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  • 1. Ainsbury, E A
    et al.
    Bakhanova, E
    Barquinero, J F
    Brai, M
    Chumak, V
    Correcher, V
    Darroudi, F
    Fattibene, P
    Gruel, G
    Guclu, I
    Horn, S
    Jaworska, A
    Kulka, U
    Lindholm, C
    Lloyd, D
    Longo, A
    Marrale, M
    Monteiro Gil, O
    Oestreicher, U
    Pajic, J
    Rakic, B
    Romm, H
    Trompier, F
    Veronese, I
    Voisin, P
    Vral, A
    Whitehouse, C A
    Wieser, A
    Woda, C
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Rothkamm, K
    REVIEW OF RETROSPECTIVE DOSIMETRY TECHNIQUES FOR EXTERNAL IONISING RADIATION EXPOSURES.2011In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 147, no 4, p. 573-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current focus on networking and mutual assistance in the management of radiation accidents or incidents has demonstrated the importance of a joined-up approach in physical and biological dosimetry. To this end, the European Radiation Dosimetry Working Group 10 on 'Retrospective Dosimetry' has been set up by individuals from a wide range of disciplines across Europe. Here, established and emerging dosimetry methods are reviewed, which can be used immediately and retrospectively following external ionising radiation exposure. Endpoints and assays include dicentrics, translocations, premature chromosome condensation, micronuclei, somatic mutations, gene expression, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, neutron activation, haematology, protein biomarkers and analytical dose reconstruction. Individual characteristics of these techniques, their limitations and potential for further development are reviewed, and their usefulness in specific exposure scenarios is discussed. Whilst no single technique fulfils the criteria of an ideal dosemeter, an integrated approach using multiple techniques tailored to the exposure scenario can cover most requirements.

  • 2.
    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.
    et al.
    Publ Hlth England, England.
    Samaga, Daniel
    Bundesamt Strahlenschutz, Germany.
    Della Monaca, Sara
    Ist Super Sanita, Italy.
    Marrale, Maurizio
    Univ Palermo, Italy; Univ Palermo, Italy.
    Bassinet, Celine
    Inst Radioprotect and Surete Nucl, France.
    Burbidge, Christopher I.
    Environm Protect Agcy, Ireland.
    Correcher, Virgilio
    Ctr Moncloa, Spain.
    Discher, Michael
    Univ Salzburg, Austria.
    Eakins, Jon
    Publ Hlth England, England.
    Fattibene, Paola
    Ist Super Sanita, Italy.
    Guclu, Inci
    Turkish Atom Energy Commiss, Turkey.
    Higueras, Manuel
    Basque Ctr Appl Math, Spain.
    Lund, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Maltar-Strmecki, Nadica
    Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Croatia.
    McKeever, Stephen
    Oklahoma State Univ, OK 74078 USA.
    Raaf, Christopher L.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Sholom, Sergey
    Oklahoma State Univ, OK 74078 USA.
    Veronese, Ivan
    Univ Milan, Italy; Natl Inst Nucl Phys, Italy.
    Wieser, Albrecht
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Germany.
    Woda, Clemens
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Germany.
    Trompier, Francois
    Inst Radioprotect and Surete Nucl, France.
    UNCERTAINTY ON RADIATION DOSES ESTIMATED BY BIOLOGICAL AND RETROSPECTIVE PHYSICAL METHODS2018In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 178, no 4, p. 382-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological and physical retrospective dosimetry are recognised as key techniques to provide individual estimates of dose following unplanned exposures to ionising radiation. Whilst there has been a relatively large amount of recent development in the biological and physical procedures, development of statistical analysis techniques has failed to keep pace. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of the art in uncertainty analysis techniques across the EURADOS Working Group 10-Retrospective dosimetry members, to give concrete examples of implementation of the techniques recommended in the international standards, and to further promote the use of Monte Carlo techniques to support characterisation of uncertainties. It is concluded that sufficient techniques are available and in use by most laboratories for acute, whole body exposures to highly penetrating radiation, but further work will be required to ensure that statistical analysis is always wholly sufficient for the more complex exposure scenarios.

  • 3. Andersson, M.
    et al.
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Minarik, D.
    Mattsson, S.
    Leide-Svegborn, S.
    An internal radiation dosimetry computer program, IDAC 2.0, for estimation of patient doses from radiopharmaceuticals2014In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 162, no 3, p. 299-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The internal dosimetry computer program internal dose assessment by computer (IDAC) for calculations of absorbed doses to organs and tissues as well as effective doses to patients from examinations with radiopharmaceuticals has been developed. The new version, IDAC2.0, incorporates the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP)/ICRU computational adult male and female voxel phantoms and decay data from the ICRP publication 107. Instead of only 25 source and target regions, calculation can now be made with 63 source regions to 73 target regions. The major advantage of having the new phantom is that the calculations of the effective doses can be made with the latest tissue weighting factors of ICRP publication 103. IDAC2.0 uses the ICRP human alimentary tract (HAT) model for orally administrated activity and for excretion through the gastrointestinal tract and effective doses have been recalculated for radiopharmaceuticals that are orally administered. The results of the program are consistent with published data using the same specific absorption fractions and also compared with published data from the same computational phantoms but with segmentation of organs leading to another set of specific absorption fractions. The effective dose is recalculated for all the 34 radiopharmaceuticals that are administered orally and has been published by the ICRP. Using the new HAT model, new tissue weighting factors and the new adult computational voxel phantoms lead to an average effective dose of half of its earlier estimated value. The reduction mainly depends on electron transport simulations to walled organs and the transition from the stylised phantom with unrealistic interorgan distances to more realistic voxel phantoms.

  • 4. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Mattsson, Sören
    Minarik, David
    Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid
    Organ doses and effective dose for five pet radiopharmaceuticals2016In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 169, no 1-4, p. 253-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diagnostic investigations with positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals are dominated by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), but other radiopharmaceuticals are also commercially available or under development. Five of them, which are all clinically important, are 18F-fluoride, 18F-fluoroethyltyrosine (18F-FET), 18F-deoxyfluorothymidine (18F-FLT), 18F-fluorocholine (18F-choline) and 11C-raclopride. To estimate the potential risk of stochastic effects (mainly lethal cancer) to a population, organ doses and effective dose values were updated for all five radiopharmaceuticals. Dose calculations were performed using the computer program IDAC2.0, which bases its calculations on the ICRP/ICRU adult reference voxel phantoms and the tissue weighting factors from ICRP publication 103. The biokinetic models were taken from ICRP publication 128. For organ doses, there are substantial changes. The only significant change in effective dose compared with previous estimations was a 46 % reduction for 18F-fluoride. The estimated effective dose in mSv MBq−1 was 1.5E−02 for 18F-FET, 1.5E−02 for 18F-FLT, 2.0E−02 for 18F-choline, 9.0E−03 for 18F-fluoride and 4.4E−03 for 11C-raclopride.

  • 5.
    Ardenfors, Oscar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Gudowska, Irena
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Flejmer, Anna M.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Dasu, Alexandru
    The Skandion Clinic, Sweden.
    Impact of irradiation setup in proton spot scanning brain therapy on organ doses from secondary radiation2018In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 180, no 1-4, p. 261-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Monte Carlo model of a proton spot scanning pencil beam was used to simulate organ doses from secondary radiation produced from brain tumour treatments delivered with either a lateral field or a vertex field to one adult and one paediatric patient. Absorbed doses from secondary neutrons, photons and protons and neutron equivalent doses were higher for the vertex field in both patients, but the differences were low in absolute terms. Absorbed doses ranged between 0.1 and 43 μGy.Gy−1 in both patients with the paediatric patient receiving higher doses. The neutron equivalent doses to the organs ranged between 0.5 and 141 μSv.Gy−1 for the paediatric patient and between 0.2 and 134 μSv.Gy−1 for the adult. The highest neutron equivalent dose from the entire treatment was 7 mSv regardless of field setup and patient size. The results indicate that different field setups do not introduce large absolute variations in out-of-field doses produced in patients undergoing proton pencil beam scanning of centrally located brain tumours.

