Automated classification of Web pages in hierarchical browsing2009In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 6, no 65, p. 901-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is twofold: to investigate whether it is meaningful to use the Engineering Index (Ei) classification scheme for browsing, and then, if proven useful, to investigate the performance of an automated classificationalgorithm based on the Ei classification scheme.

    Design/methodology/approach - A user study was conducted in which users solved four controlled searching tasks. The users browsed the Ei classification scheme in order to examine the suitability of the classification systems for browsing. The classification algorithm was evaluated by the users who judged the correctness of the automatically assigned classes.

    Findings - The study showed that the Ei classification scheme is suited for browsing. Automatically assigned classes were on average partly correct, with some classes working better than others. Success of browsing showed to be correlated and dependent on classification correctness.

    Research limitations/implications - Further research should address problems of disparate evaluations of one and the same web page. Additional reasons behind browsing failures in the Ei classification scheme also need further investigation.

    Practical implications - Improvements for browsing were identified: describing class captions and/or listing their subclasses from start; allowing for searching for words from class captions with synonym search (easily provided for Ei since the classes are mapped to thesauri terms); when searching for class captions, returning the hierarchical tree expanded around the class in which caption the search term is found. The need for improvements of classification schemes was also indicated.

    Originality/value - A User-based evaluation of automated subject classification in the context of browsing has not been conducted before; hence the study also presents new findings concerning methodology.

  • 8.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    University of Bath .
    Lykke, Marianne
    University of Aalbo.
    Tudhope, Douglas
    University of South Wale.
    Enhancing social tagging with automated keywords from the Dewey Decimal Classification2014In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 70, no 5, p. 801-828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To explore the potential of applying the Dewey Decimal Classification as an established knowledge organisation system for enhancing social tagging, with the ultimate purpose of improving subject indexing and information retrieval. Design/methodology/approach Over 11,000 Intute metadata records in politics were used. 28 politics students were each given 4 tasks, in which a total of 60 resources were tagged in two different configurations, one with uncontrolled social tags only and another with uncontrolled social tags as well as suggestions from a controlled vocabulary. The controlled vocabulary was Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) comprising also mappings from the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). Findings The results demonstrate the importance of controlled vocabulary suggestions for indexing and retrieval: to help produce ideas of which tags to use, to make it easier to find focus for the tagging, to ensure consistency and to increase the number of access points in retrieval. The value and usefulness of the suggestions proved to be dependent on the quality of the suggestions, both as to conceptual relevance to the user and as to appropriateness of the terminology. Originality/value No research has investigated the enhancement of social tagging with suggestions from the Dewey Decimal Classification, an established knowledge organisation system, in a user trial, comparing social tagging only and social tagging enhanced with the suggestions. This paper is a final reflection on all aspects of the study.

  • 9.
    Hammarfelt, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Harvesting footnotes in a rural field: citation patterns in Swedish literary studies2012In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 536-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to study a locally oriented and book-based research field using two Swedish-language sources. Knowledge about citation patterns outside journal based, English-language databases is scarce; thus a substantial part of research in the humanities and the social sciences is neglected in bibliometric studies.

    Design: Citation characteristics (publication type, language, gender and age) in the journal Tidskrift för Litteraturvetenskap (2000-2009) and in grant applications (2006-2009) are studied. The datasets are analyzed further, adopting an author-co-citation approach for depicting and comparing the ‘intellectual base’ of the field.

    Findings: It is shown that monographs and anthologies are the main publication channel in Swedish literary research. English, followed by Swedish, is the major language, and the gender of authors seems to influence citation practices. Furthermore, a common intellectual base of literary studies that is independent of publication type and language could be identified.

    Practical implications: Bibliometric analysis of fields within the humanities needs to go beyond established databases and materials. The extensive use of recent English-language monographs in Swedish literary studies informs the acquisition policy of university libraries serving literature scholars.

    Originality/value: Citation analysis of non-English sources offers further knowledge about scholarly fields with a local and ‘rural’ profile. The approach of using references in grant applications provides a novel and promising venue for bibliometric research.

  • 10.
    Hammarfelt, Björn
    Institutionen för ABM, Uppsala Universitet.
    Harvesting footnotes in a rural field: Citation patterns in Swedish literary studies2012In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 536-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this article is to study a locally-oriented and book-based research field usingtwo Swedish language sources. Knowledge about citation patterns outside journal-based, Englishlanguage databases is scarce; thus a substantial part of research in the humanities and the socialsciences is neglected in bibliometric studies.Design/methodology/approach – Citation characteristics (publication type, language, gender andage) in the journal Tidskrift fo¨ r Litteraturvetenskap (2000-2009) and in grant applications (2006-2009)are studied. The datasets are analyzed further, adopting an author-co-citation approach for depictingand comparing the “intellectual base” of the field.Findings – It is shown that monographs and anthologies are the main publication channel inSwedish literary research. English, followed by Swedish, is the major language, and the gender ofauthors seems to influence citation practices. Furthermore, a common intellectual base of literarystudies that is independent of publication type and language could be identified.Practical implications – Bibliometric analysis of fields within the humanities needs to go beyondestablished databases and materials. The extensive use of recent English language monographs inSwedish literary studies informs the acquisition policy of university libraries serving literaturescholars.Originality/value – Citation analysis of non-English sources offers further knowledge aboutscholarly fields with a local and “rural” profile. The approach of using references in grant applicationsprovides a novel and promising venue for bibliometric research.

  • 11.
    Hammarfelt, Björn
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Review of Beyond Bibliometrics: Harnessing Multidimensional Indicators of Scholarly Impact.2015In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 416-418Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Hanell, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Teacher trainees’ information sharing activities and identity positioning on Facebook2017In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 244-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to extend the knowledge of how identity is connected to information sharing activities in social media during pre-school teacher training.

    Design/methodology/approach

    An ethnographic study is performed where 249 students at a Swedish pre-school teacher-training programme are followed through participant observations from November 2013 to January 2014, and from September 2014 to January 2015. The material produced includes 230 conversations from a Facebook Group used by 210 students and several teachers, field notes and transcribed interviews with nine students. Comparative analysis is used to analyse the Facebook conversations to identify ways of positioning identity and engaging in information sharing activities. Interviews with students are analysed to contextualise and validate the findings from the online interactions.

