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  • 1.
    Abelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Centre for Defence Medicine, Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden.
    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality during CPR practice versus during a simulated life-saving event2018Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 652-655Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. As a part of the emergency medical services, the Swedish fire brigade can increase the survival rate in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests.

    Aim. To compare the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by firefighters at a routine CPR practice versus when involved in a simulated life-saving event.

    Methods. In this study, 80 firefighters divided into two groups performed CPR according to guidelines: one group indoors during a routine training session; the other group outdoors during a smoke diving exercise wearing personal protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data.

    Results. The results showed a tendency for the outdoor group to perform CPR with better ventilation and compression quality, as compared to the indoor group. The ventilation of the manikin was not hampered by the firefighters wearing personal protective clothes and self-contained breathing apparatus, as the Swedish firefighters remove their facial mask and ventilate the patient with their mouth using a pocket mask.

    Conclusions. Overall, the results in both groups showed a high quality of CPR which can be related to the fire brigade training and education traditions. CPR training is regularly performed, which in turn helps to maintain CPR skills.

  • 2.
    Abelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality during CPR practice versus during a simulated life-saving event.2018Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 652-655Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: As a part of the emergency medical services, the Swedish fire brigade can increase the survival rate in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests.

    AIM: To compare the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by firefighters at a routine CPR practice versus when involved in a simulated life-saving event.

    METHODS: In this study, 80 firefighters divided into two groups performed CPR according to guidelines: one group indoors during a routine training session; the other group outdoors during a smoke diving exercise wearing personal protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data.

    RESULTS: The results showed a tendency for the outdoor group to perform CPR with better ventilation and compression quality, as compared to the indoor group. The ventilation of the manikin was not hampered by the firefighters wearing personal protective clothes and self-contained breathing apparatus, as the Swedish firefighters remove their facial mask and ventilate the patient with their mouth using a pocket mask.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results in both groups showed a high quality of CPR which can be related to the fire brigade training and education traditions. CPR training is regularly performed, which in turn helps to maintain CPR skills.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Abelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Swedish Armed Forces Centre for Defence Medicine, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Simulation as a means to develop firefighters as emergency care professionals2019Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 650-657Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the simulated emergency care performed by firefighters and their perception of simulation as an educational method.

    METHODS: This study had a mixed method with both a quantitative and a qualitative approach. Data were collected by simulation assessment, a questionnaire, and written comments. Descriptive analysis was conducted on the quantitative data whereas a qualitative content analysis was conducted on the qualitative data. Finally, a contingent analysis was used where a synthesis configured both the quantitative and the qualitative results into a narrative result.

    RESULTS: The cognitive workload that firefighters face during simulated emergency care is crucial for learning. In this study, the severity and complexity of the scenarios provided were higher than expected by the firefighters. Clearly stated conditions for the simulation and constructive feedback were considered positive for learning. Patient actors induced realism in the scenario, increasing the experience of stress, in comparison to a manikin.

    CONCLUSION: To simulate in a realistic on-scene environment increases firefighters' cognitive ability to critically analyze problems and manage emergency care. Simulation of emergency care developed the firefighters as professionals.

  • 4.
    Abelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University .
    Lundberg, Lars
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Simulation as a means to develop firefighters as emergency care professionals.2018Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, s. 1-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the simulated emergency care performed by firefighters and their perception of simulation as an educational method.

    METHODS: This study had a mixed method with both a quantitative and a qualitative approach. Data were collected by simulation assessment, a questionnaire, and written comments. Descriptive analysis was conducted on the quantitative data whereas a qualitative content analysis was conducted on the qualitative data. Finally, a contingent analysis was used where a synthesis configured both the quantitative and the qualitative results into a narrative result.

    RESULTS: The cognitive workload that firefighters face during simulated emergency care is crucial for learning. In this study, the severity and complexity of the scenarios provided were higher than expected by the firefighters. Clearly stated conditions for the simulation and constructive feedback were considered positive for learning. Patient actors induced realism in the scenario, increasing the experience of stress, in comparison to a manikin.

    CONCLUSION: To simulate in a realistic on-scene environment increases firefighters' cognitive ability to critically analyze problems and manage emergency care. Simulation of emergency care developed the firefighters as professionals.

  • 5.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Driver celeration behavior and the prediction of traffic accidents2006Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 281-296Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was undertaken to investigate whether driver celeration (overall mean speed change) behavior can predict traffic accident involvement. Also, to test whether acceleration, deceleration or the combined celeration measure was the better predictor. Bus driver celeration behavior was measured repeatedly in real traffic, driving en route, and correlated with accidents for which the drivers were deemed at least partly responsible. Correlations around. 20 were found in several samples between celeration behavior and culpable accidents for a 2-year period. The results show that although celeration behavior is only semi-stable over time, it predicts with some accuracy individual accident involvement over 2 years. The predictive power of acceleration and deceleration was slightly lower than the combined measure, in accordance with theory. The correlations found were strong enough to warrant the use of celeration behavior as a predictive variable for transportation companies in their safety work.

  • 6.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Environmental determinants of celeration behaviour2015Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 71-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Celeration (speed change) behaviour of drivers has been posited to be the best predictor of their traffic accident involvement. The origins of this behaviour, however, have not been specified. A model is therefore introduced, where celeration is partly due to the individual disposition of the driver (i.e., driving style), and partly to the environment (road layout, rules and traffic density). Three measurement problems for celeration were studied; the effect of traffic density, of regular versus irregular routes, and weight of the vehicle (loaded/unloaded) on celeration behaviour. Two small samples of truck drivers in Sweden were measured for several months each. There was a strong effect of vehicle load, with behaviour being more cautious with increased weight. Driving on different roads also yielded differences in behaviour, although the design used did not permit conclusions about what caused these. Traffic volume was not found to have any reliable effect on celeration.