  • 6.
    Ardenfors, Oscar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Gudowska, Irena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Flejmer, Anna Maria
    Dasu, Alexandru
    IMPACT OF IRRADIATION SETUP IN PROTON SPOT SCANNING BRAIN THERAPY ON ORGAN DOSES FROM SECONDARY RADIATION2018In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 180, no 1-4, p. 261-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Monte Carlo model of a proton spot scanning pencil beam was used to simulate organ doses from secondary radiation produced from brain tumour treatments delivered with either a lateral field or a vertex field to one adult and one paediatric patient. Absorbed doses from secondary neutrons, photons and protons and neutron equivalent doses were higher for the vertex field in both patients, but the differences were low in absolute terms. Absorbed doses ranged between 0.1 and 43 mu Gy. Gy(-1) in both patients with the paediatric patient receiving higher doses. The neutron equivalent doses to the organs ranged between 0.5 and 141 mu Sv. Gy(-1) for the paediatric patient and between 0.2 and 134 mu Sv. Gy(-1) for the adult. The highest neutron equivalent dose from the entire treatment was 7 mSv regardless of field setup and patient size. The results indicate that different field setups do not introduce large absolute variations in out-of-field doses produced in patients undergoing proton pencil beam scanning of centrally located brain tumours.

  • 7. Aslund, M.
    et al.
    Fredenberg, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Telman, M.
    Danielsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Detectors for the future of X-ray imaging2010In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 139, no 1-3, p. 327-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, developments in detectors for X-ray imaging have improved dose efficiency. This has been accomplished with for example, structured scintillators such as columnar CsI, or with direct detectors where the X rays are converted to electric charge carriers in a semiconductor. Scattered radiation remains a major noise source, and fairly inefficient anti-scatter grids are still a gold standard. Hence, any future development should include improved scatter rejection. In recent years, photon-counting detectors have generated significant interest by several companies as well as academic research groups. This method eliminates electronic noise, which is an advantage in low-dose applications. Moreover, energy-sensitive photon-counting detectors allow for further improvements by optimising the signal-to-quantum-noise ratio, anatomical background subtraction or quantitative analysis of object constituents. This paper reviews state-of-the-art photon-counting detectors, scatter control and their application in diagnostic X-ray medical imaging. In particular, spectral imaging with photon-counting detectors, pitfalls such as charge sharing and high rates and various proposals for mitigation are discussed.

  • 8.
    Bahar Gogani, Jalil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, P
    Wickman, G
    Assessment of correlated dose and sensitivity profiles on a multi-slice CT scanner2005In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 114, no 1-3, p. 332-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the case of computed tomography (CT) scanners as well as other imaging techniques utilising ionising radiation, it is imperative that radiation is confined to the sensitive part of the image detector. Assuring this for a CT scanner requires detailed information about the scanner dose and sensitivity profiles and their spatial correlation. The profiles should ideally be co-centric and tightly fit to each other. Ensuring this inherent performance of the scanner can be seen as one of the fundamental steps in optimising diagnostic examinations with CT. A measurement device using a dedicated liquid ionisation chamber is employed to investigate the performance of a Toshiba Aquilion 16 scanner in this aspect. Dose profile and sensitivity profile pairs for four collimations are presented where each pair of profiles are spatially correlated to each other. The measurement device can be applied to any scanner for fast and accurate assessment of dose and sensitivity profiles and their spatial correlation. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  • 9. Bilski, P.
    et al.
    Blomgren, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    d'Errico, F.
    Esposito, A.
    Fehrenbacher, G.
    Fernandez, F.
    Fuchs, A.
    Golnik, N.
    Lacoste, V.
    Leuschner, A.
    Sandri, S.
    Silari, M.
    Spurny, F.
    Wiegel, B.
    Wright, P.
    The problems associated with the monitoring of complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities2007In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 126, no 1-4, p. 491-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission is funding within its Sixth Framework Programme a three-year project (2005-2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organisational framework for this project is provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. One task within the CONRAD project, Work Package 6 (WP6), was to provide a report outlining research needs and research activities within Europe to develop new and improved methods and techniques for the characterisation of complex radiation fields at workplaces around high-energy accelerators, but also at the next generation of thermonuclear fusion facilities. The paper provides an overview of the report, which will be available as CERN Yellow Report.

  • 10.
    Blomgren, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Neutron Research.
    Fast neutron beams - Prospects for the coming decade2007In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 126, no 1-4, p. 64-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present status of neutron beam production techniques above 20 MeV is discussed. Presently, two main methods are used; white beams and quasi-monoenergetic beams. The performances of these two techniques are discussed, as well as the use of such facilities for measurements of nuclear data for fundamental and applied research. Recently, two novel ideas on how to produce extremely intense neuton beams in the 100-500 MeV range have been proposed. Decay in flight of beta delayed neutron-emitting nuclei could provide beam intensities five orders of magnitudes larger than present facilities. A typical neutron energy spectrum would be essentially monoenergetic, i.e., the energy spread is about 1 MeV with essentially no lowenergy tail. A second option would be to produce beams of He-6 and dissociate the 6 He nuclei into alpha particles and neutrons. The basic features of these concepts are outlined, and the potential for improved nuclear data research is discussed.

  • 11.
    Blomgren, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Neutron Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Neutron Research, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Lindborg, Lennart
    Golnik, Natalia
    Jones, Dan
    Schuhmacher, Helmut
    Spurny, Frantisek
    Stenerlöw, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Progress in Dosimetry of Neutrons and Light Nuclei2007In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 126, no 1-4, p. 1-2Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Boson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Ramebäck, Henrik
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI CBRN Defence and Security, SE-901 82 Umeå, Sweden.
    Ågren, Göran
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI CBRN Defence and Security, SE-901 82 Umeå, Sweden.
    Uncertainty in HPGe detector calibrations for in situ gamma-ray spectrometry2009In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 134, no 2, p. 122-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-empirical methods are often used for efficiency calibrations of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements with high-purity germanium detectors. The intrinsic detector efficiency is experimentally determined for different photon energies and angles of incidence, and a suitable expression for the efficiency is fitted to empirical data. In this work, the combined standard uncertainty of such an efficiency function for two detectors was assessed. The uncertainties in individual efficiency measurements were found to be about 1.9 and 3.1% (with a coverage factor k = 1, i.e. with a confidence interval of about 68%) for the two detectors. The main contributions to these uncertainties were found to originate from uncertainties in source-to-detector distance, source activity and full-energy peak count rate. The standard uncertainties of the fitted functions were found to be somewhat higher than the uncertainty of individual data points, i.e. 5.2 and 8.1% (k = 1). With the introduction of a new expression for the detector efficiency, these uncertainties were reduced to 3.7 and 4.2%, i.e. with up to a factor of two. Note that this work only addresses the uncertainty in the determination of intrinsic detector efficiency.

  • 13.
    Brehwens, Karl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Bajinskis, Ainars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Staaf, Elina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Cederwall, Bo
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    A NEW DEVICE TO EXPOSE CELLS TO CHANGING DOSE RATES OF IONISING RADIATION2012In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 148, no 3, p. 366-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many exposure scenarios to ionising radiation, the dose rate is not constant. Despite this, most in vitro studies aimed at investigating the effects of ionising radiation are carried out exposing samples at constant dose rates. Consequently, very little data exist on the biological effects of exposures to changing dose rates. This may be due to technical limitations of standard irradiation facilities, but also to the fact that the importance of research in this area has not been appreciated. We have recently shown that cells exposed to a decreasing dose rate suffer higher levels of cytogenetic damage than do cells exposed to an increasing or a constant dose rate. To further study the effects of changing dose rates, a new device was constructed that permits the exposure of cell samples in tubes, flasks or Petri dishes to changing dose rates of X-rays. This report presents the technical data, performance and dosimetry of this novel device.