    Findings

    Three identity positions are identified: discussion-oriented learner, goal-oriented learner and customer-oriented learner. The way a student commits to others, to ideas and to a career choice affects their identity positions and information sharing activities. Results suggest that information sharing with social media should be understood as a powerful device for identity development in pre-school teacher training.

    Research limitations/implications

    This study is designed to provide detailed accounts with high validity on the expense of a high degree of representativeness.

    Originality/value

    No previous library and information science-studies have been presented that explore the relationship between the identity of learners and the information sharing activities in which they engage, in the context of social media or in relation to teacher training.

  • 13.
    Hansen, Preben
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Järvelin, Anni
    Järvelin, Antti
    Exploring manual and automatic query formulation in patent IR: Initial query construction and query generation process2013In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 873-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to examine manually formulated queries and automatic query generation in an early phase of a patent “prior art” search.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study was performed partly within a patent domain setting, involving three professional patent examiners, and partly in the context of the CLEF 2009 Intellectual Property (CLEF-IP) track. For the exploratory study of user-based query formulation, three patent examiners performed the same three simulated real-life patent tasks. For the automatic query generation, a simple term-weighting algorithm based on the RATF formula was used. The manually and automatically created queries were compared to analyse what kinds of keywords and from which parts of the patent documents were selected.

    Findings – For user-formulated queries, it was found that patent documents were read in a specific order of importance and that the time varied. Annotations and collaboration were made while reading and selecting/ranking terms. Ranking terms was experienced to be harder than selecting terms. For the automatic formulated queries, it was found that the term frequencies used in the RATF alone will not quite approximate what terms will be judged as relevant query terms by the users. Simultaneously, the results suggest that developing a query generation tool for generating initial queries based on patent documents is feasible.

    Research limitations/implications – These preliminary but informative results need to be viewed in the light that only three patent experts were observed and that a small set of topics was used.

    Originality/value – It is usually difficult to get access to the setting of the patent domain and the results of the study show that the methodology provided a feasible way to study manual and the manual query formulation of the patent engineer.

  • 14. Hansen, Preben
    et al.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Effects of Foreign Language and Task Scenario on Relevance Assessment2005In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 623-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose ? This paper aims to investigate how readers assess relevance of retrieved documents in a foreign language they know well compared with their native language, and whether work-task scenario descriptions have effect on the assessment process. Design/methodology/approach ? Queries, test collections, and relevance assessments were used from the 2002 Interactive CLEF. Swedish first-language speakers, fluent in English, were given simulated information-seeking scenarios and presented with retrieval results in both languages. Twenty-eight subjects in four groups were asked to rate the retrieved text documents by relevance. A two-level work-task scenario description framework was developed and applied to facilitate the study of context effects on the assessment process. Findings ? Relevance assessment takes longer in a foreign language than in the user first language. The quality of assessments by comparison with pre-assessed results is inferior to those made in the users’ first language. Work-task scenario descriptions had an effect on the assessment process, both by measured access time and by self-report by subjects. However, effects on results by traditional relevance ranking were detectable. This may be an argument for extending the traditional IR experimental topical relevance measures to cater for context effects. Originality/value ? An extended two-level work-task scenario description framework was developed and applied. Contextual aspects had an effect on the relevance assessment process. English texts took longer to assess than Swedish and were assessed less well, especially for the most difficult queries. The IR research field needs to close this gap and to design information access systems with users’ language competence in mind.

  • 15.
    Hansen, Preben
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Effects of Foreign Language and Task Scenario on Relevance Assessment2005In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 623-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate how readers assess relevance of retrieved documents in a foreign language they know well compared with their native language, and whether work-task scenario descriptions have effect on the assessment process. Design/methodology/approach – Queries, test collections, and relevance assessments were used from the 2002 Interactive CLEF. Swedish first-language speakers, fluent in English, were given simulated information-seeking scenarios and presented with retrieval results in both languages. Twenty-eight subjects in four groups were asked to rate the retrieved text documents by relevance. A two-level work-task scenario description framework was developed and applied to facilitate the study of context effects on the assessment process. Findings – Relevance assessment takes longer in a foreign language than in the user first language. The quality of assessments by comparison with pre-assessed results is inferior to those made in the users' first language. Work-task scenario descriptions had an effect on the assessment process, both by measured access time and by self-report by subjects. However, effects on results by traditional relevance ranking were detectable. This may be an argument for extending the traditional IR experimental topical relevance measures to cater for context effects. Originality/value – An extended two-level work-task scenario description framework was developed and applied. Contextual aspects had an effect on the relevance assessment process. English texts took longer to assess than Swedish and were assessed less well, especially for the most difficult queries. The IR research field needs to close this gap and to design information access systems with users' language competence in mind.

  • 16. Hansson, Joacim
    Hermeneutics as a bridge between the modern and the postmodern i Library and Informatioon science2005In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 102-113Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Hansson, Joacim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Professional value and ethical self-regulation in the development of modern librarianship: The documentality of library ethics2017In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 73, no 6, p. 1261-1280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to make a contribution to the theoretical understanding of documents and documentary agency in society through examples from a defined institutional and professional setting; and second, to create an understanding for the role of ethical codes in the process of defining and developing modern librarianship.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This study analyses the role of documentation carrying content of professional ethics in the formulation of modern librarianship. This is done through a series of example documents of various kinds, such as founding charters, peer handbooks and ethical codes systematically analysed through the use of document theory and theory on institutional change.

    Findings

    The findings of this study suggest that documents pronouncing ethical self-regulation within librarianship play a primarily legitimising role in situations where new types of libraries emerge or when libraries adapt to social change. The study proposes legitimacy as a key aspect of documentality, thus supplementing the established understanding of the concept.

    Originality/value

    This study is the first to analyse the role of ethical codes in libraries using document theory. It brings new knowledge to the role of ethical self-regulation in librarianship over time and in different institutional contexts. In suggesting a developed definition of documentality, it contributes to the theoretical understanding of the role of documents and documentation in institutions and in society at large.

