Change search
Refine search result
123 1 - 50 of 135
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Aasland, Olaf G.
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Nygaard, Peter
    Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The long and winding road to widespread implementation of screening and brief intervention for alcohol problems: A historical overview with special attention to the WHO initiatives2008In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 469-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Before 1970, special institutions, often prison-like, were built for the severely dependent. The effect of this type of treatment, often lasting for months or even years, was hard to document scientifically. During the 1970s several steps were taken towards a more preventive strategy that involved delivery of alcohol interventions in general health care settings, particularly within primary health care. The World Health Organization's (WHO) introduction of the concepts of hazardous and harmful drinking represented a shift from the traditional dichotomous view of individuals being alcoholic-or-not to a continuum where, in line with Rose's "prevention paradox", a large number of people with low risk may give rise to more cases of disease than the small number with high risk. The need for efficient methods to detect persons with various degrees of alcohol risk was evident, and a WHO multinational project that resulted in the publication of AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders identification Test) was carried out in the mid 1980s. The usefulness of this principle of case finding was then investigated in a subsequent multinational WHO project of brief intervention, as well as in several other similar projects. Many of these projects have proven quite efficient, but screening and brief intervention for alcohol problems is still not standard procedure in primary health care. The paper discusses some of the reasons why.

  • 2.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Alkohol och mötet mellan unga kvinnor och män2003In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 227-239Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    När jag drack för mycket: unga i 20-årsåldern berättar2003In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 395-408Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Sociala representationer av alkohol och narkotika i fokusgruppintervjuer med 18-åringar och tonårsföräldrar2006In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 343-358Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    "When I drank too much"  young people in their 20s tell their stories.2004In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 21, p. 63-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Äldres värderingar och ideal i skrivaruppropet "Alkoholen i mitt liv"2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 439-461Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Stenius, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Genetisk riskbedömning: nytt inslag i svensk alkoholskadeprevention2004In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 156-163Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Tryggvesson, Kalle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Socialtjänstens användning av standardiserade klientbedömningsinstrument – ASI som retorik och praktik i två svenska kommuner2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 21-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Alexanderson, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Näsman, Elisabet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Barns upplevelser när föräldrars missbruk upphört: "Alltså det är svårt att må bra igen"2017In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 400-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on interviews with fifteen children, whose parents have addiction problems. Purpose: To contribute to in-depth understanding of children’s situation when parents have ceased abusing drugs or alcohol. Method: An explorative interview study with childhood sociology and symbolic interactionism as theoretical framework. Outcome: The end of the abuse gives children space to feel how they feel, to reflect on the impact of the addiction on their health and personality, and to try changing themselves and their lives. Their need for processing may last for a long time. It can take time and be difficult to build up the relationship with the parent. Children can still feel care responsibility but also distrust and worry about relapses. However, teenagers can see opportunities to move on with their own life. If the abuse ends only for one of two parents with addiction problems, children are still affected by addiction. Conclusion: Children's need for processing in relation to the parents can both be time consuming and last for a long period of time, regardless of if the child lives with the parent or not. Children may need help for their own part but also in relation to the parent. Professionals should be encouraged to work with a family perspective, regardless of organizational divisions and if parents and children live together or not. This requires structures, procedures and resources for collaboration across organizational boundaries.

  • 10.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    What happened to the Swedish problem drug users of the 1960's and 1970's?2015In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 109-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS & DESIGN - In this study we follow a Stockholm birth cohort born in 1953 (n = 14 294) from youth to middle age. The cohort members were in their teenage years when drug abuse was established as a considerable threat to Swedish society and some of the cohort members themselves became drug abusers (n=431). RESULTS - As expected, life became dramatically worse for those with documented drug abuse when young, than for the rest of the cohort members. While 72 percent of those without documented drug abuse were socially included at the age of 56, the corresponding share among those with documented drug abuse was 18 per cent. And while 5 percent in the former group were diseased at 56, this was true for 38 percent in the latter group. Supplementary analyses showed that social inclusion was also less stable among those with documented drug abuse than among the rest of the cohort, and that the flow from exclusion to inclusion was virtually nonexistent, which was not the case for those without experience of drug abuse. CONCLUSIONS - Gender specific analyses showed that the situation, at least in absolute terms, tended to be even worse for male drug abusers than for women. Gender differences in alcohol abuse, criminality, and with respect to parenthood are suggested as possible explanations to be further studied in future research.

  • 11.
    Ander, Birgitta
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Changing arenas of underage adolescent binge drinking in Swedish small towns2015In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 427-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM – The study explores arenas of adolescent binge drinking in small Swedish towns and the meanings these have for young persons. The focus is thus on space and place, and on the geography of underage drinking.

    DESIGN – An ethnographic approach was used, including direct observations, document studies and contacts with youth workers on local and national levels, and interviews with 28 underage binge-drinking adolescents chosen as informants.

    FINDINGS – Adolescent binge drinkers seem to have moved away from street and other outdoor drinking arenas to home environments, where they feel they have more control over their party location and participants.

    CONCLUSIONS – One consequence of outdoor drinking moving indoors is that professional youth workers and police cannot enter party arenas and the only adults who can do so are the parents. This has implications for preventive alcohol strategies and outreach social work. Measures should be directed to parents to make them fully aware of the importance of the party location in their homes.