  • 7.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Long-term prediction of traffic accident record from bus driver celeration behavior2007Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 159-171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver celeration (speed change) behavior of bus drivers measured a number of times was used to predict their culpable accidents over increasing time periods. It was found that predictive power was considerable (>.30 correlation) over 5 years of time with aggregated celeration (mean of repeated measurements) as independent variables, and there were also indications that power reached even further, although too low Ns made these results unreliable. Similarly, there were indications of even stronger correlations with increased aggregation of celeration values. The results were discussed in terms of the methodology needed to bring out such results, and the stability of accident-causing behavior over time.

  • 8.
    Ahlstrom, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lovgren, Maria Gink
    Volvo Bus Corp, Denmark.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Volvo Bus Corp, Denmark.
    Willstrand, Tania Dukic
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Anund, Anna
    Not Found:Linkoping Univ, Rehabil Med, Linkoping, Sweden; Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    The effect of an active steering system on city bus drivers muscle activity2019Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 377-385Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    City bus drivers spend hours driving under time pressure, in congested traffic and in a monotonous sitting position. This leads to unhealthy working conditions, especially in terms of physical and psychological stress. The aim of this study is to investigate whether an active steering system can alleviate the musculoskeletal stress involved in manoeuvring a bus. Twenty bus drivers drove a city bus equipped with the Volvo dynamic steering (VDS) support system in real traffic. Steering effort was evaluated with electromyography and with a questionnaire. Compared to baseline, VDS significantly reduced the required muscle activity by on average 15-25% while turning, and up to 68% in the part of the manoeuvre requiring maximum effort. The bus drivers believed that VDS will help reduce neck and shoulder problems, and they expressed a desire to have VDS installed in their own bus.

  • 9.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Gink Lövgren, Maria
    Volvo Bus Corporation.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Volvo Bus Corporation.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Anund, Anna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    The effect of an active steering system on city bus drivers’ muscle activity2018Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    City bus drivers spend hours driving under time pressure, in congested traffic and in a monotonous sitting position. This leads to unhealthy working conditions, especially in terms of physical and psychological stress. The aim of this study is to investigate whether an active steering system can alleviate the musculoskeletal stress involved in manoeuvring a bus. Twenty bus drivers drove a city bus equipped with the Volvo dynamic steering (VDS) support system in real traffic. Steering effort was evaluated with electromyography and with a questionnaire. Compared to baseline, VDS significantly reduced the required muscle activity by on average 15–25% while turning, and up to 68% in the part of the manoeuvre requiring maximum effort. The bus drivers believed that VDS will help reduce neck and shoulder problems, and they expressed a desire to have VDS installed in their own bus.

  • 10.
    Alizadehsalehi, Sepehr
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap. Civil Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey.
    Yitmen, Ibrahim
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap. Civil Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey.
    Celik, Tolga
    Civil Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey.
    Arditi, David A.
    Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, United States.
    The effectiveness of an integrated BIM/UAV model in managing safety on construction sites2018Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, s. 1-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. A variety of approaches exist to achieve better construction safety performance, but only a few consider a combination of building information modeling (BIM) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

    Method. This article presents a four-dimensional (4D) BIM/UAV-enabled safety management model based on IDEF0 language. In the first step, potential hazards are identified with the help of safety specialists’ experiences and BIM software used in the design of the structure. Then, a UAV monitors the location of the potential hazards. The third step involves the integration of the 4D BIM-based model and the information obtained from the UAV. Finally, the combined data are analyzed and interpreted, and site safety staff are notified about measures to be put in place to prevent accidents.

    Results. This model shows a strong relationship between the design and construction phases by using BIM in the design phase and UAVs in the construction phase. The proposed safety model was evaluated by construction safety specialists in a two-pronged approach.

    Conclusion. The number of fatal, non-fatal and property damage-causing accidents may be significantly lower when the proposed system was used.

    Practical application. This model allows safety specialists to identify hazards and develop suitable mitigation strategies. 

  • 11. Arsalani, Narges
    et al.
    Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud
    Josephson, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Lagerstrom, Monica
    Musculoskeletal Disorders and Working Conditions Among Iranian Nursing Personnel2014Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 671-680Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and associations with organizational, physical and psychosocial working conditions among 520 nursing personnel in Tehran, Iran. The results of the cross-sectional study on aids and different educational levels of nurses showed that the participants experienced 88% of MSDs in at least one body region during the past 12 months. The 3 most prevalent body regions were the low back (65.3%), knee (56.2%) and neck (49.8%). The participants reported inflexible work schedule, poor quality of devices for transferring patients, overexertion and job dissatisfaction. Physical and psychosocial exposure revealed an elevated odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of MSDs. The results showed a combination of high physical and psychosocial work demands along with low control over the work which increased work-related stress and enhanced the risk of MSDs. This study findings could help to understand work-related MSDs among nursing personnel in a developing country where the work situation and sociocultural context differ from other countries.