  • 18.
    Hemmungs Wirtén, Eva
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Department of Culture Studies – Tema Q. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How Patents Became Documents, or Dreaming of Technoscientific Order, 1895-19372019In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 75, no 3, p. 577-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the documentation movement associated with the utopian thinkers Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine relied on patent offices as well as the documents most closely associated with this institutional setting – the patents themselves – as central to the formation of the document category. The main argument is that patents not only were subjected to and helped construct, but also in fact engineered the development of technoscientific order during 1895–1937.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper draws on an interdisciplinary approach to intellectual property, document theory and insights from media archeology. Focused on the historical period 1895–1937, this study allows for an analysis that encapsulates and accounts for change in a number of comparative areas, moving from bibliography to documentation and from scientific to technoscientific order. Primary sources include Paul Otlet’s own writings, relevant contemporary sources from the French documentation movement and the Congrès Mondial de la documentation universelle in 1937.

    Findings

    By understanding patent offices and patents as main drivers behind those processes of sorting and classification that constitute technoscientific order, this explorative paper provides a new analytical framework for the study of intellectual property in relation to the history of information and documentation. It argues that the idea of the document may serve to rethink the role of the patent in technoscience, offering suggestions for new and underexplored venues of research in the nexus of several overlapping research fields, from law to information studies.

    Originality/value

    Debates over the legitimacy and rationale of intellectual property have raged for many years without signs of abating. Universities, research centers, policy makers, editors and scholars, research funders, governments, libraries and archives all have things to say on the legitimacy of the patent system, its relation to innovation and the appropriate role of intellectual property in research and science, milieus that are of central importance in the knowledge-based economy. The value of this paper lies in proposing a new way to approach patents that could show a way out of the current analytical gridlock of either/or that for many years has earmarked the “openness-enclosure” dichotomy. The combination of intellectual property scholarship and documentation theory provides important new insight into the historical networks and processes by which patents and documents have consolidated and converged during the twentieth century.

  • 19. Hertzum, Morten
    et al.
    Hansen, Preben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Empirical studies of collaborative information seeking: a review of methodological issues2019In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 140-163Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Information seeking is often performed in collaborative contexts. The research into such collaborative information seeking (CIS) has been proceeding since the 1990s but lacks methodological discussions. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss methodological issues in existing CIS studies. Design/methodology/approach The authors systematically review 69 empirical CIS studies. Findings The review shows that the most common methods of data collection are lab experiments (43 percent), observation (19 percent) and surveys (16 percent), that the most common methods of data analysis are description (33 percent), statistical testing (29 percent) and content analysis (19 percent) and that CIS studies involve a fairly even mix of novice, intermediate and specialist participants. However, the authors also find that CIS research is dominated by exploratory studies, leaves it largely unexplored in what ways the findings of a study may be specific to the particular study setting, appears to assign primacy to precision at the expense of generalizability, struggles with investigating how CIS activities extend over time and provides data about behavior to a larger extent than about reasons, experiences and especially outcomes. Research limitations/implications The major implication of this review is its identification of the need for a shared model to which individual CIS studies can contribute in a cumulative manner. To support the development of such a model, the authors discuss a model of the core CIS process and a model of the factors that trigger CIS. Originality/value This study assesses the current state of CIS research, provides guidance for future CIS studies and aims to inspire further methodological discussion.

  • 20.
    Holmberg, Kim
    et al.
    Information Studies, Åbo Akademi University.
    Huvila, Isto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Kronqvist-Berg, Maria
    Information Studies, Åbo Akademi University.
    Widén-Wulff, Gunilla
    Information Studies, Åbo Akademi University.
    What is Library 2.0?2009In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 668-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to define both theoretically and empirically the concept of Library 2.0. Design/methodology/approach – Written answers to the question “What is Library 2.0?” given by practitioners and researchers (n=29) interested in Library 2.0 issues were analyzed by using co-word analysis to map the underlying elements of the concept. Findings – The study resulted in a model of Library 2.0, containing seven building-blocks of the phenomenon: interactivity, users, participation, libraries and library services, web and web 2.0, social aspects, and technology and tools. Research limitations/implications – The model provides a basis for framing Library 2.0 as a research object and to map central themes of future research. Practical implications – A comprehensive model enables both researchers and practitioners to frame the phenomenon more clearly, evaluate existing and planned services and their proximity to what is Library 2.0. Originality/value – Unlike earlier proposals for a definition of the notion Library 2.0, the present study presents an empirical and consensual crowd-sourcing approach of defining the concept Library 2.0 and provides basis for discussing the future evolution of the notion and its implications for library and information science research and library practices.

  • 21.
    Hultgren, Frances
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    The stranger’s tale: information seeking as an outsider activity2013In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 275-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a departure point in the Schutzian concept of “The stranger”, the aim of the article is to examine the usefulness of the concept as a tool for understanding information seeking practices from an outsider perspective in the context of leaving school and planning to apply to a university programme in Sweden. The article draws on the phenomenological sociology of Schutz together with narrative theory. In this study stories of information seeking gathered in interviews are related to a discourse of nationality and analysed using the concept of cognitive authority together with the concept of the stranger. The findings reveal the effort required for young people with roots in other countries or from non-academic homes to connect and interact with potentially valuable sources of information and that the concept of the stranger can be employed to render visible implicit dimensions of information seeking. Research limitations/implications - the article is based on an in-depth study of the information seeking activities of one young person in a specific national, political and cultural context. It is particular and personal but at the same time can be related to wider issues in contemporary society through narrative analysis. The stories of information seeking taken up exemplify the social nature of barriers of access to information and may be of help in the planning of research projects on a larger scale.In a time when a discourse of nationality is pervasive and integration policies are under question in Europe this study provides insight into the individual experience from the perspective of library and information science

  • 22.
    Huvila, Isto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Authoring social reality with documents: From authorship of documents and documentary boundary objects to practical authorship2019In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 44-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose In the context of organisation studies, Shotter and colleagues have used the notion of practical authorship of social situations and identities to explain the work of managers and leaders. This notion and contemporary theories of authorship in literary scholarship can be linked to the authoring of documents in the context of document studies to explain the impact and use of documents as instruments of management and communication. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

    Design/methodology/approach The conceptual discussion is supported by an empirical interview study of the information work of N=16 archaeologists. Findings First, the making of documents and other artefacts, their use as instruments (e.g. boundary objects (BOs)) of management, and the practical authorship of social situations, collective and individual identities form a continuum of authorship. Second, that because practical authorship seems to bear a closer affinity to the liabilities/responsibilities and privileges of attached to documents rather than to a mere attribution of their makership or ownership, practical authorship literature might benefit of an increased focus on them.

