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  • 1. Adam-Poupart, Ariane
    et al.
    Labreche, France
    Smargiassi, Audrey
    Duguay, Patrice
    Busque, Marc-Antoine
    Gagne, Charles
    Rintamaki, Hannu
    Kjellström, Tord
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Zayed, Joseph
    Climate Change and Occupational Health and Safety in a Temperate Climate: Potential Impacts and Research Priorities in Quebec, Canada2013In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 68-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential impacts of climate change (CC) on Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) have been studied a little in tropical countries, while they received no attention in northern industrialized countries with a temperate climate. This work aimed to establish an overview of the potential links between CC and OHS in those countries and to determine research priorities for Quebec, Canada. A narrative review of the scientific literature (2005-2010) was presented to a working group of international and national experts and stakeholders during a workshop held in 2010. The working group was invited to identify knowledge gaps, and a modified Delphi method helped prioritize research avenues. This process highlighted five categories of hazards that are likely to impact OHS in northern industrialized countries: heat waves/increased temperatures, air pollutants, UV radiation, extreme weather events, vector-borne/zoonotic diseases. These hazards will affect working activities related to natural resources (i.e. agriculture, fishing and forestry) and may influence the socioeconomic context (built environment and green industries), thus indirectly modifying OHS. From this consensus approach, three categories of research were identified: 1) Knowledge acquisition on hazards, target populations and methods of adaptation; 2) Surveillance of diseases/accidents/occupational hazards; and 3) Development of new occupational adaptation strategies.

  • 2. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Rumble strips in centre of the lane and the effect on sleepy drivers2011In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 549-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the effects of sleep loss on behavioural and subjective indicators of sleepiness on a road containing a milled rumble strip in the centre of the lane. Particular attention was paid to behavioural and subjective indicators of sleepiness when using the centre lane rumble strip, and to possible erratic driving behaviour when hitting a rumble strip. In total 9 regular shift workers drove during the morning hours after a full night shift and after a full night sleep. The order was balanced. The experiment was conducted in a moving base driving simulator on rural roads with a road width of 6.5 and 9 meters. Out of the 1,636 rumble strip hits that occurred during the study, no indications of erratic driving behaviour associated with the jolt caused by making contact with the centre lane rumble strip could be found. Comparing the alert condition with the sleep deprived condition, both the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) increased for sleepy drivers. For the two road widths, the drivers drove closer to the centre line on the 6.5-meter road. The KSS and the SDLP increased with time on task. This simulator study indicates that rumble strips in the centre of the lane may be an alternative to centreline and edgeline rumble strips on narrow roads.

  • 3.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University.
    Ņkerstedt, Torbjörn Bjorn
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University.
    Rumble strips in centre of the lane and the effect on sleepy drivers2011In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 549-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the effects of sleep loss on behavioural and subjective indicators of sleepiness on a road containing a milled rumble strip in the centre of the lane. Particular attention was paid to behavioural and subjective indicators of sleepiness when using the centre lane rumble strip, and to possible erratic driving behaviour when hitting a rumble strip. In total 9 regular shift workers drove during the morning hours after a full night shift and after a full night sleep. The order was balanced. The experiment was conducted in a moving base driving simulator on rural roads with a road width of 6.5 and 9 meters. Out of the 1,636 rumble strip hits that occurred during the study, no indications of erratic driving behaviour associated with the jolt caused by making contact with the centre lane rumble strip could be found. Comparing the alert condition with the sleep deprived condition, both the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) increased for sleepy drivers. For the two road widths, the drivers drove closer to the centre line on the 6.5-meter road. The KSS and the SDLP increased with time on task. This simulator study indicates that rumble strips in the centre of the lane may be an alternative to centreline and edgeline rumble strips on narrow roads.

  • 4.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine. Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ihlstrom, Jonas
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Filtness, Ashleigh
    Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers2016In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 337-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes.

  • 5.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Filtness, Ashleigh
    Queensland University of Technology (QUT).
    Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers2016In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 337-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality.

    The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes.

  • 6. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Fors, Carina
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Filtness, Ashleigh
    Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers2016In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 337-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes.