  • 12.
    Baltrenas, P.
    et al.
    Vilnius Technical University, Lithuania.
    Serbenta, K.
    Vilnius Technical University, Lithuania.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Characteristics of the Workforce and Activity Optimization in the Building Industries of Lithuania1996Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 41-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Bao, Shihan
    et al.
    Washington State Department of Labor and Industries, Olympia, WA.
    Winkel, Jørgen
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders at workplaces in the People's Republic of China2000Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 61, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents 2 musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire surveys in 10 different Chinese occupational groups. Data collected from 1,603 workers using a modified Nordic musculoskeletal disorders symptom questionnaire showed that the 12-month prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, particularly in the low back and shoulder-neck regions, was high at many Chinese workplaces. Significant differences existed between occupational groups. Assembly workers usually had higher neck-shoulder complaints compared to workers in most other occupations. However, the nature of assembly seemed also to influence the prevalence rate. Workers at a cassette recorder and a TV set assembly plant appeared to have more neck complaints compared with a group of thermos flask assemblers.

  • 14. Berglund, Leif
    et al.
    Johansson, Maria
    Nygren, Magnus
    Samuelson, Björn
    Stenberg, Magnus
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Människa och teknik.
    Occupational accidents in Swedish construction trades2019Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to anazlye accidents occurring in the Swedish construction industry focusing specifically on the situation in the individual trades. The article includes all occupational accidents with at least one day of absence from work that were reported to the Swedish Social Insurance Agency for the year of 2016. The results, focusing on accident cause, injured body parts, as well as accidents per weekday, month and age, show that although the trades share commonalities regarding occupational accidents a number of trade-specific problem areas stand out. With this in mind, conclusions are drawn regarding the situation in each respective trade and suggestions are made for future studies focusing on accidents in construction industry trades.

  • 15.
    Blomkvist, Anna-Christin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hypersensitivity to electricity in the office: symptoms and improvement1997Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 3, nr 3-4, s. 129-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nineteen persons "hypersensitive" to electricity and 20 nonafflicted persons were studied for 1 1/2 years. The most discernible hypersensitivity symptoms were pricking sensations and redness in the face, but these symptoms were present in only half of the afflicted. Other symptoms were similar to symptoms experienced during office work and this study does not support the idea that electrosensitivity is one single syndrome. The "hypersensitive" persons improved significantly, mainly on neuropsychiatric symptoms, but the skin problems sustained--as did the belief about their cause. The afflicted persons used less conventional medication than the group of the nonafflicted, which suggests a general tendency for attribution to environmental factors.

  • 16.
    Blomkvist, Anna-Christina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Computer usage with cold hands: an experiment with pointing devices2000Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 429-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Computers are used in the outdoors and in connection with cold store work. Cold hand and fingers limit data input, as studied here. Six input devices; trackballs, pens, and a mouse were tested by 19 participants in a Fitts' target acquisition task with 2 target sizes under 2 experimental conditions; warm and cold right hand. Measures were acquisition times, number of errors, participant's preferences, and observed handling of the devices. Effects of device, target size, and cold were significant. Learning and attempts to improve handgrip were confirmed. Large enough targets, a thick pen, and a mouse make computer work practicable in the cold. Direct visual feedback, as with pen on template with target images, shortened acquisition times by half a second.

  • 17.
    Chaikumarn, Montakarn
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Differences in dentists' working postures when adopting proprioceptive derivation vs. conventional concept2005Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 441-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    New technologies and changes in dental care, including the proprioceptive derivation (Pd) concept, aimed at providing dentists with greater comfort and better health, were introduced in Thailand. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in dentists' working postures when adopting different work concepts: Pd and the conventional concept. The results showed differences in dentists' sitting posture, clock-related working positions, and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) scores. This implied that Pd helped dentists to discover new ways of positioning themselves, and working comfortably and effectively, which made it possible for them to adopt better working posture and have lower RULA scores. In conclusion, the Pd concept had a positive effect on dentists' working posture.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Chaikumarn, Montakarn
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Working conditions and dentists' attitude towards proprioceptive derivation2004Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 137-146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Proprioceptive derivation (Pd), a new method of organising a dentist workstation as well as a working procedure, was introduced to Thailand. The aim of this study was to assess the working conditions and the attitude to Pd among experienced users. Questionnaires were distributed among 12 dentists. The results showed that all dentists chose to work in a sitting posture and mostly worked without breaks between patients. They spent less time on dental examination and crown and bridge therapy tasks. Solving problems in patients with physical limitations resulted in a low stress level. Seven dentists (58.3%) always used Pd and liked it. Five dentists (41.7%) sometimes used Pd, with 3 of them liking it. Only 2 dentists, who sometimes used Pd, did not like it because it could not cover all dental tasks and treatment, and it was difficult and complex.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Choobineh, Alireza
    et al.
    School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.
    Lahmi, Mohammadali
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical.
    Hosseini, Mostafa
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Jazani, Reza Khani
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical.
    Workstation design in carpet hand-weaving operation: Guidelines for prevention of musculoskeletal disorders2004Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 411-424Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carpet weavers suffer from musculoskeletal problems mainly attributed to poor working postures. Their posture is mostly constrained by the design of workstations. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 design parameters (weaving height and seat type) on postural variables and subjective experience, and to develop guidelines for workstation adjustments. At an experimental workstation, 30 professional weavers worked in 9 different conditions. Working posture and weavers' perceptions were measured. It was shown that head, neck and shoulder postures were influenced by weaving height. Both design parameters influenced trunk and elbows postures. The determinant factor for weavers' perception on the neck, shoulders and elbows was found to be weaving height, and on the back and knees it was seat type. Based on the results, the following guidelines were developed: (a) weaving height should be adjusted to 20 cm above elbow height; (b) a 10º forward-sloping high seat is to be used at weaving workstations.