  • 14. Brehwens, Karl
    et al.
    Bajinskis, Ainars
    Staaf, Elina
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Cederwall, Bo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Physics.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    A new device to expose cells to changing dose rates of ionising radiation2011In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 148, no 3, p. 366-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many exposure scenarios to ionising radiation, the dose rate is not constant. Despite this, most in vitro studies aimed at investigating the effects of ionising radiation are carried out exposing samples at constant dose rates. Consequently, very little data exist on the biological effects of exposures to changing dose rates. This may be due to technical limitations of standard irradiation facilities, but also to the fact that the importance of research in this area has not been appreciated. We have recently shown that cells exposed to a decreasing dose rate suffer higher levels of cytogenetic damage than do cells exposed to an increasing or a constant dose rate. To further study the effects of changing dose rates, a new device was constructed that permits the exposure of cell samples in tubes, flasks or Petri dishes to changing dose rates of X-rays. This report presents the technical data, performance and dosimetry of this novel device.

  • 15.
    Carlsson, C.A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Lund, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Matscheko, G.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    An instrument for measuring ambient dose equivalent, H*(10)1996In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 33-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and calibration of a small and simple instrument for measuring the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), in photon fields is described. Comprising a thermoluminescence LiF dosemeter inside a 20 mm diameter PMMA sphere, it is capable of measuring the ambient dose equivalent with a nearly isotropic response. In the interval 0.1-100 mSv and for the energy range 30 keV to 1.25 MeV the energy response is within -31% and +15% relative to that of 137Cs gamma radiation (662 keV). In practical use, it is therefore sufficient to calibrate the instrument in a 137Cs gamma field using the corresponding conversion coefficient H*(10)/Kair taken from tabulations. The possibility of using the instrument to monitor the ambient dose equivalent for energies above 1.25 MeV is discussed and indicates that the range of applicability can be extended to 4.4 MeV with an energy response within -10% relative to 662 keV.

  • 16. Dance, D
    et al.
    Hunt, R
    Bakic, P
    Maidment, A
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Ullman, Gustaf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics.
    Alm-Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Breast dosimetry using high-resolution voxel phantoms2005In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 114, no 1-3, p. 359-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A computer model of X-ray mammography has been developed, which uses quasi-realistic high-resolution voxel phantoms to simulate the breast. The phantoms have 400 μm voxels and simulate the three-dimensional distributions of adipose and fibroglandular tissues, Cooper's ligaments, ducts and skin and allow the estimation of dose to individual tissues. Calculations of the incident air kerma to mean glandular dose conversion factor, g, were made using a Mo/Mo spectrum at 28 kV for eight phantoms in the thickness range 40-80 mm and of varying glandularity. The values differed from standard tabulations used for breast dosimetry by up to 43%, because of the different spatial distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. To study this further, additional voxel phantoms were constructed, which gave variations of between 9 and 59% compared with standard values. For accurate breast dosimetry, it is therefore very important to take the distribution of glandular tissues into account. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  • 17. Dance, David
    et al.
    McVey, Graham
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Verdun, Francis
    The optimisation of lumbar spine AP radiography using realistic computer model.2000In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 90, p. 207-210Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Dance, David
    et al.
    n/a.
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics . Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persliden, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Optimisation of the design of antiscatter grids by computer modelling1995In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 207-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Monte Carlo computer program has been developed to model diagnostic radiological examinations, and has been used to study and optimise the design of antiscatter grids. This is important because the use of an inappropriate or poorly designed grid can lead to increased patient dose. Optimal grid parameters may be different for large and small scattering volumes. The program treats the patient as a rectangular block of tissue and takes account of the grid and image receptor. Image quality is measured in terms of contrast and signal-to-noise ratio and patient risk in terms of mean absorbed dose. Test objects of appropriate size and composition are used in the calculation of these image quality parameters. A new performance comparison and optimisation procedure has been developed, and the program has been used to study grid design in screen-film and digital radiology for small, medium and large scattering volumes.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Ida
    et al.
    Department of Medical Physics, Karlstad Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden .
    Starck, Sven-Åke
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Båth, Magnus
    Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Determination of the detective quantum efficiency of gamma camera systems: a Monte Carlo study2010In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 139, no 1-3, p. 219-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate the validity of using the Monte Carlo technique for determining the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of a gamma camera system and to use this technique in investigating the DQE behaviour of a gamma camera system and its dependency on a number of relevant parameters. The Monte Carlo-based software SIMIND, simulating a complete gamma camera system, was used in the present study. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of the system was determined from simulated images of a point source of (99m)Tc, positioned at different depths in a water phantom. Simulations were performed using different collimators and energy windows. The MTF of the system was combined with the photon yield and the sensitivity, obtained from the simulations, to form the frequency-dependent DQE of the system. As figure-of-merit (FOM), the integral of the 2D DQE was used. The simulated DQE curves agreed well with published data. As expected, there was a strong dependency of the shape and magnitude of the DQE curve on the collimator, energy window and imaging position. The highest FOM was obtained for a lower energy threshold of 127 keV for objects close to the detector and 131 keV for objects deeper in the phantom, supporting an asymmetric window setting to reduce scatter. The Monte Carlo software SIMIND can be used to determine the DQE of a gamma camera system from a simulated point source alone. The optimal DQE results in the present study were obtained for parameter settings close to the clinically used settings.

  • 20.
    Fredenberg, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Medical Imaging.
    Cederström, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Medical Imaging.
    Danielsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Medical Imaging.
    Energy filtering with x-ray lenses: Optimization for photon-counting mammography2010In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 139, p. 339-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromatic properties of the multi-prism and prism-array x-ray lenses (MPL and PAL) can potentially be utilized for efficient energy filtering and dose reduction in mammography. The line-shaped foci of the lenses are optimal for coupling to photon-counting silicon strip detectors in a scanning system. A theoretical model was developed and used to investigate the benefit of two lenses compared to an absorption-filtered reference system. The dose reduction of the MPL filter was 15% compared to the reference system at matching scan time, and the spatial resolution was higher. The dose of the PAL-filtered system was found to be 20% lower than for the reference system at equal scan time and resolution, and only 20% higher than for a monochromatic beam. An investigation of some practical issues remains, including the feasibility of brilliant-enough x-ray sources and manufacturing of a polymer PAL.

  • 21. Galmarini, S
    et al.
    Bianconi, R
    Klug, W
    Mikkelsen, T
    Addis, R
    Androllopoulos, S
    Astrup, P
    Baklanov, A
    Bartniki, J
    Bartzis, J C
    Bellasio, R
    Bompay, F
    Buckley, R
    Bouzom, M
    Champion, H
    D'Amours, R
    Davakis, E
    Eleveld, H
    Geertsema, G T
    Glaab, H
    Kolax, Michael
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Ilvonen, M
    Manning, A
    Pechinger, U
    Persson, C
    Polreich, E
    Potemski, S
    Prodanova, M
    Saltbones, J
    Slaper, H
    Sofiev, M A
    Syrakov, D
    Sorensen, J H
    Van der Auwera, L
    Valkama, I
    Zelazny, R
    Can the confidence in long range atmospheric transport models be increased?: The Pan-European experience of ENSEMBLE2004In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 109, no 1-2, p. 19-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is atmospheric dispersion forecasting an important asset of the early-phase nuclear emergency response management? Is there a 'perfect atmospheric dispersion model'? Is there a way to make the results of dispersion models more reliable and trustworthy? While seeking to answer these questions the multi-model ensemble dispersion forecast system ENSEMBLE will be presented.