  • 7.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    VTI.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stress research institute, Stockholm university.
    Kircher, Albert
    VTI.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Äkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Clinical neuroscience, Karolinska institute.
    The effects of driving situation on sleepiness indicators after sleep loss: A driving simulator study2009In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 47, p. 393-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost all studies of sleepy driving are carried out in driving simulators and with monotonous road conditions (no interaction with other cars). The present study investigated indicators of sleepy driving in a more challenging scenario after a night awake. 17 participants drove a high fidelity moving base driving simulator experiment while sleepiness was monitored physiologically and behaviourally. Short periods of situations of free driving (no other vehicles) alternated with short periods of following another vehicle (car following) with and without the possibility to overtake. The result showed that a night of prior sleep loss increased sleepiness levels at the wheel (eye closure duration and lateral variability) compared to after a night of normal sleep. Blink duration while overtaking was significantly lower compared to the other situations, it was at the same level as after night sleep. Speed when passing a stopped school bus was not significantly affected by sleepiness. However the warning caused a more rapid reduction of speed. In conclusion, a moderately challenging driving contest did not affect sleepiness indicators, but a very challenging one did so (overtaking). This suggests that it is important to monitor the driving situation in field operational tests of sleepy driving.

  • 8.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm university, Stress research institute.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska institutet, Clinical neuroscience.
    The effects of driving situation on sleepiness indicators after sleep loss: A driving simulator study2009In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 393-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost all studies of sleepy driving are carried out in driving simulators and with monotonous road conditions (no interaction with other cars). The present study investigated indicators of sleepy driving in a more challenging scenario after a night awake. 17 participants drove a high fidelity moving base driving simulator experiment while sleepiness was monitored physiologically and behaviourally. Short periods of situations of free driving (no other vehicles) alternated with short periods of following another vehicle (car following) with and without the possibility to overtake. The result showed that a night of prior sleep loss increased sleepiness levels at the wheel (eye closure duration and lateral variability) compared to after a night of normal sleep. Blink duration while overtaking was significantly lower compared to the other situations, it was at the same level as after night sleep. Speed when passing a stopped school bus was not significantly affected by sleepiness. However the warning caused a more rapid reduction of speed. In conclusion, a moderately challenging driving contest did not affect sleepiness indicators, but a very challenging one did so (overtaking). This suggests that it is important to monitor the driving situation in field operational tests of sleepy driving.

  • 9.
    Bean, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Winefield, Helen
    School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Hutchinson, Amanda
    School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, Australia.
    Sargent, Charli
    Appleton Institute for Behavioural Science, Central Queensland University, Australia.
    Shi, Zumin
    Human Nutrition Department, College of Health Sciences, Qatar University, Qatar.
    Unique associations of the Job Demand-Control-Support model subscales with leisure-time physical activity and dietary energy intake.2018In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and dietary energy intake are two important health behaviours, which at too low or high levels respectively, are associated with overweight and obesity. This study explores associations between subscales of the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model, LTPA and dietary energy intake. A cross-sectional design sampled current employees (N=433) from a South Australian cohort using a computer-assisted telephone interview and a self-completed food frequency questionnaire. In analyses adjusted for sex, age, and sociodemographic variables, higher levels of skill discretion were associated with increased odds for attaining sufficient physical activity (OR=2.45; 95% CI=1.10-5.47). Higher levels of decision authority were associated with reduced odds (OR=0.43; 95% CI=0.20-0.93) for being in the highest tertile of daily energy intake. Higher scores for coworker support were associated with increased odds (OR=2.20; 95% CI=1.15-4.23) for being in the highest tertile of daily energy intake. These findings support the consideration of the individual JDCS subscales, since this practice may reveal novel associations with health behaviour outcomes, thereby presenting new opportunities to improve employee health and wellbeing.

  • 10. Bhiwapurkar, M. K.
    et al.
    Saran, V. H.
    Harsha, S. P.
    Goel, V. K.
    Berg, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Influence of Mono-axis Random Vibration on Reading Activity2010In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 675-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies on train passengers' activities found that many passengers were engaged in some form of work, e.g., reading and writing, while traveling by train. A majority of the passengers reported that their activities were disturbed by vibrations or motions during traveling. A laboratory study was therefore set up to study how low-frequency random vibrations influence the difficulty to read. The study involved 18 healthy male subjects of 23 to 32 yr of age group. Random vibrations were applied in the frequency range (1-10 Hz) at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m/s(2) rms amplitude along three directions (longitudinal, lateral and vertical). The effect of vibration on reading activity was investigated by giving a word chain in two different font types (Times New Roman and Anal) and three different sizes (10, 12 and 14 points) of font for each type. Subjects performed reading tasks under two sitting positions (with backrest support and leaning over a table). The judgments of perceived difficulty to read were rated using 7-point discomfort judging scale. The result shows that reading difficulty increases with increasing vibration magnitudes and found to be maximum in longitudinal direction, but with leaning over a table position. In comparison with Times New Roman type and sizes of font, subjects perceived less difficulty with Anal type for all font sizes under all vibration magnitude.