  • 20.
    Choobineh, Alireza
    et al.
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Lahmi, Mohammadali
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Jazani, Reza Khani
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Hosseini, Mostafa
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Musculoskeletal symptoms as related to ergonomic factors in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry and general guidelines for workstation design2004Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 157-168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carpet weaving is a high risk occupation for developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The objectives of the present study, which was carried out in the Iranian hand-woven carpet industry, were determination of the prevalence of MSD symptoms, identification of major factors associated with MSD symptoms and development of guidelines for workstation design. 1,439 randomly selected weavers participated in this study. A questionnaire was used to collect data on MSD symptoms. The results revealed that the prevalence rates for symptoms in different body regions were high as compared to the general Iranian population (for neck, back and large joints, both p < .0001). The results of multivariate analyses showed that major ergonomic factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms were loom type, working posture, daily working time and seat type. Based on the results, some general guidelines for designing weaving workstations were developed. A prototype test showed that the new workstation was acceptable for subject tests and that it improved working posture.

  • 21.
    Choobineh, Alireza
    et al.
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Lahmi, Mohammadali
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research.
    Major health risk factors in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry2004Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 65-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the role and importance of small-scale industries together with the issue of occupational health problems and their causes in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry as a typical informal small-scale industry in an industrially developing country. The objective of this paper is to review health risk factors and related occupational health and ergonomic problems in the carpet industry. Since the overwhelming majority of weavers' health problems originate from ergonomic risk factors, it is concluded that any improvement program in this industry should focus on ergonomic aspects. To assess ergonomic conditions in weaving workshops, a checklist has been developed and an ergonomics index indicating the ergonomic conditions of the workshop has been proposed. To test and verify the checklist, 50 weaving workshops were visited and their ergonomic conditions were assessed. Based on the results some modifications were made and the checklist was shown to be an effective tool.

  • 22.
    Derlicka, Marta
    et al.
    Central Institute for Labour Protection, Warsaw, Department of Ergonomics.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Working conditions in small private enterprises in Poland2000Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 6, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study deals with working conditions in small private enterprises in Poland. Data come from 50 small enterprises from the Warsaw area. Information about the evaluation of working conditions and the existence of programmes for their improvement was gathered with the help of questionnaires addressed to employees and employers. The results constitute a "photograph" of the Polish reality at the beginning of its transition from planned to market economy. The study revealed a lack of programmes for the improvement of working conditions in a significant number of the enterprises studied as well as little interest in occupational safety on the part of employers (owners). The study also revealed that all decisions--including those about the improvement of working conditions--were made by employers. Hence, the need for the widest possible dissemination of knowledge on occupational safety and the protection of human in the working environment with particular stress put on employers. Employers who are knowledgeable in this field and who are aware of its importance can significantly influence the improvement of working conditions in small enterprises.

  • 23.
    Geng, Qiuqing
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Chen, F.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    National Institute for Working Life.
    The Effect of Protective Gloves on Manual Dexterity in the Cold Environments1997Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 3, nr 1-2, s. 15-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a study on the effect of different protective gloves (which are commercially available and commonly used in the cold) on manual dexterity in cold environments. The experiments compared statistically four different types of gloves and two different types of gloving (outer or double) at +19 degrees C and -10 degrees C. Performance was determined both objectively and subjectively using two manual dexterity tasks: bolt-nut and pick-up tasks. The response measured was the time of performing each task. Statistical analysis showed that all independent factors such as glove type, participant, object size, and temperature had significant effects on the hand cooling reaction. A significant difference in the performance between the gloves was found in the bolt-nut task. It was also found that outer-inner combination gloving may be an approach to use for precision tasks.

  • 24. Giedraityte, Lina
    et al.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Gavhed, Desiree
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Validation of methods for determination of metabolic rate in the Edholm scale and ISO 89962001Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 135-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to validate the Edholm scale (Edholm, 1966) and the ISO 8996 standard (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1990) by comparing the metabolic rates estimated for both methods with the actual measured metabolic rate (MMeas) in 6 manual material handling tasks simulated under laboratory conditions. The metabolic rate was calculated from oxygen consumption VO2 (19 participants) according to Standard No. ISO 8996 (ISO, 1990). Additionally, the participants estimated perceived exertion using the Borg scale. The metabolic rates derived from the Edholm scale (MEdh) overestimated 5 of 6 activities by 34-50% (alpha = .05). The metabolic rates derived from ISO 8996 (MISO) overestimated all activities by 7-38% (alpha = .05).

  • 25.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Alanko, Tommi
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki, Finland.
    Decat, Gilbert
    Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Mol, Belgium.
    Falsaperla, Rosaria
    National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL), Rome, Italy.
    Gryz, Krzysztof
    Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Poland.
    Hietanen, Maila
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki, Finland.
    Karpowicz, Jolanta
    Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Poland.
    Rossi, Paolo
    National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL), Rome, Italy.
    Sandström, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Exposure of workers to electromagnetic fields. A review of open questions on exposure assessment techniques2009Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 3-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    European Directive 2004/40/EC on occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), based on the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, was to be implemented in the Member States of the European Union by 2008. Because of some unexpected problems the deadline was postponed until 2012. This paper reviews some of the problems identified and presents some suggestions for possible solutions based on the authors' experience in assessing occupational exposure to EMF. Among the topics discussed are movement in static magnetic fields, ways to time average extreme low frequency signals, the difference between emission and exposure standards, and ways of dealing with those issues.

