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  • 1. Aazh, Hashir
    et al.
    Knipper, Marlies
    Danesh, Ali A.
    Cavanna, Andrea E.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schecklmann, Martin
    Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja
    Moore, Brian C. J.
    Insights from the Third International Conference on Hyperacusis: Causes, Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment2018In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 20, no 95, p. 162-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hyperacusis is intolerance of certain everyday sounds that causes significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, recreational, and other day-to-day activities. Objective: The aim of this report is to summarize the key findings and conclusions from the Third International Conference on Hyperacusis. Topics covered: The main topics discussed comprise (1) diagnosis of hyperacusis and audiological evaluations, (2) neurobiological aspect of hyperacusis, (3) misophonia, (4) hyperacusis in autism spectrum disorder, (5) noise sensitivity, (6) hyperacusis-related distress and comorbid psychiatric illness, and (7) audiologist-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for hyperacusis. Conclusions: Implications for research and clinical practice are summarised.

  • 2.
    Arlinger, Stig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, RC - Rekonstruktionscentrum, ÖNH - Öron- Näsa- Halskliniken.
    Ivarsson, U.
    On quality assurance in occupational hearing conservation programs: an evaluation based on ANSI S 12.13-1991.1999In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 2, p. 73-77Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Basner, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Penn, PA 19104 USA.
    Brink, Mark
    Noise and NIR Div, Switzerland.
    Bristow, Abigail
    University of Loughborough, England.
    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne
    Netherlands Org Appl Science Research TNO, Netherlands.
    Finegold, Lawrence
    Finegold and So Consultants, OH 45459 USA.
    Hong, Jiyoung
    Korea Railrd Research Institute, South Korea.
    Janssen, Sabine A.
    Netherlands Org Appl Science Research TNO, Netherlands.
    Klaeboe, Ronny
    Institute Transport Econ TOI, Norway.
    Leroux, Tony
    University of Montreal, Canada.
    Liebl, Andreas
    Fraunhofer Institute Bldg Phys IBP, Germany.
    Matsui, Toshihito
    Hokkaido University, Japan.
    Schwela, Dieter
    University of York, England.
    Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola
    Nofer Institute Occupat Med, Poland.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-20142015In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 17, no 75, p. 57-82Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health.

  • 4.
    Basner, Mathias
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, Division of Sleep and Chronobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Brink, Mark
    Federal Office for the Environment, Noise and NIR Division, Bern, Switzerland.
    Bristow, Abigail
    School of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne
    Department of Urban Environment and Safety, The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Delft, Netherlands.
    Finegold, Lawrence
    Finegold & So, Consultants, 1167 Bournemouth Court, Centerville, Ohio 45459, USA.
    Hong, Jiyoung
    Eco-Transport Research Division, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Republic of Korea.
    Janssen, Sabine A.
    Department of Urban Environment and Safety, The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Delft, Netherlands.
    Klaeboe, Ronny
    Department of Safety, Security and Environment, Institute of Transport Economics (TØI), Oslo, Norway.
    Leroux, Tony
    School of Speech Language and Audiology, University of Montreal, Montréal (Québec), Canada.
    Liebl, Andreas
    Department of Acoustics, Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics IBP, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Matsui, Toshihito
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Hokkaido University, Japan.
    Schwela, Dieter
    University of York, Environment Department, Stockholm Environment Institute, York, United Kingdom.
    Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola
    Department of Audiology and Phoniatrics, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Poland.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    ICBEN Review of Research on the Biological Effects of Noise 2011-20142015In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 17, no 75, p. 57-82Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health.

  • 5. Bohlin, M. C.
    et al.
    Sorbring, E.
    Widén, Stephen E.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Erlandsson, S. I.
    Risks and music: patterns among young women and men in Sweden2011In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 13, no 53, p. 310-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Music and high levels of sound have not traditionally been associated with risk-taking behaviors. Loud music may intensify and bring more power and meaning to the musical experience, but it can at the same time be harmful to hearing. The present study aims to increase the knowledge about young women's and men's risk judgement and behaviour by investigating patterns in adolescent risk activities among 310 adolescents aged 15-20 (143 women; 167 men). The Australian instrument ARQ was used with additional questions on hearing risks and a factor analysis was conducted. The main results showed that the factor structure in the judgement and behavior scale for Swedish adolescents was rather different from the factor structure in the Australian sample. Also, the factor structure was not similar to the Australian sample split on gender. The results are discussed from a gender-and existential perspective on risk taking, and it is emphasized that research on risk behavior needs to reconceptualize stereotypical ideas about gender and the existential period in adolescence.

  • 6.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Risk behaviour and noise exposure among adolescents2007In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 9, no 36, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Sorbring, Emma
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Widen, Stephen E.
    Örebro University, Institute for Disability Research, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Risks and music - Patterns among young women and men in Sweden2011In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 13, no 53, p. 310-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Music and high levels of sound have not traditionally been associated with risk-taking behaviors. Loud music may intensify and bring more power and meaning to the musical experience, but it can at the same time be harmful to hearing. The present study aims to increase the knowledge about young women′s and men′s risk judgement and behaviour by investigating patterns in adolescent risk activities among 310 adolescents aged 15-20 (143 women; 167 men). The Australian instrument ARQ was used with additional questions on hearing risks and a factor analysis was conducted. The main results showed that the factor structure in the judgement and behavior scale for Swedish adolescents was rather different from the factor structure in the Australian sample. Also, the factor structure was not similar to the Australian sample split on gender. The results are discussed from a gender- and existential perspective on risk taking, and it is emphasized that research on risk behavior needs to reconceptualize stereotypical ideas about gender and the existential period in adolescence.

  • 8.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE). University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Hygge, S.
    Strength of noise effects on memory as a function of noise source and age2005In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 7, no 27, p. 11-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives in this paper were to analyse noise effects on episodic and semantic memory performance in different age groups, and to see whether age interacted with noise in their effects on memory. Data were taken from three separate previous experiments, that were performed with the same design, procedure and dependent measures with participants from four age groups (13-14, 18-20, 35-45 and 55-65 years). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) meaningful irrelevant speech, (b) road traffic noise, and (c) quiet. The results showed effects of both noise sources on a majority of the dependent measures, both when taken alone and aggregated according to the nature of the material to be memorised. However, the noise effects for episodic memory tasks were stronger than for semantic memory tasks. Further, in the reading comprehension task, cued recall and recognition were more impaired by meaningful irrelevant speech than by road traffic noise. Contrary to predictions, there was no interaction between noise and age group, indicating that the obtained noise effects were not related to the capacity to perform the task. The results from the three experiments taken together throw more light on the relative effects of road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech on memory performance in different age groups.