  • 12.
    Anderberg, Mats
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Dahlberg, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Gender differences among adolescents with substance abuse problems at Maria clinics in Sweden2018In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 24-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The article describes similarities and differences regarding various risk factors between girls and boys with substance abuse problems who begin outpatient treatment at the Maria clinics in Sweden. Potential hypotheses and some implications are also discussed. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on interview data from 2169 adolescents obtained over three years from outpatient clinics in 11 Swedish cities. Results: Girls appear to consistently have more difficult family and childhood environments than boys, and are more likely to have problems related to school, more serious substance abuse problems, and more severe mental health problems. Criminal activity is significantly higher among boys. Conclusions: The study shows that girls entering treatment generally have significantly more risk factors than boys and thus more extensive problems in several aspects of life, which in turn increases the risk of developing serious drug and alcohol problems in adulthood. The study supports the gender-paradoxical relationship in which a smaller proportion of girls than boys enter treatment for substance abuse, even though girls tend to have more problematic life situations.

  • 13.
    Anderberg, Mats
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    Dahlberg, Mikael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    Inter-rater reliability – a reliable measure for standardised: A case study on the DOK interview2007In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 45-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inter-rater reliability studies are unusual as regards the standardised interview instruments used in the Swedish treatment care system for substance abusers. This article presents the results of a study intended to establish the inter-rater reliability of DOK interviews, through identification of question areas and items with high or low correspondence, and through analysis of how ratings differ between different interviewers.

    In total 41 practitioners participated in this study, with various experiences and from six different treatment units of the Swedish treatment care system for substance abusers. Participants gave their ratings and completed the DOK questionnaire based on a video-taped interview. Calculation and analysis of the correspondences were carried out for each individual question area and also each individual item by using appropriate statistical methods. Differences between the various assessors are presented.

    The results of the study show that the percentage agreement for the question areas and the items is generally high, with the exception of a few isolated questions.

    Among the many possible different explanations for a lack of correspondence is that the questions could be ambiguously constructed and defined or the interview guidelines do not offer satisfactory guidance, or some questions could be too detailed. In addition, a few of the raters may lack sufficient training or experience when it comes to conducting interviews based on DOK. The combined results of the study show that there is a high level of inter-rater reliability, which indicates that in practice it is possible to utilise structured interviews such as DOK.

  • 14.
    Anderberg, Mats
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Dahlberg, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Mellan förenkling och komplexitet - om strukturerade intervjuer och behandlingsresultat i missbruksvård2010In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 223-240Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    The slippery slope of flubromazolam: Experiences of a novel psychoactive benzodiazepine as discussed on a Swedish online forum2017In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 217-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the effects experienced by users of a novel psychoactive substance, the benzodiazepine flubromazolam, by analysing users' own accounts on the Swedish forum Flashback.org. Method: A thematic analysis of anonymous self-reports published on the forum was performed and generated five general themes describing effects and experiences by flubromazolam users. Results: The themes which emerged were: Onset and duration, Desired effects, Adverse effects and addiction, Loss of control, General estimations and evaluations. The main reported characteristics of flubromazolam were heavy hypnotic and sedative effects, long-lasting amnesiac effects and the rapid development of tolerance. Flubromazolam was also anxiolytic and acted as a muscle relaxant for many users. Some users experienced euphoria or intense wellbeing. Other prominent characteristics were loss of control (leading to poor choices and actions, with unpleasant consequences) and long-lasting, often severe withdrawals. There were also serious incidents where users had been admitted to hospital, acute psychiatric treatment or taken into custody by the police. Conclusion: Flubromazolam appears to be a highly addictive and precarious benzodiazepine with many, possibly severe, side effects. The substance is generally described as very potent and with long-lasting effects. Memory loss and loss of control are common adverse effects, and withdrawals appear to be severe for many users

  • 16.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Lalander, Philip
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Mellan idrottslig disciplin och gränslöst supande2007In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 461-480Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Bergmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    A reasonable cost?:  On politics, dubious calculations and involuntary consumers2010In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Nordic studies on alcohol and drugs, Vol. 27, p. 335-337Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Bergmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Koloss på lerfötter?:  Svagt empiriskt stöd för Missbruksutredningens förslag (SOU 2011:35)2011In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 393-396Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bergmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    On the idea of treatment systems2010In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 565-573Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bergmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Skogens, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    von Greiff, Ninive
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The pursuit of evidence-based practice - a comparison of three guidelines on psychosocial interventions for alcohol problems2014In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 271-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    In this article we scrutinise three prominent guidelines on psychosocial interventions for alcohol problems. We pay special attention to how congruent the guidelines are in terms of the interventions recommended, and the processes used in order to identify and rank the “evidence” underpinning these recommendations.

    Data

    The analysed guidelines are: 1) Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Substance Use Disorders, American Psychiatric Association (2006); 2) Alcohol-Use Disorders. The NICE Guideline on Diagnosis, Assessment and Management of Harmful Drinking and Alcohol Dependence (2011), National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, UK; 3) Guidelines for the Treatment of Alcohol Problems, Australian Government, Department of Health and Ageing (2009). The purpose is not to review the three guidelines as such, but to study them as an example of the production of evidence. All report to be based on “best available evidence”, so the guidelines were compared both regarding the actual recommendations and the guideline production procedures and differences in these procedures with related consequences.

