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  • 1.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Learning about being well - not just about being ill.2000In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 337-338Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Angelin, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Evengård, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Palmgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Illness and risk behaviour in health care students studying abroad2015In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 684-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The numbers of university students studying abroad increase every year. These students are not tourists as their studies require different types of travel that expose them to different risks. Moreover, health care students (HCSs) may be exposed to even greater risks according to their travel destinations and itineraries. Clearly, research-based pre-travel advice is needed.

    Methods: This study reports on a prospective survey conducted from April 2010 to January 2014 of health care and non-health care students from Swedish universities in Umeå, Stockholm and Gothenburg studying abroad.

    Results: Of the 393 students included in the study, 85% responded. Over half (55%) were HCSs. Pre-travel health information was received by 79% and information on personal safety by 49% of HCSs. The rate of illness during travel was 52%. Health care students more often travelled to developing regions and were at increased risk for travellers' diarrhoea. One in 10 experienced theft and 3% were involved in traffic accidents. One in five met a new sexual partner during travel and 65% of these practised safe sex. Half of all participants increased their alcohol consumption while abroad; high alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk for being a victim of theft, as well as for meeting a new sexual partner during travel.

    Conclusions: University authorities are responsible for the safety and well-being of students studying abroad. This study supplies organisers and students with epidemiological data that will help improve pre-travel preparation and increase student awareness of the potential risks associated with studying abroad.

  • 3.
    Antepohl, Wolfram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Domeij, Erica
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    A follow-up of medical graduates of a problem-based learning curriculum2003In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 155-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There is little information available on the effects of problem-based undergraduate curricula on doctors and their performances after graduation. Therefore, we conducted a questionnaire study of all graduates of the new medical programme at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Link÷ping University. Methods: All 446 medical students who had graduated from the new programme were asked to fill in a questionnaire about selected activities during their studies and their careers after graduation. They were also asked to evaluate the quality of their undergraduate education retrospectively. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive, multivariate and bivariate approaches. Results: A total of 77% of the graduates responded. They showed a high degree of overall contentment with their undergraduate education and felt well prepared for professional life during their preregistration period and specialist education (mean = 4.0 on a 6-point Likert scale ranging from 0 to 5). They felt especially well prepared in terms of skills for communication with patients, collaboration with other health professionals and development of critical thinking/scientific attitudes. The students' age at the beginning of their studies correlated positively with their contentment as graduates, especially in terms of preparation for patient communication and collaboration with other health professionals. No differences between students originally admitted via a local admission procedure and those admitted via a national procedure were detected concerning retrospective evaluation of undergraduate medical education. Conclusion: Graduates of the new curriculum showed a high degree of satisfaction with their undergraduate education and its preparation of them for medical practice. Specifically, they were very content with the particular emphases of the new curriculum.

  • 4.
    Antepohl, Wolfram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine/Pain Clinic. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Herzig, S
    Problem-based learning versus lecture-based learning i a course of basic pharmacology: A controlled, randomized study.1999In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 33, p. 103-113Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Birgegård, Gunnar
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Ulla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Change in student attitudes to medical school after the introduction of problem-based learning in spite of low ratings1998In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 46-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students' attitudes to, and opinions of, their studies at medical school were investigated with the help of a questionnaire. They were asked to what extent the medical school encouraged independent, critical thinking, problem-solving skills, decision-making, studying outside the textbook and other behaviours and skills that teachers in higher education usually put forward as important. It was found that students generally had a low opinion of the extent to which their education encouraged such virtues, mean figures ranging between 3.5 and 4.6 on a 10-grade scale. The students felt that their studies to a large extent encouraged focus on details and preparation for examinations. The questionnaire was given to the students after 2 1/2 years of traditional preclinical studies and at the end of the first clinical year. There were significant but numerically small differences for some of the items at the end of the year. However, when problem-based learning (PBL) was introduced during the first clinical year, there was a substantial change: there were now significant and numerically larger differences for seven of the nine items, even though the students were asked to give their opinion of the whole of their time at medical school on both occasions, not only of the last year. There were no other changes in the curriculum or the teaching methods other than the introduction of PBL. The change in attitudes did not depend on the student's appreciation of PBL; students' opinion of PBL was low, indicating that most of them disliked it.