  • 9.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Strength of noise effects on memory as a function of noise source and age.2005In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 7, no 27, p. 11-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives in this paper were to analyse noise effects on episodic and semantic memory performance in different age groups, and to see whether age interacted with noise in their effects on memory. Data were taken from three separate previous experiments, that were performed with the same design, procedure and dependent measures with participants from four age groups (13-14, 18-20, 35-45 and 55-65 years). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) meaningful irrelevant speech, (b) road traffic noise, and (c) quiet. The results showed effects of both noise sources on a majority of the dependent measures, both when taken alone and aggregated according to the nature of the material to be memorised. However, the noise effects for episodic memory tasks were stronger than for semantic memory tasks. Further, in the reading comprehension task, cued recall and recognition were more impaired by meaningful irrelevant speech than by road traffic noise. Contrary to predictions, there was no interaction between noise and age group, indicating that the obtained noise effects were not related to the capacity to perform the task. The results from the three experiments taken together throw more light on the relative effects of road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech on memory performance in different age groups.

  • 10.
    Clark, Charlotte
    et al.
    Queen Mary University of London, England .
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    A 3 year update on the influence of noise on performance and behavior2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 61, p. 292-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of noise exposure on human performance and behavior continues to be a focus for research activities. This paper reviews developments in the field over the past 3 years, highlighting current areas of research, recent findings, and ongoing research in two main research areas: Field studies of noise effects on childrens cognition and experimental studies of auditory distraction. Overall, the evidence for the effects of external environmental noise on childrens cognition has strengthened in recent years, with the use of larger community samples and better noise characterization. Studies have begun to establish exposure-effect thresholds for noise effects on cognition. However, the evidence remains predominantly cross-sectional and future research needs to examine whether sound insulation might lessen the effects of external noise on childrens learning. Research has also begun to explore the link between internal classroom acoustics and childrens learning, aiming to further inform the design of the internal acoustic environment. Experimental studies of the effects of noise on cognitive performance are also reviewed, including functional differences in varieties of auditory distraction, semantic auditory distraction, individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction, and the role of cognitive control on the effects of noise on understanding and memory of target speech materials. In general, the results indicate that there are at least two functionally different types of auditory distraction: One due to the interruption of processes (as a result of attention being captured by the sound), another due to interference between processes. The magnitude of the former type is related to individual differences in cognitive control capacities (e.g., working memory capacity); the magnitude of the latter is not. Few studies address noise effects on behavioral outcomes, emphasizing the need for researchers to explore noise effects on behavior in more detail.

  • 11.
    Clark, Charlotte
    et al.
    University of London.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    A 3 year update on the influence of noise on performance and behavior2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 61, p. 292-296Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of noise exposure on human performance and behavior continues to be a focus for research activities. This paper reviews developments in the field over the past 3 years, highlighting current areas of research, recent findings, and ongoing research in two main research areas: Field studies of noise effects on children's cognition and experimental studies of auditory distraction. Overall, the evidence for the effects of external environmental noise on children's cognition has strengthened in recent years, with the use of larger community samples and better noise characterization. Studies have begun to establish exposure-effect thresholds for noise effects on cognition. However, the evidence remains predominantly cross-sectional and future research needs to examine whether sound insulation might lessen the effects of external noise on children's learning. Research has also begun to explore the link between internal classroom acoustics and children's learning, aiming to further inform the design of the internal acoustic environment. Experimental studies of the effects of noise on cognitive performance are also reviewed, including functional differences in varieties of auditory distraction, semantic auditory distraction, individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction, and the role of cognitive control on the effects of noise on understanding and memory of target speech materials. In general, the results indicate that there are at least two functionally different types of auditory distraction: One due to the interruption of processes (as a result of attention being captured by the sound), another due to interference between processes. The magnitude of the former type is related to individual differences in cognitive control capacities (e.g., working memory capacity); the magnitude of the latter is not. Few studies address noise effects on behavioral outcomes, emphasizing the need for researchers to explore noise effects on behavior in more detail.

  • 12. Eriksson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Willers, Saskia M.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Bellander, Tom
    Pershagen, Goran
    Traffic noise and cardiovascular health in Sweden: The roadside study2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 59, p. 140-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term exposure to traffic noise has been suggested to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, few studies have been performed in the general population and on railway noise. This study aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effects of living near noisy roads and railways. This cross-sectional study comprised 25,851 men and women, aged 18-80 years, who had resided in Sweden for at least 5 years. All subjects participated in a National Environmental Health Survey, performed in 2007, in which they reported on health, annoyance reactions and environmental factors. Questionnaire data on self-reported doctors diagnosis of hypertension and/or CVD were used as outcomes. Exposure was assessed as Traffic Load (millions of vehicle kilometres per year) within 500 m around each participants residential address. For a sub-population (n = 2498), we also assessed road traffic and railway noise in L den at the dwelling facade. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess Prevalence Odds Ratios (POR) and 95 Confidence Intervals (CI). No statistically significant associations were found between Traffic Load and self-reported hypertension or CVD. In the sub-population, there was no association between road traffic noise and the outcomes; however, an increased risk of CVD was suggested among subjects exposed to railway noise >= 50 dB(A); POR 1.55 (95 CI 1.00-2.40). Neither Traffic Load nor road traffic noise was, in this study, associated with self-reported cardiovascular outcomes. However, there was a borderline-significant association between railway noise and CVD. The lack of association for road traffic may be due to methodological limitations.

  • 13. Eriksson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Willers, Saskia M.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    Bellander, Tom
    Pershagen, Goran
    Traffic noise and cardiovascular health in Sweden: the roadside study2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 59, p. 140-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term exposure to traffic noise has been suggested to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, few studies have been performed in the general population and on railway noise. This study aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effects of living near noisy roads and railways. This cross-sectional study comprised 25,851 men and women, aged 18-80 years, who had resided in Sweden for at least 5 years. All subjects participated in a National Environmental Health Survey, performed in 2007, in which they reported on health, annoyance reactions and environmental factors. Questionnaire data on self-reported doctors diagnosis of hypertension and/or CVD were used as outcomes. Exposure was assessed as Traffic Load (millions of vehicle kilometres per year) within 500 m around each participants residential address. For a sub-population (n = 2498), we also assessed road traffic and railway noise in L den at the dwelling facade. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess Prevalence Odds Ratios (POR) and 95 Confidence Intervals (CI). No statistically significant associations were found between Traffic Load and self-reported hypertension or CVD. In the sub-population, there was no association between road traffic noise and the outcomes; however, an increased risk of CVD was suggested among subjects exposed to railway noise >= 50 dB(A); POR 1.55 (95 CI 1.00-2.40). Neither Traffic Load nor road traffic noise was, in this study, associated with self-reported cardiovascular outcomes. However, there was a borderline-significant association between railway noise and CVD. The lack of association for road traffic may be due to methodological limitations.