    Results & CONCLUSIONS

    Prestigious organisations in different national contexts have reached divergent conclusions about evidence-based practice and the quality of the scientific studies underpinning these conclusions. Differences in the guidelines regarding interpretations, limitations and grading illustrate the difficulties with the dilemmas of sensitivity (to include factors that are significant for how a psychological intervention is to be judged) and specificity (that irrelevant studies are cleared off) in the recommendations presented.

  • 21.
    Bergmark, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bergmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The diffusion of addiction to the field of MMORPGs2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 415-426Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bergström, Magdalena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "I could've had a better life'': reflective life reviews told by late-middle-aged and older women and men with ongoing long-term alcohol problems2017In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 6-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study accounts for how people aged 55-69 with ongoing long-term alcohol problems conceptualize past, present and future.

    Methods: A total of 19 interviews were performed, from which reflective life reviews were obtained and analyzed as narrative life accounts. Three structuring thematic traits were identified: resentment of life, acceptance of life and gratitude towards life.

    Results: The study shows how past, present and future intertwine into meaningful entities incorporating certain governing master narratives about recovery, familiar for example from expert discourse and the AA movement. When it comes to the theme of resentment, the participants articulated disappointment over what life had become and emphasized especially the missed work-related opportunities that the drinking had caused. In the theme of acceptance letting go of the past was viewed as important for creating a sober future. Within the dimension of gratitude the past was seen as a resource for self-development and future recovery.

    Conclusions: How long-term alcohol problems are conceptualized in the long view of a life narrative may have great implications for outlooks of a sober future. A closer look at the social and cultural material incorporated in the stories of this age group is an important task for future research.

  • 23.
    Binde, Per
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Forsström, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Swedish translation of DSM-5 “Gambling Disorder”: Reflections on nosology and terminology2015In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 219-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this commentary we discuss the translation into Swedish of the term Gambling Disorder (GD) in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2015). An earlier commentary in this journal described and discussed the translation into Finnish (Castrén, Salonen, Alho, & Lahti, 2014).

  • 24.
    Björkman, Jenny
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 3, Contemporary history.
    Faran finns i glaset: Kampanjer mot alkoholmissbruk under det tidiga 1900-talet i Sverige2002In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 19, no 5-6, p. 378-397Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Blomqvist, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Att lägga sitt missbruk bakom sig: om ”spontanläkning” och betydelsen av behandling2001In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 163-174Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Blomqvist, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    What is the worst thing you could get hooked on?: Popular images of addiction problems in contemporary Sweden2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 373-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimsTo investigate potentially crucial aspects of Swedes' perceptions of nine different addictions

    Data and methodsPopulation survey, sent out to 2,000 adult Swedes (18-74 years), focusing on the perceived severity of, responsibility for, options to recover from, and character of addiction to cigarettes, snuff, alcohol, cannabis, amphetamine, cocaine, heroin, medical drugs, and gambling.

    ResultsThere are large differences in the ways in which various addiction problems are perceived. Whereas tobacco use, and to some extent gambling, are seen as relatively harmless "habits", not particularly easy to get hooked on but easy to quit, the use of drugs such as heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine is seen as a major societal problem, and users are seen both as "sinners" who need to mend their ways and as powerless "victims". In between comes the use and misuse of alcohol, cannabis and medical drugs, about which perceptions are more divided.

    ConclusionsRespondents tend to downplay the risks and dangers with addictive habits that are common and familiar in mainstream culture, and to dramatise the risks and dangers with such habits that are uncommon or "strange". This may have unfortunate consequences for addicts' options to find a path out of their predicaments.

  • 27. Bloomfield, Kim
    et al.
    Grittner, Ulrike
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany.
    Piontek, Daniela
    Drinking patterns at the sub-national level: What do they tell us about drinking cultures in European countries?2017In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 342-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    A drinking pattern is not only a major drinking variable, but is also one indicator of a country's drinking culture. In the present study, we examine drinking patterns within and across the neighbouring countries of Denmark and Germany. The aim of the research is to determine to what extent drinking patterns differ or are shared at the sub-national level in the two countries.

    Method:

    Data came from the German 2012 Epidemiological Survey of Substance Use (n = 9084) 18-64 years (response rate 54%), and the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research's 2011 Danish national survey (n = 5133) 15-79 years (response rate 64%), which was reduced to a common age range, producing a final n = 4016. The drinking pattern variable included abstention, moderate drinking, heavy drinking, risky single occasion drinking (RSOD), and was investigated with bivariate statistics and gender-specific hierarchical cluster analysis.

    Results:

    For men three clusters emerged: one highlighting abstention and RSOD, moderate/heavy drinking, RSOD and RSOD + heavy drinking. For women, two clusters appeared: one highlighting abstention and moderate/heavy drinking and the other highlighting RSOD and RSDO + heavy drinking. The clusters revealed different geographical patterning: for men, a west vs. east divide; for women, a north-south gradient.