    Research limitations/implications This paper shows how practical authorship can be used as a framework to link making and use of documents to how they change social reality. Further, it shows how the notion of practical authorship can benefit of being complemented with insights from the literature on documentary and literary authorship, specifically that authorship is not only a question of making but also, even more so, of social attribution of responsibilities and privileges.

    Originality/value This paper shows how the concepts of documentary and practical authorship can be used to complement each other in elaborating our understanding of the making of artefacts (documentary) BOs and the social landscape.

  • 23.
    Huvila, Isto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    "Library users come to a library to find books": The structuration of the library as a soft information system2013In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 69, no 5, p. 715-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Considering the perceived significance of librarians and information experts as professional information seekers and information seeking educators and of the institutional setting of information work, very little is known about the information practices of librarians and information professionals, their contexts and implications for libraries and their users. The aim of this study is to explore the information interactions of library professionals within and in relation to the context of the setting of the library.Design/methodology/approach - The analysis is based on a qualitative case study of a large North European city library. Material was collected using information seeking diaries, interviews and ethnographic observation in the library space. Findings - The information practices of librarians are contextual to the setting of the library within which the meeting of the assumptions of library users of the use of that particular system play a significant role. The systemic interplay of librarians, library users and other parts of the system constrains the breadth of the available information at libraries, but at the same time, keeping to a particular set of shared norms and practices of library use also facilitates the use of the system.Research limitations/implications - The generalisability of the findings is limited by the fact that they are based on an individual case study.Practical implications - The systemic nature of library and its reproduction in a process of structuration underlines the need to develop information services in libraries from a holistic perspective that takes into account the practical implications of the shared norms and assumptions of how a library should work.Originality/value - There is little earlier research on the information practices of library and information professionals, particularly with specific reference to its implications for libraries and their users.

  • 24.
    Huvila, Isto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    The unbearable lightness of participating?: Revisiting the discourses of ´participation´ in archival literature2015In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 358-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how archivists, records managers and scholarly literature in the field(s) analyse how participation is discussed in the context of archives and records management, and to explore practical and theoretical implications of the disclosed discursive practices.

    Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a discourse analysis of a body of archival literature and a sample of posts collected from the archival and records management blogosphere.

    Findings: The analysis shows that instead of discussing one notion of participation, the archival science literature is referring to nine different and partly conflicting types of participation from three broad perspectives: management, empowerment and technology. The discourses have also conflicting ideas of the role of engagement and enthusiasm, and of that what do the different stakeholder communities see as real options. 

    Research limitations/implications: The analysed material consists of a limited sample of mainly English language texts that may not capture all the nuances of how participation is discussed in the archival literature.

    Practical implications: A better understanding of how different claims of the benefits and threats endorsing participation in archives helps to develop effective and less contradictory forms of collaboration between different stakeholders.

    Originality/value: In spite of the popularity of the notion of participation, there little, especially critical, research on how participation is conceptualised by archives professionals and researchers.

  • 25.
    Huvila, Isto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    "We've got a better situation": the life and afterlife of virtual communities in Google Lively2015In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 526-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss the impact of unsustainable community platforms from community and information sharing perspectives using Google Lively as an example. The aim is to analyse what happens when a community platform is not sustainable and explore the reasons why Lively failed or succeeded as an arena of participation and information sharing. Design/methodology/approach - The study is based on an ethnographically informed analysis of texts on Google Lively mined from the web and gathered using two small qualitative surveys. Findings - The findings show that Lively fostered the emergence of several virtual communities that outlived the platform. Shared experience, experience of crisis and a distinct identity appeared to be significant factors that seemed to contribute to the success of analysed Livelian communities. Research limitations/implications - The study is based on a convenience sample and an analysis of one virtual community platform. Practical implications - The results inform the development of community strategies for situations when a platform is closing and plans are being made for the sustained existence of the virtual community in new contexts. Originality/value - This is the first comprehensive study on Google Lively. The findings can be expected to have relevance also in the context of comparable virtual community platforms.

  • 26.
    Huvila, Isto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Work and work roles: a context of tasks2008In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 64, no 6, p. 797-815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Both task-based and work oriented research approaches have proved their value in information science research. A task is a workable analytical unit of human activity, which brings the level of explication close enough to cater for individual actions and their consequences. Similarly, work and work roles have been effective concepts at explicating the broad patterns of professional information activity. Major issues of the existing approaches are the difficulty of conceptualising the contexts of tasks and the relatively high level of abstraction of a work level scrutiny. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the concepts of ‘work’, ‘work role’ and ‘task’ might be integrated into a common research agenda. We suggest that the explication of work and work roles might serve in providing additional understanding on the formation of the purposes, meanings and values, which guide the shaping of the activities conceptualised as tasks.

    Methodology/Approach: The issue is discussed in general with a reference to an empirical study of information work of archaeology professionals informed by the notion of work role.

    Findings: It is suggested that the broader notions of work and work roles are useful concepts for explicating the context of more specific tasks.

    Research limitations/implications: The suggested approach brings together task and work – work role-based research and provides a basis for exploring human information activity from a broader perspective than before and thus improving the general understanding of why and how information is used as it is used.

    Practical implications: The study provides an approach to conceptualise the ways how people work with information and lays the ground for improving information management and organisation practices.

    Originality: There has been little prior discussion about integrating the task and work-based approaches. We suggest that the explication of work and work roles might serve in providing additional understanding on the formation of the purposes, meanings and values, which guide the shaping of the activities conceptualised as tasks.

     

  • 27.
    Jarlbrink, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Cultural heritage as digital noise: nineteenth century newspapers in the digital archive2017In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 73, no 6, p. 1228-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze the digitized newspaper collection at the National Library of Sweden, focusing on cultural heritage as digital noise. In what specific ways are newspapers transformed in the digitization process? If the digitized document is not the same as the source document – is it still a historical record, or is it transformed into something else?