  • 14.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Holgers, Kajsa-Mia
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Audiology.
    The impact of perceived tinnitus severity on health-related quality of life with aspects of gender.2001In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 3, no 10, p. 39-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) has been used to investigate the health profiles in different medical conditions. It has, however, never been applied to tinnitus sufferers. The present study aimed at investigating relationships between the perceived severity of tinnitus, audiometric data, age, gender and non-disease specific health-related quality of life measured with the NHP divided into two sections; NHP I (topics related to health status) and NHP II (health induced problems in daily life). These parameters were statistically analysed to identify predictive factors to the perceived severity of tinnitus, described by the Tinnitus Severity Questionnaire (TSQ). A total of 186 consecutive tinnitus patients (57 females and 129 males) attending an audiological specialist clinic in Sweden were included in the study. The stepwise regression model used explained 37.8 per cent of the variance in the perceived severity of tinnitus, and the significant predictors were: "Emotions", "Sleep", and "Pain", three of the six dimensions of the NHP I. Differences between gender were found in NHP II and age-related differences emerged in NHP I when male and female patients were compared to normal controls.

  • 15.
    Hua, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emilsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ellis, Rachel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Not Found:Linkoping Univ, Linnaeus Ctr HEAD, Swedish Inst Disabil Res, Orebro, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci and Learning, Orebro, Sweden .
    Widen, Stephen
    School of Health and Medical Sciences and Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    School of Health and Medical Sciences and Örebro University; Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Cognitive skills and the effect of noise on perceived effort in employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing2014In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 16, no 69, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the following study was to examine the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC), executive functions (EFs) and perceived effort (PE) after completing a work-related task in quiet and in noise in employees with aided hearing impairment (HI) and normal hearing. The study sample consisted of 20 hearing-impaired and 20 normally hearing participants. Measures of hearing ability, WMC and EFs were tested prior to performing a work-related task in quiet and in simulated traffic noise. PE of the work-related task was also measured. Analysis of variance was used to analyze within-and between-group differences in cognitive skills, performance on the work-related task and PE. The presence of noise yielded a significantly higher PE for both groups. However, no significant group differences were observed in WMC, EFs, PE and performance in the work-related task. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were only found between PE in the noise condition and the ability to update information for both groups. In summary, noise generates a significantly higher PE and brings explicit processing capacity into play, irrespective of hearing. This suggest that increased PE involves other factors such as type of task that is to be performed, performance in the cognitive skill required solving the task at hand and whether noise is present. We therefore suggest that special consideration in hearing care should be made to the individuals prerequisites on these factors in the labor market.

  • 16.
    Hua, Håkan
    et al.
    Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV), Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Emilsson, Magnus
    Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV), Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ellis, Rachel
    Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV), Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Widen, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV), Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV), Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden; Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV), Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Cognitive skills and the effect of noise on perceived effort in employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing2014In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 16, no 69, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the following study was to examine the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC), executive functions (EFs) and perceived effort (PE) after completing a work-related task in quiet and in noise in employees with aided hearing impairment (HI) and normal hearing. The study sample consisted of 20 hearing-impaired and 20 normally hearing participants. Measures of hearing ability, WMC and EFs were tested prior to performing a work-related task in quiet and in simulated traffic noise. PE of the work-related task was also measured. Analysis of variance was used to analyze within-and between-group differences in cognitive skills, performance on the work-related task and PE. The presence of noise yielded a significantly higher PE for both groups. However, no significant group differences were observed in WMC, EFs, PE and performance in the work-related task. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were only found between PE in the noise condition and the ability to update information for both groups. In summary, noise generates a significantly higher PE and brings explicit processing capacity into play, irrespective of hearing. This suggest that increased PE involves other factors such as type of task that is to be performed, performance in the cognitive skill required solving the task at hand and whether noise is present. We therefore suggest that special consideration in hearing care should be made to the individual's prerequisites on these factors in the labor market.

  • 17.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Special issue on noise, memory and learning: editorial commentary2010In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 12, no 49, p. 199-200Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Open-plan office noise: the susceptibility and suitability of different cognitive tasks for work in the presence of irrelevant speech2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 61, p. 315-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to test which tasks are suitable for work in open-plan offices according to how susceptible they are to disruption produced by the mere presence of irrelevant speech. The tasks were chosen to tap fundamental capacities of office work involving: search for relevant information, remembering material, counting, and generation of words. The hypothesis was that tasks requiring semantic processing should be impaired by irrelevant speech. To determine the magnitude of performance decrease, two sound conditions (quiet, irrelevant speech) were compared. The results showed that tasks based on episodic short-term-memory and rehearsal of the presented material were more sensitive to disruption by irrelevant speech than tasks which did not require rehearsal or were based on long-term memory retrieval. The present study points to the inappropriateness of tasks, such as information search and remembering of material, for work environments within which irrelevant speech is ubiquitous.

  • 19. Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    Eriksson, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Naula, Sanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The effects of auditive and visual settings on perceived restoration likelihood2015In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 17, no 74, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has so far paid little attention to how environmental sounds might affect restorative processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of auditive and visual stimuli on perceived restoration likelihood and attitudes towards varying environmental resting conditions. Assuming a condition of cognitive fatigue, all participants (N = 40) were presented with images of an open plan office and urban nature, each under four sound conditions (nature sound, quiet, broadband noise, office noise). After the presentation of each setting/sound combination, the participants assessed it according to restorative qualities, restoration likelihood and attitude. The results mainly showed predicted effects of the sound manipulations on the perceived restorative qualities of the settings. Further, significant interactions between auditive and visual stimuli were found for all measures. Both nature sounds and quiet more positively influenced evaluations of the nature setting compared to the office setting. When office noise was present, both settings received poor evaluations. The results agree with expectations that nature sounds and quiet areas support restoration, while office noise and broadband noise (e.g. ventilation, traffic noise) do not. The findings illustrate the significance of environmental sound for restorative experience.

  • 20.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Eriksson, Karolina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Naula, Sanna
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The effects of auditive and visual settings on perceived restoration likelihood2015In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 17, no 74, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has so far paid little attention to how environmental sounds might affect restorative processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of auditive and visual stimuli on perceived restoration likelihood and attitudes towards varying environmental resting conditions. Assuming a condition of cognitive fatigue, all participants (N = 40) were presented with images of an open plan office and urban nature, each under four sound conditions (nature sound, quiet, broadband noise, office noise). After the presentation of each setting/sound combination, the participants assessed it according to restorative qualities, restoration likelihood and attitude. The results mainly showed predicted effects of the sound manipulations on the perceived restorative qualities of the settings. Further, significant interactions between auditive and visual stimuli were found for all measures. Both nature sounds and quiet more positively influenced evaluations of the nature setting compared to the office setting. When office noise was present, both settings received poor evaluations. The results agree with expectations that nature sounds and quiet areas support restoration, while office noise and broadband noise (e.g. ventilation, traffic noise) do not. The findings illustrate the significance of environmental sound for restorative experience.