  • 6.
    Dahle, L. O.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hård af Segerstad, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wyon, Yvonne
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Problem-based medical education: development of a theoretical foundation and a science-based professional attitude1997In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 416-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem-based learning, combined with early patient contact, integration between different subject areas, elements of multiprofessional education, and special emphasis on the development of communications skills has become the basis for the medical curriculum at the Faculty of Health Sciences in Linköping. Critics have questioned the depth of the scientific and theoretical aspects of the curriculum. Through a series of specific measures in the organization of the curriculum and examinations, and due to the pedagogical principles involved per se, our claim is that students graduating at Linköping do possess the required theoretical knowledge and a scientific attitude to the practice of medicine, at least equivalent to that obtained in a more conventional medical curriculum. One such specific measure is that all students perform one field study and two scientific studies during the course of the curriculum. An investigation of student opinions regarding the value of performing scientific projects of their own have shown that these projects have had a positive impact on the students' general scientific attitude and their willingness to engage in future scientific work. The specific skills acquired, as confirmed by oral examinations, were largely determined by the scientific nature of the chosen field of study. Our graduates have not yet progressed far enough in their careers for comparisons to be made on the basis of the Swedish Licensing Board Internship Examinations, but continuing evaluations of students, graduates and licensed doctors emerging from the curriculum will provide future evi-dence as to whether our present evaluation is correct.

  • 7.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Eriksson, BE
    Gyllenhammar, H
    Korkeila, M
    Saaf-Rothoff, A
    Wernerson, A
    Seeberger, A
    To be and to have a critical friend in medical teaching2006In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 72-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND In order to stimulate reflection and continuous professional development, a model of critical friends evaluating each other was introduced in medical education. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the critical friend concept can serve as a pragmatic model for evaluation of medical teachers and as a fruitful tool for enhancing self-knowledge and professional development among medical educators. METHODS Three pairs of critical friends were formed, consisting of experienced medical teachers (n = 6) at the Karolinska Institutet. Each teacher was assigned to give 1 lecture and 1 seminar in his or her specific research or clinical field. The critical friend evaluated the performance in class, acting as an observer using a pre-formed protocol. The evaluation was communicated to the teacher during a 45-minute session within 48 hours after the teaching session. Each of the 6 teachers was criticised and gave criticism within the pair configurance. The outcome of the process was evaluated by an experimenter, not participating in the process, who performed a semistructured interview with each of the 6 teachers. RESULTS Each teacher had a different way of reflecting on teaching after the project than before and made changes in his or her way of teaching. We also noted that being a critical friend may be even more effective than having one. The majority of the feedback provided was positive and valuable. CONCLUSION To be and to have a critical friend is worth the extra workload. Therefore, the critical friend concept should be made part of regular teaching practice.

  • 8. Drinkwater, Jess
    et al.
    Tully, Mary Patricia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Dornan, Tim
    The effect of gender on medical students' aspirations: a qualitative study2008In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 420-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the effect of gender on medical students' aspirations. METHODS: The study design included purposive sampling and interim data interpretation to guide recruitment of medical students with a wide spectrum of opinions. Data were collected through audio-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth exploratory interviews, which were transcribed verbatim. Qualitative analysis was carried out by a female medical student researcher. Her evolving interpretation was constantly compared against the original data by male (doctor) and female (pharmacist) staff researchers in a systematic search for internal corroboration or disconfirmation. Causal associations consistently present in the data are reported. RESULTS: Six male and six female medical students in Years 3 and 4 shared a wish to achieve a work-life balance that allowed them to devote time to bringing up children while contributing usefully to society as doctors. However, women were readier to compromise professional attainment within their personal work-life balances. Their readiness derived from gendered stereotypes of women's social and professional roles, a lack of female professional role models, womens' greater awareness of the tensions between career and family, various other informal social influences, and a lack of positive career advice to counterbalance these influences. CONCLUSIONS: Better career advice and more flexible work opportunities are needed if the two-thirds of medical students who are women are to contribute specialist as well as generalist expertise to the medical workforce.