    Design/methodology/approach

    The authors have analyzed the XML files from Aftonbladet 1830 to 1862. The most frequent newspaper words not matching a high-quality references corpus were selected to zoom in on the noisiest part of the paper. The variety of the interpretations generated by optical character recognition (OCR) was examined, as well as texts generated by auto-segmentation. The authors have made a limited ethnographic study of the digitization process.

    Findings

    The research shows that the digital collection of Aftonbladet contains extreme amounts of noise: millions of misinterpreted words generated by OCR, and millions of texts re-edited by the auto-segmentation tool. How the tools work is mostly unknown to the staff involved in the digitization process? Sticking to any idea of a provenance chain is hence impossible, since many steps have been outsourced to unknown factors affecting the source document.

    Originality/value

    The detail examination of digitally transformed newspapers is valuable to scholars depending on newspaper databases in their research. The paper also highlights the fact that libraries outsourcing digitization processes run the risk of losing control over the quality of their collections.

  • 28.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    From fact to fantasy: scientific illustrations and visual representations in the early work of Gaston Backman2019In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 709-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics and functions of images in scientific practices and how scientific images differ to other types of representation (e.g. textual, numerical or artistic images). To address these questions, the study looks into the illustration practice of the Swedish researcher Gaston Backman, who wrote several books on the origin of the human species, human anatomy, physical anthropology and race biology in the beginning of the twentieth century.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A comparative and functional analytical method is applied to show how the images act in his writings and how rhetorical and technical circumstances affect the way the images communicate and document scientific facts and ideas. Theoretically, the study relates to ideas suggesting: images to be serious partakers and vehicles of representation in the practice of science; and the need for images to be schematic and more abstract in comparison to an iconic image in order to work in this practice.

    Findings

    The findings of this study show that Backman used both schematic and iconic images in his research writings, and that these different image expressions had different functions: where the former was based on facts and had an informative and scientific function, the latter was based on fantasy/myth and used to promote ideological values and ideas.

    Originality/value

    This study stresses the importance of images in the practice of science, i.e. how images alongside verbal or numerical expressions act as important information and knowledge carriers in the work of science. Even though images intermingle with verbal and numerical expression, they also have a unique and specific, a role that needs to be taken seriously and investigated further in the realm of information studies and document studies. The authors also need to be aware that images can have different functions in the scientific practice, and are not always there to carry scientific facts or ideas, but ideologies and fantasies.

  • 29.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala universitet.
    To Document the Undocumentable: Photography in the scientific practice of physical anthropology and race biology2016In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 72, no 5, p. 813-831Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Lindh, Maria
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Nolin, Jan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    GAFA speaks: Metaphors in the promotion of cloud technology2017In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 73, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The article explores persuasive rhetoric in the legitimization of cloud computing by critically scrutinizing metaphorical devices utilized by leaders of the cloud industry. This article introduces a critical approach to the promotion of cloud technology.

    Design/methodology/approach: 13 video clips from YouTube.com were analysed, containing presentations and talks delivered by leaders of Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon – four of the most influential companies within the IT industry, sometimes referred to as GAFA. With the help of conceptual metaphor theory, often-repeated metaphors for cloud technologies reveal what properties were promoted and hidden.

    Findings: GAFA mainly used the same persuasive metaphors to promote cloud computing’s positive aspects. Potentially negative or complex issues were mostly avoided. Implicitly, GAFA exerts power through the extensive dissemination of their metaphors and these are used in order to negotiate and overcome doubts about cloud computing and related technologies.

    Originality/value: This is the first study aimed at understanding the persuasive rhetoric of GAFA, seen as a uniform object of study, in the legitimization of cloud computing.

  • 31.
    Lloyd, Annemaree
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Researching fractured (information) landscapes: Implications for Library and Information Science researchers undertaking research with refugees and forced migration studies2017In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This article introduces a range of sensitising themes that may help to frame the emerging concept of fractured landscapes.

    Approach. Key concepts are drawn from the forced migration field, from social theory and from library and information science research to frame the concept of fractured landscape research. Methodological and ethical aspects that influence research are also introduced.

    Findings.

    The importance of nomenclature is identified in relation to designations of refugee and migrant.

    The concept of a fractured landscape provides a suitable way of describing the disruption that is caused to refugees’ information landscapes in the process of transition and resettlement. The sensitising themes such as the exilic journey, liminality, integration, bonding and bridging capital are introduced to provide a way of framing a deeper analysis of the information experience of people who must reconcile previously established ways of knowing with the new landscapes related to transition and resettlement.

    Conceptual paper

    Originality/Value. Original paper that introduces an emerging conceptual framework and a range of questions that may be useful to Library and Information Science researchers who wish to pursue research that contributes to the humanitarian area or library services.

  • 32.
    Lloyd, Annemaree
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Stranger in a strange land: Enabling information resilience in the resettlement landscape.2015In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 71, no 5, p. 1029-1042-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Lundh, Anna
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Alexandersson, Mikael
    University of Gothenburg.
    Collecting and compiling: the activity of seeking pictures in primary school2012In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 238-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this study is to further understanding of the situated activity of seeking pictures. It relates to an ongoing discussion on how multimodal information literacies are enacted in different social practices.

    Design/methodology/approach – In order to understand the characteristics of the communication and interactions in the activity of seeking pictures, video recordings from an ethnographic study of primary school children working with problem-centred assignments have been analysed.

    Findings – The analysis reveals how the activity of seeking pictures is shaped by the assumption that pictures are different from facts and information; pictures are seen primarily as having decorative functions. The activity is also characterised by playful, yet efficient cooperation between the children; they make the activity meaningful by transforming it into a play and game activity where pictures become important as physical objects, but not as a semiotic means of learning.

    Research limitations/implications – The study is limited to the activity of seeking pictures in a specific primary school; however, it shows how modes other than textual modes can be included in the study of information activities.

    Practical implications – The study reveals the need for developing methods for enhancing children's possibilities to critically examine and learn from visual material, such as pictures.

    Originality/value – Research on information seeking and information literacies rarely focus on multimodal aspects of information activities or the seeking of pictures outside special collections, despite the increased significance of visual material in the contemporary media landscape. This paper shows how studies of multimodal information activities can be designed.