  • 21.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Performance, fatigue and stress in open-plan offices: the effects of noise and restoration on hearing impaired and normal hearing individuals2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 60, p. 260-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing impaired and normal hearing individuals were compared in two within-participant office noise conditions (high noise: 60 L Aeq and low noise: 30 L Aeq ). Performance, subjective fatigue, and physiological stress were tested during working on a simulated open-plan office. We also tested two between-participants restoration conditions following the work period with high noise (nature movie or continued office noise). Participants with a hearing impairment (N = 20) were matched with normal hearing participants (N = 18) and undertook one practice session and two counterbalanced experimental sessions. In each experimental session they worked for two hours with basic memory and attention tasks. We also measured physiological stress indicators (cortisol and catecholamines) and self-reports of mood and fatigue. The hearing impaired participants were more affected by high noise than the normal hearing participants, as shown by impaired performance for tasks that involve recall of semantic information. The hearing impaired participants were also more fatigued by high noise exposure than participants with normal hearing, and they tended to have higher stress hormone levels during the high noise compared to the low noise condition. Restoration with a movie increased performance and motivation for the normal hearing participants, while rest with continued noise did not. For the hearing impaired participants, continued noise during rest increased motivation and performance, while the movie did not. In summary, the impact of noise and restorative conditions varied with the hearing characteristics of the participants. The small sample size does however encourage caution when interpreting the results.

  • 22.
    Johansson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Technical Audiology.
    Arlinger, Stig
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Technical Audiology.
    Reference data for evaluation of occupationally noise-induced hearing loss2004In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 6, no 24, p. 35-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relevant reference data are required in order to determine the effect from occupational noise exposure on hearing. Pure-tone averages (PTA) of hearing threshold levels simplify the evaluation for audiometric frequencies typically affected by noise. The present study provides reference data of high frequency (HF) PTA over 3, 4 and 6 kHz for a general adult population, aged from 20 to 79 years, not exposed to hazardous occupational noise. The results are presented as statistical distributions of HF PTA values as functions of age, and as prevalence of different degree of HF PTA in the age groups 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70-79 years.

  • 23.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Effects of reverberation time on the cognitive load in speech communication: theoretical considerations2004In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 7, no 25, p. 11-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a theoretical analysis of possible effects of reverberation time on the cognitive load in speech communication. Speech comprehension requires not only phonological processing of the spoken words. Simultaneously, this information must be further processed and stored. All this processing takes place in the working memory, which has a limited processing capacity. The more resources that are allocated to word identification, the fewer resources are therefore left for the further processing and storing of the information. Reverberation conditions that allow the identification of almost all words may therefore still interfere with speech comprehension and memory storing. These problems are likely to be especially serious in situations where speech has to be followed continuously for a long time. An unfavorable reverberation time (RT) then could contribute to the development of cognitive fatigue, which means that working memory resources are gradually reduced. RT may also affect the cognitive load in two other ways: RT may change the distracting effects of a sound and a person's mood. Both effects could influence the cognitive load of a listener. It is argued that we need studies of RT effects in realistic long-lasting listening situations to better understand the effect of RT on speech communication. Furthermore, the effect of RT on distraction and mood need to be better understood.

  • 24.
    Landälv, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Malmström, Lennart
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Adolescents' reported hearing symptoms and attitudes toward loud music2013In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 15, no 66, p. 347-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to compare the adolescents' attitudes toward loud music in relation to a set of self-perceived auditory symptoms and psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment in noisy situations. A questionnaire on hearing and preventive behavior was distributed to 281 upper secondary school students aged 15-19 years. The questionnaire included youth attitude to noise scale, questions about perceived hearing symptoms such as tinnitus and sound sensitivity and finally statements on perceived behavioral norms regarding hearing protection use, risk-taking and risk-judgment in noisy settings. Self-perceived auditory symptoms such as sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus had a significant relationship with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music. Permanent tinnitus and sound sensitivity together accounted for 15.9% of the variation in attitudes toward loud music. Together with the psychological variables norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment 48.0% of the variation in attitudes could be explained. Although perceived hearing symptoms (sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus) was associated with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music, psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment were found to be more strongly associated with attitudes toward loud music and should therefore be considered more in future preventive work. Health promotive strategies should focus on changing not merely individual attitudes, but also societal norms and regulations in order to decrease noise induced auditory symptoms among adolescents.

  • 25.
    Larsson, Matz
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Cardiology-Lung Clinic, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ekström, Seth Reino
    Audiological Research Center, Ahlsén's Research Institute, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Audiological Research Center, Ahlsén's Research Institute, Örebro, Sweden.
    Effects of sounds of locomotion on speech perception2015In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 17, no 77, p. 227-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human locomotion typically creates noise, a possible consequence of which is the masking of sound signals originating in the surroundings. When walking side by side, people often subconsciously synchronize their steps. The neurophysiological and evolutionary background of this behavior is unclear. The present study investigated the potential of sound created by walking to mask perception of speech and compared the masking produced by walking in step with that produced by unsynchronized walking. The masking sound (footsteps on gravel) and the target sound (speech) were presented through the same speaker to 15 normal-hearing subjects. The original recorded walking sound was modified to mimic the sound of two individuals walking in pace or walking out of synchrony. The participants were instructed to adjust the sound level of the target sound until they could just comprehend the speech signal ("just follow conversation" or JFC level) when presented simultaneously with synchronized or unsynchronized walking sound at 40 dBA, 50 dBA, 60 dBA, or 70 dBA. Synchronized walking sounds produced slightly less masking of speech than did unsynchronized sound. The median JFC threshold in the synchronized condition was 38.5 dBA, while the corresponding value for the unsynchronized condition was 41.2 dBA. Combined results at all sound pressure levels showed an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for synchronized footsteps; the median difference was 2.7 dB and the mean difference was 1.2 dB [P < 0.001, repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA)]. The difference was significant for masker levels of 50 dBA and 60 dBA, but not for 40 dBA or 70 dBA. This study provides evidence that synchronized walking may reduce the masking potential of footsteps.

  • 26.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Effects of Road Traffic Noise and Irrelevant Speech on Children’s Reading and Mathematical Performance2009In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 11, no 45, p. 194-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Irrelevant speech in classrooms and road traffic noise adjacent to schools have a substantial impact on children's ability to learn. Comparing the effects of different noise sources on learning may help construct guidelines for noise abatement programs. Experimental studies are important to establish dose-response relationships and to expand our knowledge beyond correlation studies. This experiment examined effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children's reading speed, reading comprehension, basic mathematics, and mathematical reasoning. A total of 187 pupils (89 girls and 98 boys), 12-13 years old, were tested in their ordinary classrooms. Road traffic noise was found to impair reading speed (P < 0.01) and basic mathematics (P < 0.05). No effect was found on reading comprehension or on mathematical reasoning. Irrelevant speech did not disrupt performance on any task. These findings are related to previous research on noise in schools and the implications for noise abatement guidelines are discussed.