  • 22. Geijer, H
    et al.
    Persliden, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Varied tube potential with constant effective dose at lumbar spine radiography using a flat-panel digital detector2005In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 114, no 1-3, p. 240-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the image quality at different tube potential (kV) settings using anteroposterior lumbar spine radiography as a model. An Alderson phantom was used with a flat-panel detector. The tube potential varied between 48 and 125 kV while the tube charge (mAs) was adjusted to keep an effective dose of 0.11 mSv. Image quality was assessed with a visual grading analysis and with a CDRAD contrast-detail phantom together with a computer program. The VGA showed inferior image quality for the higher kV settings, ≥ 96 kV with similar results for the contrast-detail phantom. When keeping the effective dose fixed, it seems beneficial to reduce kV to get the best image quality despite the fact that the mAs is not as high as with automatic exposure. However, this cannot be done with automatic exposure, which is set for a constant detector dose.

  • 23.
    Grindborg, J.-E.
    et al.
    Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lillhok, J.E.
    Lillhök, J.E., Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindborg, L.
    Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gudowska, I.
    Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics .
    Carlsson, Görel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Nikjoo, H.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States.
    Nanodosimetric measurements and calculations in a neutron therapy beam2007In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 126, no 1-4, p. 463-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison of calculated and measured values of the dose mean lineal energy (yD) for the former neutron therapy beam at Louvain-la-Neuve is reported. The measurements were made with wall-less tissue-equivalent proportional counters using the variance-covariance method and simulating spheres with diameters between 10 nm and 15 µm. The calculated yD-values were obtained from simulated energy distributions of neutrons and charged particles inside an A-150 phantom and from published yD-values for mono-energetic ions. The energy distributions of charged particles up to oxygen were determined with the SHIELD-HIT code using an MCNPX simulated neutron spectrum as an input. The mono-energetic ion yD-values in the range 3-100 nm were taken from track-structure simulations in water vapour done with PITS/KURBUC. The large influence on the dose mean lineal energy from the light ion (A > 4) absorbed dose fraction, may explain an observed difference between experiment and calculation. The latter being larger than earlier reported result. Below 50 nm, the experimental values increase while the calculated decrease. © The Author 2007. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  • 24. Grzanka, Leszek
    et al.
    Ardenfors, Oscar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Bassler, Niels
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS OF SPATIAL LET DISTRIBUTIONS IN CLINICAL PROTON BEAMS2018In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 180, no 1-4, p. 296-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The linear energy transfer (LET) is commonly used as a parameter which describes the quality of the radiation applied in radiation therapy with fast ions. In particular in proton therapy, most models which predict the radiobiological properties of the applied beam, are fitted to the dose-averaged LET, LETd. The related parameter called the fluence-or track-averaged LET, LETt, is less frequently used. Both LETt and in particular LETd depends profoundly on the encountered secondary particle spectrum. For proton beams including all secondary particles, LETd may reach more than 3 keV/um in the entry channel of the proton field. However, typically the charged particle spectrum is only averaged over the primary and secondary protons, which is in the order of 0.5 keV/um for the same region. This is equal to assuming that the secondary particle spectrum from heavier ions is irrelevant for the resulting radiobiology, which is an assertion in the need of closer investigation. Models which rely on LETd should also be clear on what type of LETd is used, which is not always the case. Within this work, we have extended the Monte Carlo particle transport code SHIELD-HIT12A to provide dose-and track-average LET-maps for ion radiation therapy treatment plans.

  • 25.
    Gudowska, Irena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ardenfors, Oscar
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Toma-Dasu, Iuliana
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Dasu, Alexandru
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences.
    Radiation burden from secondary doses to patients undergoing radiation therapy with photons and light ions and radiation doses from imaging modalities2014In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 161, no 1-4, p. 357-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ionising radiation is increasingly used for the treatment of cancer, being the source of a considerable fraction of the medical irradiation to patients. With the increasing success rate of cancer treatments and longer life expectancy of the treated patients, the issue of secondary cancer incidence is of growing concern, especially for paediatric patients who may live long after the treatment and be more susceptible to carcinogenesis. Also, additional imaging procedures like CT, kV and MV imaging and PET, alone or in conjunction with radiation therapy, may add to the radiation burden associated with the risk of occurrence of secondary cancers. This work has been based on literature studies and is focussed on the assessment of secondary doses to healthy tissues that are delivered by the use of modern radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging modalities in the clinical environment.

  • 26.
    Gudowska, Irena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Ardenfors, Oscar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Toma-Dasu, Iuliana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Dasu, Alexandru
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Radiation burden from secondary doses to patients undergoing radiation therapy with photons and light ions and radiation doses from imaging modalities2014In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 161, no 1-4, p. 357-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ionising radiation is increasingly used for the treatment of cancer, being the source of a considerable fraction of the medical irradiation to patients. With the increasing success rate of cancer treatments and longer life expectancy of the treated patients, the issue of secondary cancer incidence is of growing concern, especially for paediatric patients who may live long after the treatment and be more susceptible to carcinogenesis. Also, additional imaging procedures like CT, kV and MV imaging and PET, alone or in conjunction with radiation therapy, may add to the radiation burden associated with the risk of occurrence of secondary cancers. This work has been based on literature studies and is focussed on the assessment of secondary doses to healthy tissues that are delivered by the use of modern radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging modalities in the clinical environment.

  • 27.
    Haettner, E.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Iwase, H.
    Schardt, D.
    Experimental fragmentation studies with (12)C therapy beams2006In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 122, no 1-4, p. 485-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-energy beams of (12)C ions in the range of 80-430 MeV u(-1) delivered by the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-18 are used for radiotherapy of deep-seated localized tumors at the treatment unit at GSI Darmstadt. In order to improve the physical database, the fragmentation characteristics along the penetration path in tissue were investigated experimentally by using a water phantom as tissue-equivalent absorber. Measurements were performed at specific energies of 200 and 400 MeV u(-1) of the incident (12)C ions and at six different depths before and behind the Bragg peak. Secondary fragments with nuclear charges Z(f) = 1-5 were identified by scintillation detectors using AE-E and time-of-flight techniques. The preliminary results include energy- and angular distributions, fragment yields, build-up curves and attenuation of the primary carbon projectiles.

  • 28.
    Helmrot, Ebba
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Measurement of radiation dose in dental radiology.2005In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 114, p. 168-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patient dose audit is an important tool for quality control and it is important to have a well-defined and easy to use method for dose measurements. In dental radiology, the most commonly used dose parameters for the setting of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for intraoral examinations and dose width product (DWP) for panoramic examinations. DWP is the air kerma at the front side of the secondary collimator integrated over the collimator width and an exposure cycle. ESAK or DWP is usually measured in the absence of the patient but with the same settings of tube voltage (kV), tube current (mA) and exposure time as with the patient present. Neither of these methods is easy to use, and, in addition, DWP is not a risk related quantity. A better method of monitoring patient dose would be to use a dose area product (DAP) meter for all types of dental examinations. In this study, measurements with a DAP meter are reported for intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DWP is also measured with a pencil ionisation chamber and the product of DWP and the height that it is feasible to measure DAP using a DAP meter for both intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DAP is therefore recommended for the setting of DRLs. H (DWP H) of the secondary collimator (measured using film) was compared to DAP. The results show that it is feasible to measure DAP using a DAP meter for both intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DAP is therefore recommended for the setting of DRLs.