  • 34.
    Lundh, Anna Hampson
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Curtin University.
    Dolatkhah, Mats
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Reading as dialogical document work: Possibilities for Library and Information Science2016In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 127-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to introduce a dialogically based theory of documentary practices and document work as a promising framework for studying activities that are often conceptualised as information behaviour or information practices within Library and Information Science (LIS).

    Design/methodology/approach An empirical example – a lesson on how to read railway timetables – is presented. The lesson stems from a research project including 223 Swedish lessons recorded in Swedish primary schools 1967-1969. It is argued that this lesson, as many empirical situations within LIS research, can fruitfully be regarded as documentary practices which include document work such as reading, rather than instances of information behaviour.

    Findings It is found that the theoretical perspective of dialogism could contribute to the theory development within LIS, and function as a bridge between different subfields such as reading studies and documentary practices.

    Research limitations/implications The framework is yet to be applied on a larger scale. This would require a willingness to go beyond the entrenched idea of information as the core theoretical concept and empirical object of study within LIS.

    Social implications The theoretical framework offers a view of the relations between individuals, documents, and social contexts, through which it is possible to explore the social significance of core LIS concerns such as reading, literacy, and document work.

    Originality/value The theoretical framework offers an alternative to the monologist, information-based theories and models of people’s behaviours and practices prevalent in LIS.

  • 35.
    Lundh, Anna Hampson
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Curtin University.
    Dolatkhah, Mats
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Limberg, Louise
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    From informational reading to information literacy: Change and continuity in document work in Swedish schools2018In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 74, no 5, p. 1042-1052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to historicise research conducted in the fields of Information Seeking and Learning and Information Literacy and thereby begin to outline a description of the history of information in the context of Swedish compulsory education.

    Design/methodology/approach. Document work and documentary practices are used as alternatives to concepts such as information seeking or information behaviour. Four empirical examples of document work – more specifically informational reading – recorded in Swedish primary classrooms in the 1960s are presented.

    Findings. In the recordings, the reading style students use is similar to informational reading in contemporary educational settings: it is fragmentary, facts-oriented, and procedure-oriented. The practice of finding correct answers, rather than analysing and discussing the contents of a text seems to continue from lessons organised around print textbooks in the 1960s to the inquiry-based and digital teaching of today.

    Originality/value. The paper seeks to analyse document work and documentary practices by regarding “information” as a discursive construction in a particular era with material consequences in particular contexts, rather than as a theoretical and analytical concept. It also problematises the notion that new digital technologies for producing, organising, finding, using, and disseminating documents have drastically changed people’s behaviours and practices in educational and other contexts.

  • 36.
    Lundh, Anna Hampson
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Curtin University.
    Francke, Helena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Sundin, Olof
    Department of Arts and Cultural Sciences, Lund University.
    To assess and be assessed: Upper secondary school students’ narratives of credibility judgements2015In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 80-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to explore how students construct narratives of themselves as information seekers in a school context where their descriptions of their information activities are assessed and graded.

     

    Design/methodology/approach: Blog posts on credibility judgements written by 28 students at a Swedish upper secondary school were analysed through a bottom-up coding process based in the sociocultural concept of narratives of selves.

     

    Findings: Two tensions in the students’ accounts are identified. The first tension is that between the description of the individual, independent student and the description of the good group member. The second tension is between describing oneself as an independent information seeker and at the same time as someone who seeks information in ways that are sanctioned within the school setting.

     

    Research limitations/implications: The study focuses on a specific social practice and on situated activities, but also illustrates some aspects of information activities that pertain to educational contexts in general. It explores how social norms related to credibility judgements are expressed and negotiated in discursive interaction.

     

    Practical implications: The study highlights that when information activities become objects of assessment, careful consideration of what aspects are meant to be assessed is necessary.

     

    Originality/value: The study is based on the idea of information activities as socially and discursively shaped, and it illustrates some of the consequences when information activities become objects of teaching, learning, and grading. 

  • 37.
    Maceviciute, Elena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Research libraries in a modern environment2014In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 70, no 2, p. 282-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the monographic literature related to developments in research libraries within recent years and the strategies that they are adopting to deal with change. The main aim is to identify any visibly established directions along which research libraries adapt to their social and organizational environments. Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative content analysis was applied to identify topics emerging from the texts. The chosen texts were read and topics signifying directions of change in the immediate environment of research libraries were mapped. This initial topic map was used for ascertaining the reactions of research libraries to identified changes. The activities of libraries directed to future anticipated changes were noted separately. Findings – The review shows the surprising resilience of research libraries and their ability to change within a short period of time. This ability signifies that research and academic libraries as organizations perfectly adapt to the incessant transformations of current times, contrary to the widely spread stereotypical image of them as conservative institutions. At the same time, they seem to be keeping true to their core of mediating services to researchers and to their place in the chain of scholarly communication. Originality/value – The article identifies the main directions of transformation of research libraries and outlines their potential roles in the future of digital scholarly communication.

  • 38.
    Nolin, Jan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Defining transparency movements2018In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 74, no 5, p. 1025-1041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – A multitude of transparency movements have been developed and grown strong in recentdecades. Despite their growing influence, scholarly studies have focused on individual movements.The purpose of this paper is to make a pioneering contribution in defining transparency movements.Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory approach has been used utilizing movement-specificprofessional and scholarly documents concerning 18 transparency movements.Findings – Different traditions, ideologies of openness and aspects involving connections betweenmovements have been identified as well as forms of organization.Originality/value – This is the first attempt at identifying and defining transparency movements as acontemporary phenomenon.