  • 27.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India; Manipal Univ, India.
    Zhao, Fei
    Cardiff Metropolitan Univ, Wales; Sun Yat Sen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Oladeji, Susan
    Cardiff Metropolitan Univ, Wales.
    Ratinaud, Pierre
    Univ Toulouse, France.
    Examination of previously published data to identify patterns in the social representation of "Loud music" in young adults across countries2018In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 20, no 92, p. 16-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The current study was aimed at understanding the patterns in the social representation of loud music reported by young adults in different countries. Materials and Methods: The study included a sample of 534 young adults (18u25 years) from India, Iran, Portugal, United Kingdom, and United States. Participants were recruited using a convince sampling, and data were collected using the free association task. Participants were asked to provide up to five words or phrases that come to mind when thinking about "loud music." The data were first analyzed using the qualitative content analysis. This was followed by quantitative cluster analysis and chi-square analysis. Results: The content analysis suggested 19 main categories of responses related to loud music. The cluster analysis resulted in for main clusters, namely: (1) emotional oriented perception; (2) problem oriented perception; (3) music and enjoyment oriented perception; and (4) positive emotional and recreation-oriented perception. Country of origin was associated with the likelihood of participants being in each of these clusters. Conclusion: The current study highlights the differences and similarities in young adults perception of loud music. These results may have implications to hearing health education to facilitate healthy listening habits.

  • 28.
    Matheson, M.
    et al.
    Centre for Psychiatry, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Clark, C.
    Centre for Psychiatry, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Martin, R.
    Instituto de Acustica, Madrid, Spain.
    van Kempen, E.
    Centre for Environmental Health Research, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Haines, M.
    The Sax Institute, Sydney, Australia.
    Lopez-Barrio, I.
    Instituto de Acustica, Madrid, Spain.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Stansfeld, S.
    Centre for Psychiatry, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    The effects of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on children’s episodic memory: The RANCH Project2010In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 12, no 49, p. 244-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found that chronic exposure to aircraft noise has a negative effect on children's performance on tests of episodic memory. The present study extended the design of earlier studies in three ways: firstly, by examining the effects of two noise sources, aircraft and road traffic, secondly, by examining exposure-effect relationships, and thirdly, by carrying out parallel field studies in three European countries, allowing cross-country comparisons to be made. A total of 2844 children aged between 8 years 10 months and 12 years 10 months (mean age 10 years 6 months) completed classroom-based tests of cued recall, recognition memory and prospective memory. Questionnaires were also completed by the children and their parents in order to provide information about socioeconomic context. Multilevel modeling analysis revealed aircraft noise to be associated with an impairment of recognition memory in a linear exposure-effect relationship. The analysis also found road traffic noise to be associated with improved performance on cued recall in a linear exposure-effect relationship. No significant association was found between exposure to aircraft noise and cued recall or prospective memory. Likewise, no significant association was found between road traffic noise and recognition or prospective memory. Taken together, these findings indicate that exposure to aircraft noise and road traffic noise can impact on certain aspects of children's episodic memory.

  • 29.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stress and odor sensitivity in persons with noise sensitivity2013In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 15, no 64, p. 173-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has indicated that sensory sensitivity/intolerance to a specific modality may be part of a more general environmental hypersensitivity, and possibly mediated by stress. This study investigated the relationship between noise sensitivity, perceived stress, and odor sensitivity in a group of men. A quasi-experimental design was used. One-hundred and thirty-four male undergraduate students completed Weinsteins noise sensitivity scale from which a low-sensitivity group (n = 16) and a high-sensitivity (n = 16) group were formed. These two groups were screened for loss in auditory and olfactory detection sensitivity, and completed the perceived stress questionnaire (PSQ) and the chemical sensitivity scale (CSS). One-way analysis of variance and Spearman correlational analyses were performed. Significantly higher scores on the PSQ (P < 0.05) and the CSS (P < 0.05) were found in the high noise-sensitivity group compared to the low noise-sensitivity group. These findings raise the question of whether the relation between noise and odor sensitivity reflects a general environmental sensitivity.

  • 30.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stress and odor sensitivity in persons with noise sensitivity2013In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 15, no 64, p. 173-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has indicated that sensory sensitivity/intolerance to a specific modality may be part of a more general environmental hypersensitivity, and possibly mediated by stress. This study investigated the relationship between noise sensitivity, perceived stress, and odor sensitivity in a group of men. A quasi-experimental design was used. One-hundred and thirty-four male undergraduate students completed Weinsteins noise sensitivity scale from which a low-sensitivity group (n = 16) and a high-sensitivity (n = 16) group were formed. These two groups were screened for loss in auditory and olfactory detection sensitivity, and completed the perceived stress questionnaire (PSQ) and the chemical sensitivity scale (CSS). One-way analysis of variance and Spearman correlational analyses were performed. Significantly higher scores on the PSQ (P < 0.05) and the CSS (P < 0.05) were found in the high noise-sensitivity group compared to the low noise-sensitivity group. These findings raise the question of whether the relation between noise and odor sensitivity reflects a general environmental sensitivity.

  • 31.
    Olsen-Widén, Stephen
    et al.
    University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Vänersborg; Department of psychology, University of Göteborg, Göteborg.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    Department of psychology, University of Göteborg, Göteborg.
    Self-Reported Tinnitus and Noise Sensitivity among Adolescents in Sweden2004In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 7, no 25, p. 29-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It seems to be a common opinion among researchers within the field of audiology that the prevalence of tinnitus will increase as a consequence of environmental factors, for example exposure to loud noise. Young people are exposed to loud sounds, more than any other age group, especially during leisure time activities, i.e. at pop concerts, discotheques and gyms. A crucial factor for the prevention of hearing impairments and hearing-related symptoms in the young population is the use of hearing protection. The focus of the present study is use of hearing protection and self-reported hearing-related symptoms, such as tinnitus and noise sensitivity in a young population of high-school students (N=1285), aged 13 to 19 years. The results show that the prevalence of permanent tinnitus and noise sensitivity, reported in the total group, was 8.7% and 17.1% respectively. Permanent tinnitus was not significantly related to level of socio-economic status, but age-related differences in the prevalence rates of experienced tinnitus and noise sensitivity were found to be significant. Older students reported such symptoms to a greater extent than younger students did. Those who reported tinnitus and other hearing-related symptoms protected their hearing to the highest extent and were the ones most worried.