  • 26.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies on the use of mobile and cordless telephones and the risk of brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-20032007Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 63-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present the pooled analysis of 2 case-control studies on the association of brain tumours with mobile phone use. Use of analogue cellular phones increased the risk for acoustic neuroma by 5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2-9% per 100 hrs of use. The risk increased for astrocytoma grade III-IV with latency period with highest estimates using > 10-year time period from first use of these phone types. The risk increased per one year of use of analogue phones by 10%, 95% CI = 6-14%, digital phones by 11%, 95% CI = 6-16%, and cordless phones by 8%, 95% CI = 5-12%. For all studied phone types OR for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours, increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV.

  • 27.
    Helali, Faramarz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Using ergonomic checkpoints to support the participatory ergonomic intervention in an industrially developing country (IDC): a case study2009Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 325-337Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve ergonomics awareness in 3 subsidiary companies, an intervention team was formed. The aims of this study were to implement basic ergonomics through a participatory ergonomics intervention process that can support a continuous learning process and lead to an improvement in health and safety as well as in the work systems in the organization. The findings of this study (i.e., method, continuous learning and integration) were key to making the participatory ergonomics intervention successful. Furthermore, 4 issues of the ergonomics checkpoints (i.e., work schedules, work tasks, healthy work organization and learning) for assessing the work system were found suitable for both changing work schedules and for improving the work system. This paper describes the result of this project and also the experiences gained and the conclusions reached from using the International Labour Office's ergonomics checkpoints in the industries of industrially developing countries.

  • 28.
    Helali, Faramarz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Participatory ergonomics intervention in an industrially developing country: a case study2008Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 159-176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In industrially developing countries, a few ergonomists have directed great efforts towards developing ergonomics awareness among managers and workers in organizations. There is little research on the degree of their success, though. Furthermore, access of organizations to ergonomics knowledge is usually very difficult, especially in industrially developing countries. Thus, building ergonomics awareness is certainly the first phase of the process. Three companies from one industry (44 people: 14 females and 30 males) participated in a project aimed at improving their work system. At the beginning, we needed to create a common goal and ensure participation with appropriate ergonomics tools. The findings of this study were the key issue for the ergonomics intervention (i.e., a shared vision, awakened need of change and learning). Further, to build ergonomics awareness and develop a continuous learning process in the company, it was necessary to use more ergonomics tools through workers' participation in different workplaces

  • 29. Hocking, Bruce
    et al.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Guidance note: Risk management of workers with medical electronic devices and metallic implants in electromagnetic fields.2008Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 217-222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Medical electronic devices and metallic implants are found in an increasing number of workers. Industrialapplications requiring intense electromagnetic fields (EMF) are growing and the potential risk of injuriousinteractions arising from EMF affecting devices or implants needs to be managed. Potential interactionsinclude electromagnetic interference, displacement, and electrostimulation or heating of adjacent tissue,depending on the device or implant and the frequency of the fields. A guidance note, which uses a riskmanagement framework, has been developed to give generic advice in (a) risk identification—implementingprocedures to identify workers with implants and to characterise EMF exposure within a workplace; (b) riskassessment—integrating the characteristics of devices, the anatomical localisation of implants, occupationalhygiene data, and application of basic physics principles; and (c) risk control—advising the worker andemployer regarding safety and any necessary changes to work practices, while observing privacy.

  • 30. Jacobs, Melissa
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jacobus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. North West Univ, WorkWell Res Unit, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Stress, coping and safety compliance in a multinational gold mining company2017Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 152-161Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of work stress, consisting of role stressors and job insecurity, with safety compliance at work. A secondary objective was to test for the possible moderating effect of individual employees' coping behaviour between experienced work stress and job insecurity, and their safety compliance. A cross-sectional survey design was used (n=771). An electronic survey, with a biographical questionnaire and scales on role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload, job insecurity, coping and safety compliance at work, was administered. The results indicated that specific aspects of work stress, notably role conflict, role ambiguity and quantitative job insecurity, and of coping, namely an avoidance style and changing the situation, were important in understanding safety compliance. A moderating effect of avoidance coping was also found.

  • 31.
    Johansson, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry2010Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 375-386Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed i Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers and authorities ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment.

  • 32.
    Khan, M. Shafiquzzaman
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Örjan
    Sundbäck, Ulrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Subjective annoyance response to diesel engine sound during idling conditions1996Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 16-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjective annoyance response to diesel engine sound during idling conditions was evaluated by 80 participants. Eight different sound spectra were presented to the participants at a constant level of 80 dB(A) in a paired comparison procedure. Stereo recorded sound stimuli were played back through a pair of loudspeakers in an anechoic room. Four objective parameters of loudness, sharpness, impulsiveness, and roughness were found to be the determining factors that cause subjective annoyance. An annoyance prediction model for the test stimuli of an idling diesel engine was developed on the basis of these factors. The objective parameters and their interactions have a significant effect on the annoyance prediction model. The spectral distribution indicated by test participants to be pleasant can be used as a basis for appropriate modification of engine sound. A single microphone measurement in free field conditions can be used to estimate objective parameters for defining the cause of annoyance.

  • 33.
    Kuklane, K.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Dejke, Valter
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Testing sleeping bags according to EN 13537:2002: Details that make the difference2010Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 199-216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Standard on sleeping bag requirements (EN 13537:2002) describes a procedure to determine environmental temperature limits for safe usage of sleeping bags regarding their thermal insulation. However, there are several possible sources of error related to this procedure. The main aim of this work was to determine the influence of the various measuring parameters on the acuity of the respective parameters in order to judge the requirements. The results indicated that air velocity, mattress insulation and time between unpacking the bag and measurement had a significant impact on the result, with a difference of up to 5-15% in thermal insulation between minimum and maximum allowable parameter levels. On the other hand, manikin weight, thickness of the artificial ground and presence of a face mask were found to have a negligible influence. The article also discusses more general aspects of the standard including the calculation methods used.

  • 34.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Afanasieva, Rallema
    Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Labour Medicine, Moscow.
    Burmistrova, Olga
    Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Labour Medicine, Moscow.
    Bessanova, Nina
    Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Labour Medicine, Moscow.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Determination of heat loss from the feet and insulation of the footwear1999Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 465-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compared the methods of determining the footwear insulation on human participants and the thermal foot model. Another purpose was to find the minimal number of measurement points on the human foot that is needed for insulation calculation. Bare foot was tested at 3 ambient temperatures on 6 participants. Three types of footwear were tested on 2 participants. The mean insulation for a bare foot obtained on the participant and model were similar. The insulation of warm footwear measured by the 2 methods was also similar. For thin footwear the insulation values from the participants were higher than those from the thermal model. The differences could be related to undefined physiological factors. Two points on foot can be enough to measure the insulation of footwear on human participants (r =.98). However, due to the big individual differences of humans, and good repeatability and simplicity of the thermal foot method, the latter should be preferred for testing.

  • 35.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gao, Chuansi
    Lund University.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    Lund University.
    Giedraityte, Lina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Bröde, Peter
    Candas, Victor
    Hartog, Emiel den
    Meinander, Harriet
    Richards, Mark
    Havenith, George
    Calculation of clothing insulation by serial and parallel methods: effects on clothing choice by IREQ and thermal responses in the cold2007Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 103-116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold protective clothing was studied in 2 European Union projects. The objectives were (a) to examine different insulation calculation methods as measured on a manikin (serial or parallel), for the prediction of cold stress (IREQ); (b) to consider the effects of cold protective clothing on metabolic rate; (c) to evaluate the movement and wind correction of clothing insulation values. Tests were carried out on 8 subjects. The results showed the possibility of incorporating the effect of increases in metabolic rate values due to thick cold protective clothing into the IREQ model. Using the higher thermal insulation value from the serial method in the IREQ prediction, would lead to unacceptable cooling of the users. Thus, only the parallel insulation calculation method in EN 342:2004 should be used. The wind and motion correction equation (No. 2) gave realistic values for total resultant insulation; dynamic testing according to EN 342:2004 may be omitted.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Geng, Quiqing
    National Institue for Working Life.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    National Institue for Working Life.
    Effect of footwear insulation on thermal responses in the cold1998Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 137-152Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of footwear insulation on foot skin temperature in the cold at low activity was investigated. Simultaneously, the thermal and pain sensations, and the influence of steel toe cap were studied. Eight participants were exposed for 85 min to 3 environmental temperatures (+3, -12, and -25 degrees C) wearing 5 different boots. Insulation of footwear was determined with a thermal foot model. The study showed the importance of insulation for keeping feet warm. Other factors, such as wetness and vasomotor response, however, modified the thermal response. The most affected parts were toes and heels. Cold and pain sensations were connected with considerably lower temperatures in these local points. No significant differences were observed between boots with and without steel

  • 37.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Effect of sweating on insulation of footwear1998Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 123-136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to find out the influence of sweating on footwear insulation with a thermal foot model. Simultaneously, the influence of applied weight (35 kg), sock, and steel toe cap were studied. Water to 3 sweat glands was supplied with a pump at the rate of 10 g/hr in total. Four models of boots with steel toe caps were tested. The same models were manufactured also without steel toe. Sweating reduced footwear insulation 19-25% (30-37% in toes). During static conditions, only a minimal amount of sweat evaporated from boots. Weight affected sole insulation: Reduction depended on compressibility of sole material. The influence of steel toe varied with insulation. The method of thermal foot model appears to be a practical tool for footwear evaluation.

  • 38.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Afanasieva, Rallema
    Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Labour Medicine, Moscow.
    A comparison of two methods of determining thermal properties of footwear1999Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 477-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present European Standard for footwear testing (Standard No. EN 344:1992; European Committee for Standardization [CEN], 1992) classifies footwear thermally by a temperature drop inside the footwear during 30 min at defined conditions. Today, other methods for footwear thermal testing are also available. The aim of this study was to compare EN 344:1992 with a thermal foot method. Six boots were tested according to both methods. Additional tests with modified standard tests were also carried out. The methods ranked the footwear in a similar way. However, the test according to standard EN 344:1992 is a pass-or-fail test, whereas data that is gained from the thermal foot method gives more information and allows further use in research and product development. A change of the present standard method is suggested.

  • 39. Kumar, Rupesh
    et al.
    Chaikumarn, Montakarn
    Lundberg, Jan
    Participatory ergonomics and an evaluation of a low-cost improvement effect on cleaners' working posture2005Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 203-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleaning is a highly physically demanding job with a high frequency of awkward postures and working environments as contributing risk factors. Participatory ergonomics is a method in which end-users take an active role in identifying risk factors and solutions. The aim of this study was to apply the participatory ergonomics method to identify cleaning problems and to evaluate the effect of a low-cost improvement on cleaners' working postures in an office environment. The results show that the cleaning problem was identified, and the low-cost ergonomics solution suggested by the cleaners was implemented. Thus an improved working environment reduced the number of awkward cleaning postures and the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS) action category for floor mopping decreased. It can be concluded that working in an improved environment can lead to better working postures which, in turn, leads to the cleaners' better health and better cleaning results.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Kumar, Rupesh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Kumar, Shrawan
    University of Edmonton.
    A comparison of muscular activities involved in the use of two different types of computer mouse2008Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 305-311Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two types of computer input devices, a conventional mouse and a roller bar one, were studied in terms of muscular activitiy in m. trapezius dexter, m. deltoideus anterior dexter and m. extensor digitorum dexter, and comfort rating. Fifteen university students and employees participated in this study. The order of the devices was random. While a task was performed, electromyography (EMG) data were recorded for each test. Muscular activity was found to be significantly lower for the roller bar mouse than for the conventional one. Comfort rating indicated there was a significant difference in moving a cursor with the conventional mouse compared to the roller bar one. It is concluded that a roller bar mouse allowed the subjects to work closer to the body compared to the conventional one, thus the former can be recommended as a general means of reducing upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders.

  • 41.
    Lind, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Pushing and pulling: an assessment tool for occupational health and safety practitioners2018Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 14-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A tool has been developed for supporting practitioners when assessing manual pushing and pulling operations based onan initiative by two global companies in the manufacturing industry. The aim of the tool is to support occupational healthand safety practitioners in risk assessment and risk management of pushing and pulling operations in the manufacturingand logistics industries. The tool is based on a nine-multiplier equation that includes a wide range of factors affecting anoperator’s health risk and capacity in pushing and pulling. These multipliers are based on psychophysical, physiological andbiomechanical studies in combination with judgments from an expert group consisting of senior researchers and ergonomists.In order to consider usability, more than 50 occupational health and safety practitioners (e.g., ergonomists, managers, safetyrepresentatives and production personnel) participated in the development of the tool. An evaluation by 22 ergonomistssupports that the push/pull tool is user friendly in general.

  • 42.
    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin. Winternet, Boden, Sweden.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin. Winternet, Boden, Sweden.
    Oksa, Juha
    Gavhed, Desiree
    Self-rated physical loads of work tasks among firefighters2014Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 309-321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The present study sought to identify firefighters' rated physical demands for the most frequently occuring work tasks and to determine if the ratings differed between full-time and part-time firefighters to help create a basis for the development of physical employment tests for firefighters.

    Methods: An extensive questionnaire was completed by 125 and 68 firefighters in 2000 and 2010, respectively. The data were analysed with the Mann-Whitney U test and binominal test and ranked on the basis of the responses in each category.

    Results: Significant differences were seen between the full-time and part-time firefighters. The work tasks rated as the most physically strenous in terms of aerobic fitness, muscle strength, work posture and body control by most responders were smoke diving upstairs (carrying a hose), victim rescue in different ways, carrying a stretcher over terrain and pulling a hose.

    Conclusions: Physically strenous work tasks should be included in the end-point performance variables used to select physical performance tests for firefighters. The part-time firefighters with no experience in several of the work tasks suggests that work-related exercises are important if both groups of firefighters are expected to do similar work.

  • 43. Lindqvist, Aron
    et al.
    Nilsson, Olle
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Hand injury from powered wood splitters: machine safety, patterns of use and injury events.2011Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 175-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to describe factors of possible importance for the occurrence of hand injury from powered wood splitters.

    PATIENTS: Patients were identified by a computerized patient registry. Information was obtained from hospital records, a written questionnaire and a structured telephone interview.

    RESULTS: Very few splitters were constructed according to European standards. Twenty-one percent of patients injured with wedge splitters thought that having more than one person at the machine was one cause of the accident. Seventy-nine percent of patients injured with screw splitters stated that glove use was one cause of the accident.

    CONCLUSIONS: The level of safety in wood splitters that cause hand injury is often poor. Having more than one person at the machine during work may contribute to wedge splitter injury. Glove use commonly contributes to screw splitter injury. Prevention should be directed towards unsafe machines and dangerous patterns of use.

  • 44.
    Lindqvist, Aron
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Handkirurgi.
    Nilsson, Olle
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Hand injury from powered wood splitters: machine safety, patterns of use and injury events2011Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 175-186Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to describe factors of possible importance for the occurrence of hand injury from powered wood splitters.

    Patients: Patients were identified by a computerized patient registry. Information was obtained from hospital records, a written questionnaire and a structured telephone interview.

    Results: Very few splitters were constructed according to European Standards. Twenty-one percent of patients injured by wedge splitters thought that having more than one person at the machine was one cause of the accident. Seventy-nine percent of patients injured by screw splitters stated that glove use was one cause of the accident.

    Conclusions: The level of safety in wood splitters that cause hand injury is often poor. Having more than one person at the machine during work may contribute to wedge splitter injury. Glove use commonly contributes to screw splitter injury. Prevention should be directed towards unsafe machines and dangerous patterns of use.

  • 45.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Toxicity of medical glove materials: a pilot study2005Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 131-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytotoxicity of 14 glove materials representing 4 natural rubber latex, 6 synthetic rubber and 4 synthetic polymeric materials was evaluated using dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium (MTT), agar overlay and filter diffusion tests. Cell responses after contact with extracts of glove materials and contact with glove materials were assessed. One synthetic rubber glove (nitrile rubber) and 2 synthetic polymeric gloves (polyvinyl chloride)were non-toxic in all 3 tests, while 5 synthetic rubbers exhibited varying degrees of cytotoxicity, depending on the test. A severe cytotoxic response to both extracts of natural rubber latex materials and contact with natural rubber latex was verified in the 3 tests, indicating a need for consideration when selecting gloves, or other products, used in close skin contact.

  • 46. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Ruyter, I. Eystein
    Scandinavian Institute of Dental Materials, (NIOM), Haslum.
    Permeability of medical gloves to mono- and dimethacrylate monomers in dental restorative materials2002Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 497-509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental personnel manually handle methacrylate-based restorative materials, which can cause skin irritation and allergies. The protection given by different types of medical gloves is not well known. Breakthrough time (BTT, min) was used as a measure of protection according to a European standard, using 2 test mixtures consisting of respectively 3 and 5 monomers. Fourteen gloves representing natural rubber latex, synthetic rubber, and synthetic polymeric material were tested. The BTT ranged from some minutes to more than 2 hrs for the 4 monomers with a molecular mass less than 300. The longest protection was recorded for Nitra Touch (nitrile rubber), Tactylon (synthetic rubber), and Metin (PVC).

  • 47. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Ruyter, I. Eystein
    Scandinavian Institute of Dental Materials, (NIOM), Haslum.
    Resistance of medical gloves to permeation by methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glocol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA)2003Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 289-299Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gloves afford hand protection by minimizing skin contact. The effectiveness of medical gloves to protect against permeation of the monomers, methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA), was assessed focusing on permeation rates and degradation of glove materials caused by monomer contact. Fifteen different brands of gloves were tested using a European Standard procedure. Surface images of glove materials before and after exposure to the monomer mixture were obtained using a scanning electron microscope. The standard is not applicable as the only method for estimating the safety of gloves, but it is useful as guideline together with the cumulative permeation of acrylic monomers. Monomer contact on the outside resulted in substantial swelling of most glove materials, and structure changes of the inside surface.

  • 48.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Amalgam in Dentistry. A Health Hazard for Dental Personnel?1997Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 3, nr 3-4, s. 151-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a cross sectional study done in 1993 among dental personnel in Norrbotten, self-reported prevalence of muscular pain, headache, tremor, insomnia, irritation, impaired memory, and depression, as well as information regarding different mercury exposures were collected. Mercury exposures were determined as "number of amalgam fillings in teeth", "years in practice", "insufficient ventilation at work", "total number of amalgam removed, produced and polished per day", and "working in dental clinics." As controls, physicians and nurses from the same geographical area were selected. The correlation between symptoms and different mercury exposures was calculated using logistic regression. The results suggested a higher prevalence of muscular fatigue and tremor for female dental personnel compared to controls. Controls reported a lower prevalence of symptoms with increasing number of amalgam fillings in teeth. There was no correlation between the number of amalgam fillings handled per day and symptoms for dental personnel. Male dental personnel associated muscular fatigue, headache, impaired memory, and depression with increased handling of amalgam in the clinic, whereas the female dental personnel associate the same symptoms with the number of amalgam fillings in teeth. The strongest correlation was found between symptoms and insufficient ventilation at dental clinics for dental personnel.

  • 49.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Evaluating the Potential Occupational Hazard of Handling Dental Polymer Products Using the HET-CAM Technique1999Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 43-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The irritation potencies of 8 dental polymer products, used as dental restorative materials, adhesives, or temporary constructions, were tested using the HET-CAM (hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane) technique. Liquid and powder components, and extracts of cured and freshly mixed non-cured materials of 5 glass ionomers, 1 bonding, 1 composite, and 1 cold-cured acrylate were examined. Results showed that the liquid component of all products had a strong irritation capacity but powder suspensions and extracts from cured, and freshly mixed non-cured materials had no effect on the CAM. Thus, dental personnel who handle liquid and powder manually are exposed to components with a high irritation potential, in contrast to patients who are exposed to the cured and mixed non-cured materials, with low irritation potential. This illustrates the importance of safe handling procedures and practices for dental personnel who handle non-cured polymers manually.

  • 50.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    The Correlation Between Symptoms, Frequent Use of Dental Polymers, and Evaluation of Health Risk1998Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 411-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental personnel are at risk as they manually handle polymer products containing monomers and additives that cause irritation and induce allergy. Gloves and face masks can be easily penetrated by monomers. A total of 587 dental personnel and a referent group (585) in the 2 most northern regions of Sweden were included in a questionnaire study (response rate 76%). Questions were asked regarding symptoms of atopy, asthma, conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, hand dermatitis, and hay fever/rhinitis. The dental personnel were asked to give the name of polymer products used in their practice and the frequency of use. They were also asked to risk evaluate 5 different types of polymer materials on a scale from 1 to 5. Analysis was done to find if the occurrence of a symptom was associated with a high risk evaluation of a polymer material, or with frequent use of a certain polymer product. Significantly more dentists reported symptoms of atopic dermatitis and conjunctivitis compared to referents and chair assistants. Results show that dental personnel with symptoms risk evaluated most materials significantly higher than dental personnel without symptoms. Further, the occurrence of some symptoms was associated with frequent use of 8 polymer products.

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