  • 11.
    Gao, Chuansi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Oksa, Juha
    Finnish institute of Occupational Health, Physical Work Capacity Team.
    Rintamäki, Hannu
    Finnish institute of Occupational Health, Physical Work Capacity Team.
    Holmér, Ingvar
    Lund University, Laboratory for Human Thermal Environments, Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Department of Design Sciences, Faculty of Engineering.
    Gait muscle activity during walking on an inclined icy surface2008In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 15-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to explain the contribution of lower extremity muscle activity to gait kinetic and kinematic adaptations for maintaining gait dynamic balance when walking on an inclined icy surface and the biomechanical mechanisms used to counteract slip risk. A two-way factorial experimental design was applied. The two independent variables were the walkway surface (ice and treadmill) and the walkway inclination (0 masculine, 6 masculine, 8 masculine). The dependent variable was the amplitude of the surface EMG of four right lower extremity muscles (tibialis anterior TA, gastrocnemius lateralis GL, rectus femoris RF, and biceps femoris BF). Twelve healthy subjects (7 males and 5 females) participated in the walking trials. A two-way ANOVA analysis showed that on the icy surface in the heel contact phase, EMG amplitudes significantly decreased in TA and RF compared to those for the treadmill surface. In the mid-stance phase, the GL muscle activity significantly decreased on ice compared to treadmill and all four muscle activities increased significantly with the inclination. During the toe off phase, GL and RF activities increased with the inclination. The mechanisms identified may be applied to develop intervention, rehabilitation and training techniques, and to improve performance in human locomotion, such as for winter sports

  • 12. Greubel, Jana
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    The impact of organizational changes on work stress, sleep, recovery and health2011In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 353-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study objective was to investigate the impact of different kinds of organizational changes, as well as anticipation of such changes, on work-related stress, sleep, recovery and health. It was hypothesized that impaired sleep and recovery increase the adverse health consequences of organizational changes. The data consisted of cross sectional questionnaire data from a random sample of 1,523 employees in the Swedish police force. It could be shown that extensive organizational changes including downsizing or a change in job tasks were associated with a small increase in work stress, disturbed sleep, incomplete recovery and health complaints. However, less extensive organizational changes like relocation did not affect these outcome variables. Anticipation of extensive organizational changes had almost the same effect as actual changes. Furthermore a moderating effect of sleep and work stress on gastrointestinal complaints and depressive symptoms was found. Thus, like former studies already suggested, extensive organizational changes resulted in increased stress levels, poorer health and impaired sleep and recovery. Furthermore, organizational instability due to anticipation of changes was as negative as actual changes. There was also some evidence that disturbed sleep increased these adverse health effects, in particular with respect to anticipation of organizational changes.

  • 13. Gunnarsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Ind Engineering, Management and Work Science.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Systematic work environment management: experiences from implementation in Swedish small-scale enterprises2010In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 185-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale enterprises face difficulties in fulfilling the regulations for organising Systematic Work Environment Management. This study compared three groups of small-scale manufacturing enterprises with and without support for implementing the provision. Two implementation methods, supervised and network method, were used. The third group worked according to their own ideas. Twenty-three enterprises participated. The effects of the implementation were evaluated after one year by semi-structured dialogue with the manager and safety representative. Each enterprise was classified on compliance with ten demands concerning the provision. The work environment was estimated by the WEST-method. Impact of the implementation on daily work was also studied. At the follow-up, the enterprises in the supervised method reported slightly more improvements in the fulfilment of the demands in the provision than the enterprises in the network method and the enterprises working on their own did. The effect of the project reached the employees faster in the enterprises with the supervised method. In general, the work environment improved to some extent in all enterprises. Extensive support to small-scale enterprises in terms of advise and networking aimed to fulfil the regulations of Systematic Work Environment Management had limited effect especially considering the cost of applying these methods.

  • 14.
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Systematic Work Environment Management: Experiences from Implementation in Swedish Small-scale Enterprises2010In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 185-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale enterprises face difficulties in fulfilling the regulations for organising Systematic Work Environment Management. This study compared three groups of small-scale manufacturing enterprises with and without support for implementing the provision. Two implementation methods, supervised and network method, were used. The third group worked according to their own ideas. Twenty-three enterprises participated. The effects of the implementation were evaluated after one year by semi-structured dialogue with the manager and safety representative. Each enterprise was classified on compliance with ten demands concerning the provision. The work environment was estimated by the WEST-method. Impact of the implementation on daily work was also studied. At the follow-up, the enterprises in the supervised method reported slightly more improvements in the fulfilment of the demands in the provision than the enterprises in the network method and the enterprises working on their own did. The effect of the project reached the employees faster in the enterprises with the supervised method. In general, the work environment improved to some extent in all enterprises. Extensive support to small-scale enterprises in terms of advise and networking aimed to fulfil the regulations of Systematic Work Environment Management had limited effect - especially considering the cost of applying these methods.