  • 39.
    Nolin, Jan
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Relevance as a boundary concept: reconsidering early information retrieval2009In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 65, no 5, p. 745-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Throughout its history, information retrieval has struggled to handle contradictory needs of system oriented and user-oriented research. Information retrieval has gradually, starting in the 1960s, moved toward handling the needs of the user. This paper aims to consider the way boundaries toward the user and user-oriented perspectives are drawn, renegotiated and re-drawn. Design/methodology/approach - The central concept of relevance is seen as a boundary concept, complex and flexible, that is continuously redefined in order to manage boundaries. Five influential research papers from the 1960s and early 1970s are analysed in order to understand usage of the concept during a period when psychological and cognitive research tools began to be discussed as a possibility. Findings - Relevance does not only carry an explanatory function, but also serves a purpose relating to the identity of the field. Key contributions on research on relevance seems to, as a by-product, draw a boundary giving legitimacy to certain theoretical resources while demarcating against others. The strategies that are identified in the key texts are intent on finding, representing, justifying and strengthening a boundary that includes and excludes a reasonable amount of complexity associated with the user. Originality/value - The paper explores a central concept within information retrieval and information science in a new way. It also supplies a fresh perspective on the development of information retrieval during the 1960s and 1970s.

  • 40.
    Nolin, Jan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Axelsson, Ann-Sofie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Doracic, Alen
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Lennartsson, Claes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Lloyd, Annemaree
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Response to Cult of the “I”2017In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 668-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to respond to an earlier article in the Journal of Documentation: The Cult of the “I”. Design/methodology/approach – The method is a form of critical response. Findings – Numerous problems regarding the The Cult of the “I” article are discussed. Originality/value – This paper puts forward views about the iSchools Movement

  • 41.
    Nolin, Jan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Åström, Fredrik
    Turning weakness into strength: strategies for future LIS2010In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 7-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – LIS has been described as a fragmented field in crisis, with an increased competition from other fields; and lacking in development of theories. The purpose of this paper is to articulate a strategy in which the perceived weakness can be seen as a source of strength. Design/methodology/approach – The text builds mostly on reflections on meta-theoretical and science-organisation literature. Ten distinct problems for the research field are identified and discussed in order to provide a viable strategy for the future. Findings – While it is common to suggest a convergent movement toward the idealised characteristics of the strong research discipline as a recipe against fragmentation, a strong convergent movement is suggested that feeds off the fragmented character of the field. What is commonly perceived as a weakness, the multidimensional character of the field, can be translated into a strategic resource. Originality/value – The paper provides a fresh perspective on the strategic situation of LIS.

  • 42.
    Olson, Nasrine
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Nolin, Jan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Semantic web, ubiquitous computing, or internet of things?: A macro-analysis of scholarly publications2015In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 71, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate concepts that are used in depicting futurevisions of society, as afforded by technology, to map the extent of their use, examine the level of theirdominance in different research areas and geographic boundaries, identify potential overlaps, analysetheir longitudinal growth, and examine whether any of the identified concepts has assumed anoverarching position.Design/methodology/approach – In total, 14 concepts, each of which is used to depict visions offuture information infrastructures, were identified. More than 20,000 scholarly documents relatedto 11 of these concepts (those with 20 or more documents) are analysed by various qualitative/quantitative methods.Findings – The concepts most referred to are Semantic Web and ubiquitous computing(all years), and “internet of things” (Year 2013). Publications on some newer concepts (e.g. “digital living”,“real world internet”) are minimal. There are variations in the extent of use and preferred concepts basedon geographic and disciplinary boundaries. The overlap in the use of these terms is minimal and none ofthese terms has assumed an overarching umbrella position.Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to scholarly publications; itwould be relevant to also study the pattern of usage in governmental communications and policydocuments.Social implications – By mapping multiplicity of concepts and the dispersion of discussions, theauthors highlight the need for, and facilitate, a broader discussion of related social and societalimplications.Originality/value – This paper is the first to present a collective of these related concepts and mapthe pattern of their occurrence and growth.Keywords Internet, Information science, World Wide Web, Information society,Digital communications, Information strategyPaper type General review

  • 43.
    Pilerot, Ola
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    A practice-based exploration of the enactment of information literacy among PhD students in an interdisciplinary research field2016In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 414-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The study aims to explore the interaction between the students, the material objects surrounding them, and their social site. The purpose of this paper is to identify and elucidate information literacy as it is being enacted within a complex and heterogeneous community of PhD students. Design/methodology/approach – The study is conducted from a practice-based perspective, according to which information literacy is conceived as learnt through interaction within the socio-material practice where the learner is active. In order to produce empirical material, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten doctoral students in an interdisciplinary research network, and their workplaces were visited. Findings – The PhD students in this interdisciplinary network are more or less constantly engaged in the enactment of information literacy. It takes place in dialogue with others who can be both co-located and distantly located, and occurs through discussions about work in progress, through processes of evaluation and assessment of texts and authors, and through mundane everyday activities such as participating in meetings, which offer insights into how to navigate, in the broadest sense, the world of academia. A crucial part of the enactment of information literacy, which in practice is inseparable from interaction with others, is to pay attention to physical surroundings and material objects. Practical implications – The findings have implications for prospective PhD students in interdisciplinary fields, for their supervisors, and potentially also for librarians who are supposed to serve these groups. Originality/value – Research on the information literacies of PhD students in interdisciplinary fields is scarce. The practice-based approach applied in this study offers an extended and deepened understanding of the enactment of information literacy among PhD students in one interdisciplinary research practice.

  • 44.
    Pilerot, Ola
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    LIS research on information sharing activities: people, places, or information2012In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 559-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to investigate and critically examine conceptualisations of information sharing activities in a selection of library and information science (LIS) literature. Design/methodology/approach – In order to explore how LIS researchers define the concept of information sharing, and how the concept is connected with theory, empirical material and other supporting concepts, a literature review and a conceptual meta-analysis was carried out on 35 papers and one monograph. The analysis was based on Waismann's concept of open texture, Wittgenstein's notion of language games and the concept of meaning holism. Findings – Six theoretical frameworks were identified. These are not found to be incommensurable, but can be used as building blocks for an integrative framework. Ambiguous conceptualisations are frequent. Different conceptualisations tend to emphasize different aspects of information sharing activities: that which is shared; those who are sharing; and the location in which the sharing activities take place. The commonalities of the people involved in information sharing activities are often seen as a ground for the development of information sharing practices. Practical implications – The findings provide a guide for future research which intends to explore activities of information sharing. Originality/value – The article offers a systematic review of recent LIS literature on information sharing, and extends the theoretical base for information sharing research.