  • 9.
    Edelbring, Samuel
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Research into the use of virtual patients is moving forward by zooming out2013In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 544-546Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Edelbring, Samuel
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Research into the use of virtual patients is moving forward by zooming out2013In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 544-546Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11. Edelbring, Samuel
    et al.
    Broström, Olle
    Henriksson, Peter
    Vassiliou, Daphne
    Spaak, Jonas
    Dahlgren, Lars Owe
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Zary, Nabil
    Integrating virtual patients into courses: follow-up seminars and perceived benefit2012In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 417-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT The use of virtual patients (VPs) suggests promising effects on student learning. However, currently empirical data on how best to use VPs in practice are scarce. More knowledge is needed regarding aspects of integrating VPs into a course, of which student acceptance is one key issue. Several authors call for looking beyond technology to see VPs in relation to the course context. The follow-up seminar is proposed as an important aspect of integration that warrants investigation. METHODS A cross-sectional explanatory study was performed in a clinical clerkship introduction course at four teaching hospitals affiliated to the same medical faculty. The VP-related activities were planned collaboratively by teachers from all four settings. However, each setting employed a different strategy to follow up the activity in the course. Sixteen questionnaire items were grouped into three scales pertaining to: perceived benefit of VPs; wish for more guidance on using VPs, and wish for assessment and feedback on VPs. Scale scores were compared across the four settings, which were ranked according to the level of intensity of students' processing of cases during VP follow- up activities. RESULTS The perceived benefit of VPs and their usage were higher in the two intense-use settings compared with the moderate-and lowintensity settings. The wish for more guidance was high in the low-and one of the highintensity settings. Students in all settings displayed little interest in more assessment and feedback regarding VPs. CONCLUSIONS High case processing intensity was related to positive perceptions of the benefit of VPs. However, the low interest in more assessment and feedback on the use of VPs indicates the need to clearly communicate the added value of the follow-up seminar. The findings suggest that a more intense follow-up pays off in terms of the benefit perceived by students. This study illustrates the need to consider VPs from the perspective of a holistic

  • 12.
    Edelbring, Samuel
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Broström, Olle
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Peter
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vassiliou, Daphne
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Spaak, Jonas
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Lars Owe
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fors, Uno
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Zary, Nabil
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Integrating virtual patients into courses: follow-up seminars and perceived benefit2012In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 417-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The use of virtual patients (VPs) suggests promising effects on student learning. However, currently empirical data on how best to use VPs in practice are scarce. More knowledge is needed regarding aspects of integrating VPs into a course, of which student acceptance is one key issue. Several authors call for looking beyond technology to see VPs in relation to the course context. The follow-up seminar is proposed as an important aspect of integration that warrants investigation.

    Methods: A cross-sectional explanatory study was performed in a clinical clerkship introduction course at four teaching hospitals affiliated to the same medical faculty. The VP-related activities were planned collaboratively by teachers from all four settings. However, each setting employed a different strategy to follow up the activity in the course. Sixteen questionnaire items were grouped into three scales pertaining to: perceived benefit of VPs; wish for more guidance on using VPs, and wish for assessment and feedback on VPs. Scale scores were compared across the four settings, which were ranked according to the level of intensity of students processing of cases during VP follow- up activities.

    Results: The perceived benefit of VPs and their usage were higher in the two intense-use settings compared with the moderate-and lowintensity settings. The wish for more guidance was high in the low-and one of the highintensity settings. Students in all settings displayed little interest in more assessment and feedback regarding VPs.

    Conclusions: High case processing intensity was related to positive perceptions of the benefit of VPs. However, the low interest in more assessment and feedback on the use of VPs indicates the need to clearly communicate the added value of the follow-up seminar. The findings suggest that a more intense follow-up pays off in terms of the benefit perceived by students. This study illustrates the need to consider VPs from the perspective of a holistic course design and not as isolated add‐ons.