  • 15.
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Josephson, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in sweden2007In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 775-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was an investigation of prevalence and associations between self-rated health and working conditions for small-scale enterprisers in a county in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was answered by 340 male and 153 female small-scale enterprisers in different sectors, with a response rate of 66%. For comparative purposes, data from a population study of 1,699 employees in private companies was included in the analyses. Differences were tested by Chi²-test and associations were presented as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The frequency of health problems in male enterprisers was higher than in employees in the private sector, while the frequency of health problems in female enterprisers was equal to that of the control employees. The main findings highlighted that male enterprisers reported higher rate of health problems and female enterprisers equal rate compared with employees in the private sector. Enterprisers stated musculoskeletal pain (women 59%, men 56%) and mental health problems (women 47%, men 45%) as the most frequent health problems. Poor job satisfaction, reported by 17% of the females and 20% of the male enterprisers, revealed an OR of 10.42 (95% CI 5.78-18.77) for poor general health. For the enterprisers, the most frequent complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. An association between poor general health and working as an enterpriser remained after adjusting for working conditions, sex and age.

  • 16. Jussila, Kirsi
    et al.
    Rissanen, Sirkka
    Aminoff, Anna
    Wahlström, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Vaktskjold, Arild
    Talykova, Ljudmila
    Remes, Jouko
    Mänttäri, Satu
    Rintamäki, Hannu
    Thermal comfort sustained by cold protective clothing in Arctic open-pit mining: a thermal manikin and questionnaire study2017In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 537-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workers in the Arctic open-pit mines are exposed to harsh weather conditions. Employers are required to provide protective clothing for workers. This can be the outer layer, but sometimes also inner or middle layers are provided. This study aimed to determine how the Arctic open-pit miners protect themselves against cold and the sufficiency, and the selection criteria of the garments. Workers' cold experiences and the clothing in four Arctic open-pit mines in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russia were evaluated by a questionnaire (n=1323). Basic thermal insulation (Icl) of the reported clothing was estimated (ISO 9920). The Icl of clothing from the mines were also measured by thermal manikin (standing/walking) in 0.3 and 4.0 m/s wind. The questionnaire showed that the Icl of the selected clothing was on average 1.2 and 1.5 clo in mild (-5 to +5°C) and dry cold (-20 to -10°C) conditions, respectively. The Icl of the clothing measured by thermal manikin was 1.9w2.3 clo. The results show that the Arctic open-pit miners' selected their clothing based on occupational (time outdoors), environmental (temperature, wind, moisture) and individual factors (cold sensitivity, general health). However, the selected clothing was not sufficient to prevent cooling completely at ambient temperatures below -10°C.

  • 17.
    Kjellström, Tord
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lemke, Bruno
    Otto, Matthias
    Mapping Occupational Heat Exposure and Effects in South-East Asia: Ongoing Time Trends 1980-2011 and Future Estimates to 20502013In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 56-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A feature of climate impacts on occupational health and safety are physiological limits to carrying out physical work at high heat exposure. Heat stress reduces a workers work capacity, leading to lower hourly labour productivity and economic output. We used existing weather station data and climate modeling grid cell data to describe heat conditions (calculated as Wet Bulb Globe Temperature, WBGT) in South-East Asia. During the hottest month in this region (March) afternoon WBGT levels are already high enough to cause major loss of hourly work capacity and by 2050 the situation will be extreme for many outdoor jobs.