  • 45.
    Pilerot, Ola
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Limberg, Louise
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Information sharing as a means to reach collective understanding: A study of design scholars’ information practices2011In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 312-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Purpose – This study aims to increase knowledge about the information-sharing activities of design research scholars. Design/methodology/approach – Semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out with selected participants from a Nordic design research network. The interview transcripts and notes from workplace-observations were approached from a discursive point of view and analyzed in accordance with Theodore Schatzki’s practice theory. Findings – Information-sharing activities are intrinsically intertwined with other information practices such as information seeking and use. It is further established that information and communication technologies (ICTs) can be seen as important parts of the arrangements of human and non-human entities that, together with practices, form the social site in which the scholars are active. There is a reciprocal relationship between ICTs, and other material arrangements, and the ways in which information is used and shared. ICTs function both as a source of meaning and as a preconfigurator of actions. Practical implications – The findings have implications for the development of information systems and services aimed at scholars working in collaborative interdisciplinary settings. Library and information science scholars can benefit from the elaborated concept of information sharing. Originality/value – Design scholars’ information sharing has not been studied before. By applying a practice-theory lens this paper presents a particular perspective. Increased knowledge about the information-sharing activities of an epistemologically and socio-culturally amalgamated network of scholars is the main contribution of this paper.

  • 46.
    Seldén, Lars
    Högskolan i Borås.
    On grounded theory – with some malice2004In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 114-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To review critically the applicability of Grounded Theory.

    Design/methodology/approach – Two perspectives are used: that of the author’s personalexperience and that of the internal pros and cons of Grounded Theory.

    Findings – Grounded Theory is called into question regarding problems with pre-understanding,with everyday knowledge, with disconnection of context, and with coding procedure.

    Practical implications – It is important to think twice before using Grounded Theory in spite of its promising features at the outset.

    Originality/value – Empirically and theoretically founded critique of Grounded Theory

  • 47.
    Seldén, Lars
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    On grounded theory: with some malice2005In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 114-129Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Sköld, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Documenting Virtual World Cultures: Memory-Making and Documentary Practices in the City of Heroes Community2015In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 294-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to explore how virtual world communities employ new media as a repository to record information about their past.

    Design/methodology/approach. Using the notions of documentary practice and memory-making as a framework, a case study of MMORPGCity of Heroes’ (CoH) virtual community on Reddit discussion board “/r/cityofheroes” was conducted. The study consists of an interpretative analysis of posts, comments, images, and other materials submitted to /r/cityofheroes during a period of approximately seven months.

    Findings. The principal finding of the study is that the CoH community, with varying levels of intentionality, documented a range of pasts on /r/cityofheroes, relating to CoH as a game world, a site of personal experience, a product, a nexus of narratives, and a game. The analysis also lays bare the community’s memory-making processes, in which the documented conceptions of CoH’s past were put to work in the present, informing community action and viewpoints.

    Originality/value. Games and gaming practices are increasingly prevalent in leisure and professional settings. This trend, which makes virtual environments and online media proxies for or augmentations of “real life”, makes it necessary for information scholars to understand how the full range of human information behaviours, including documenting, and memory-making, emerge or are replicated online. Additionally, few studies have examined the interplay between new media affordances, documentary practices, and memory-making in the context of virtual world communities.

  • 49.
    Sköld, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Getting-to-Know: Inquiries, Sources, Methods, and the Production of Knowledge on a Videogame Wiki2017In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 73, no 6, p. 1299-1321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the sociocultural underpinnings of wiki-based knowledge production in the videogame domain, and to elucidate how these underpinnings relate to the formation of wikis as resources of videogame documentation.

    Design/methodology/approach. The paper is based on a three-month ethnographic investigation of knowledge practices on the Dark Souls Wiki (DSW). In focus of the analysis were the boundaries and knowledge aims of the DSW, together with how its contributors organized inquiries and used various sources, methods of investigation, and ways of warranting knowledge claims.

    Findings. The principal result of the paper is an empirical account of how the DSW functions as a culture of knowledge production, and how the content and structure of the wiki connects to the knowledge practices of its contributors. Four major factors that influenced knowledge practices on the wiki were identified: the structures and practices established by the community’s earlier wiki efforts; principles and priorities that informed wiki knowledge practices; the characteristics of the videogame in focus of the site’s knowledge-building work; the extent and types of relevant documentation provided by videogame industry, the videogaming press included.

    Originality/value. Previous research has shown interest in investigating the mechanisms by which community-created knowledge and online resources of documentation emerge, and how these are utilized in play. There is, however, little research seeking to elucidate the sociocultural structures and practices that determine and sustain collaborative online videogame knowledge production.

  • 50.
    Sundberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    The tattoo as a document2018In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 18-35, article id https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-03-2017-0043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how tattoos can be considered documents of an individual’s identity, experiences, status and actions in a given context, relating to ideas stating that archival records/documents can be of many types and have different functions. The paper also wants to discuss how tattoos serve as a bank of memories and evidence on a living body; in this respect, the tattooed body can be viewed as an archive, which immortalises and symbolises the events and relationships an individual has experienced in his or her life, and this in relation to a specific social and cultural context.

    Design/methodology/approach

    To discuss these issues, the authors take the point of departure in the tattoo practice of Russian/Soviet prisoners. The tattoo material referred to is from the “Russian Criminal Tattoo Archive”. The archive is created by FUEL Design and Publishing that holds the meanings of the tattoos as explained in Russian Criminal Tattoo Encyclopaedia Volume I-III. The authors exemplify this practice with two photographs of Soviet/Russian prisoners and their tattoos. By using a semiotic analysis that contextualises these images primarily through literature studies, the authors try to say something about what meaning these tattoos might carry.

    Findings

    The paper argues that it is possible to view the tattoo as a document, bound to an individual, reflecting his/her life and a given social and cultural context. As documents, they provide the individual with the essential evidence of his or her endeavours in a criminal environment. They also function as an individual’s memory of events and relationships (hardships and comradeships). Subsequently, the tattoos help create and sustain an identity. Finally, the tattoo presents itself as a document that may represent a critique of a dominant society or simply the voice of the alienated.

    Originality/value

    By showing how tattoos can be seen as documents and memory records, this paper brings a new kind of item into information and archival studies. It also uses theories and concepts from information and archival studies to put new light on the functions of tattoos.

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