    Conclusions:

    The analysis could identify for each gender clusters representing both separate and shared drinking patterns as well as distinctive geographical placements. This new knowledge can contribute to a new understanding of the dynamics of drinking cultures and could indicate new approaches to prevention efforts and policy initiatives.

  • 28.
    Borschos, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Drinking driving offenses among Swedish youths: recent trends in developments2000In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 17, no English supplement, p. 43-56Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work.
    Declining alcohol consumption among adolescents and schools in Stockholm, 2010–20162019In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 344-356Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Dahlberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Anderberg, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    The hidden population: Some methodological issues about estimation of problematic drug use2013In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 149-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM - This article analyses and discusses the estimation of serious or problematic drug use through an empirical example based on a local Swedish study in Gothenburg. METHODS AND DATA - This was a case-finding study with questionnaires directed at organisations which have contact with the target group. The material was supplemented with information from the two documentation systems DOK and ASI. A total of 2,148 reports were collected. Health care data of 1,096 individuals was also collected for analysis with the truncated Poisson method. Analyses with capture-recapture or truncated Poisson were conducted to calculate the size of the hidden population. RESULTS - The statistical analyses resulted in variable numbers for the hidden population, and the total prevalence of serious drug abuse in Gothenburg is estimated to be between 2,200 and 4,400 people. CONCLUSION - The study shows that estimation of the presence and prevalence of problematic drug abuse involves many methodological difficulties and challenges. The significant variation of the size of the hidden population presented in the study raises doubts about the reliability and validity of the different methods. The methods are clearly sensitive to the importance of fulfilling the different basic assumptions

  • 31.
    Dahlberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Anderberg, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm university ; Karolinska institutet.
    Psychometric properties of the UngDOK: A structured interview for adolescents with substance-use problems2017In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 160-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This article describes and discusses the Swedish UngDOK interview and its psychometric properties. Method: The study is based on empirical data from 1633 intake interviews collected by 15 units in ten cities and focused primarily on the two central sections of intake form: alcohol and drug use and mental health. The statistical analyses concern internal consistency, test–retest reliability, discriminant validity and internal non-response. Results: The reliability of AUDIT-C and the mental health domain was good with regard to both internal consistency and test–retest. The test–retest values were generally satisfactory, except for frequency of drug use and association with peers who use drugs. The discriminant validity shows that the interview clearly distinguishes adolescents with more profound problems from a group with milder problems and that a minor degree of inconsistency and non-response bias may occur in empirical material based upon self-reported information. Conclusion: The study showed that the psychometric properties of the UngDOK interview are generally satisfactory and may be regarded as a valuable option for practices engaged in treating adolescents with substance-use problems.

  • 32.
    Edman, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    A qualitative analysis of Pål Kraft2017In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 196-197Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Edman, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    The war on good research: Debating research ethics and methods on the basis of Jay Levy’s The war on people who use drugs: The harms of Sweden’s aim for a drug-free society (Routledge, 2017)2019In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 387-396Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Edman, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Berndt, Josefine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    From boredom to dependence: The medicalisation of the Swedish gambling problem2016In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 81-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS - The aim of this study is to investigate the medicalising of gambling problems by comparing the political discussions on gambling in the Swedish Parliament in the early 1970s and the early 2010s. DESIGN - Against a theoretical background on medicalising processes in general, and medicalisation of gambling problems in particular, we have analysed discussion protocols and parliamentary bills in the Swedish Parliament from the years 1970-1975 and 2012-2013. RESULTS - The problem descriptions of the 1970s and 2010s are, in certain respects, strikingly similar, identifying proactive operators such as the gambling companies and highlighting an inadequate legal framework. But where the MPs of the 1970s put some effort into describing the drab society which fed the need for gambling, the elected representatives of the 2010s shortcut to individual dependence. CONCLUSIONS - EU membership and the development of the Internet have made effective control and regulation impossible in the early 2010s and the political handling of the Swedish gambling problem is therefore a clear example of how market liberalisation can pave the way for individualisation, medicalisation and depoliticisation of social problems.

  • 35.
    Edman, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Olsson, Börje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    The Swedish drug problem: conceptual understandingand problem handling, 1839–20112014In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 31, no 5-6, p. 503-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM – To analyse the Swedish drug question by examining dominant concepts used to portray theproblem in the years 1839–2011. Theoretically, we understand these concepts as ideological toolsthat shape the political initiatives and administrative efforts to deal with the problem. The studyis based on two kinds of source material: articles in medical journals from the years 1839–1964and public reports on vagrancy, the alcohol problem, mental health and the drug problem fromthe years 1882–2011.

    FINDINGS – During the nineteenth century and the first part of the twentieth century the drugproblem remained an individual problem handled by doctors. When the Swedish drug problemwas established as a political question from the 1960s on, it also came to disengage itself from themedical frame of understanding. Medically oriented descriptions of “dependence” and “addiction”have appeared adequate or attractive when, for example, the socially motivated coercive treatmentsolution has been discredited (as in the 1970s), when there has been a desire to connect with aninternationally accepted terminology (as in the 1990s) or when a new organisational model with astronger professional support has been on the agenda (as in the 2010s). But otherwise the socialproblem description has called for concepts that have more or less explicitly dissociated themselvesfrom speculations in physiological or psychological predispositions for substance abuse.