  • 18.
    Kjellström, Tord
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sawada, Shin-Ichi
    Bernard, Thomas E.
    Parsons, Ken
    Rintamäki, Hannu
    Holmér, Ingvar
    Climate change and occupational heat problems2013In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19. Lastovkova, Andrea
    et al.
    Carder, Melanie
    Rasmussen, Hans Martin
    Sjoberg, Lars
    de Groene, Gerda J
    Sauni, Riitta
    Vevoda, Jiri
    Vevodova, Sarka
    Lasfargues, Gerard
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Varga, Marek
    Colosio, Claudio
    Pelclova, Daniela
    Burnout syndrome as an occupational disease in the European Union: an exploratory study.2018In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 160-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of psychological disorders influencing the health of workers increases in accordance with growing requirements on employees across various professions. This study aimed to compare approaches to the burnout syndrome in European countries. A questionnaire focusing on stress-related occupational diseases was distributed to national experts of 28 European Union countries. A total of 23 countries responded. In 9 countries (Denmark, Estonia, France, Hungary, Latvia, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia and Sweden) burnout syndrome may be acknowledged as an occupational disease. Latvia has burnout syndrome explicitly included on the List of ODs. Compensation for burnout syndrome has been awarded in Denmark, France, Latvia, Portugal and Sweden.Only in 39% of the countries a possibility to acknowledge burnout syndrome as an occupational disease exists, with most of compensated cases only occurring in recent years. New systems to collect data on suspected cases have been developed reflecting the growing recognition of the impact of the psychosocial work environment. In agreement with the EU legislation, all EU countries in the study have an action plan to prevent stress at the workplace.

  • 20. Lemke, Bruno
    et al.
    Kjellström, Tord
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Calculating workplace WBGT from meteorological data: a tool for climate change assessment2012In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 267-278Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The WBGT heat stress index has been well tested under a variety of climatic conditions and quantitative links have been established between WBGT and the work-rest cycles needed to prevent heat stress effects at the workplace. While there are more specific methods based on individual physiological measurements to determine heat strain in an individual worker, the WBGT index is used in international and national standards to specify workplace heat stress risks. In order to assess time trends of occupational heat exposure at population level, weather station records or climate modelling are the most widely available data sources. The prescribed method to measure WBGT requires special equipment which is not used at weather stations. We compared published methods to calculate outdoor and indoor WBGT from standard climate data, such as air temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. Specific criteria for recommending a method were developed and original measurements were used to evaluate the different methods. We recommend the method of Liljegren et al. (2008) for calculating outdoor WBGT and the method by Bernard etal. (1999) for indoor WBGT when estimating climate change impacts on occupational heat stress at a population level.

  • 21.
    Lowden, Arne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Öztürk,, Gülçin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Reynolds, Amy
    Bjorvatn, Bjorn
    Working Time Society consensus statements: Evidence based interventions using light to improve circadian adaptation to working hours2019In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 213-227Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interventions and strategies to improve health through the management of circadian (re) adaptation have been explored in the field, and in both human and animal laboratory manipulations of shiftwork. As part of an initiative by the Working Time Society (WTS) and International Committee on Occupational Health (ICOH), this review summarises the literature on the management of circadian (re) adaption using bright light treatment. Recommendations to maximise circadian adaptation are summarised for practitioners based on a variety of shiftwork schedules. In slowly rotating night shift schedules bright light appears most suitable when used in connection with the first three night shifts. These interventions are improved when combined with orange glasses (to block blue-green light exposure) for the commute home. Non-shifting strategies involve a lower dosage of light at night and promoting natural daylight exposure during the day (also recommended for day shifts) in acordance with the phase and amplitude response curves to light in humans.

  • 22.
    Minata, Mutsuko
    et al.
    Grad Sch Med, Dept Hlth & Environm Sci, Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan.
    Harada, Kouji H.
    Grad Sch Med, Dept Hlth & Environm Sci, Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hitomi, Toshiaki
    Grad Sch Med, Dept Hlth & Environm Sci, Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan.
    Hirosawa, Michi
    Grad Sch Med, Dept Hlth & Environm Sci, Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan.
    Murata, Mariko
    Grad Sch Med, Dept Environm & Mol Med, Tsu, Mie Univ, Mie, Japan.
    Gonzalez, Frank J.
    Lab Metab, NIH, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda MD, USA.
    Koizumi, Akio
    Grad Sch Med, Dept Hlth & Environm Sci, Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan.
    Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-alpha in Hepatobiliary Injury Induced by Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate in Mouse Liver2010In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 96-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR alpha) has been suggested to protect against chemically induced hepatobiliary injuries in rodents. This function could mask the potential toxicities of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) that is an emerging environmental contaminant and a weak ligand of PPAR alpha. However its function has not been clarified. In this study, PFOA was found to elicit hepatocyte and bile duct injuries in Ppar alpha-null mice after 4 wk treatment with PFOA ammonium salt (0, 12.5, 25, 50 mu mol/kg/d, gavage). In wild-type mice, PFOA caused major hepatocellular damage dose-dependently and minor cholangiopathy observed only at 25 and 50 mu mol/kg. In treated Ppar alpha-null mice, PFOA produced marked fat accumulation, severe cholangiopathy, hepatocellular damage and apoptotic cells especially in bile ducts. Oxidative stress was also increased 4-fold at 50 mu mol/kg and TNF-alpha mRNA was upregulated more than 3-fold at 25 mu mol/kg in Ppar alpha-null mice. Biliary bile acid/phospholipid ratios were higher in Ppar alpha-null mice than in wild-type mice. Results from these studies suggest that PPAR alpha is protective against PFOA and have a critical role in drug induced hepatobiliary injury.