  • 13.
    Edelbring, Samuel
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Broström, Olle
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Peter
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vassiliou, Daphne
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Spaak, Jonas
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Fors, Uno
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Zary, Nabil
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Integrating virtual patients into courses: follow-up seminars and perceived benefit2012In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 417-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT The use of virtual patients (VPs) suggests promising effects on student learning. However, currently empirical data on how best to use VPs in practice are scarce. More knowledge is needed regarding aspects of integrating VPs into a course, of which student acceptance is one key issue. Several authors call for looking beyond technology to see VPs in relation to the course context. The follow-up seminar is proposed as an important aspect of integration that warrants investigation. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMETHODS A cross-sectional explanatory study was performed in a clinical clerkship introduction course at four teaching hospitals affiliated to the same medical faculty. The VP-related activities were planned collaboratively by teachers from all four settings. However, each setting employed a different strategy to follow up the activity in the course. Sixteen questionnaire items were grouped into three scales pertaining to: perceived benefit of VPs; wish for more guidance on using VPs, and wish for assessment and feedback on VPs. Scale scores were compared across the four settings, which were ranked according to the level of intensity of students processing of cases during VP follow- up activities. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS The perceived benefit of VPs and their usage were higher in the two intense-use settings compared with the moderate-and lowintensity settings. The wish for more guidance was high in the low-and one of the highintensity settings. Students in all settings displayed little interest in more assessment and feedback regarding VPs. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCONCLUSIONS High case processing intensity was related to positive perceptions of the benefit of VPs. However, the low interest in more assessment and feedback on the use of VPs indicates the need to clearly communicate the added value of the follow-up seminar. The findings suggest that a more intense follow-up pays off in terms of the benefit perceived by students. This study illustrates the need to consider VPs from the perspective of a holistic

  • 14.
    Fenwick, Tara
    et al.
    University of Stirling, Scotland.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Towards socio-material approaches in simulation-based education: lessons from complexity theory2015In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 359-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ContextReview studies of simulation-based education (SBE) consistently point out that theory-driven research is lacking. The literature to date is dominated by discourses of fidelity and authenticity - creating the real - with a strong focus on the developing of clinical procedural skills. Little of this writing incorporates the theory and research proliferating in professional studies more broadly, which show how professional learning is embodied, relational and situated in social - material relations. A key concern for medical educators concerns how to better prepare students for the unpredictable and dynamic ambiguity of professional practice; this has stimulated the movement towards socio-material theories in education that address precisely this question. Objectives and MethodsAmong the various socio-material theories that are informing new developments in professional education, complexity theory has been of particular importance for medical educators interested in updating current practices. This paper outlines key elements of complexity theory, illustrated with examples from empirical study, to argue its particular relevance for improving SBE. ResultsComplexity theory can make visible important material dynamics, and their problematic consequences, that are not often noticed in simulated experiences in medical training. It also offers conceptual tools that can be put to practical use. This paper focuses on concepts of emergence, attunement, disturbance and experimentation. These suggest useful new approaches for designing simulated settings and scenarios, and for effective pedagogies before, during and following simulation sessions. ConclusionsSocio-material approaches such as complexity theory are spreading through research and practice in many aspects of professional education across disciplines. Here, we argue for the transformative potential of complexity theory in medical education using simulation as our focus. Complexity tools open questions about the socio-material contradictions inherent in SBE, draw attention to important material dynamics of emergence, and suggest practical educative ways to expand and deepen student learning. Discuss ideas arising from the article at discuss.

  • 15.
    Israelsson, Johan
    et al.
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kalmar County Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Källén, Pär
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Test cases: in-hospital, scenario-basedcardiopulmonary resuscitation training2009In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 43, no 11, p. 1081-1117Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Johansson, Eva E
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Röjlar, Hanna
    Eriksson, Bodil
    Frisk, Kristina
    Gender differences in media portrayals of doctors: a challenge in the socialisation of next-generation doctors2008In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 226-226Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Lauffs, Monica
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University College, Stockholm.
    Ponzer, Sari
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Saboonchi, Fredrik
    Sophiahemmet University College, Stockholm.
    Lonka, Kirsti
    Research Centre for Educational Psychology, Department of Applied Educational Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hylin, Uffe
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Mattiasson, Anne-Cathrine
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Division of Surgery, Stockholm.
    Cross-cultural adaptation of the Swedish version of Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS)2008In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, ISSN 0308-0110, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 405-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context  Interprofessional learning activities in health care are being gradually introduced on an international basis and therefore cross-cultural and internationally collaborative research into the outcomes of these activities is needed. Hence, it is necessary not only to translate research instruments into the language of the culture in which they are to be used, but also to adapt them culturally if they are to fulfil the testing purposes for which they are intended. It is also necessary to test a translated instrument in order to ensure that it retains its intended psychometric properties.