  • 32.
    Olsen-Widén, Stephen
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Self-reported tinnitus and noise sensitivity among adolescents in Sweden2004In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 7, no 25, p. 29-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It seems to be a common opinion among researchers within the field of audiology that the prevalence of tinnitus will increase as a consequence of environmental factors, for example exposure to loud noise. Young people are exposed to loud sounds, more than any other age group, especially during leisure time activities, i.e. at pop concerts, discotheques and gyms. A crucial factor for the prevention of hearing impairments and hearing-related symptoms in the young population is the use of hearing protection. The focus of the present study is use of hearing protection and self-reported hearing-related symptoms, such as tinnitus and noise sensitivity in a young population of high-school students (N=1285), aged 13 to 19 years. The results show that the prevalence of permanent tinnitus and noise sensitivity, reported in the total group, was 8.7% and 17.1% respectively. Permanent tinnitus was not significantly related to level of socio-economic status, but age-related differences in the prevalence rates of experienced tinnitus and noise sensitivity were found to be significant. Older students reported such symptoms to a greater extent than younger students did. Those who reported tinnitus and other hearing-related symptoms protected their hearing to the highest extent and were the ones most worried.

  • 33.
    Olsen-Widén, Stephen
    et al.
    University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Vänersborg; Department of psychology, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Vänersborg.
    The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on Adolescent Attitude to Social Noise and Hearing Protection2004In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 7, no 25, p. 59-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of the present study, of 1285 adolescents, was young people's attitudes towards noise and their use of hearing protection at discos and pop concerts. Comparisons were made between adolescents from different age groups, and with different socio-economic status. Logistic regressions indicated that "worry before attending noisy activities" and "hearing symptoms" such as tinnitus and noise sensitivity could, to some degree, explain the use of hearing protection in noisy environments. Another conclusion to be drawn from this study was that adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding hearing protection use differed between levels of socio-economic status. Individuals with high SES expressed more negative attitudes and used ear protection to a greater extent than those with lower SES. This result might indicate differences in the development of future auditory problems among individuals with different levels of socio-economic status. The cause of hearing impairment and tinnitus may not be restricted merely to noise exposure. Psychological aspects, such as attitudes towards noisy environments and the individual's behavior regarding the use of hearing protection may be considered as important factors in the understanding of why the prevalence of hearing­ related problems has increased among adolescents.

  • 34.
    Olsen-Widén, Stephen
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    The influence of socio-economic status on adolescent attitude to social noise and hearing protection2004In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 7, no 25, p. 59-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of the present study, of 1285 adolescents, was young people's attitudes towards noise and their use of hearing protection at discos and pop concerts. Comparisons were made between adolescents from different age groups, and with different socio-economic status. Logistic regressions indicated that "worry before attending noisy activities" and "hearing symptoms" such as tinnitus and noise sensitivity could, to some degree, explain the use of hearing protection in noisy environments. Another conclusion to be drawn from this study was that adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding hearing protection use differed between levels of socio-economic status. Individuals with high SES expressed more negative attitudes and used ear protection to a greater extent than those with lower SES. This result might indicate differences in the development of future auditory problems among individuals with different levels of socio-economic status. The cause of hearing impairment and tinnitus may not be restricted merely to noise exposure. Psychological aspects, such as attitudes towards noisy environments and the individual's behavior regarding the use of hearing protection may be considered as important factors in the understanding of why the prevalence of hearing­ related problems has increased among adolescents.

  • 35.
    Paulin, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Linus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population2016In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 18, no 83, p. 178-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n = 66) and self-reported (n = 313) hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n = 2995). High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis.

  • 36.
    Paulin, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population2016In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 18, no 83, p. 178-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n=66) and self-reported (n=313) hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n=2995). High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis.

  • 37.
    Pettersson, Hans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Burström, Lage
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Noise and hand-arm vibration exposure in relation to the risk of hearing loss2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 59, p. 159-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible association of combined exposure of noise and hand-arm vibration (HAV) and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Workers in a heavy engineering industry were part of a dynamic cohort. Of these workers, 189 had HAV exposure, and their age and hearing status were recorded in the same year and were, therefore, included in the analysis. Data on HAV duration and acceleration was gathered through questionnaires, observations, and measurements. All available audiograms were categorized into normal and hearing loss. The first exposure variable included the lifetime HAV exposure. The lifetime HAV exposure was multiplied by the acceleration of HAV for the second and third exposure variable. Logistic regression using the Generalized Estimation Equations method was chosen to analyze the data to account for the repeated measurements. The analysis was performed with both continuous exposure variables and with exposure variables grouped into exposure quartiles with hearing loss as an outcome and age as a covariate. With continuous exposure variables, the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for hearing loss was equal to or greater than one for all exposure variables. When the exposure variables were grouped into quartiles, the OR with a 95% CI was greater than one at the third and fourth quartile. The results show that working with vibrating machines in an environment with noise exposure increases the risk of hearing loss, supporting an association between exposure to noise and HAV, and the noise-induced hearing loss.

  • 38.
    Pettersson, Hans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Burström, Lage
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Raynaud's phenomenon among men and women with noise-induced hearing loss in relation to vibration exposure2014In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 16, no 69, p. 89-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Raynaud's phenomenon is characterized by constriction in blood supply to the fingers causing finger blanching, of white fingers (WF) and is triggered by cold. Earlier studies found that workers using vibrating hand-held tools and who had vibration-induced white fingers (VWF) had an increased risk for hearing loss compared with workers without VWF. This study examined the occurrence of Raynaud's phenomenon among men and women with noise-induced hearing loss in relation to vibration exposure. All 342 participants had a confirmed noise-induced hearing loss medico legally accepted as work-related by AFA Insurance. Each subject answered a questionnaire concerning their health status and the kinds of exposures they had at the time when their hearing loss was first discovered. The questionnaire covered types of exposures, discomforts in the hands or fingers, diseases and medications affecting the blood circulation, the use of alcohol and tobacco and for women, the use of hormones and whether they had been pregnant. The participation rate was 41% (n = 133) with 38% (n = 94) for men and 50% (n = 39) for women. 84 men and 36 women specified if they had Raynaud's phenomenon and also if they had used hand-held vibrating machines. Nearly 41% of them had used hand-held vibrating machines and 18% had used vibrating machines at least 2 h each workday. There were 23 men/6 women with Raynaud's phenomenon. 37% reported WF among those participants who were exposed to hand-arm vibration (HAV) and 15% among those not exposed to HAV. Among the participants with hearing loss with daily use of vibrating hand-held tools more than twice as many reports WF compared with participants that did not use vibrating hand-held tools. This could be interpreted as Raynaud's phenomenon could be associated with an increased risk for noise-induced hearing loss. However, the low participation rate limits the generalization of the results from this study.