  • 36.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Socialtjänst och missbrukarvård: bot eller lindring?2011In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Nordic studies on alcohol and drugs, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 297-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social service and addiction treatment: rehabilitation or harm reduction?

    AIM –This paper aims to depict and analyze how professionals in Swedish social services legitimize two ideologically controversial help interventions, methadone maintenance and coercive treatment. Should addiction treatment primarily rehabilitate clients, or should it be a short-term measure for harm reduction? This question has been less and less discussed inSwedenduring the past few years, as it has been accepted that all help should be based on science, not ideology – irrespective of it being aimed at harm reduction or rehabilitation. However, there is a lack of research regarding how crucial players in addiction treatment relate to this development, especially when applied on socially vulnerable clients. MATERIAL & METHOD – The empirical material consists of 33 qualitative interviews with social workers from Stockholm and its surrounding area. The interviews are analyzed through discourse analysis. RESULT – When describing their work, the respondents' discourse assumed and advocated progress in client case management. CONCLUSION – By emphasizing concepts such as lifestyle change, client motivation, psychosocial support and aftercare the social workers could construct the two forms of treatment as less ideologically extreme, but also as undoubtedly aligned with the political goal of rehabilitation. 

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Edman, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Great expectations: The bureaucratic handling of Swedish residential rehabilitation in the 21st century2018In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 257-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Increasingly, efforts to counteract perceived problems in drug treatment at residential rehabilitation centres have come to rely on measures drawing on evidence-based practice (EBP). However, the Swedish media, government inquiries, and international research have identified a number of problems regarding both residential rehabilitation and EBP. This suggests that caution should be exercised when placing expectations on EBP. The aim of this study is to investigate how the responsible authorities have handled increasing demands for EBP with administrative control while facing critical evaluations of their steering and implementation efforts. The study examines the maturation of a widespread treatment ideology, which aims to be based on evidence, in a country known for its restrictive drug policy and its goal of becoming a drug-free society. Methods: Through a qualitative textual analysis of 17 years (2000-2016) of inquiries, directives, and authority archives we have traced the interplay between problem descriptions, intended goals, and implemented solutions. Findings: The analysis shows that the ambition to provide care and welfare based on EBP is still an ambition. Also, the authorities' control over the care actually provided still leaves room for improvement. Recurring criticism and the empirical material indicate that the expectations have not been met. Conclusions: We would like to suggest that continued frustration can be traced to the misconception that EBP is the opposite of values and ideology, and hence preferable. As drug treatment strives for scientific credibility to give it legitimacy, some types of evidence are preferred above others. We would like to suggest that we need to bring ideology to the fore, and openly discuss our restrictive policy goals and choices of evidence.

  • 38.
    Forsström, David
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Jenny, Cisneros Örnberg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Responsible gambling in practice: A case study of views and practices of Swedish oriented gambling companies2019In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 91-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish gambling market faces a major change in legislation that will allow foreign-based companies to apply for a gambling licence in Sweden. A key element in the new legislation are consumer protection measures. The Swedish gambling market is currently divided between licensed companies and non-Swedish-based companies providing online gambling services without a licence in Sweden. How these companies view their responsibility for preventing gambling-related harm and how prepared they are for the new regulations are important questions regarding the new Swedish gambling market. Aims: To compare and analyse the views and practices on problem gambling and responsible gambling (RG) measures among licensed and unlicensed gambling companies on the Swedish market. Design/Methods/Data: Eleven semi-structured interviews were carried out with responsible gambling managers who are members of either of the two Swedish industry associations. Content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. Results: Non-licensed companies have implemented behaviour tracking and monitoring of gamblers in a more extensive way than licensed companies. Both the licensed and the unlicensed companies conceptualise problem gambling in a similar manner and rely on informed choice in preventing gamblers from developing problems, seemingly arguing that offering responsible gambling measures on their website is enough. Conclusions: There are several similarities in how the two types of companies define problem gambling and responsible gambling. Both groups lack a critical perspective when discussing RG. There is a need for companies not only to provide RG measures, but to take an active role in preventing harm among gamblers. Future research should focus on exploring how companies work with RG after the legislative change.