    Methods  In the present study, the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) was adapted for use in a Swedish student population. Cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to recommended guidelines. The Swedish version was tested on a group of students from various health care professions (n = 214). Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was adopted to ensure internal consistency.

    Results  Minor discrepancies during the different translation processes were identified and corrected. Confirmatory factor analysis suggests that the model had an acceptable fit, implying that the factor structure of the scale did not undergo any significant changes by being subjected to translation. The psychometric qualities of the instrument were comparable with those of the English-language version.

    Conclusions  This study presents the cross-cultural adaptation of the RIPLS and demonstrates that its subscale Teamwork and Collaboration is the only reliable subscale. The other 2 subscales (Professional Identity, and Roles and Responsibilities) probably require further scrutiny and development, at least in the Swedish population.

  • 18.
    Lindström, Ulf H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Medical students' experiences of shame in professional enculturation2011In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 1016-1024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Despite the intentions of caregivers not to harm, medical encounters may involve intimidation and induce emotions of shame. Reflection is a critical part of professional learning and training. However, the role of shame in medical education has scarcely been studied. The aim of this study was to explore medical students’ reflections on shame-related experiences in clinical situations and to examine how they tackled these experiences.

    Methods: A 24-credit course in Professional Development is held at the Medical School of Umeå University, Sweden. A 1-day seminar on the theme of shame, which involves individual reflections and group discussions, is held in term 9. Medical students were invited to individually consider and write down their memories of situations in which they had experienced shame in clinical encounters. Of a total of 133 students, 75 were willing to share their written reflections anonymously. Their essays were transcribed to computer text and analysed by means of qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Three themes emerged. These included: Difficulties in disclosing shame; Shame-inducing circumstances, and Avoiding or addressing shame. Initially, students experienced problems in recalling shameful incidents, but successively described various situations which related to being taken by surprise, being exposed, and being associated with staff imprudence. Students disclosed shame avoidance behaviours, but also gave examples of how addressing shame provided them with new insights and restored their dignity.

    Conclusions: Students’ reflections on shameful experiences elucidated the importance of attitudes, manners, standards and hierarchies in clinical situations. These are important issues to highlight in the professional enculturation of medical students; our emphasising of them may encourage medical teachers elsewhere to organise similar activities. Opportunities for mentoring medical students in tackling shame and adverse feelings, and in resolving conflict, are needed in medical curricula.

  • 19. Lynöe, N
    et al.
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Westberg, K
    Duchek, M
    Informed consent in clinical training--patient experiences and motives for participating.1998In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 465-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess patients' attitudes to and experiences of participating in the clinical training of medical students. Samples of patients (n = 582) selected at random from six different departments (gynaecology, psychiatry, internal medicine, paediatrics, urology and a health care centre with general practitioners) were interviewed by means of a questionnaire. The patients were selected from those who had consulted the actual departments in the last six months of 1995. Four hundred and forty-one patients (76%) answered the questionnaire. Seventy-one per cent of all patients had experience of participating; of these 41% had estimated that they had once or several times participated without being informed. Eighty per cent felt aggrieved if they were not informed. On average 88% were, in principle, positive to participating. Of those who were, in principle, negative a majority had negative experiences of participating. Elderly patients tended to accept participating more often without being informed. Almost all patients seemed to be positive to participating in the education of medical students, although a silent precondition might be that patients should be informed and given the opportunity to abstain.

  • 20.
    McGrath, Cormac
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Liljedahl, Matilda
    Palmgren, Per J.
    You say it, we say it, but how do we use it? Communities of practice: A critical analysis2020In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: As educational theories are increasingly used in medical education research there are concerns over how these theories are used, how well they are presented and what the authors intend. Communities of practice (CoP) is one example of an often-used theory and conceptual framework. This paper presents a critical analysis of how CoP theory is used in medical education research.