  • 39.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    When cognition kicks in: Working memory and speech understanding in noise.2010In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 12, no 49, p. 263-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptual load and cognitive load can be separately manipulated and dissociated in their effects on speech understanding in noise. The Ease of Language Understanding model assumes a theoretical position where perceptual task characteristics interact with the individual's implicit capacities to extract the phonological elements of speech. Phonological precision and speed of lexical access are important determinants for listening in adverse conditions. If there are mismatches between the phonological elements perceived and phonological representations in long-term memory, explicit working memory (WM)-related capacities will be continually invoked to reconstruct and infer the contents of the ongoing discourse. Whether this induces a high cognitive load or not will in turn depend on the individual's storage and processing capacities in WM. Data suggest that modulated noise maskers may serve as triggers for speech maskers and therefore induce a WM, explicit mode of processing. Individuals with high WM capacity benefit more than low WM-capacity individuals from fast amplitude compression at low or negative input speech-to-noise ratios. The general conclusion is that there is an overarching interaction between the focal purpose of processing in the primary listening task and the extent to which a secondary, distracting task taps into these processes.

  • 40.
    Sjodin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Univ Gavle, Fac Bldg Energy & Environm Engn, Lab Environm Psychol, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden .
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Univ Gavle, Fac Bldg Energy & Environm Engn, Lab Environm Psychol, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden .
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstrom, Ulf
    Univ Gavle, Fac Bldg Energy & Environm Engn, Lab Environm Psychol, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden .
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Univ Gavle, Fac Bldg Energy & Environm Engn, Lab Environm Psychol, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden .
    Noise and stress effects on preschool personnel2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 59, p. 166-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyze the presence of stress-related health problems among preschool employees and the way in which these reactions are related to noise and other work parameters. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umea County, located in northern Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments from each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed by use of different validated questionnaires and by saliva cortisol samples. Stress and energy output were pronounced among the employees, and about 30 of the staff experienced strong burnout syndromes. Mental recovery after work was low, indicated by remaining high levels of stress after work. The burnout symptoms were associated with reduced sleep quality and morning sleepiness. Cortisol levels supported the conclusion about pronounced daily stress levels of the preschool employees.

  • 41.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Sweden Mid University, Department of public health.
    Landström, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Noise and stress effects on preschool personnel2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 59, p. 166-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyze the presence of stress-related health problems among preschool employees and the way in which these reactions are related to noise and other work parameters. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå County, located in northern Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments from each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed by use of different validated questionnaires and by saliva cortisol samples. Stress and energy output were pronounced among the employees, and about 30% of the staff experienced strong burnout syndromes. Mental recovery after work was low, indicated by remaining high levels of stress after work. The burnout symptoms were associated with reduced sleep quality and morning sleepiness. Cortisol levels supported the conclusion about pronounced daily stress levels of the preschool employees.

  • 42.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Noise and stress effects on preschool personnel2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 59, p. 166-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyze the presence of stress-related health problems among preschool employees and the way in which these reactions are related to noise and other work parameters. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå County, located in northern Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments from each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed by use of different validated questionnaires and by saliva cortisol samples. Stress and energy output were pronounced among the employees, and about 30% of the staff experienced strong burnout syndromes. Mental recovery after work was low, indicated by remaining high levels of stress after work. The burnout symptoms were associated with reduced sleep quality and morning sleepiness. Cortisol levels supported the conclusion about pronounced daily stress levels of the preschool employees.

  • 43.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Laboratory of Environmental Psychology, Faculty of Engineering, University of Gävle, SE - 801 76, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Laboratory of Environmental Psychology, Faculty of Engineering, University of Gävle, SE - 801 76, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landström, Ulf
    Laboratory of Environmental Psychology, Faculty of Engineering, University of Gävle, SE - 801 76, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Laboratory of Environmental Psychology, Faculty of Engineering, University of Gävle, SE - 801 76, Sweden.
    Noise exposure and auditory effects on preschool personnel2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 57, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing impairments and tinnitus are being reported in an increasing extent from employees in the preschool. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå county, Sweden. Individual noise recordings and stationary recordings in dining rooms and play halls were conducted at two departments per preschool. The effects of noise exposures were carried out through audiometric screenings and by use of questionnaires. The average individual noise exposure was close to 71 dB(A), with individual differences but small differences between the preschools. The noise levels in the dining room and playing halls were about 64 dB(A), with small differences between the investigated types of rooms and preschools. The hearing loss of the employees was significantly higher for the frequencies tested when compared with an unexposed control group in Sweden. Symptoms of tinnitus were reported among about 31% of the employees. Annoyance was rated as somewhat to very annoying. The voices of the children were the most annoying noise source. The dB(A) level and fluctuation of the noise exposure were significantly correlated to the number of children per department. The preschool sound environment is complex and our findings indicate that the sound environment is hazardous regarding auditory disorders. The fluctuation of the noise is of special interest for further research.

  • 44.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Sweden Mid University, Department of public health.
    Landström, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Noise exposure and auditory effects on preschool personnel2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 57, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing impairments and tinnitus are being reported in an increasing extent from employees in the preschool. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå county, Sweden. Individual noise recordings and stationary recordings in dining rooms and play halls were conducted at two departments per preschool. The effects of noise exposures were carried out through audiometric screenings and by use of questionnaires. The average individual noise exposure was close to 71 dB(A), with individual differences but small differences between the preschools. The noise levels in the dining room and playing halls were about 64 dB(A), with small differences between the investigated types of rooms and preschools. The hearing loss of the employees was significantly higher for the frequencies tested when compared with an unexposed control group in Sweden. Symptoms of tinnitus were reported among about 31% of the employees. Annoyance was rated as somewhat to very annoying. The voices of the children were the most annoying noise source. The dB(A) level and fluctuation of the noise exposure were significantly correlated to the number of children per department. The preschool sound environment is complex and our findings indicate that the sound environment is hazardous regarding auditory disorders. The fluctuation of the noise is of special interest for further research.

  • 45.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Noise exposure and auditory effects on preschool personnel2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 57, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing impairments and tinnitus are being reported in an increasing extent from employees in the preschool. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå county, Sweden. Individual noise recordings and stationary recordings in dining rooms and play halls were conducted at two departments per preschool. The effects of noise exposures were carried out through audiometric screenings and by use of questionnaires. The average individual noise exposure was close to 71 dB(A), with individual differences but small differences between the preschools. The noise levels in the dining room and playing halls were about 64 dB(A), with small differences between the investigated types of rooms and preschools. The hearing loss of the employees was significantly higher for the frequencies tested when compared with an unexposed control group in Sweden. Symptoms of tinnitus were reported among about 31% of the employees. Annoyance was rated as somewhat to very annoying. The voices of the children were the most annoying noise source. The dB(A) level and fluctuation of the noise exposure were significantly correlated to the number of children per department. The preschool sound environment is complex and our findings indicate that the sound environment is hazardous regarding auditory disorders. The fluctuation of the noise is of special interest for further research.

  • 46.
    Smedje, Greta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lundén, Maria
    Gärtner, Lotta
    Lundgren, Håkan
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hearing status among aircraft maintenance personnel in a commercial airline company2011In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 13, no 54, p. 364-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to study subjective and objective hearing loss in a population of aircraft maintenance workers and identify predictors. A total of 327 aircraft maintenance personnel answered a self-administered work environment questionnaire (response rate 76) and underwent audiometric test. The mean values for the hearing threshold at 3, 4, and 6 kHz for the ear with the most hearing loss were compared with a Swedish population database of persons not occupationally exposed to noise. Equivalent noise exposure during a working day was measured. Relationships between subjective and objective hearing loss and possible predictors (age, years of employment, self-reported exposure to solvents, blood pressure, and psycho-social factors) were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. At younger ages (< 40 years), aircraft maintenance workers had higher hearing thresholds (1-3 dB) compared to the reference group, but such a difference was not found in older employees. Relationships were found between age and objective hearing loss, and between exposure to solvents and reported subjective hearing loss. Equivalent noise exposure during working days were 70-91 dB(A) with a maximal noise level of 119 dB(A). Aircraft maintenance workers are exposed to equivalent noise levels above the Swedish occupational standard, including some very high peak exposures. Younger employees have a higher age-matched hearing threshold level compared with a reference group. Thus, there is a need for further preventive measures.

  • 47.
    Stansfeld, Stephen
    et al.
    Centre for Psychiatry, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts, London School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Clark, Charlotte
    Centre for Psychiatry, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts, London School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Alfred, Tamuno
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Night time aircraft noise exposure and children's cognitive performance2010In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 12, no 49, p. 255-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic aircraft noise exposure in children is associated with impairment of reading and long-term memory. Most studies have not differentiated between day or nighttime noise exposure. It has been hypothesized that sleep disturbance might mediate the association of aircraft noise exposure and cognitive impairment in children. This study involves secondary analysis of data from the Munich Study and the UK Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) Study sample to test this. In the Munich study, 330 children were assessed on cognitive measures in three measurement waves a year apart, before and after the switchover of airports. Self-reports of sleep quality were analyzed across airports, aircraft noise exposure and measurement wave to test whether changes in nighttime noise exposure had any effect on reported sleep quality, and whether this showed the same pattern as for changes in cognitive performance. For the UK sample of the RANCH study, night noise contour information was linked to the children's home and related to sleep disturbance and cognitive performance. In the Munich study, analysis of sleep quality questions showed no consistent interactions between airport, noise, and measurement wave, suggesting that poor sleep quality does not mediate the association between noise exposure and cognition. Daytime and nighttime aircraft noise exposure was highly correlated in the RANCH study. Although night noise exposure was significantly associated with impaired reading and recognition memory, once home night noise exposure was centered on daytime school noise exposure, night noise had no additional effect to daytime noise exposure. These analyses took advantage of secondary data available from two studies of aircraft noise and cognition. They were not initially designed to examine sleep disturbance and cognition, and thus, there are methodological limitations which make it less than ideal in giving definitive answers to these questions. In conclusion, results from both studies suggest that night aircraft noise exposure does not appear to add any cognitive performance decrement to the cognitive decrement induced by daytime aircraft noise alone. We suggest that the school should be the main focus of attention for protection of children against the effects of aircraft noise on school performance

  • 48.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    The role of working memory capacity in auditory distraction: A review2010In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 12, no 49, p. 217-224Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to review the current knowledge on individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of noise on cognition. The literature indicates that at least two functionally different cognitive mechanisms underlie those differences; one is the efficiency by which people process the order between perceptually discrete sound events and the other is related to working memory capacity. The first mechanism seems to be involved only when disruption is a function of conflicting order processes, whereas the other mechanism is involved in a wider range of phenomena including those when attentional capture and conflicting semantic processes form the basis of disruption. Because of this, noise abatement interventions should first of all be directed towards people with poor working memory capacity. Implications for theories of auditory distraction are discussed.

  • 49.
    Widén, Stephen
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    Department of Psychology and Organizational Studies, Institution of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ingemar
    Department of Psychology and Organizational Studies, Institution of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Gender perspectives in psychometrics related to leisure time noise exposure and use of hearing protection2011In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 13, no 55, p. 407-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible gender differences regarding psychometric scales measuring risk perception in noisy situations, attitudes towards loud music, perceived susceptibility to noise, and individual norms and ideals related to activities where loud music is played. In addition the purpose was to analyze whether these variables are associated with protective behavior such as the use of hearing protection. A questionnaire was administered to a Swedish sample including 543 adolescents aged 16 to 20. The result revealed significant gender differences for all the psychometric scales. In addition, all psychometric measures were associated with hearing protection use in musical settings. Contrary to previous studies, gender did not contribute to any explanation of protective behavior by itself in the analysis. One conclusion is that although gender does not contribute by itself for the explanation of protective behavior, gender may affect psychological variables such as risk perception, attitudes and perceived susceptibility and that these variables may in turn be valuable for decision-making and protective behavior in noisy situations. Although women tend to be more careful psychologically, they nevertheless tend to behave in the same way as men as regards actual noise-related risk taking.

  • 50.
    Widén, Stephen
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Båsjö, Sara
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kähäri, Kim
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology Departments of Audiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Headphone listening habits and hearing thresholds in swedish adolescents2017In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 19, no 88, p. 125-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported hearing and portable music listening habits, measured hearing function and music exposure levels in Swedish adolescents. The study was divided into two parts.

    Materials and Methods: The first part included 280 adolescents, who were 17 years of age and focused on self-reported data on subjective hearing problems and listening habits regarding portable music players. From this group, 50 adolescents volunteered to participate in Part II of the study, which focused on audiological measurements and measured listening volume.

    Results: The results indicated that longer lifetime exposure in years and increased listening frequency were associated with poorer hearing thresholds and more self-reported hearing problems. A tendency was found for listening to louder volumes and poorer hearing thresholds. Women reported more subjective hearing problems compared with men but exhibited better hearing thresholds. In contrast, men reported more use of personal music devices, and they listen at higher volumes.

    Discussion: Additionally, the study shows that adolescents listening for ≥3 h at every occasion more likely had tinnitus. Those listening at ≥85 dB LAeq, FF and listening every day exhibited poorer mean hearing thresholds, reported more subjective hearing problems and listened more frequently in school and while sleeping.

    Conclusion: Although the vast majority listened at moderate sound levels and for shorter periods of time, the study also indicates that there is a subgroup (10%) that listens between 90 and 100 dB for longer periods of time, even during sleep. This group might be at risk for developing future noise-induced hearing impairments.

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