  • 39.
    Gedeon, Charlotte
    et al.
    Solstenen Addict Ctr, Skane, Sweden.
    Sandell, Mikael
    Capio Maria, Stockholm, Sweden;Capio Maria, Skane, Sweden.
    Birkemose, Inge
    Odense Kommune, Misbrugsbehandling, Denmark.
    Kakko, Johan
    Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden.
    Runarsdottir, Valgerdur
    SAAs Vogur Hosp, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Simojoki, Kaarlo
    Helsinki Univ Hosp, Helsinki, Finland;Univ Helsinki, A Clin Oy, A Clin Fdn, Helsinki, Finland.
    Clausen, Thomas
    Univ Oslo, Norwegian Ctr Addict Res, Oslo, Norway.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Littlewood, Richard
    Appl Strateg, London, England.
    Alho, Hannu
    Helsinki Univ Hosp, Helsinki, Finland;Univ Helsinki, Abdominal Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.
    Standards for opioid use disorder care: An assessment of Nordic approaches2019In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 286-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Outcomes in opioid use disorder (OUD) in Nordic countries have improved with integrated treatment and harm-reduction programmes. Approaches and the standard of care are different across the region. Evidence of treatment needs and current approaches are defined from evidence to inform development of a common standard. Method: Evidence of population sizes and treatment approach collected. Common standards for care (harm reduction, pharmacotherapy, psychology/social therapy) defined for each country. Results: Evidence defines number in treatment; potential population needing treatment not defined for all countries. Populations sizes, treatment access (ratio in treatment programme compared to total country population) defined: Sweden 4,000 in OUD care (access ratio 40); Finland 3,000 (55); Norway 8,000 (154); Denmark 7,500 (132). Approach to treatment similar: integrated treatment programmes standard. Care provided by specialists in outpatient clinics/primary care; secondary care/inpatient services are available. Harm reduction is limited in Sweden but available and more accessible elsewhere. Treatment entry criteria: access relatively unlimited in Norway and Denmark, more limited in Finland and Sweden. Standards of care defined: easy access to high-quality services, individual planning, care not limited by time, management of relapse, education for patients, continuous engagement, holistic approach including management of comorbidities, needle equipment programmes without limit, treatment in prisons as community. Conclusion: There are opportunities to improve OUD care in the Nordics. Policy makers and clinicians can advance OUD care and share common success factors. Collaborative work across the Nordic countries is valuable. Further research in clinical practice development can yield important results for the benefit of patients with OUD.

  • 40. Gedeon, Charlotte
    et al.
    Sandell, Mikael
    Birkemose, Inge
    Kakko, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Runarsdottir, Valgerdur
    Simojoki, Kaarlo
    Clausen, Thomas
    Nyberg, Fred
    Littlewood, Richard
    Alho, Hannu
    Standards for opioid use disorder care: An assessment of Nordic approaches2019In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 286-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Outcomes in opioid use disorder (OUD) in Nordic countries have improved with integrated treatment and harm-reduction programmes. Approaches and the standard of care are different across the region. Evidence of treatment needs and current approaches are defined from evidence to inform development of a common standard.

    Method: Evidence of population sizes and treatment approach collected. Common standards for care (harm reduction, pharmacotherapy, psychology/social therapy) defined for each country.

    Results: Evidence defines number in treatment; potential population needing treatment not defined for all countries. Populations sizes, treatment access (ratio in treatment programme compared to total country population) defined: Sweden 4,000 in OUD care (access ratio 40); Finland 3,000 (55); Norway 8,000 (154); Denmark 7,500 (132). Approach to treatment similar: integrated treatment programmes standard. Care provided by specialists in outpatient clinics/primary care; secondary care/inpatient services are available. Harm reduction is limited in Sweden but available and more accessible elsewhere. Treatment entry criteria: access relatively unlimited in Norway and Denmark, more limited in Finland and Sweden. Standards of care defined: easy access to high-quality services, individual planning, care not limited by time, management of relapse, education for patients, continuous engagement, holistic approach including management of comorbidities, needle equipment programmes without limit, treatment in prisons as community.

    Conclusion: There are opportunities to improve OUD care in the Nordics. Policy makers and clinicians can advance OUD care and share common success factors. Collaborative work across the Nordic countries is valuable. Further research in clinical practice development can yield important results for the benefit of patients with OUD.

  • 41.
    Geidne, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Beckman, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Edvardsson, Ingrid
    Hulldin, Johanna
    Örebro universitet.
    Prevalence and Risk factors of Electronic Cigarette Use among Adolescents: Data from Four Swedish Municipalities Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs2016In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 333, no 3, p. 225-240Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Assessment instrument for diagnosis of dependence and abuse: Examination of the validity and internal consistence of ADDIS concerning alcohol problems2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 265-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Board on Health and Welfare recommends that structured assessment instruments should be used in medical as well as in social treatment of substance misusers. These should be validated in a Swedish context. Instruments for diagnoses of dependence/abuse (DSM-IV) and dependence/harmful use (ICD-10) have been used in Sweden for many years, although not yet validated in Swedish. ADDIS, the Swedish version of the American SUDDS, is used in four Nordic countries and the most often used diagnostic instrument in Sweden. This article investigates the psychometric properties of ADDIS alcohol module, including discriminant and construct validity and internal consistency. The two main constructs in DSM - dependence and abuse - as well as the seven criteria for dependence and the four criteria for abuse are studied. Further, the value of each of the 44 specific items in ADDIS for capturing these criteria is studied.

     

    Two samples are explored: 1) a clinical sample (n = 349; incl. 129 women) and 2) a sample of 400 men convicted for driving while intoxicated. Mean age was the same (41 ys.). Using discriminant analyses on lifetime prevalence, the items correctly classify 94% of the cases in the two samples. Using one-factor principal component analysis to explore homogeneity of the combined samples, all 28 items on dependence and 15 of 18 items on abuse have loadings above 0,40 (R2 dependence = 0,46; abuse = 0,40). Separate analyses of the two samples, as well as on women, show similar results. Cronbach's alpha is excellent for dependence and satisfactory for abuse in all analyses. Analyses of specific criteria show satisfactory results on dependence and acceptable on abuse. Minor revisions are proposed to make ADDIS more user-friendly and to improve some specific items.