  • 29. Helmrot, Ebba
    et al.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eckerdal, Olof
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics .
    Use of an ivory wedge as a test phantom in analysing the influence of scattered radiation and tube potential on radiolographic contrast in intraoral dental radiography1993In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 125-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrast, noise and spatial resolution are fundamental physical concepts used to describe image quality. Contrast is one of the most important parameters in conventional film radiography. To facilitate the analysis of the radiographic contrast over a wide range of optical densities, an ivory wedge representative of objects with marked tissue discontinuities has been constructed. It can be used either separately or included within a PMMA phantom representing the middle face to simulate realistic scatter conditions. It is thus possible to investigate how radiographic contrast may be influenced by kV setting, beam filtration, type of generator (constant potential or single pulse) and type of film. The phantom has been used in optimising image quality relative to radiation risk, with the radiographic contrast being determined both theoretically and experimentally in terms of type of film (D and E speed), radiation and object contrast. The importance of controlling physical parameters when investigating image quality and how to achieve this using a well defined phantom is clearly demonstrated.

  • 30.
    Helmrot, Ebba
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eckerdal, Olle
    n/a.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Scientific  instrument for a controlled choice of optimal photon energy in intra-oral radiography1998In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 80, no 1, p. 321-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Basic performance parameters are defined and analysed in order to optimise physical image quality in relation to the energy imparted to the patient in dental radiology. Air cavities were embedded in well-defined multimaterial, hard tissue phantoms to represent various objects in dento-maxillo-facial examinations. Basic performance parameters were: object contrast (C), energy imparted (_) to the patient, signal-to-noise ration (SNR), C2/_ (film) and (SNR)2/_ (digital imaging system) as functions of HVL (half-value layer), used to describe the photon energy spectrum. For the film receptor, the performance index C2/_ is maximum (optimal) at HVL values of 1.5-1.7 mm Al in the simulated Incisive, Premolar and Molar examinations. Other imaging tasks (examinations), not simulated here, may require other optimal HVL. For the digital imaging system (Digora) the performance index (SNR)2/_, theoretically calculated, indicates that a lower value of HVL is optimal than with film as receptor. However, due to the limited number of bits (8 bits) in the analogue to digital converter (ADC) contrast resolution is degraded and calls for use of higher photon energies (HVL). Customised optimisations with proper concern for patient category, type of examination, diagnostic task is the ultimate goal of this work. The conclusions stated above give some general advice on the appropriate choice of photon energy spectrum (HVL). In particular situations, it may be necessary to use more dose demanding kV settings (lower HVL) in order to get sufficient image quality for the diagnostic task.

  • 31.
    Helmrot, Ebba
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Thilander Klang, Anne
    Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45.
    METHODS FOR MONITORING PATIENT DOSEIN DENTAL RADIOLOGY2010In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 139, no 1-3, p. 303-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different types of X-ray equipment are used in dental radiology, such as intra-oral, panoramic, cephalometric, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) units. Digital receptors have replaced film and screen-film systems and other technical developments have been made.

    The radiation doses arising from different types of examination are sparsely documented and often expressed in different radiation quantities. In order to allow the comparison of radiation doses using conventional techniques, i.e. intra-oral, panoramic and cephalometric units, with those obtained using, CBCT or MSCT techniques, the same units of dose must be used. Dose determination should be straightforward and reproducible, and data should be stored for each image and clinical examination.

    It is suggested here that air kerma-area product (PKA) values be used to monitor the radiation doses used in all types of dental examinations including CBCT and MSCT. However, for the CBCT and MSCT techniques, the estimation of dose must be more thoroughly investigated. The values recorded can be used to determine diagnostic standard doses and to set diagnostic reference levels for each type of clinical examination and equipment used. It should also be possible to use these values for the estimation and documentation of organ or effective doses. 

  • 32. Hunt, R
    et al.
    Dance, D
    Bakic, P
    Maidment, A
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Ullman, Gustaf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics.
    Alm-Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Calculation of the properties of digital mammograms using a computer simulation2005In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 114, no 1-3, p. 395-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Mote Carlo computer model of mammography has been developed to study and optimise the performance of digital mammographic systems. The program uses high-resolution voxel phantoms to model the breast, which simulate the adipose and fibroglandular tissues, Cooper's ligaments, ducts and skin in three dimensions. The model calculates the dose to each tissue, and also the quantities such as energy imparted to image pixels, noise per image pixel and scatter-to-primary (S/P) ratios. It allows studies of the dependence of image properties on breast structure and on position within the image. The program has been calibrated by calculating and measuring the pixel values and noise for a digital mammographic system. The thicknesses of two components of this system were unknown, and were adjusted to obtain a good agreement between measurement and calculation. The utility of the program is demonstrated with the calculations of the variation of the S/P ratio with and without a grid, and of the image contrast across the image of a 50-mm-thick breast phantom. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  • 33. Hunt, R
    et al.
    Dance, D
    Pachoud, M
    Alm-Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Ullman, Gustaf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics.
    Verdun, F
    Monte Carlo simulation of a mammographic test phantom2005In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 114, no 1-3, p. 432-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A test phantom, including a wide range of mammographic tissue equivalent materials and test details, was imaged on a digital mammographic system. In order to quantify the effect of scatter on the contrast obtained for the test details, calculations of the scatter-to-primary ratio (S/P) have been made using a Monte Carlo simulation of the digital mammographic imaging chain, grid and test phantom. The results show that the S/P values corresponding to the imaging conditions used were in the range 0.084-0.126. Calculated and measured pixel values in different regions of the image were compared as a validation of the model and showed excellent agreement. The results indicate the potential of Monte Carlo methods in the image quality-patient dose process optimisation, especially in the assessment of imaging conditions not available on standard mammographic units. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  • 34. Häggström, I.
    et al.
    Johansson, L.
    Larsson, A.
    Östlund, N.
    Sörensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET.
    Karlsson, M.
    Semi-automatic tumour segmentation by selective navigation in a three-parameter volume, obtained by voxel-wise kinetic modelling of C-11-acetate2010In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 139, no 1-3, p. 214-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly used for delineation of tumour tissue in, for example, radiotherapy treatment planning. The most common method used is to outline volumes with a certain per cent uptake over background in a static image. However, PET data can also be collected dynamically and analysed by kinetic models, which potentially represent the underlying biology better. In the present study, a three-parameter kinetic model was used for voxel-wise evaluation of C-11-acetate data of head/neck tumours. These parameters which represent the tumour blood volume, the uptake rate and the clearance rate of the tissue were derived for each voxel using a linear regression method and used for segmentation of active tumour tissue. This feasibility study shows that it is possible to segment images based on derived model parameters. There is, however, room for improvements concerning the PET data acquisition, noise reduction and the kinetic modelling. In conclusion, this early study indicates a strong potential of the method even though no 'true' tumour volume was available for validation.

  • 35.
    Häggström, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Östlund, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Sörensen, Jens
    Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Semi-automatic tumour segmentation by selective navigation in a three-parameter volume, obtained by voxel-wise kinetic modelling of 11C-acetate2010In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 139, no 1-3, p. 214-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly used for delineation of tumour tissue in, for example, radiotherapy treatment planning. The most common method used is to outline volumes with a certain per cent uptake over background in a static image. However, PET data can also be collected dynamically and analysed by kinetic models, which potentially represent the underlying biology better. In the present study, a three-parameter kinetic model was used for voxel-wise evaluation of (11)C-acetate data of head/neck tumours. These parameters which represent the tumour blood volume, the uptake rate and the clearance rate of the tissue were derived for each voxel using a linear regression method and used for segmentation of active tumour tissue. This feasibility study shows that it is possible to segment images based on derived model parameters. There is, however, room for improvements concerning the PET data acquisition, noise reduction and the kinetic modelling. In conclusion, this early study indicates a strong potential of the method even though no 'true' tumour volume was available for validation.

  • 36. Håkansson, M
    et al.
    Båth, M
    Börjesson, S
    Kheddache, S
    Flinck, A
    Ullman, Gustaf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics.
    Månsson, LG
    Nodule detection in digital chest radiography: Effect of nodule location2005In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 114, no 1-3, p. 92-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most detection studies in chest radiography treat the entire chest image as a single background or divided into the two regions parenchyma and mediastinum. However, the different parts of the lung show great variations in attenuation and structure, leading to different amounts of quantum noise and scattered radiation as well as different complexity. Detailed data on the difference in detectability in the different regions are of importance. The purpose of this study was to quantify the difference in detectability between different regions of a chest image. The chest X ray was divided into six different regions, where each region was considered to be uniform in terms of detectability. Thirty clinical chest images were collected and divided into the different regions. Simulated designer nodules with a full-width-at-fifth-maximum of 10 mm but with varying contrast were added to the images. An equal number of images lacking pathology were included and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was conducted with five observers. Results show that the image contrast needed to obtain a constant value of Az (area under an ROC curve) differs by more than a factor of four between different regions. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Israelsson, Axel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lund, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dose response of xylitol and sorbitol for EPR retrospective dosimetry with applications to chewing gum2013In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 154, no 2, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal in sweeteners xylitol and sorbitol for use in retrospective dosimetry. For both sweeteners and chewing gum, the signal changed at an interval of 1–84 d after irradiation with minimal changes after 4–8 d. A dependence on storage conditions was noticed and the exposure of the samples to light and humidity was therefore minimised. Both the xylitol and sorbitol signals showed linearity with dose in the measured dose interval, 0–20 Gy. The dose-response measurements for the chewing gum resulted in a decision threshold of 0.38 Gy and a detection limit of 0.78 Gy. A blind test illustrated the possibility of using chewing gums as a retrospective dosemeter with an uncertainty in the dose determination of 0.17 Gy (1 SD).

  • 38. Jaworska, Alicja
    et al.
    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.
    Fattibene, Paola
    Lindholm, Carita
    Oestreicher, Ursula
    Rothkamm, Kai
    Romm, Horst
    Thierens, Hubert
    Trompier, Francois
    Voisin, Philippe
    Vral, Anne
    Woda, Clemens
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Operational guidance for radiation emergency response organisations in Europe for using biodosimetric tools developed in EU MULTIBIODOSE project2015In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 164, no 1-2, p. 165-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the event of a large-scale radiological emergency, the triage of individuals according to their degree of exposure forms an important initial step of the accident management. Although clinical signs and symptoms of a serious exposure may be used for radiological triage, they are not necessarily radiation specific and can lead to a false diagnosis. Biodosimetry is a method based on the analysis of radiation-induced changes in cells of the human body or in portable electronic devices and enables the unequivocal identification of exposed people who should receive medical treatment. The MULTIBIODOSE (MBD) consortium developed and validated several biodosimetric assays and adapted and tested them as tools for biological dose assessment in a mass-casualty event. Different biodosimetric assays were validated against the 'gold standard' of biological dosimetry-the dicentric assay. The assays were harmonised in such a way that, in an emergency situation, they can be run in parallel in a network of European laboratories. The aim of this guidance is to give a concise overview of the developed biodosimetric tools as well as how and when they can be used in an emergency situation.

  • 39.
    Kardell, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Jeuthe, Julius
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Malusek, Alexandr
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    AUTOMATIC SEGMENTATION OF PELVIS FOR BRACHYTHERAPYOF PROSTATE2016In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 169, no 1-4, p. 398-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced model-based iterative reconstruction algorithms in quantitative computed tomography (CT) perform automatic segmentation of tissues to estimate material properties of the imaged object. Compared with conventional methods, these algorithms may improve quality of reconstructed images and accuracy of radiation treatment planning. Automatic segmentation of tissues is, however, a difficult task. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate an algorithm that automatically segments tissues in CT images of the male pelvis. The newly developed algorithm (MK2014) combines histogram matching, thresholding, region growing, deformable model and atlas-based registration techniques for the segmentation of bones, adipose tissue, prostate and muscles in CT images. Visual inspection of segmented images showed that the algorithm performed well for the five analysed images. The tissues were identified and outlined with accuracy sufficient for the dual-energy iterative reconstruction algorithm whose aim is to improve the accuracy of radiation treatment planning in brachytherapy of the prostate.

  • 40.
    Kataria, Bharti
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Nilsson Althen, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences.
    IMPLICATIONS OF PATIENT CENTRING ON ORGAN DOSE IN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY2016In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 169, no 1-4, p. 130-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automatic exposure control (AEC) in computed tomography (CT) facilitates optimisation of dose absorbed by the patient. The use of AEC requires appropriate ‘patient centring’ within the gantry, since positioning the patient off-centre may affect both image quality and absorbed dose. The aim of this experimental study was to measure the variation in organ and abdominal surface dose during CTexaminations of the head, neck/thorax and abdomen. The dose was compared at the isocenter with two off-centre positions—ventral and dorsal to the isocenter. Measurements were made with an anthropomorphic adult phantom and thermoluminescent dosemeters. Organs and surfaces for ventral regions received lesser dose (5.6–39.0 %) than the isocenter when the phantom was positioned 13 cm off-centre. Similarly, organ and surface doses for dorsal regions were reduced by 5.0–21.0 % at 25 cm off-centre. Therefore, correct vertical positioning of the patient at the gantry isocenter is important to maintain optimal imaging conditions.

  • 41.
    Kolbun, Natallia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lund, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    High-resolution mapping of 1D and 2D dose distributions using X-band electron paramagnetic resonance imaging2014In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 159, no 1-4, p. 182-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) was performed to visualise 2D dose distributions of homogenously irradiated potassium dithionate tablets and to demonstrate determination of 1D dose profiles along the height of the tablets. Mathematical correction was applied for each relative dose profile in order to take into account the inhomogeneous response of the resonator using X-band EPRI. The dose profiles are presented with the spatial resolution of 0.6 mm from the acquired 2D images; this value is limited by pixel size, and 1D dose profiles from 1D imaging with spatial resolution of 0.3 mm limited by the intrinsic line-width of potassium dithionate. In this paper, dose profiles from 2D reconstructed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) images using the Xepr software package by Bruker are focussed. The conclusion is that using potassium dithionate, the resolution 0.3 mm is sufficient for mapping steep dose gradients if the dosemeters are covering only +/- 2 mm around the centre of the resonator.

  • 42. Krzempek, D.
    et al.
    Mianowska, G.
    Bassler, Niels
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Stolarczyk, L.
    Kopeć, R.
    Sas-Korczyńska, B.
    Olko, P.
    CALIBRATION OF GAFCHROMIC EBT3 FILM FOR DOSIMETRY OF SCANNING PROTON PENCIL BEAM (PBS)2018In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 180, no 1-4, p. 324-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gafchromic EBT3 films are applied in proton radiotherapy for 2D dose mapping because they demonstrate spatial resolution well below 1mm. However, the film response must be corrected in order to reach the accuracy of dose measurements required for the clinical use. The in-house developed AnalyseGafchromic software allows to analyze and correct the measured response using triple channel dose calibration, statistical scan-to-scan fluctuations as well as experimentally determined dose and LET dependence. Finally, the optimized protocol for evaluation of response of Gafchromic EBT3 films was applied to determine 30 x 40 cm(2) dose profiles of the scanning therapy unit at the Cyclotron Centre Bronowice, CCB in Krakow, Poland.

  • 43. Kulka, U.
    et al.
    Ainsbury, L.
    Atkinson, M.
    Barnard, S.
    Smith, R.
    Barquinero, J. F.
    Barrios, L.
    Bassinet, C.
    Beinke, C.
    Cucu, A.
    Darroudi, F.
    Fattibene, P.
    Bortolin, E.
    Della Monaca, S.
    Gil, O.
    Gregoire, E.
    Hadjidekova, V.
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Hatzi, V.
    Hempel, W.
    Herranz, R.
    Jaworska, A.
    Lindholm, C.
    Lumniczky, K.
    M'kacher, R.
    Moertl, S.
    Montoro, A.
    Moquet, J.
    Moreno, M.
    Noditi, M.
    Ogbazghi, A.
    Oestreicher, U.
    Palitti, F.
    Pantelias, G.
    Popescu, I.
    Prieto, M. J.
    Roch-Lefevre, S.
    Roessler, U.
    Romm, H.
    Rothkamm, K.
    Sabatier, L.
    Sebastia, N.
    Sommer, S.
    Terzoudi, G.
    Testa, A.
    Thierens, H.
    Trompier, F.
    Turai, I.
    Vandevoorde, C.
    Vaz, P.
    Voisin, P.
    Vral, A.
    Ugletveit, F.
    Wieser, A.
    Woda, C.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Realising the European network of biodosimetry: RENEB-status quo2015In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 164, no 1-2, p. 42-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creating a sustainable network in biological and retrospective dosimetry that involves a large number of experienced laboratories throughout the European Union (EU) will significantly improve the accident and emergency response capabilities in case of a large-scale radiological emergency. A well-organised cooperative action involving EU laboratories will offer the best chance for fast and trustworthy dose assessments that are urgently needed in an emergency situation. To this end, the EC supports the establishment of a European network in biological dosimetry (RENEB). The RENEB project started in January 2012 involving cooperation of 23 organisations from 16 European countries. The purpose of RENEB is to increase the biodosimetry capacities in case of large-scale radiological emergency scenarios. The progress of the project since its inception is presented, comprising the consolidation process of the network with its operational platform, intercomparison exercises, training activities, proceedings in quality assurance and horizon scanning for new methods and partners. Additionally, the benefit of the network for the radiation research community as a whole is addressed.

  • 44. Kulka, U.
    et al.
    Ainsbury, L.
    Atkinson, M.
    Barquinero, J. F.
    Barrios, L.
    Beinke, C.
    Bognar, G.
    Cucu, A.
    Darroudi, F.
    Fattibene, P.
    Gil, O.
    Gregoire, E.
    Hadjidekova, V.
    Haghdoost, Siamak
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Herranz, R.
    Jaworska, A.
    Lindholm, C.
    Mkacher, R.
    Moertl, S.
    Montoro, A.
    Moquet, J.
    Moreno, M.
    Ogbazghi, A.
    Oestreicher, U.
    Palitti, F.
    Pantelias, G.
    Popescu, I.
    Prieto, M. J.
    Romm, H.
    Rothkamm, K.
    Sabatier, L.
    Sommer, S.
    Terzoudi, G.
    Testa, A.
    Thierens, H.
    Trompier, F.
    Turai, I.
    Vandersickel, V.
    Vaz, P.
    Voisin, P.
    Vral, A.
    Ugletveit, F.
    Woda, C.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Realising the European Network of Biodosimetry (RENEB)2012In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 151, no 4, p. 621-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, a network for biological dosimetry has been created to strengthen the emergency preparedness and response capabilities in case of a large-scale nuclear accident or radiological emergency. Through the RENEB (Realising the European Network of Biodosimetry) project, 23 experienced laboratories from 16 European countries will establish a sustainable network for rapid, comprehensive and standardised biodosimetry provision that would be urgently required in an emergency situation on European ground. The foundation of the network is formed by five main pillars: (1) the ad hoc operational basis, (2) a basis of future developments, (3) an effective quality-management system, (4) arrangements to guarantee long-term sustainability and (5) awareness of the existence of RENEB. RENEB will thus provide a mechanism for quick, efficient and reliable support within the European radiation emergency management. The scientific basis of RENEB will concurrently contribute to increased safety in the field of radiation protection.

  • 45. Kulka, U.
    et al.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Di Giorgio, M.
    Wilkins, R.
    Suto, Y.
    Jang, S.
    Quing-Jie, L.
    Jiaxiang, L.
    Ainsbury, E.
    Woda, C.
    Roy, L.
    Li, C.
    Lloyd, D.
    Carr, Z.
    BIODOSIMETRY AND BIODOSIMETRY NETWORKS FOR MANAGING RADIATION EMERGENCY2018In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 182, no 1, p. 128-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological dosimetry enables individual dose reconstruction in the case of unclear or inconsistent radiation exposure situations, especially when a direct measurement of ionizing radiation is not or is no longer possible. To be prepared for large-scale radiological incidents, networking between well-trained laboratories has been identified as a useful approach for provision of the fast and trustworthy dose assessments needed in such circumstances. To this end, various biodosimetry laboratories worldwide have joined forces and set up regional and/or nationwide networks either on a formal or informal basis. Many of these laboratories are also a part of global networks such as those organized by World Health Organization, International Atomic Energy Agency or Global Health Security Initiative. In the present report, biodosimetry networks from different parts of the world are presented, and the partners, activities and cooperation actions are detailed. Moreover, guidance for situational application of tools used for individual dosimetry is given.

  • 46.
    Ledoux, X.
    et al.
    GANIL, Bd Henri Becquerel,BP 55027, F-14076 Caen 05, France..
    Aiche, M.
    CENBG, 19 Chemin Solarium,CS 10120, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Avrigeanu, M.
    NIPNE, Str Reactorului 30,POB MG-6, Bucharest, Romania..
    Avrigeanu, V.
    NIPNE, Str Reactorului 30,POB MG-6, Bucharest, Romania..
    Balanzat, E.
    CIMAP, Bd Henri Becquerel,BP 5133, F-14070 Caen 05, France..
    Ban-d'Etat, B.
    CIMAP, Bd Henri Becquerel,BP 5133, F-14070 Caen 05, France..
    Ban, G.
    LPC, 6 Bd Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen, France..
    Bauge, E.
    CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon, France..
    Belier, G.
    CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon, France..
    Bem, P.
    NPI, CZ-25068 Rez, Czech Republic..
    Borcea, C.
    NIPNE, Str Reactorului 30,POB MG-6, Bucharest, Romania..
    Caillaud, T.
    CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon, France..
    Chatillon, A.
    CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon, France..
    Czajkowski, S.
    CENBG, 19 Chemin Solarium,CS 10120, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Dessagne, P.
    Unive Strasbourg, IPHC, UMR 7178, CNRS, 23 Rue Loess,BP 28, F-67037 Strasbourg 2, France..
    Dore, D.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, DSM, IRFU,SPhN, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Fischer, U.
    KIT, Hermann von Helmholtz Pl 1, D-76344 Eggenstein Leopoldshafen, Germany..
    Fregeau, M. O.
    GANIL, Bd Henri Becquerel,BP 55027, F-14076 Caen 05, France..
    Grinyer, J.
    GANIL, Bd Henri Becquerel,BP 55027, F-14076 Caen 05, France..
    Guillous, S.
    CIMAP, Bd Henri Becquerel,BP 5133, F-14070 Caen 05, France..
    Gunsing, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, DSM, IRFU,SPhN, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gustavsson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Henning, G.
    Unive Strasbourg, IPHC, UMR 7178, CNRS, 23 Rue Loess,BP 28, F-67037 Strasbourg 2, France..
    Jacquot, B.
    GANIL, Bd Henri Becquerel,BP 55027, F-14076 Caen 05, France..
    Jansson, Kaj
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Jurado, B.
    CENBG, 19 Chemin Solarium,CS 10120, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Kerveno, M.
    Unive Strasbourg, IPHC, UMR 7178, CNRS, 23 Rue Loess,BP 28, F-67037 Strasbourg 2, France..
    Klix, A.
    KIT, Hermann von Helmholtz Pl 1, D-76344 Eggenstein Leopoldshafen, Germany..
    Landoas, O.
    CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon, France..
    Lecolley, F. R.
    LPC, 6 Bd Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen, France..
    Lecouey, J. L.
    LPC, 6 Bd Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen, France..
    Majerle, M.
    NPI, CZ-25068 Rez, Czech Republic..
    Marie, N.
    LPC, 6 Bd Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen, France..
    Materna, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, DSM, IRFU,SPhN, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Mrazek, J.
    NPI, CZ-25068 Rez, Czech Republic..
    Novak, J.
    NPI, CZ-25068 Rez, Czech Republic..
    Oberstedt, S.
    European Commiss, Joint Res Ctr, Geel, Belgium..
    Oberstedt, A.
    ELI NP, Str Reactorului 30,POB MG-6, Bucharest, Romania..
    Panebianco, S.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, DSM, IRFU,SPhN, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Perrot, L.
    IPNO, 15 Rue Georges Clemenceau, F-91406 Orsay, France..
    Plompen, A. J. M.
    European Commiss, Joint Res Ctr, Geel, Belgium..
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Prokofiev, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ramillon, J. M.
    CIMAP, Bd Henri Becquerel,BP 5133, F-14070 Caen 05, France..
    Farget, F.
    GANIL, Bd Henri Becquerel,BP 55027, F-14076 Caen 05, France..
    Ridikas, D.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, DSM, IRFU,SPhN, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Rosse, B.
    CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon, France..
    Serot, O.
    CEN Cadarache, CEA, DEN, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Simakov, S. P.
    KIT, Hermann von Helmholtz Pl 1, D-76344 Eggenstein Leopoldshafen, Germany..
    Simeckova, E.
    NPI, CZ-25068 Rez, Czech Republic..
    Stanoiu, M.
    NIPNE, Str Reactorului 30,POB MG-6, Bucharest, Romania..
    Stefanik, M.
    NPI, CZ-25068 Rez, Czech Republic..
    Sublet, J. C.
    Culham Ctr Fus Energy, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Taieb, J.
    CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon, France..
    Tarrio, Diego
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Tassan-Got, L.
    Thfoin, I.
    CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon, France..
    Varignon, C.
    CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon, France..
    The Neutrons for Science Facility at SPIRAL-22018In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 180, no 1-4, p. 115-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neutrons for science (NFS) facility is a component of SPIRAL-2, the new superconducting linear accelerator built at GANIL in Caen (France). The proton and deuteron beams delivered by the accelerator will allow producing intense neutron fields in the 100 keV-40 MeV energy range. Continuous and quasi-mono-kinetic energy spectra, respectively, will be available at NFS, produced by the interaction of a deuteron beam on a thick Be converter and by the Li-7(p, n) reaction on thin converter. The pulsed neutron beam, with a flux up to two orders of magnitude higher than those of other existing time-of-flight facilities, will open new opportunities of experiments in fundamental research as well as in nuclear data measurements. In addition to the neutron beam, irradiation stations for neutron-, proton- and deuteron-induced reactions will be available for cross-sections measurements and for the irradiation of electronic devices or biological cells. NFS, whose first experiment is foreseen in 2018, will be a very powerful tool for physics, fundamental research as well as applications like the transmutation of nuclear waste, design of future fission and fusion reactors, nuclear medicine or test and development of new detectors.

  • 47. Lillhök, J.
    et al.
    Persson, L.
    Andersen, C. E.
    Dasu, A.
    Ardenfors, Oscar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    RADIATION PROTECTION MEASUREMENTS WITH THE VARIANCE-COVARIANCE METHOD IN THE STRAY RADIATION FIELDS FROM PHOTON AND PROTON THERAPY FACILITIES2018In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 180, no 1-4, p. 338-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microdosimetric variance-covariance method was used to study the stray radiation fields from the photon therapy facility at the Technical University of Denmark and the scanned proton therapy beam at the Skandion Clinic in Uppsala, Sweden. Two TEPCs were used to determine the absorbed dose, the dose-average lineal energy, the dose-average quality factor and the dose equivalent. The neutron component measured by the detectors at the proton beam was studied through Monte Carlo simulations using the code MCNP6. In the photon beam the stray absorbed dose ranged between 0.3 and 2.4 mu Gy per monitor unit, and the dose equivalent between 0.4 and 9 mu Sv per monitor unit, depending on beam energy and measurement position. In the proton beam the stray absorbed dose ranged between 3 and 135 mu Gy per prescribed Gy, depending on detector position and primary proton energy.

  • 48.
    Lillhök, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Linda
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersen, Claus E.
    Center for Nuclear Technologies, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Dasu, Alexandru
    The Skandion Clinic, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ardenfors, Oscar
    Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Radiation protection measurements with the variance-covariance method in the stray radiation fields from photon and proton therapy facilities2018In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 180, no 1-4, p. 338-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microdosimetric variance–covariance method was used to study the stray radiation fields from the photon therapy facility at the Technical University of Denmark and the scanned proton therapy beam at the Skandion Clinic in Uppsala, Sweden. Two TEPCs were used to determine the absorbed dose, the dose-average lineal energy, the dose-average quality factor and the dose equivalent. The neutron component measured by the detectors at the proton beam was studied through Monte Carlo simulations using the code MCNP6. In the photon beam the stray absorbed dose ranged between 0.3 and 2.4 μGy per monitor unit, and the dose equivalent between 0.4 and 9 μSv per monitor unit, depending on beam energy and measurement position. In the proton beam the stray absorbed dose ranged between 3 and 135 μGy per prescribed Gy, depending on detector position and primary proton energy.

  • 49.
    Lindborg, Lennart
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hultqvist, Martha
    RaySearch Labs, Sweden.
    Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Swedish Radiat Safety Author, Sweden.
    Nikjoo, Hooshang
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nanodosimetry and RBE values in radiotherapy2015In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 166, no 1-4, p. 339-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent paper, the authors reported that the dose mean lineal energy, (y) over bar (D) in a volume of about 10-15 nm is approximately proportional to the alpha-parameter in the linear-quadratic relation used in fractionated radiotherapy in both low- and high-LET beams. This was concluded after analyses of reported radiation weighting factors, W-isoE (clinical RBE values), and (y) over bar (D) values in a large range of volumes. Usually, microdosimetry measurements in the nanometer range are difficult; therefore, model calculations become necessary. In this paper, the authors discuss the calculation method. A combination of condensed history Monte Carlo and track structure techniques for calculation of mean lineal energy values turned out to be quite useful. Briefly, the method consists in weighting the relative dose fractions of the primary and secondary charged particles with their respective energy-dependent dose mean lineal energies. The latter were obtained using a large database of Monte Carlo track structure calculations.

  • 50.
    Lund, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kolbun, Natallia
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    EPR imaging of dose distributions aiming at applications in radiation therapy2014In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 159, no 1-4, p. 130-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A one-dimensional electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging method for visualisation of dose distributions in photon fields has been developed. Pressed pellets of potassium dithionate were homogeneously irradiated in a Co-60 radiation field to 600 Gy. The EPR analysis was performed with an X-Band (9.6 GHz) Bruker E540 EPR and EPR imaging spectrometer equipped with an E540 GC2X two-axis X-band gradient coil set with gradients along the y axis (along the sample tube) and z axis (along B-0) and an ER 4108TMHS resonator. Image reconstruction, including deconvolution, baseline corrections and corrections for the resonator sensitivity, was performed using an in-house-developed Matlab code for the purpose to have a transparent and complete algorithm for image reconstruction. With this method, it is possible to visualise a dose distribution with an accuracy of similar to 5 % within +/- 5 mm from the centre of the resonator.

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