  • 23.
    Moreno, Claudia R. C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Marqueze, Elaine C.
    Sargent, Charli
    Wright Jr, Kenneth P.
    Ferguson, Sally A.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Swansea University, UK.
    Working Time Society consensus statements: Evidence-based effects of shift work on physical and mental health2019In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 139-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potential effects of shift work on health are probably related to the misalignment between the light-dark cycle and the human activity-rest cycle. Light exposure at night mediates these ef- fects, including social misalignment and leads to an inversion of activity and rest, which, in turn, is linked to changes in behaviours. This article reviews the epidemiological evidence on the association between shift work and health, and possible mechanisms underlying this association. First, evidence from findings of the meta-analyses and systematic reviews published in the last 10 yr is presented. In addition, it reports the larger single-occupation studies and recent large population- based studies of the general workforce. Koch’s postulates were used to evaluate the evidence related to the development of disease as a result of exposure to shift work. Finally, we discussed limitations of the multiple pathways that link shift work with specific disorders and the methodological challenges facing shift work research. We concluded that the clearest indications of shift work being the cause of a disease are given when there is a substantial body of evidence from high quality field studies showing an association and there is good evidence from laboratory studies supporting a causal explanation of the link.

  • 24.
    Oxenstierna, Gabriel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Elofsson, Stig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gjerde, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Workplace bullying, working environment and health2012In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 180-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved work organisation could be of importance for decreased bullying in workplaces. Participants in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) responded to questions about work and workplace and whether they had been bullied during the past year in 2006. Those in worksites with at least five employees who did not report that they had been bullied in 2006 and without workplace change between 2006 and 2008 constituted the final sample (n=1,021 men and 1,182 women). Work characteristics and workplace factors in 2006 were used in multiple logistic regression as predictors of bullying in 2008. Separate analyses were performed for work characteristics and workplace factors respectively. Adjustments for demographic factors were made in all analyses. The question used for bullying was: Are you exposed to personal persecution by means of vicious words or actions from your superiors or your workmates? Such persecution any time during the past year was defined as bullying. For both genders organisational change and conflicting demands were identified as risk factors, and good decision authority as a protective factor. Dictatorial leadership, lack of procedural justice and attitude of expendability were male and lack of humanity a female risk factor for bullying.

  • 25.
    Oxenstierna, Gabriel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Widmark, Maria
    Finnholm, Kristina
    Stenfors, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Elofsson, Stig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Conflicts at Work - The Relationship with Workplace Factors, Work Characteristics and Self-rated Health2011In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 501-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have considered the work environment in relation to workplace conflicts and those who have been published have included relatively few psychosocial work environment factors. Little research has been published on the consequences of workplace conflicts in terms of employee health. In this study, the statistical relationships between work and workplace characteristics on one hand and conflicts on the other hand are examined. In addition, the relationship between conflicts at work and self-rated health are described. The study population was derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2006; n=5,141. Among employees at workplaces with more than 20 employees (n=3,341), 1,126 (33.7%) responded that they had been involved in some type of conflict during the two years preceding the survey. Among the work and workplace characteristics studied, the following factors were independently associated with increased likelihood of ongoing conflicts: Conflicting demands, emotional demands, risk of transfer or dismissal, poor promotion prospects, high level of employee influence and good freedom of expression. Factors that decreased the likelihood of ongoing conflicts were: Good resources, good relations with management, good confidence in management, good procedural justice (fairness of decisions) and good social support. After adjustment for socioeconomic conditions the odds ratio for low self-rated health associated with ongoing conflict at work was 2.09 (1.60-2.74). The results provide a good starting point for intervention and prevention work.

  • 26.
    Pettersson, Hans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Finland.
    Rissanen, Sirkka
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Finland.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rintamäki, Hannu
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Finland; Research Unit of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Finland..
    Skin temperature responses to hand-arm vibration in cold and thermoneutral ambient temperatures2018In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 545-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hand-arm vibration (HAV) from hand-held vibrating machines increases the risk of injury in the form of vasoconstriction in the fingers, commonly named as vibration induced white fingers (VWF). Cold temperature may increase that risk. This experimental study examined and compared the effects of the skin temperature of the hands during and after exposure to HAV in thermoneutral and cold conditions. Fourteen subjects were exposed to three conditions: 25°C with HAV, 5°C with HAV or 5°C without HAV. Their skin temperatures were continuously recorded for the thumbs, index fingers, palms, and back of hands. After 20 min of acclimatization, the subjects held, for five min, two handles where the right handle could vibrate at 5 m/s2 and the left was stationary. Finally, they released their grip and stood still for 10 more min. HAV had no additional cooling effect in cold during gripping of the handles. After the subjects released the handles there was only a HAV-induced cooling effect in the left palm with on average 0.5°C colder skin temperature. A single exposure to HAV will not cause an injury such as VWF, but as the present study show: short-term exposure to HAV causes some changes in skin temperature.

  • 27. Radun, Igor
    et al.
    Ohisalo, Jussi
    Radun, Jenni
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Night work, fatigued driving and traffic law: the case of police officers2011In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 389-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the well-known difficulties in defining and detecting fatigue, it is a real challenge to incorporate it into either traffic or criminal law. Finnish traffic law forbids fatigued driving "only" on a general level concerning the driver's fitness to drive. We present several comments from Finnish traffic and local police officers regarding their own experiences of driving while fatigued. The comments were extracted from a larger survey of traffic (N=129) and local (N=100) police officers, and prosecutors (N=96). Although the main topic of the survey was the application of the law that forbids fatigued driving, some police officers raised the issue of their own behavior in this respect. We argue that many shift workers, including police officers, break the law, especially when driving home after a night shift.

  • 28. Sahu, Subhashis
    et al.
    Sett, Moumita
    Kjellström, Tord
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Heat Exposure, Cardiovascular Stress and Work Productivity in Rice Harvesters in India: Implications for a Climate Change Future2013In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 424-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive workplace heat exposures create well-known risks of heat stroke, and it limits the workers' capacity to sustain physical activity. There is very limited evidence available on how these effects reduce work productivity, while the quantitative relationship between heat and work productivity is an essential basis for climate change impact assessments. We measured hourly heat exposure in rice fields in West Bengal and recorded perceived health problems via interviews of 124 rice harvesters. In a sub-group (n = 48) heart rate was recorded every minute in a standard work situation. Work productivity was recorded as hourly rice bundle collection output. The hourly heat levels (WBGT = Wet Bulb Globe Temperature) were 26-32 degrees C (at air temperatures of 30-38 degrees C), exceeding international standards. Most workers reported exhaustion and pain during work on hot days. Heart rate recovered quickly at low heat, but more slowly at high heat, indicating cardiovascular strain. The hourly number of rice bundles collected was significantly reduced at WBGT>26 degrees C (approximately 5% per C of increased WBGT). We conclude that high heat exposure in agriculture caused heat strain and reduced work productivity. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the local economy.

  • 29. Sheffield, Perry E.
    et al.
    Herrera, Juan Gabriel Ruiz
    Lemke, Bruno
    Kjellström, Tord
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Romero, Luis E. Blanco
    Current and Future Heat Stress in Nicaraguan Work Places under a Changing Climate2013In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 123-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While climate change continues to increase ambient temperatures, the resulting heat stress exposure to workers in non-climate controlled settings is not well characterized, particularly in low and middle income countries. This preliminary report describes current heat stress in Nicaraguan work places and estimates occupational heat stress in 2050. From over 400 measurements of heat exposure using wet bulb globe temperature, more than 10% of all measurements exceeded the safety threshold for the combination of light work and rest at the ratio of 25:75. By 2050, that percentage of "over-heated" days is projected to increase to over 15%. These findings support the idea that common working conditions in Nicaragua already represent a threat to the health and safety of the workers and that climate change driven trends could mean either a necessary curbing of economic productivity or an increased threat to worker health and safety.

  • 30.
    Svensson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University.
    Gao, Chuansi
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Department of Design Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University.
    Halder, Amitava
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Department of Design Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation. Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University.
    Magnusson, Måms
    Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University.
    Standing balance on inclined surfaces with different friction2018In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 292-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working and walking environments often involve standing positions on different surfaces with inclination and different friction. In this study, standing balance of thirteen participants during sudden and irregular external perturbation to calf muscles was investigated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of surface inclination and friction on standing balance. The main findings when eyes closed revealed that the standing utilised coefficient of friction (mu(SUCOF)) increased when the surface was inclined for both high and low friction materials. The anteriorposterior torque increased more anteriorly when the surface was inclined toes down and when the surface friction was low. The results indicate that the anterior posterior torque is a sensitive parameter when evaluating standing balance ability and slip risk. On inclined surface, particularly on the surface with lower friction, the potential slip and fall risk is higher due to the increase of standing utilised coefficient of friction and increased forward turning torque.

  • 31. Tawatsupa, Benjawan
    et al.
    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara
    Kjellström, Tord
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke
    Seubsman, Sam-Ang
    Sleigh, Adrian
    Association between Heat Stress and Occupational Injury among Thai Workers: Findings of the Thai Cohort Study2013In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 34-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming will increase heat stress at home and at work. Few studies have addressed the health consequences in tropical low and middle income settings such as Thailand. We report on the association between heat stress and workplace injury among workers enrolled in the large national Thai Cohort Study in 2005 (N=58,495). We used logistic regression to relate heat stress and occupational injury separately for males and females, adjusting for covariate effects of age, income, education, alcohol, smoking, Body Mass Index, job location, job type, sleeping hours, existing illness, and having to work very fast. Nearly 20% of workers experienced occupational heat stress which strongly and significantly associated with occupational injury (adjusted OR 2.12, 95%CI 1.87-2.42 for males and 1.89, 95%CI 1.64-2.18 for females). This study provides evidence connecting heat stress and occupational injury in tropical Thailand and also identifies several factors that increase heat exposure. The findings will be useful for policy makers to consider work-related heat stress problems in tropical Thailand and to develop an occupational health and safety program which is urgently needed given the looming threat of global warming.

  • 32.
    van den Berg, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sleepiness and head movements2006In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 564-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleepiness in working life is critical and strongly associated to work related accidents. The relationship between sleepiness and head movements is poorly investigated. The pattern of head movements over time was investigated in a laboratory study with ten subjects either sleep-deprived or rested. Head movements were obtained by an inclinometer placed on the subject's forehead, and the recording was continuous. Results show that subjects when sleep-deprived moved their head more and had more extreme head movements compared to when rested. An increase of the velocity and the number of extreme head movements over time were noted when the subjects were sleep-deprived and when rested. The increase of head movements was more linear over time in the rested condition, whereas in sleep-deprived conditions most of the increase appeared during the first hour. No significant differences of between forward-backward movements and left-right movements could be found. When rested, the changes in head movements correlated with ratings of sleepiness, EEG activity, and heart rate variability. Head movements can be a used as an indicator of sleepiness.

  • 33.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Selén, Jan
    Disturbed sleep and fatigue as predictors of return from long-term sickness absence2010In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 209-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term sickness absence has doubled in Sweden, as has complaints of disturbed sleep. The present study sought to investigate the prospective link between long-term sickness absence and disturbed sleep or fatigue. Sleep and fatigue from a representative national sample was followed up 1.5-2 yr later in terms of return from long-term (>or=90 d) and intermediate term (14-89 d) sickness absence. 8,300 individuals participated in the survey, out of which 372 were on long-term and 1,423 were on intermediate term sick leave. The data was analyzed using logistic regression analysis with adjustment for background and work environment variables. Separate analyses were carried out for disturbed sleep and fatigue since they were correlated. The results showed that those with disturbed sleep at the start had an Odds Ratio (OR) of 0.56 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)=0.35-0.90) for returning from long-term sickness absence. For fatigue the results were OR=0.56 (CI=0.34-0.90). Intermediate term sickness absence showed similar, but slightly weaker, results. The results indicate that disturbed sleep and fatigue are predictors of lack of return from long term and intermediate term sickness absence.

  • 34.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Petersén, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Axelsson, John
    Sleep Polysomnography and Reported Stress across 6 Weeks2014In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 36-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the common notion that stress impairs sleep there is little published data showing that sleep (polysomnography [PSG]) is impaired across several sleep episodes in individuals who complain of daily stress during the same period. The present paper aimed at investigating such a connection. 33 subjects had 3 sleeps recorded with PSG at home across 6 weeks and kept a sleep/wake diary each day, including 3-hourly ratings of stress (scale 1-9). The stress ratings and the conventional PSG parameters were averaged across time. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the best predictors of stress were Stage 1 sleep (beta=0.49), latency to Stage 1 sleep (0.47) (adjusted for anxiety and age). Other sleep continuity variables had significant correlations with stress (reversed) but did not enter the multiple regression analysis. The correlation between stress before the start of the study and PSG data was not significant. It was concluded that moderately increased stress over a longer period of time is related to moderate signs of disturbed sleep during that period. This may be of importance when considering stress as a work environment problem.

1 - 34 of 34
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