    Methods: A critical literature analysis was undertaken of articles published between 1998 and 2018 in eight internationally recognised medical education journals. From a total of 541 articles, 80 articles met the inclusion criteria and were analysed and mapped according to various patterns of use.

    Results: We discerned five categories of use, two misleading and cosmetic, off target and cosmeticising, and three functional, framing, lensing and transferring. A considerable number of articles either misrepresented the point of communities of practice or used it in a cosmetic fashion. The remainder used the theory to frame an ongoing study in relation to other work, as a lens through which to design the study and collect or analyse data, or as a way of discussing or demonstrating the transferability of the findings.

    Conclusions: We conclude that almost half of the reviewed articles did not offer a functional and rigorous definition of what is meant by CoP; instead, they used it in a potentially misleading or cosmetic manner. This study therefore calls on editors, reviewers and authors alike to increase clarity and quality in the application of CoP theory in medical education.

  • 21.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    An exercise in death notification2011In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 45, no 11, p. 1139-1140Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Ponzer, Sari
    et al.
    Hylin, Uffe
    Kusoffsky, Ann
    Lauffs, Monica
    Sophiahemmet University College.
    Lonka, Kirsti
    Mattiasson, Anne-Cathrine
    Sophiahemmet University College.
    Nordström, Gun
    Interprofessional training in the context of clinical practice: goals and students' perceptions on clinical education wards2004In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 727-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: This paper describes the context of interprofessional training on clinical education wards (CEWs) and reports students' perceptions of this type of interprofessional and professional training. CONTEXT: A 2-week interprofessional clinical course was designed for medical students in their surgical eighth term, and nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy students, all in their sixth term. Clinical tutors were responsible for the patients and also supervised the students. The goals for the students included: to provide the patients with good medical care, nursing and rehabilitation; to develop their own professional roles; to enhance their level of understanding of the other professions; to stress the importance of good communication for teamwork and for patient care; to enhance understanding of the role of the patient, and to become more aware of ethical aspects of health care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire developed by teachers from the 4 educational departments was used. A total of 962 students responded (78%). RESULTS: The CEWs provided the students with good clinical practice in terms of training in their own professions as well in learning more about the other professions. The importance of good communication for teamwork and for patient care was recognised. The quality of supervision and students' perception of their own professional roles were important factors regarding satisfaction with the CEW course. CONCLUSIONS: The CEW course seemed to provide the students with an opportunity to develop their own professional roles and their functions as team members.

  • 23.
    Risberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    "Important...but of low status": male education leaders´ views on gender in medicine2011In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 613-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The implementation of and communication about matters associated with gender in medical education have been predominantly perceived as women's issues. This study aimed to explore attitudes towards and experiences of gender-related issues among key male members of faculties of medicine.

    Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 male education leaders from the six medical schools in Sweden. The interviews were analysed qualitatively using a modified grounded theory approach.

    Results The core category -'important... but of low status'- reflects ambivalent attitudes towards gender-related issues in medicine among male education leaders. All informants were able to articulate why gender matters. As doctors, they saw gender as a determinant of health and, as bystanders, they had witnessed inequalities and the wasting of women's competence. However, they had doubts about gender-related issues and found them to be overemphasised. Gender education was seen as a threat to medical school curricula as a consequence of the time and space it requires. Gender-related issues were considered to be unscientifically presented, to mostly concern women's issues and to tend to involve 'male bashing' (i.e. gender issues were often labelled as ideological and political). Interviewees asked for facts and knowledge, but questioned specific lessons and gender theory. Experiences of structural constraints, such as prejudice, hierarchies and homosociality, were presented, making gender education difficult and downgrading it.

    Conclusions The results indicate that male faculty leaders embrace the importance of gender-related issues, but do not necessarily recognise or defend their impact on an area of significant knowledge and competence in medicine. To change this and to engage more men in gender education, faculty measures are needed to counteract prejudice and to upgrade the time allocation, merits and status of gender implementation work. Based on our findings, we present and discuss possible ways to interest more men and to improve gender education in medicine.