     

    In conclusion: ADDIS has acceptable to excellent discriminant and construct validity as well as internal consistency and captures the specific criteria of DSM-IV. It has the preconditions for sensitive assessment of alcohol use disorders in men and women.

     

     

  • 43.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Diagnosinstrument för beroende och missbruk – Granskning av ADDIS validitet och interna konsistens gällande alkoholproblem2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 265-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Board on Health and Welfare recommends that structured assessment instruments should be used in medical as well as in social treatment of substance misusers. These should be validated in a Swedish context. Instruments for diagnoses of dependence/abuse (DSM-IV) and dependence/harmful use (ICD-10) have been used in Sweden for many years, although not yet validated in Swedish. ADDIS, Swedish version of the American SUDDS, is used in four Nordic countries and the most often used diagnostic instrument in Sweden. This article investigates the psychometric properties of ADDIS alcohol module, including discriminant and construct validity and internal consistency. The two main constructs in DSM – dependence and abuse – as well as the seven criteria for dependence and the four criteria for abuse are studied. Further, the value of each of the 44 specific items in ADDIS for capturing these criteria is studied.

    Two samples are explored: 1) a clinical sample (n = 349; incl. 129 women) and 2) a sample of 400 men convicted for driving while intoxicated. Mean age was the same (41 ys.). Using discriminant analyses on lifetime prevalence, the items correctly classify 94 % of the cases in the two samples. Using one-factor principal component analysis to explore homogeneity of the combined samples, all 28 items on dependence and 15 of 18 items on abuse have loadings above 0,40 (R2 dependence = 0,46; abuse = 0,40). Separate analyses of the two samples, as well as on women, show similar results. Cronbach’s alpha is excellent for dependence and satisfactory for abuse in all analyses. Analyses of specific criteria show satisfactory results on dependence and acceptable on abuse. Minor revisions are proposed to make ADDIS more user-friendly and to improve some specific items. In conclusion: ADDIS has acceptable to excellent discriminant and construct validity as well as internal consistency and captures the specific criteria of DSM-IV. It has the preconditions for sensitive assessment of alcohol use disorders in men and women.

  • 44.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Diagnosinstrument för beroende och missbruk - Granskning av ADDIS validitet och interna konsistens gällande alkoholproblem2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 265-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Board on Health and Welfare recommends that structured assessment instruments should be used in medical as well as in social treatment of substance misusers. These should be validated in a Swedish context. Instruments for diagnoses of dependence/abuse (DSM-IV) and dependence/harmful use (ICD-10) have been used in Sweden for many years, although not yet validated in Swedish. ADDIS, the Swedish version of the American SUDDS, is used in four Nordic countries and the most often used diagnostic instrument in Sweden. This article investigates the psychometric properties of ADDIS alcohol module, including discriminant and construct validity and internal consistency. The two main constructs in DSM - dependence and abuse - as well as the seven criteria for dependence and the four criteria for abuse are studied. Further, the value of each of the 44 specific items in ADDIS for capturing these criteria is studied.

    Two samples are explored: 1) a clinical sample (n = 349; incl. 129 women) and 2) a sample of 400 men convicted for driving while intoxicated. Mean age was the same (41 ys.). Using discriminant analyses on lifetime prevalence, the items correctly classify 94% of the cases in the two samples. Using one-factor principal component analysis to explore homogeneity of the combined samples, all 28 items on dependence and 15 of 18 items on abuse have loadings above 0,40 (R2 dependence = 0,46; abuse = 0,40). Separate analyses of the two samples, as well as on women, show similar results. Cronbach's alpha is excellent for dependence and satisfactory for abuse in all analyses. Analyses of specific criteria show satisfactory results on dependence and acceptable on abuse. Minor revisions are proposed to make ADDIS more user-friendly and to improve some specific items.

    In conclusion: ADDIS has acceptable to excellent discriminant and construct validity as well as internal consistency and captures the specific criteria of DSM-IV. It has the preconditions for sensitive assessment of alcohol use disorders in men and women.

  • 45.
    Giertsen, Hedda
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway .
    Nylander, Per Åke
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Asmussen Frank, Vibeke
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark .
    Kolind, Torsten
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark .
    Tourunen, Jouni
    A-Clinic Foundation, Helsinki, Finland .
    Prisoners' experiences of drug treatment and punishment in four Nordic countries2015In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 145-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: This article describes and analyses prisoners’ experiences of drug treatment in prison in four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The article examines how prisoners experience drug treatment, control and sanctions as related to three main topics, namely motivation; the content of the measure and relations to staff; and control and sanctions.

    METHODS & DATA: The article is based on data from twelve prisons, three in each of the four countries; 91 interviews with prisoners; and around six months of observation. The two main kinds of drug treatment measures are drug treatment units and day programmes.