  • 24.
    Stenfors-Hayes, Terese
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A phenomenographic approach to research in medical education2013In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 261-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context  Phenomenography is a qualitative approach to research which has revolutionised the way that researchers and teachers think about the processes and outcomes of learning in higher education. Phenomenography has also been used successfully in medical and health care research for the last 20 years. Phenomenography provides a lens through which to view certain types of research question. It also provides direction for how to empirically carry out the research.

    Methods  This paper introduces phenomenography as a viable qualitative approach for use in medical education research.

    Results  A phenomenographic study maps the qualitatively different ways in which people experience a phenomenon. This type of study can have an important impact on, for example, patient communication, clinical practice and health care education.

    Conclusion  We suggest that a phenomenographic approach can be used to explore many medical education research issues, and can facilitate more solid links between research and educational development and change.

  • 25.
    Weurlander, Maria
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Lonn, Annalena
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Seeberger, Astrid
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Hult, Hakan
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wernerson, Annika
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Emotional challenges of medical students generate feelings of uncertainty2019In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 53, no 10, p. 1037-1048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Health care students face many situations during their education that might be emotionally challenging. Students are confronted with illness, suffering, death, patient treatment dilemmas, and witnessing unprofessional behaviour on the part of health care professionals. Few studies have focused on what these experiences lead to in relation to the process of becoming a professional. The purpose of the study was to explore medical students main concerns relating to emotionally challenging situations during their medical education. Methods A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to explore and analyse medical students experiences. Data were gathered by means of focus group interviews, including two interviews in the middle and two interviews at the end of the students undergraduate programme. A total of 14 medical students participated. Results Students main concerns relating to emotionally challenging situations were feelings of uncertainty. These feelings of uncertainty concerned: (i) insufficient knowledge and skills; (ii) the struggle to manage emotions in patient encounters; (iii) perceived negative culture and values amongst health care professionals and in the health care system, and (iv) lacking a self-evident position on the health care team. The first two aspects relate to uncertainties concerning their own capabilities and the other two aspects relate to uncertainties regarding the detached medical culture and the unclear expectations of them as students in the health care team. Conclusions In the process of becoming a physician, students develop their professional identity in constant negotiation with their own perceptions, values and norms and what they experience in the local clinical context in which they participate during workplace education. The two dimensions that students have to resolve during this process concern the questions: Do I have what it takes? Do I want to belong to this medical culture? Until these struggles are resolved, students are likely to experience worry about their future professional role.

  • 26.
    Weurlander, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Lönn, Annalena
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Seeberger, Astrid
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hult, Håkan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet.
    Wernerson, Annika
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Emotional challenges of medical students generate feelings of uncertainty2019In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 53, p. 1037-1048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES Health care students face many situations during their education that might be emotionally challenging. Students are confronted with illness, suffering, death, patient treatment dilemmas, and witnessing unprofessional behaviour on the part of health care professionals. Few studies have focused on what these experiences lead to inrelation to the process of becoming a professional. The purpose of the study was toexplore medical students’ main concerns relating to emotionally challenging situations during their medical education.

    METHODS A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to explore and analyse medical students’ experiences. Data were gathered by means of focus group interviews, including two interviews in the middle and two interviews at the end of the students’ undergraduate programme. A total of 14 medical students participated.

    RESULTS Students’ main concerns relating to emotionally challenging situations were feelings of uncertainty. These feelings of uncertainty concerned: (i) insufficient knowledge and skills; (ii) the struggle to manage emotions in patient encounters; (iii)perceived negative culture and values amongst health care professionals and in the health care system, and (iv) lacking a self-evident position on the health care team. The first two aspectsr elate to uncertainties concerning their own capabilities and the other two aspects relate to uncertainties regarding the detached medical culture and the unclear expectations of them as students in the health care team.

    CONCLUSIONS In the process of becoming a physician, students develop their professional identity in constant negotiation with their own perceptions, values and norms and what they experience in the local clinical context in which they participate during workplace education. The two dimensions that students have to resolve during this process concern the questions: Do I have what it takes? Do I want to belong to this medical culture? Until these struggles are resolved, students are likely to experience worry about their future professional role.

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