    RESULTS: Prisoners described several motives to participate in drug treatment measures: to leave drugs and crime; to renew relations with family and friends; to solve health problems; and to improve their prison conditions. Prisoners found that drug treatment measures offered possibilities to acquire new ways of being. Staff behaviour seemed to be more important to prisoners than the methods used, and some prisoners seemed more positive to staff involved with the drug treatment than to other staff. A surprising finding was the prisoners’ limited critique of controls and sanctions. We see this as embedded in the situation of being a prisoner, and also in relation to contexts outside prison.

    CONCLUSION: In discussing their experiences in the treatment units, prisoners are not so concerned about the rehabilitative features or the controls and sanctions. They evaluate their present situation in light of a future, which is their real concern. This is in line with a main task for staff, which is to prepare prisoners for release. 

  • 46. Grittner, Ulrike
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Huhtanen, Petri
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Stockholm Prevents Alcohol and Drug Problems (STAD), Centre for Dependency Disorders, Stockholm County Council.
    Nordlund, Sturla
    Bloomfield, Kim
    Who are the private alcohol importers in the Nordic countries?2014In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 125-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims – The high price of alcohol in the Nordic countries has been a long-standing policy to curb consumption, which has led consumers to importing alcohol from countries with lower prices. This paper seeks to develop a profile of alcohol importers in four Nordic countries. Methods – Cross-sectional data from general population surveys in Denmark (2003–2006), Norway (2004), Sweden (2003–2006) and Finland (2005–2006) were analysed by multiple logistic and linear regression. Independent variables included region, socio-demographics, drinking indicators and alcohol-related problems. Outcome variables were importer status and amount of imported alcohol.  Results – People living in regions close to countries with lower alcohol prices were more often importers and imported higher amounts than people living in other regions. Higher educated persons were more likely to be importers, but the amounts imported were smaller than those by people with lower education. Persons with higher incomes were also more likely to be importers and they also imported larger amounts than people with lower incomes. In Sweden and Denmark regional differences of importer rates were more pronounced for persons of lower incomes. Age, risky single-occasion drinking, risky drinking and alcohol problems were positively related to the amounts of imported alcohol. Conclusions – Private importers in the Nordic countries are an integrated yet heavy drinking segment of society and do not appear to be located on the fringes of society.

  • 47.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Arminen, Ilkka: Therapeutic Interaction. A Study of Mutual Help in the Meetings of Alcoholics Anonymous.2000In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 17, no English Supplement, p. 107-110Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Konversationskulturen inom AA. Recension av I. Arminens avhandling, Therapeutic Interaction1999In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 16, p. 377-380Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Personal experiences of drinking and alcohol-related risk perceptions: The importance of the subjective dimension2012In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 413-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims - To explore the association between subjective experiences of drinking and alcohol-related risk perceptions. Methods - The data is based on a questionnaire with questions about beliefs, use habits and experiences of alcohol and tobacco sent to a random sample of 3,000 Swedes aged 18 to 70 years (response rate= 1,623 individuals, or 54%). In this study, those respondents who had ever been drinking alcohol were included (1,536 individuals). The data were analysed statistically by cross tabs and multiple logistic regression. Results - With some exceptions, the results generally showed that differences in subjective experiences of drinking were related to risk perceptions of alcohol consumption. In particular, those who had more negative than positive subjective experiences of alcohol consumption had substantially higher risk perceptions than those who had more positive than negative experiences, controlling for alcohol consumption and potential confounders. There were also several significant differences between individuals differently involved in alcohol consumption, net of subjective experiences. Conclusions - Subjective experiences of alcohol consumption appear to be an important construct in relation to alcohol-related risk perceptions. To understand the link between personal experiences and risk perceptions pertaining to alcohol consumption, both objective measures of personal experiences and subjective measures should be considered.

  • 50.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gripe, Isabella
    Raninen, Jonas
    Individual and school-class correlates of youth cannabis use in Sweden: A multilevel study2018In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 131-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: The school-class context is a crucial social environment for young people but substance use researchers have largely overlooked potential influences operating at this level. This study explores associations between school-class and individual-level factors and cannabis use in Swedish youth.

    Data and methods: Data comprised four waves (2012–2015) of the Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs’ (CAN) nationally representative school surveys among individuals in 9th and 11th grade. For the present analyses, we had data on totally 28,729 individuals from 2377 unique school classes. Multilevel logistic regressions predicted lifetime and 10+ times use of cannabis from both individual-level predictors and school-class-level measures derived from the individual-level variables.

    Results: There were individual-level associations between most predictor variables and cannabis use. An early debut of tobacco use and binge drinking as well as low cannabis related risk perceptions had strong associations with cannabis use. Conversely, several school-class-level variables had aggregate relationships with cannabis use, most notably the overall level of risk perceptions in the school class. Some of the school-class factors predicted cannabis use over and above the individual-level covariates, suggesting the presence of contextual effects. Surprisingly, while female gender was negatively related with cannabis use at the individual level, a higher proportion of females in the classroom increased the odds for lifetime cannabis use even after controlling for individual and other contextual-level covariates.

    Conclusions: Youth cannabis use is related to various factors at both the individual and school-class level in Sweden. Truancy and perceived risk related to cannabis use had contextual associations with cannabis use. The positive contextual association between a higher proportion of females in the classroom and lifetime use should be explored further.

123 1 - 50 of 135
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf