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  • 1. Ali, Imran
    et al.
    Engström, Annette
    Vahter, Marie
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Lundh, Thomas
    Lidfeldt, Jonas
    Samsioe, Göran
    Halldin, Krister
    Akesson, Agneta
    Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women2014In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 134, p. 265-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk.

  • 2.
    Andersson, John
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Road traffic noise, air pollution, and risk of dementia: results from the Betula project2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 166, p. 334-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is growing evidence for a negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on risk of dementia. However, the contribution of noise exposure to this association has been rarely examined.

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the individual and combined effect of noise and air pollution on risk of dementia.

    Methods: Data on dementia incidence over a 15 year period was obtained from the Betula project, a longitudinal study on health and ageing. Estimates of annual mean levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the participants’ residential address were obtained using a land-use regression model. Modelled data provided road traffic noise levels (Leq. 24 h) at the participants’ residential address at baseline. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR).

    Results: Of 1721 participants at baseline, 302 developed dementia during the follow up period. Exposure to noise levels (Leq. 24 h) > 55 dB had no significant effect on dementia risk (HR 0.95; CI: 0.57, 1.57). Residing in the two highest quartiles of NOx exposure was associated with an increased risk of dementia. The risk associated with NOx was not modified by adjusting for noise. Moreover, we found no significant interaction effects between NOx and road traffic noise on dementia risk.

    Conclusion: We found no evidence that exposure to road traffic noise, either independently or in combination with traffic air pollution, was associated with risk of dementia in our study area. Our results suggest that pollution should be considered the main component in the association between traffic related exposures and dementia.

  • 3.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogmalm, Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables: the relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites2015In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 138, p. 181-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs),which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil,in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed toquantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure as-sessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 con-taminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soiland vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted toestimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that con-centrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and mostsamples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) wasassessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about afifth of the study population. Bioconcentrationfactors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasingmetal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected bythe choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be un-acceptable.

  • 4. Barnett, A. G.
    et al.
    Hajat, S.
    Gasparrini, A.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Cold and heat waves in the United States2012In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 112, p. 218-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extreme cold and heat waves, characterized by a number of cold or hot days in succession, place a strain on people's cardiovascular and respiratory systems. The increase in deaths due to these waves may be greater than that predicted by extreme temperatures alone. We examined cold and heat waves in 99 US cities for 14 years (1987-2000) and investigated how the risk of death depended on the temperature threshold used to define a wave, and a wave's timing, duration and intensity. We defined cold and heat waves using temperatures above and below cold and heat thresholds for two or more days. We tried five cold thresholds using the first to fifth percentiles of temperature, and five heat thresholds using the 95-99 percentiles. The extra wave effects were estimated using a two-stage model to ensure that their effects were estimated after removing the general effects of temperature. The increases in deaths associated with cold waves were generally small and not statistically significant, and there was even evidence of a decreased risk during the coldest waves. Heat waves generally increased the risk of death, particularly for the hottest heat threshold. Cold waves of a colder intensity or longer duration were not more dangerous. Cold waves earlier in the cool season were more dangerous, as were heat waves earlier in the warm season. In general there was no increased risk of death during cold waves above the known increased risk associated with cold temperatures. Cold or heat waves earlier in the cool or warm season may be more dangerous because of a build up in the susceptible pool or a lack of preparedness for extreme temperatures.

  • 5. Barnett, A. G.
    et al.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Commentary: What measure of temperature is the best predictor of mortality?2012In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 118, p. 149-151Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6. Belpomme, D.
    et al.
    Irigaray, P.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Clapp, R.
    Montagnier, L.
    Epstein, S.
    Sasco, A. J.
    The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens2007In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 414-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have recently proposed that lifestyle-related factors, screening and aging cannot fully account for the present overall growing incidence of cancer. In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more important role in carcinogenesis than it is expected, and may therefore account for the growing incidence of cancer, we overview herein environmental factors, rated as certainly or potentially carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). We thus analyze the carcinogenic effect of microorganisms (including viruses), radiations (including radioactivity, UV and pulsed electromagnetic fields) and xenochemicals. Chemicals related to environmental pollution appear to be of critical importance, since they can induce occupational cancers as well as other cancers. Of major concerns are: outdoor air pollution by carbon particles associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children, and food pollution by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. In addition, carcinogenic metals and metalloids, pharmaceutical medicines and cosmetics may be involved. Although the risk fraction attributable to environmental factors is still unknown, this long list of carcinogenic and especially mutagenic factors supports our working hypothesis according to which numerous cancers may in fact be caused by the recent modification of our environment. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Berglund, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sturve, J
    Department of Zoology, Göteborg University, Box 463, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Förlin, Lars
    Department of Zoology, Göteborg University, Box 463, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Oxidative stress in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings from metal contaminated environments in northern Sweden2007In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 330-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals have been shown to induce oxidative stress in animals. One of the most metal polluted terrestrial environments in Sweden is the surroundings of a sulfide ore smelter plant located in the northern part of the country. Pied flycatcher nestlings (Ficedula hypoleuca) that grew up close to the industry had accumulated amounts of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, iron and zinc in their liver tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate if pied flycatcher nestlings in the pollution gradient of the industry were affected by oxidative stress using antioxidant molecules and enzyme activities. The antioxidant assays were also evaluated in search for useful biomarkers in pied flycatchers. This study indicated that nestlings in metal contaminated areas showed signs of oxidative stress evidenced by up regulated hepatic antioxidant defense given as increased glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities and slightly but not significantly elevated lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Stepwise linear regression indicated that lipid peroxidation and CAT activities were influenced mostly by iron, but iron and lead influenced the CAT activity to a higher degree. Positive relationships were found between GST and lead as well as GR activities and cadmium. We conclude that GR, CAT, GST activities and lipid peroxidation levels may function as useful biomarkers for oxidative stress in free-living pied flycatcher nestlings exposed to metal contaminated environments.

  • 8.
    Bjorklund, Geir
    et al.
    Council Nutr & Environm Med, Norway.
    Christophersen, Olav Albert
    Norwegian Government Scholarship Holder, Norway.
    Chirumbolo, Salvatore
    Univ Verona, Italy.
    Selinus, Olle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Aaseth, Jan
    Innlandet Hosp Trust, Norway ; Hedmark Univ Appl Sci, Norway.
    Recent aspects of uranium toxicology in medical geology2017In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 156, p. 526-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uranium (U) is a chemo-toxic, radiotoxic and even a carcinogenic element. Due to its radioactivity, the effects of U on humans health have been extensively investigated. Prolonged U exposure may cause kidney disease and cancer. The geological distribution of U radionuclides is still a great concern for human health. Uranium in groundwater, frequently used as drinking water, and general environmental pollution with U raise concerns about the potential public health problem in several areas of Asia. The particular paleo-geological hallmark of India and other Southern Asiatic regions enhances the risk of U pollution in rural and urban communities. This paper highlights different health and environmental aspects of U as well as uptake and intake. It discusses levels of U in soil and water and the related health issues. Also described are different issues of U pollution, such as U and fertilizers, occupational exposure in miners, use and hazards of U in weapons (depleted U), U and plutonium as catalysts in the reaction between DNA and H2O2, and recycling of U from groundwater to surface soils in irrigation. For use in medical geology and U research, large databases and data warehouses are currently available in Europe and the United States.

  • 9.
    Björklund, Geir
    et al.
    Council Nutr and Environm Medical CONEM, Norway.
    Bengtsson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chirumbolo, Salvatore
    University of Verona, Italy.
    Kern, Janet K.
    Institute Chron Illnesses Inc, MD USA; CoMeD, MD USA; CONEM US Autism Research Grp, TX USA.
    Concerns about environmental mercury toxicity: do we forget something else?2017In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 152, p. 514-516Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 10.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    et al.
    North West University, South Africa .
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sun Choong Kwet Yive, Nee
    Mauritian Wildlife Fdn, Mauritius .
    Loken, Katharina
    Norwegian School Vet Science, Norway .
    Utne Skaare, Janneche
    Norwegian School Vet Science, Norway .
    Polder, Anuschka
    Norwegian School Vet Science, Norway .
    First report of chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbon pollutants in marine bird eggs from an oceanic Indian Ocean island2012In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 118, p. 53-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report for the first time levels of persistent organic pollutants in marine bird eggs from an oceanic island in the Indian Ocean, the worlds third largest ocean. Ten eggs each of the Common Noddy, also known as the Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus), and Sooty Tern (Sterna fuscata) were collected from Ile Cocos off the coast of the island of Rodrigues, located 560 km east of the island of Mauritius. Sigma PCBs had the highest levels (2.2 and 2.6 ng/g wm, wet mass; 20 and 19 ng/g lm, lipid mass) for common Noddy and Sooty Tern, respectively (and following), then Sigma DDT (1.9 and 3.1 ng/g wm; 17 and 23 ng/g lm), and mirex (0.96 and 0.69 ng/g wm; 8.7 and 5.0 ng/g lm). Sigma Chlordanes (0.094 and 0.15 ng/g wm; 0.48 and 0.73 ng/g lm) and Sigma toxaphenes (0.26 and 0.61 ng/g wm; 2.4 and 5.9 ng/g lm) are rare data for these compounds from this ocean. Brominated flame retardants were low (0.08 and 0.07 ng/g wm; 0.7 and 0.7 ng/g lm). Multivariate analyses indicated different contamination patterns in the prey items as Sooty Terns had significantly higher levels of mean Sigma chlordanes and Sigma toxaphenes, as well as CB105, -108 and -157. p,p-DDE had an association with thinner eggshells in the Sooty Tern. Although the contaminant levels were in all respects low, industrialisation, development on the periphery, commercial exploitation of the marine environment, and pollutants transferred over long distances by marine debris is likely to add to chemical pressure in this region. Monitoring changes in background levels of pollutants in remote regions will indicate such trends, and marine bird eggs from Rodrigues would be an excellent site.

  • 11. Bustamante, Mariona
    et al.
    Hernandez-Ferrer, Caries
    Sarria, Yaris
    Harrison, Graham I.
    Nonell, Lara
    Kang, Wenjing
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Friedlander, Marc R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Estivill, Xavier
    Gonzalez, Juan R.
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Young, Antony R.
    The acute effects of ultraviolet radiation on the blood transcriptome are independent of plasma 25OHD(3)2017In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 159, p. 239-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The molecular basis of many health outcomes attributed to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that they may originate from transcriptional changes in blood cells. This was determined by assessing the effect of fluorescent solar simulated radiation (FSSR) on the transcriptional profile of peripheral blood pre- and 6 h, 24 h and 48 h post-exposure in nine healthy volunteers. Expression of 20 genes was down regulated and one was up-regulated at 6 h after FSSR. All recovered to baseline expression at 24 h or 48 h. These genes have been associated with immune regulation, cancer and blood pressure; health effects attributed to vitamin D via solar UVR exposure. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 [250HD(3)] levels increased over time after FSSR and were maximal at 48 h. The increase was more pronounced in participants with low basal 250HD(3) levels. Mediation analyses suggested that changes in gene expression due to FSSR were independent of 250HD(3) and blood cell subpopulations.

  • 12. Bárány, E
    et al.
    Bergdahl, I A
    Bratteby, L-E
    Lundh, T
    Samuelson, Gösta
    Skerfving, S
    Oskarsson, A
    Iron status influences trace element levels in human blood and serum.2005In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 98, no 2, p. 215-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food is the main source of trace elements for the general population. The gastrointestinal absorption of certain trace elements, e.g., cadmium, is strongly influenced by iron (Fe) status. This factor may also be relevant for the bioavailability of other trace elements. Therefore, we investigated relationships between Fe status indicators and trace element concentrations in blood and serum of 234 boys and girls at ages 15 and 17 years. Fe status was measured using serum ferritin (S-Ft), soluble transferrin receptor in serum (sTfR), and the ratio sTfR/S-Ft. The trace elements we investigated were, in blood, cadmium, cobalt, copper, zinc, selenium, rubidium, mercury, and lead, and, in serum, cobalt, copper, zinc, selenium, rubidium, tungsten, mercury, and lead. We found inverse correlations between Fe status and blood cadmium, blood or serum cobalt, or blood copper. There were positive correlations between Fe status and mercury concentrations. Selenium was positively correlated with sTfR. The relationships between Fe status and lead were equivocal. There were fewer correlations for serum than for blood, but the inverse relationships between Fe status and cobalt were equally strong in serum and blood. We found only occasional, and perhaps spurious, correlations with zinc, rubidium, and tungsten. In conclusion, previous indications that cadmium, cobalt, and copper are absorbed by transport mechanisms similar to that of Fe are supported by this study. Strong positive correlations between Fe status and mercury concentrations remain to be explained.

  • 13. Bárány, Ebba
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Bratteby, Lars-Eric
    Lundh, Thomas
    Samuelson, Gösta
    Schütz, Andrejs
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Oskarsson, Agneta
    Trace elements in blood and serum of Swedish adolescents: relation to gender, age, residential area, and socioeconomic status.2002In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 72-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of gender, age, residential area, and socioeconomic status on the blood and serum levels of 13 trace elements was studied in boys and girls living in two Swedish cities with different socioeconomic and environmental characters. The same groups of adolescents were sampled twice, at ages 15 (n=372) and 17 (n=294) years. All the investigated factors were shown to be of importance. Age was important for most elements; e.g., copper levels in both blood and serum increased in girls, and selenium increased in serum from both genders. Lead decreased approximately 10% in blood from the first to the second sampling, and cadmium increased in blood, however not in nonsmokers. The age factor may also reflect temporal changes in environmental exposure, especially for nonessential elements. Girls had higher levels of cobalt and copper, while lead in blood was higher in boys. Smoking girls had higher copper levels than nonsmoking girls. Residential area influenced all elements. The teenagers with university-educated mothers had higher levels of cadmium in blood than those with only primary school-educated mothers.

  • 14.
    Carlsen, Hanne Krage
    et al.
    Centre of Public Health Sciences, University of Iceland.
    Zoëga, Helga
    Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur
    Gíslason, Thórarinn
    Hrafnkelsson, Birgir
    Hydrogen sulfide and particle matter levels associated with increased dispensing of anti-asthma drugs in Iceland's capital2012In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 113, p. 33-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Air pollutants in Iceland's capital area include hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions from geothermal power plants, particle pollution (PM10) and traffic-related pollutants. Respiratory health effects of exposure to PM and traffic pollutants are well documented, yet this is one of the first studies to investigate short-term health effects of ambient H2S exposure.

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between daily ambient levels of H2S, PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), and the use of drugs for obstructive pulmonary diseases in adults in Iceland's capital area.

    Methods The study period was 8 March 2006 to 31 December 2009. We used log-linear Poisson generalized additive regression models with cubic splines to estimate relative risks of individually dispensed drugs by air pollution levels. A three-day moving average of the exposure variables gave the best fit to the data. Final models included significant covariates adjusting for climate and influenza epidemics, as well as time-dependent variables.

    Results The three-day moving average of H2S and PM10 levels were positively associated with the number of individuals who were dispensed drugs at lag 3–5, corresponding to a 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4, 3.6) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.1, 1.8) per 10 μg/m3 pollutant concentration increase, respectively.

    Conclusion Our findings indicated that intermittent increases in levels of particle matter from traffic and natural sources and ambient H2S levels were weakly associated with increased dispensing of drugs for obstructive pulmonary disease in Iceland's capital area. These weak associations could be confounded by unevaluated variables hence further studies are needed.

  • 15.
    Cederbrant, K
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Gunnarsson, L G
    Marcusson, J
    Mercury intolerance and lymphocyte transformation test with nickel sulfate, palladium chloride, mercuric chloride, and gold sodium thiosulfate.2000In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 84, p. 140-144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Cedergren, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Selbing, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Löfman, Owe
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Källen, Bengt A. J.
    Tornblad Institute, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Chlorination Byproducts and Nitrate in Drinking Water and Risk for Congenital Cardiac Defects2002In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 124-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drinking water disinfection byproducts have been associated with an increased risk for congenital defects including cardiac defects. Using Swedish health registers linked to information on municipal drinking water composition, individual data on drinking water characteristics were obtained for 58,669 women. Among the infants born, 753 had a cardiac defect. The risk for a cardiac defect was determined for ground water versus surface water, for different chlorination procedures, and for trihalomethane and nitrate concentrations. Ground water was associated with an increased risk for cardiac defect when crude rates were analyzed but after suitable adjustments this excess rate was found to be determined by chlorination procedures including chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide appears itself as an independent risk factor for cardiac defects (adjusted odds ratio 1.61 (95%CI 1.00–2.59)). The risk for cardiac defects increased with increasing trihalomethane concentrations (P=0.0005). There was an indicated but statistically nonsignificant excess risk associated with nitrate concentration. The individual risk for congenital cardiac defect caused by chlorine dioxide and trihalomethanes is small but as a large population is exposed to public drinking water, the attributable risk for cardiac defects may not be negligible.

  • 17.
    Cha, Yingying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Tu, Minghui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys, Environment and Health Administration, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys, Environment and Health Administration, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Factors affecting the exposure of passengers, service staff and train drivers inside trains to airborne particles2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 166, p. 16-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated train air conditioning filters, interior ventilation systems, tunnel environments and platform air quality as factors affecting the concentrations of airborne particles inside trains and provides information on the exposure of passengers, train drivers and service staff to particles. Particle sampling was done inside the passenger cabin, the driver cabin and the service staff cabin during on-board measurement campaigns in 2016 and 2017. The results show that interior ventilation plays a key role in maintaining cleaner in-train air. Noticeable increases in PM10 and PM2.5 levels were observed for all of the measured cabins when the train was running in the newly opened tunnel. The increases occurred when the doors of the passenger cabin and the service staff cabin were open at underground stations. The door to the driver cabin, which remained closed for the entire measurement period, acted as a filter for coarse particles (PM2.5–10). The highest particle exposure occurred in the passenger cabin, followed by the service staff cabin, while the driver had the lowest exposure. The highest deposition dose occurs for the service staff and the lowest for commuters.

  • 18. Chen, Shuzhen
    et al.
    Wu, Desheng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Adapting ecological risk valuation for natural resource damage assessment in water pollution2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 164, p. 85-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological risk assessment can address requirements of natural resource damage assessment by quantifying the magnitude of possible damages to the ecosystem. This paper investigates an approach to assess water damages from pollution incident on the basis of concentrations of contaminants. The baseline of water pollution is determined with not-to-exceed concentration of contaminants required by water quality standards. The values of damage cost to water quality are estimated through sewage treatment cost. To get a reliable estimate of treatment cost, DEA is employed to classify samples of sewage plants based on their efficiency of sewage treatment. And exponential fitting is adopted to determine the relation between treatment cost and the decrease of COCs. The range of damage costs is determined through the fitting curves respectively based on efficient and inefficient samples.

  • 19. Chen, Yiqin
    et al.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Kaserzon, Sarit
    Wang, Xianyu
    Weijs, Liesbeth
    Gallen, Michael
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Li, Yan
    Aylward, Lesa L.
    Sly, Peter D.
    Mueller, Jochen E.
    Monthly variation in faeces: blood concentration ratio of persistent organic pollutants over the first year of life2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 147, p. 259-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found that the concentrations of a range of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in faeces is linearly proportional to the POP concentrations in blood of human adults irrespective of age and gender. In order to investigate the correlation between POP concentrations in faeces and blood in infants, the monthly variation of POP concentrations in faeces over the first year of life of one infant was investigated in this study and compared to modelled blood concentrations. Faecal samples were collected from one male infant daily. The samples were pooled by month and analysed for three selected POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47)). The POP concentrations in faecal samples increased for the first four months by a factor of 2.9, 4.9 and 1.4 for PCB153, BDE47, and p,p'-DDE, respectively. The faecal concentrations of all POPs decreased rapidly following the introduction of formula and solid food to the diet and subsequent weaning of the infant. Further, a one-compartment model was developed to estimate the daily POP concentrations in the blood of the infant. The POP concentrations in blood were predicted to vary much less over the first year than those observed in faeces. The faeces:blood concentration ratio of selected POPs (K-fb) differed significantly (P < 0.0001) between the period before and after weaning, and observed changes in K-fb are far greater than the uncertainty in the estimated K-fb. A more stable K-fb after weaning indicates the possibility of applying the stable K-fb values for non-invasive assessment of internal exposure in infants after weaning. The intra-individual variation in K-fb in infants is worthy of further investigation.

  • 20.
    Choi, Hyunok
    et al.
    SUNY Albany, Dept Environm Hlth Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Albany, NY 12222 USA..
    Schmidbauer, Norbert
    Norwegian Inst Air Res, POB 100,2027 Kjeller,Inst 18, N-2007 Kjeller, Norway..
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Tech Res Inst Sweden, Box 857, SE-50115 Boras, Sweden..
    Non-microbial sources of microbial volatile organic compounds2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 148, p. 127-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The question regarding the true sources of the purported microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) remains unanswered. Objective: To identify microbial, as well as non-microbial sources of 28 compounds, which are commonly accepted as microbial VOCs (i.e. primary outcome of interest is Sigma 28 VOCs). Methods: In a cross-sectional investigation of 390 homes, six building inspectors assessed water/mold damage, took air and dust samples, and measured environmental conditions (i.e., absolute humidity (AH, g/m(3)), temperature (degrees C), ventilation rate (ACH)). The air sample was analyzed for volatile organic compounds (mu g/m(3)) and; dust samples were analyzed for total viable fungal concentration (CFU/g) and six phthalates (mg/g dust). Four benchmark variables of the underlying sources were defined as highest quartile categories of: 1) the total concentration of 17 propylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers (Sigma 17 PGEs) in the air sample; 2) 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate (TMPD-MIB) in the air sample; 3) semi-quantitative mold index; and 4) total fungal load (CFU/g). Results: Within severely damp homes, co-occurrence of the highest quartile concentration of either E17 PGEs or TMPD-MIB were respectively associated with a significantly higher median concentration of Sigma 28 VOCs (8.05 and 1338 mu g/m(3), respectively) compared to the reference homes (430 and 4.86 mu g/m(3), respectively, both Ps <= 0.002). Furthermore, the homes within the highest quartile range for Sigma fungal load as well as AH were associated with a significantly increased median Sigma 28 VOCs compared to the reference group (8.74 vs. 4.32 mu g/m(3), P=0.001). Within the final model of multiple indoor sources on E 28 VOCs, one natural log-unit increase in summed concentration of Sigma 17 PGEs, plus TMPD-MIB (Sigma 17 PGEs TMPD-MIB) was associated with 1.8-times (95% CI, 1.3-2.5), greater likelihood of having a highest quartile of Sigma 28 VOCs, after adjusting for absolute humidity, history of repainting at least one room, ventilation rate, and mold index (P-value =0.001). Homes deemed severely mold damaged (i.e., mold index =1) were associated with 1.7-times (95% CI, 0.8-3.6), greater likelihood of having a highest quartile of Sigma 28 VOCs, even though such likelihood was not significant (P-value =0.164). In addition, absolute humidity appeared to positively interact with mold index to significantly elevate the prevalence of the highest quartile category of Sigma 28 VOCs. Conclusion: The indoor concentration of Sigma 28 VOCs, which are widely accepted as MVOCs, are significantly associated with the markers of synthetic (i.e. E17 PGEs and TMPD-MIB), and to less extent, microbial (i.e., mold index) sources. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Choi, Hyunok
    et al.
    SUNY State University of New York, US.
    Schmidbauer, Norbert
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Non-microbial sources of microbial volatile organic compounds2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 148, p. 127-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The question regarding the true sources of the purported microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) remains unanswered. Objective: To identify microbial, as well as non-microbial sources of 28 compounds, which are commonly accepted as microbial VOCs (i.e. primary outcome of interest is σ 28 VOCs). Methods: In a cross-sectional investigation of 390 homes, six building inspectors assessed water/mold damage, took air and dust samples, and measured environmental conditions (i.e., absolute humidity (AH, g/m3), temperature (°C), ventilation rate (ACH)). The air sample was analyzed for volatile organic compounds (μg/m3) and; dust samples were analyzed for total viable fungal concentration (CFU/g) and six phthalates (mg/g dust). Four benchmark variables of the underlying sources were defined as highest quartile categories of: 1) the total concentration of 17 propylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers (σ17 PGEs) in the air sample; 2) 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate (TMPD-MIB) in the air sample; 3) semi-quantitative mold index; and 4) total fungal load (CFU/g). Results: Within severely damp homes, co-occurrence of the highest quartile concentration of either σ17 PGEs or TMPD-MIB were respectively associated with a significantly higher median concentration of σ 28 VOCs (8.05 and 13.38 μg/m3, respectively) compared to the reference homes (4.30 and 4.86 μg/m3, respectively, both Ps ≤0.002). Furthermore, the homes within the highest quartile range for σ fungal load as well as AH were associated with a significantly increased median σ 28 VOCs compared to the reference group (8.74 vs. 4.32 μg/m3, P=0.001). Within the final model of multiple indoor sources on σ 28 VOCs, one natural log-unit increase in summed concentration of σ17 PGEs, plus TMPD-MIB (σ 17 PGEs + TMPD-MIB) was associated with 1.8-times (95% CI, 1.3-2.5), greater likelihood of having a highest quartile of σ 28 VOCs, after adjusting for absolute humidity, history of repainting at least one room, ventilation rate, and mold index (P-value =0.001). Homes deemed severely mold damaged (i.e., mold index =1) were associated with 1.7-times (95% CI, 0.8-3.6), greater likelihood of having a highest quartile of σ 28 VOCs, even though such likelihood was not significant (P-value =0.164). In addition, absolute humidity appeared to positively interact with mold index to significantly elevate the prevalence of the highest quartile category of σ 28 VOCs. Conclusion: The indoor concentration of σ 28 VOCs, which are widely accepted as MVOCs, are significantly associated with the markers of synthetic (i.e. σ17 PGEs and TMPD-MIB), and to less extent, microbial (i.e., mold index) sources.

  • 22.
    Christia, Christina
    et al.
    Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Poma, Giulia
    Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Harrad, Stuart
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, West Midlands, United Kingdom.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Leonards, Pim
    Institute for Environmental Sciences (IVM), VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Lamoree, Marja
    Institute for Environmental Sciences (IVM), VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Occurrence of legacy and alternative plasticizers in indoor dust from various EU countries and implications for human exposure via dust ingestion and dermal absorption2019In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 171, p. 204-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasticizers are a category of chemicals extensively used in consumer products and, consequently, their presence is ubiquitous in the indoor environment. In the present study, an analytical method has been developed for the quantification of plasticizers (7 legacy phthalate esters (LPEs) and 14 alternative plasticizers (APs)) in indoor floor dust based on ultrasonic and vortex extraction, Florisil fractionation and GC-(EI)-MS analysis. Dust samples (n = 54) were collected from homes, offices, and daycare centers from different EU countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, Ireland and Sweden). Method LOQs ranged from 0.2 to 5 mu g/g. Tri-n-hexyl trimellitate (THTM) was not detected in any sample, whereas dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diphenyl phthalate and acetyl triethyl citrate (ATEC) were detected only in 6, 2 and 1 out of 54 samples, respectively. The highest concentrations of plasticizers were measured in Swedish offices, at a mean concentration of total plasticizers of 1800 mu g/g, followed by Swedish daycare centers at 1200 and 670 mu g/g for winter and spring sampling, respectively. Generally, the contribution of APs was slightly higher than for LPEs for all indoor environments (mean contribution 60% and 40%, respectively based on contributions per indoor environment). For the APs, main contributors were DINP in Belgian homes (28%), Swedish offices (60%), Swedish daycare centers (48%), and Dutch offices (31%) and DEHT in Belgian (28%), Irish (40%) and Dutch homes (37%) of total APs. The predominant LPE was bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP) with a mean contribution varying from 60% to 85% of total LPEs. Human exposure was evaluated for dust ingestion and dermal absorption using hazard quotients (HQs) of plasticizers (ratio between average daily doses and the reference dose). None of the HQs of plasticizers exceeded 1, meaning that the risk for adverse human health effects from these plasticizers via dust ingestion and dermal absorption is unlikely.

  • 23. Christia, Christina
    et al.
    Poma, Giulia
    Harrad, Stuart
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sjöström, Ylva
    Leonards, Pim
    Lamoree, Marja
    Covaci, Adrian
    Occurrence of legacy and alternative plasticizers in indoor dust from various EU countries and implications for human exposure via dust ingestion and dermal absorption2019In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 171, p. 204-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasticizers are a category of chemicals extensively used in consumer products and, consequently, their presence is ubiquitous in the indoor environment. In the present study, an analytical method has been developed for the quantification of plasticizers (7 legacy phthalate esters (LPEs) and 14 alternative plasticizers (APs)) in indoor floor dust based on ultrasonic and vortex extraction, Florisil fractionation and GC-(EI)-MS analysis. Dust samples (n = 54) were collected from homes, offices, and daycare centers from different EU countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, Ireland and Sweden). Method LOQs ranged from 0.2 to 5 mu g/g. Tri-n-hexyl trimellitate (THTM) was not detected in any sample, whereas dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diphenyl phthalate and acetyl triethyl citrate (ATEC) were detected only in 6, 2 and 1 out of 54 samples, respectively. The highest concentrations of plasticizers were measured in Swedish offices, at a mean concentration of total plasticizers of 1800 mu g/g, followed by Swedish daycare centers at 1200 and 670 mu g/g for winter and spring sampling, respectively. Generally, the contribution of APs was slightly higher than for LPEs for all indoor environments (mean contribution 60% and 40%, respectively based on contributions per indoor environment). For the APs, main contributors were DINP in Belgian homes (28%), Swedish offices (60%), Swedish daycare centers (48%), and Dutch offices (31%) and DEHT in Belgian (28%), Irish (40%) and Dutch homes (37%) of total APs. The predominant LPE was bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP) with a mean contribution varying from 60% to 85% of total LPEs. Human exposure was evaluated for dust ingestion and dermal absorption using hazard quotients (HQs) of plasticizers (ratio between average daily doses and the reference dose). None of the HQs of plasticizers exceeded 1, meaning that the risk for adverse human health effects from these plasticizers via dust ingestion and dermal absorption is unlikely.

  • 24. de Hoogh, Kees
    et al.
    Gulliver, John
    Donkelaar, Aaron van
    Martin, Randall V
    Marshall, Julian D
    Bechle, Matthew J
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Pradas, Marta Cirach
    Dedele, Audrius
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Galassi, Claudia
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Jacquemin, Bénédicte
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Korek, Michal
    Künzli, Nino
    Lindley, Sarah J
    Lepeule, Johanna
    Meleux, Frederik
    de Nazelle, Audrey
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Nystad, Wenche
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Peters, Annette
    Peuch, Vincent-Henri
    Rouil, Laurence
    Udvardy, Orsolya
    Slama, Rémy
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Stephanou, Euripides G
    Tsai, Ming Y
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Hoek, Gerard
    Development of West-European PM2.5 and NO2 land use regression models incorporating satellite-derived and chemical transport modelling data2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 151, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Satellite-derived (SAT) and chemical transport model (CTM) estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 are increasingly used in combination with Land Use Regression (LUR) models. We aimed to compare the contribution of SAT and CTM data to the performance of LUR PM2.5 and NO2 models for Europe. Four sets of models, all including local traffic and land use variables, were compared (LUR without SAT or CTM, with SAT only, with CTM only, and with both SAT and CTM). LUR models were developed using two monitoring data sets: PM2.5 and NO2 ground level measurements from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and from the European AIRBASE network. LUR PM2.5 models including SAT and SAT+CTM explained ~60% of spatial variation in measured PM2.5 concentrations, substantially more than the LUR model without SAT and CTM (adjR(2): 0.33-0.38). For NO2 CTM improved prediction modestly (adjR(2): 0.58) compared to models without SAT and CTM (adjR(2): 0.47-0.51). Both monitoring networks are capable of producing models explaining the spatial variance over a large study area. SAT and CTM estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 significantly improved the performance of high spatial resolution LUR models at the European scale for use in large epidemiological studies.

  • 25.
    Deng, Qihong
    et al.
    Cent S Univ, XiangYa Sch Publ Hlth, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China;Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.
    Deng, Linjing
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.
    Lu, Chan
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.
    Li, Yuguo
    Univ Hong Kong, Dept Mech Engn, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.
    Parental stress and air pollution increase childhood asthma in China2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 165, p. 23-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although air pollution and social stress may independently increase childhood asthma, little is known on their synergistic effect on asthma, particularly in China with high levels of stress and air pollution.

    Objectives: To examine associations between exposure to a combination of parental stress and air pollution and asthma prevalence in children.

    Methods: We conducted a cohort study of 2406 preschool children in Changsha (2011-2012). A questionnaire was used to collect children's lifetime prevalence of asthma and their parental stress. Parental socioeconomic and psychosocial stresses were respectively defined in terms of housing size and difficulty concentrating. Children's exposure to ambient air pollutants was estimated using concentrations measured at monitoring stations. Associations between exposure to parental stress and air pollution and childhood asthma were estimated by multiple logistic regression models using odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

    Results: Life time prevalence of asthma in preschool children (6.7%) was significantly associated with parental socioeconomic and psychosocial stresses with OR (95% CI) respectively 1.48 (1.02-2.16) and 1.64 (1.00-2.71). Asthma was also associated with exposure to air pollutants, with adjusted OR (95% CI) during prenatal and postnatal periods respectively 1.43 (1.10-1.86) and 1.35 (1.02-1.79) for SO2 and 1.61 (1.19-2.18) and 1.76 (1.19-2.61) for NO2. The association with air pollution was significant only in children exposed to high parental stress, the association with parental stress was significant only in children exposed to high air pollution, and the association was the strongest in children exposed to a combination of parental stress and air pollution. Sensitivity analysis showed that the synergistic effects of parental stress and air pollution on childhood asthma were stronger in boys.

    Conclusions: Parental stress and air pollution were synergistically associated with increased childhood asthma, indicating a common biological effect of parental stress and air pollution during both prenatal and postnatal periods.

  • 26.
    Deng, Qihong
    et al.
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Cent S Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Cent S Univ, Inst Environm Hlth, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Chan
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Li, Yuguo
    Univ Hong Kong, Dept Mech Engn, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Sundell, Jan
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Tsinghua Univ, Sch Architecture, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Exposure to outdoor air pollution during trimesters of pregnancy and childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 150, p. 119-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mounting evidence suggests that exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with the development of childhood allergic diseases, but the effect of prenatal exposure to air pollution on the risk of childhood asthma and allergy is unclear. Objectives: We evaluated the association between maternal exposure to outdoor air pollution during different trimesters of pregnancy and incidence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in 2598 preschool children aged 3-6 years in China. Methods: Children's lifetime incidence of allergic diseases was obtained using questionnaire. Individual exposure to outdoor air pollutants during trimesters of pregnancy was estimated by an inverse distance weighted (IDW) method based on the measured concentrations at monitoring stations. We used multiple logistic regression method to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema for per interquartile range (IQR) increase in the exposure to air pollutant in each trimester, which was adjusted for the effect of other air pollutants and its effect in other trimesters by a multi-pollutant/trimester model. Results: Incidence of asthma (6.8%), allergic rhinitis (7.3%), and eczema (28.6%) in children was associated with maternal exposure to traffic-related pollutant NO2 during entire pregnancy with OR (95% confidence interval [CID respectively 1.63 (0.99-2.70), 1.69 (1.03-2.77), and 1.37 (1.04-1.80). After adjustment for other pollutants and trimesters, we found the association was significant only in specific trimester: the first trimester for eczema (1.54, 1.14-2.09), the second trimester for asthma (1.72, 1.02-2.97), and the third trimester for allergic rhinitis (1.77, 1.09-2.89). Sensitivity analysis indicated that the trimester sensitive to the development of allergic diseases was stable. Conclusion: Maternal exposure to traffic-related air pollutant NO2 during pregnancy, especially in specific trimesters, is associated with an increased risk of developing asthma, rhinitis, and eczema in children. Our results support the hypothesis that childhood allergic diseases originate in fetal life and are triggered by traffic-related air pollution in sensitive trimesters.

  • 27.
    Deng, Qihong
    et al.
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Cent S Univ, Inst Environm Hlth, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Chan
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Norback, Dan
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci Occupat & Environm Med, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Zhang, Yinping
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Architecture, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Weiwei
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Cent S Univ, Inst Environm Hlth, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Yuan, Hong
    Cent S Univ, Inst Environm Hlth, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Cent S Univ, Xiangya Hosp 3, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Sundell, Jan
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Tsinghua Univ, Sch Architecture, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Early life exposure to ambient air pollution and childhood asthma in China2015In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 143, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early life is suggested to be a critical time in determining subsequent asthma development, but the extent to which the effect of early-life exposure to ambient air pollution on childhood asthma is unclear. Objectives: We investigated doctor-diagnosed asthma in preschool children due to exposure to ambient air pollution in utero and during the first year of life. Methods: In total 2490 children aged 3-6 years participated in a questionnaire study regarding doctor-diagnosed asthma between September 2011 and January 2012 in China. Children's exposure to critical air pollutants, sulfur dioxide (SO2) as proxy of industrial air pollution, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as proxy of traffic pollution, and particulate matter <= 10 mu m in diameter (PM10) as a mixture, was estimated from the concentrations measured at the ambient air quality monitoring stations by using an inverse distance weighted (IDW) method. Logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the relationship between early-life exposure and childhood asthma in terms of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Association between early-life exposure to air pollutants and childhood asthma was observed. SO2 and NO2 had significant associations with adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.45 (1.02-2.07) and 1.74 (1.15-2.62) in utero and 1.62 (1.01-2.60) and 1.90 (1.20-3.00) during the first year for per 50 mu g/m(3) and 15 mu g/m(3) increase respectively. Exposure to the combined high level of SO2 and NO2 in China significantly elevated the asthmatic risk with adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.76 (1.18-2.64) in utero and 1.85 (1.22-2.79) during the first year compared to the low level exposure. The associations were higher for males and the younger children aged 3-4 than females and the older children aged 5-6. Conclusions: Early-life exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with childhood asthma during which the level and source of air pollution play important roles. The high level and nature of combined industrial and traffic air pollution in China may contribute to the recent rapid increase of childhood asthma. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Deng, Qihong
    et al.
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Cent S Univ, Inst Environm Hlth, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Chan
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Zhang, Yinping
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Architecture, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Weiwei
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Cent S Univ, Inst Environm Hlth, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Yuan, Hong
    Cent S Univ, Inst Environm Hlth, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Cent S Univ, Xiangya Hosp 3, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Sundell, Jan
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Tsinghua Univ, Sch Architecture, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Early life exposure to ambient air pollution and childhood asthma in China2015In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 143, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early life is suggested to be a critical time in determining subsequent asthma development, but the extent to which the effect of early-life exposure to ambient air pollution on childhood asthma is unclear. Objectives: We investigated doctor-diagnosed asthma in preschool children due to exposure to ambient air pollution in utero and during the first year of life. Methods: In total 2490 children aged 3-6 years participated in a questionnaire study regarding doctor-diagnosed asthma between September 2011 and January 2012 in China. Children's exposure to critical air pollutants, sulfur dioxide (SO2) as proxy of industrial air pollution, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as proxy of traffic pollution, and particulate matter <= 10 mu m in diameter (PM10) as a mixture, was estimated from the concentrations measured at the ambient air quality monitoring stations by using an inverse distance weighted (IDW) method. Logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the relationship between early-life exposure and childhood asthma in terms of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Association between early-life exposure to air pollutants and childhood asthma was observed. SO2 and NO2 had significant associations with adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.45 (1.02-2.07) and 1.74 (1.15-2.62) in utero and 1.62 (1.01-2.60) and 1.90 (1.20-3.00) during the first year for per 50 mu g/m(3) and 15 mu g/m(3) increase respectively. Exposure to the combined high level of SO2 and NO2 in China significantly elevated the asthmatic risk with adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.76 (1.18-2.64) in utero and 1.85 (1.22-2.79) during the first year compared to the low level exposure. The associations were higher for males and the younger children aged 3-4 than females and the older children aged 5-6. Conclusions: Early-life exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with childhood asthma during which the level and source of air pollution play important roles. The high level and nature of combined industrial and traffic air pollution in China may contribute to the recent rapid increase of childhood asthma.

  • 29.
    Dunder, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lejonklou, Margareta Halin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Low-dose developmental bisphenol A exposure alters fatty acid metabolism in Fischer 344 rat offspring2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 166, p. 117-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor and also a suggested obesogen and metabolism-disrupting chemical. Accumulating data indicates that the fatty acid (FA) profile and their ratios in plasma and other metabolic tissues are associated with metabolic disorders. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) is a key regulator of lipid metabolism and its activity can be estimated by dividing the FA product by its precursor measured in blood or other tissues. Objective: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-dose developmental BPA exposure on tissue-specific FA composition including estimated SCD-1 activity, studied in 5- and 52-week (wk)-old Fischer 344 (F344) rat offspring. Methods: Pregnant F344 rats were exposed to BPA via their drinking water corresponding to 0: [CTRL], 0.5: [BPA0.5], or 50 mu g/kg BW/day: [BPA50], from gestational day 3.5 until postnatal day 22. Results: BPA0.5 increased SCD-16 (estimated as the 16:1n-7/16:0 ratio) and SCD-18 (estimated as the 18:1n-9/ 18:0 ratio) indices in inguinal white adipose tissue triglycerides (iWAT-TG) and in plasma cholesterol esters (PL-CE), respectively, in 5-wk-old male offspring. In addition, BPA0.5 altered the FA composition in male offspring, e.g. by decreasing levels of the essential polyunsaturated FA linoleic acid (18:2n-6) in iWAT-and liver-TG. No differences were observed regarding the studied FAs in 52-wk-old offspring, although a slightly increased BW was observed in 52-wk-old female offspring. Conclusions: Low-dose developmental BPA exposure increased SCD-16 in iWAT-TG and SCD-18 in PL-CE of male offspring, which may reflect higher SCD-1 activity in these tissues. Altered desaturation activity and signs of altered FA composition are novel findings that may indicate insulin resistance in the rat offspring. These aforementioned results, together with the observed increased BW, adds to previously published data demonstrating that BPA can act as a metabolism disrupting chemical.

  • 30.
    Dzhambov, Angel
    et al.
    Med Univ Plovdiv, Fac Publ Hlth, Dept Hyg & Ecomed, Plovdiv, Bulgaria..
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Markevych, Iana
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Univ Hosp, Inst & Clin Occupat Social & Environm Med, Munich, Germany.;German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 1, Neuherberg, Germany..
    Tilov, Boris
    Med Univ Plovdiv, Med Coll, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.;Univ Agribusiness & Rural Dev, Fac Econ & Management, Dept Management, Plovdiv, Bulgaria..
    Dimitrova, Donka
    Med Univ Plovdiv, Fac Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Management & Healthcare Econ, Plovdiv, Bulgaria..
    Urban residential greenspace and mental health in youth: Different approaches to testing multiple pathways yield different conclusions2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 160, p. 47-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Urban greenspace can benefit mental health through multiple mechanisms. They may work together, but previous studies have treated them as independent.

    Objectives: We aimed to compare single and parallel mediation models, which estimate the independent contributions of different paths, to several models that posit serial mediation components in the pathway from greenspace to mental health.

    Methods: We collected cross-sectional survey data from 399 participants (15-25 years of age) in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Objective "exposure" to urban residential greenspace was defined by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, tree cover density within the 500-m buffer, and Euclidean distance to the nearest urban greenspace. Self-reported measures of availability, access, quality, and usage of greenspace were also used. Mental health was measured with the General Health Questionnaire. The following potential mediators were considered in single and parallel mediation models: restorative quality of the neighborhood, neighborhood social cohesion, commuting and leisure time physical activity, road traffic noise annoyance, and perceived air pollution. Four models were tested with the following serial mediation components: (1) restorative quality -> social cohesion; (2) restorative quality -> physical activity; (3) perceived traffic pollution -> restorative quality; (4) and noise annoyance -> physical activity.

    Results: There was no direct association between objectively-measured greenspace and mental health. For the 500-m buffer, the tests of the single mediator models suggested that restorative quality mediated the relationship between NDVI and mental health. Tests of parallel mediation models did not find any significant indirect effects. In line with theory, tests of the serial mediation models showed that higher restorative quality was associated with more physical activity and more social cohesion, and in turn with better mental health. As for self-reported greenspace measures, single mediation through restorative quality was significant only for time in greenspace, and there was no mediation though restorative quality in the parallel mediation models; however, serial mediation through restorative quality and social cohesion/physical activity was indicated for all self-reported measures except for greenspace quality.

    Conclusions: Statistical models should adequately address the theoretically indicated interdependencies between mechanisms underlying association between greenspace and mental health. If such causal relationships hold, testing mediators alone or in parallel may lead to incorrect inferences about the relative contribution of specific paths, and thus to inappropriate intervention strategies.

  • 31.
    Dzhambov, Angel M.
    et al.
    Med Univ Plovdiv, Fac Publ Hlth, Dept Hyg & Ecomed, 15A Vassil Aprilov Blvd, Plovdiv 4002, Bulgaria.
    Markevych, Iana
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Univ Hosp, Inst & Clin Occupat Social & Environm Med, Munich, Germany;Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Epidemiol, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Tilov, Boris
    Univ Agribusiness & Rural Dev, Fac Econ & Management, Dept Management, Plovdiv, Bulgaria;Med Univ Plovdiv, Med Coll, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    Arabadzhiev, Zlatoslav
    Med Univ Plovdiv, Fac Med, Dept Psychiat & Med Psychol, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    Stoyanov, Drozdstoj
    Med Univ Plovdiv, Fac Med, Dept Psychiat & Med Psychol, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    Gatseva, Penka
    Med Univ Plovdiv, Fac Publ Hlth, Dept Hyg & Ecomed, 15A Vassil Aprilov Blvd, Plovdiv 4002, Bulgaria.
    Dimitrova, Donka D.
    Med Univ Plovdiv, Fac Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Management & Healthcare Econ, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    Multiple pathways link urban green- and bluespace to mental health in young adults2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 166, p. 223-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A growing body of scientific literature indicates that urban green- and bluespace support mental health; however, little research has attempted to address the complexities in likely interrelations among the pathways through which benefits plausibly are realized. Objectives: The present study examines how different plausible pathways between green/bluespace and mental health can work together. Both objective and perceived measures of green- and bluespace are used in these models. Methods: We sampled 720 students from the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Residential greenspace was measured in terms of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), tree cover density, percentage of green areas, and Euclidean distance to the nearest green space. Bluespace was measured in terms of its presence in the neighborhood and the Euclidean distance to the nearest bluespace. Mental health was measured with the 12-item form of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The following mediators were considered: perceived neighborhood green/bluespace, restorative quality of the neighborhood, social cohesion, physical activity, noise and air pollution, and environmental annoyance. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to analyze the data. Results: Higher NDVI within a 300 m buffer around the residence was associated with better mental health through higher perceived greenspace; through higher perceived greenspace, leading to increased restorative quality, and subsequently to increased physical activity (i.e., serial mediation); through lower noise exposure, which in turn was associated with lower annoyance; and through higher perceived greenspace, which was associated with lower annoyance. Presence of bluespace within a 300 m buffer did not have a straightforward association with mental health owing to competitive indirect paths: one supporting mental health through higher perceived bluespace, restorative quality, and physical activity; and another engendering mental ill-health through higher noise exposure and annoyance. Conclusions: We found evidence that having more greenspace near the residence supported mental health through several indirect pathways with serial components. Conversely, bluespace was not clearly associated with mental health.

  • 32.
    Egondi, Thaddaeus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. African Population and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 10787-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Muindi, Kanyiva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. African Population and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 10787-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kyobutungi, C
    Gatari, M
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Measuring exposure levels of inhalable airborne particles (PM2.5) in two socially deprived areas of Nairobi, Kenya2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 148, p. 500-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Ambient air pollution is a growing global health concern tightly connected to the rapid global urbanization. Health impacts from outdoor air pollution exposure amounts to high burdens of deaths and disease worldwide. However, the lack of systematic collection of air pollution and health data in many low-and middle-income countries remains a challenge for epidemiological studies in the local environment. This study aimed to provide a description of the particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration in the poorest urban residential areas of Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Real-time measurements of (PM2.5) were conducted in two urban informal settlements of Nairobi City, Kenya"s Capital, from February 2013 to October 2013. The measurements were conducted using DustTrak II 8532 hand-held samplers at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level with a resolution of 1-min logging. Sampling took place from early morning to evenings according to a fixed route of measurement within areas including fixed geographical checkpoints. Results: The study period average concentration of PM2.5 was 166 mu g/m(3) in the Korogocho area and 67 mu g/m(3) in the Viwandani area. The PM2.5 levels in both areas reached bimodal daily peaks in the morning and evening. The average peak value of morning concentration in Korogocho was 214 mu g/m(3), and 164 mu g/m(3) in the evening and in Viwandani was 76 mu g/m(3) and 82 mu g/m(3) respectively. The daily midday average low observed during was 146 mu g/m(3) in Korogocho and 59 mu g/m(3) in Viwandani. Conclusion: The results show that residents in both slums are continuously exposed to PM2.5 levels exceeding hazardous levels according to World Health Organization guidelines. The study showed a marked disparity between the two slum areas situated only 7 km apart indicating the local situation and sources to be very important for exposure to PM2.5.

  • 33.
    Erbas, Bircan
    et al.
    La Trobe Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Knudsen, Toril Morkve
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Nilsen, Roy M.
    Haukeland Hosp, Ctr Clin Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Accordini, Simone
    Univ Verona, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Unit Epidemiol & Med Stat, Verona, Italy.
    Benediktdottir, Bryndis
    Univ Iceland, Landspitali Univ Hosp, Fac Med, Dept Resp Med & Sleep, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Dratva, Julia
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Publ Hlth & Epidemiol, Basel, Switzerland;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Helmholtz Zentrum, Inst Epidemiol 1, Munich, Germany;Ludwig Maximilian Univ Munich, Univ Hosp Munich, Inst & Outpatient Clin Occupat Social & Environm, Inner City Clin, Munich, Germany.
    Jarvis, Debbie
    Imperial Coll, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, Dept Resp Epidemiol Occupat Med & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Leynaert, Benedcite
    INSERM, UMR1152, Team Epidemiol, Paris, France.
    Matheson, Melanie C.
    Univ Melbourne, Allergy & Lung Hlth Unit, Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Ctr Epidemiol & Biostat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Real, Francisco G.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway;Haukeland Hosp, Dept Gynecol & Obstet, Bergen, Norway.
    Raherison-Semjen, Chantal
    Bordeaux Univ, Inst Publ Hlth & Epidemiol, INSERM, U897, Bordeaux, France.
    Villani, Simona
    Univ Pavia, Dept Publ Hlth Expt & Forens Med, Unit Biostat & Clin Epidemiol, Pavia, Italy.
    Dharmage, S. C.
    Univ Melbourne, Allergy & Lung Hlth Unit, Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Ctr Epidemiol & Biostat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Svanes, C.
    Univ Bergen, Ctr Int Hlth, Bergen, Norway;Haukeland Hosp, Dept Occupat Med, Bergen, Norway.
    Critical age windows in the impact of lifetime smoking exposure on respiratory symptoms and disease among ever smokers2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 164, p. 241-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite extensive knowledge of smoking effects on respiratory disease, there is no study including all age windows of exposure among ever smokers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects from smoking exposure in utero, early childhood, adolescence and adulthood on respiratory health outcomes in adult male and female ever smokers. Methods: Respiratory health outcomes were assessed in 10,610 participants of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) I who reported a history of ever smoking by questionnaire. The associations of maternal smoking in utero, maternal smoking during childhood, age of smoking debut and pack-years of smoking with respiratory symptoms, obstructive diseases and bronchial hyperreactivity were analysed using generalized linear regression, non-linearity between age of smoking debut and outcomes were assessed by Generalized additive mixed models. Results: Respiratory symptoms and asthma were more frequent in adults if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and, in men, also if mother smoked in childhood. Wheeze and >= 3 respiratory symptoms declined with later smoking debut among women [<= 10 years: OR = 3.51, 95% CI 1.26, 9.73; 11-12 years: 1.57[1.01-2.44]; 13-15 years: 1.11[0.94-1.32] and <= 10 years: 3.74[1.56-8.83]; 11-12 years: 1.76[1.19-2.56]; 13-15 years: 1.12[0.94-1.35], respectively]. Effects of increasing number of packyears were pronounced in women (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): OR/10 packyears women: 1.33 [1.18, 1.50], men: 1.14 [1.04, 1.26] P-interaction = 0.01). Conclusions: Among ever smokers, smoking exposure in each stage of the lifespan show persistent harmful effects for adult respiratory health, while women appeared to be more vulnerable to an early age of smoking debut and amount of smoking in adulthood.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Roos, Anna
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Lind, Ylva
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Hope, K
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro universitet.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet.
    Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus).2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 149, p. 40-47Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, Anna
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lind, Ylva
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hope, Kjell
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 149, p. 40-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The level of PFAS (per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances) contamination in freshwater and terrestrial Swedish environments in 2013/2014 was assessed by analyzing a range of perfluorinated alkyl acids, fluorotelomer acids, sulfonamides, sulfonamidoethanols and polyfluoralkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) in predator bird eggs. Stable isotopes ((13)C and (15)N) were analyzed to elucidate the dietary source. The tawny owl (Strix aluco, n=10) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, n=40), two terrestrial species, and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus, n=30), a freshwater specie were included. In addition, a temporal trend (1997-2001, 2008-2009, 2013) in osprey was studied as well. The PFAS profile was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in eggs from osprey and tawny owl, while for common kestrel perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑PFCA) exceeded the level of PFOS. PFOS concentration in osprey eggs remained at the same level between 1997 and 2001 and 2013. For the long-chained PFCAs, there were a significant increase in concentrations in osprey eggs between 1997 and 2001 and 2008-2009. The levels of PFOS and PFCAs were about 10 and five times higher, respectively, in osprey compared to tawny owl and common kestrel. Evidence of direct exposure from PFCA precursor compounds to birds in both freshwater and terrestrial environment was observed. Low levels of diPAPs were detected in a few samples of osprey (<0.02-2.4ng/g) and common kestrel (<0.02-0.16ng/g) eggs, and 6:2 FTSA was detected in a majority of the osprey eggs (<6.3-52ng/g). One saturated telomer acid (7:3 FTCA), which is a transformation marker from precursor exposure, was detected in all species (<0.24-2.7ng/g). The (15)N data showed higher levels in osprey eggs compared to tawny owl and common kestrel, indicating that they feed on a 2-3 times higher trophic level. We conclude that ospreys are continuously exposed to PFAS at levels where adverse toxic effects have been observed in birds.

  • 36. Frisk, Peter
    et al.
    Molin, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Tissue uptake of mercury is changed during the course of a common viral infection in mice2008In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 178-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) has been shown to have immunotoxic effects and to influence the severity of infection. However, the impact of infection on the normal Hg homeostasis in different target organs involved in the disease process has not been studied. In this study, Hg was measured through inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the intestine, serum, liver, and brain on days 3, 6, and 9 of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection in female Balb/c mice. The severity of the infection was assessed from clinical signs of disease and the number of virus particles in infected organs. CVB3 and gene expression of metallothionein 1 (MT1) was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gene expression of MT1 increased and peaked on day 3 in the brain (93%, p<0.01) and liver (19-fold, p<0.01) and on day 6 in the intestine (seven-fold, p<0.01). This peak in MT1 in the liver and brain corresponded to the peak in virus numbers in these tissues. Hg in the intestine and serum tended to decrease on all days of infection. The maximum decrease, in comparison with non-infected mice, occurred in the intestine (78%, p<0.001) on day 9 and in serum (50%, p<0.05) on day 6. However, in the brain, Hg increased by 52% (p<0.05) on day 6. Hg went unchanged in the liver. An infection-induced increase of Hg in the brain but unchanged level in the liver may be due to the peak of virus replication and an associated infection-induced expression of MT1. Moreover, the decrease of Hg in serum and the intestine but a concomitant intestinal increase in MT1 on day 6 may reflect a flux and increased retention of Hg to infected organs such as the brain. The pathophysiological interpretation of these preliminary findings requires further research.

  • 37. Gasull, Magda
    et al.
    Pumarega, José
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Sandanger, Torkjel Manning
    Goñi, Fernando
    Cirera, Lluís
    Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    Alguacil, Juan
    Iglesias, Mar
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Mancini, Francesca Romana
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Severi, Gianluca
    Johnson, Theron
    Kühn, Tilman
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Karakatsani, Anna
    Peppa, Eleni
    Palli, Domenico
    Pala, Valeria
    Tumino, Rosario
    Naccarati, Alessio
    Panico, Salvatore
    Verschuren, Monique
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Rylander, Charlotta
    Haugdahl Nøst, Therese
    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel
    Molinuevo, Amaia
    Chirlaque, María-Dolores
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Key, Tim
    Ye, Weimin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jenab, Mazda
    Michaud, Dominique
    Matullo, Giuseppe
    Canzian, Federico
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Nieters, Alexandra
    Nöthlings, Ute
    Jeurnink, Suzanne
    Chajes, Veronique
    Matejcic, Marco
    Gunter, Marc
    Aune, Dagfinn
    Riboli, Elio
    Agudo, Antoni
    Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Duell, Eric J.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Porta, Miquel
    Methodological issues in a prospective study on plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and pancreatic cancer risk within the EPIC cohort2019In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 169, p. 417-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The use of biomarkers of environmental exposure to explore new risk factors for pancreatic cancer presents clinical, logistic, and methodological challenges that are also relevant in research on other complex diseases.

    OBJECTIVES: First, to summarize the main design features of a prospective case-control study -nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort- on plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk. And second, to assess the main methodological challenges posed by associations among characteristics and habits of study participants, fasting status, time from blood draw to cancer diagnosis, disease progression bias, basis of cancer diagnosis, and plasma concentrations of lipids and POPs. Results from etiologic analyses on POPs and pancreatic cancer risk, and other analyses, will be reported in future articles.

    METHODS: Study subjects were 1533 participants (513 cases and 1020 controls matched by study centre, sex, age at blood collection, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status) enrolled between 1992 and 2000. Plasma concentrations of 22 POPs were measured by gas chromatography - triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). To estimate the magnitude of the associations we calculated multivariate-adjusted odds ratios by unconditional logistic regression, and adjusted geometric means by General Linear Regression Models.

    RESULTS: There were differences among countries in subjects' characteristics (as age, gender, smoking, lipid and POP concentrations), and in study characteristics (as time from blood collection to index date, year of last follow-up, length of follow-up, basis of cancer diagnosis, and fasting status). Adjusting for centre and time of blood collection, no factors were significantly associated with fasting status. Plasma concentrations of lipids were related to age, body mass index, fasting, country, and smoking. We detected and quantified 16 of the 22 POPs in more than 90% of individuals. All 22 POPs were detected in some participants, and the smallest number of POPs detected in one person was 15 (median, 19) with few differences by country. The highest concentrations were found for p,p'-DDE, PCBs 153 and 180 (median concentration: 3371, 1023, and 810 pg/mL, respectively). We assessed the possible occurrence of disease progression bias (DPB) in eight situations defined by lipid and POP measurements, on one hand, and by four factors: interval from blood draw to index date, tumour subsite, tumour stage, and grade of differentiation, on the other. In seven of the eight situations results supported the absence of DPB.

    CONCLUSIONS: The coexistence of differences across study centres in some design features and participant characteristics is of relevance to other multicentre studies. Relationships among subjects' characteristics and among such characteristics and design features may play important roles in the forthcoming analyses on the association between plasma concentrations of POPs and pancreatic cancer risk.

  • 38.
    Ghisi, Rossella
    et al.
    Univ Padua, Dept Agron Food Nat Resources Anim & Environm DAF, Viale Univ 16, I-35020 Padua, Italy.
    Vamerali, Teofilo
    Univ Padua, Dept Agron Food Nat Resources Anim & Environm DAF, Viale Univ 16, I-35020 Padua, Italy.
    Manzetti, Sergio
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. Fjordforsk AS, Inst Sci & Technol, N-6894 Midtun, Vangsnes, Norway.
    Accumulation of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in agricultural plants: A review2019In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 169, p. 326-341Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PFASs are a class of compounds that include perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances, some of the most persistent pollutants still allowed - or only partially restricted - in several product fabrications and industrial applications worldwide. PFASs have been shown to interact with blood proteins and are suspected of causing a number of pathological responses, including cancer. Given this threat to living organisms, we carried out a broad review of possible sources of PFASs and their potential accumulation in agricultural plants, from where they can transfer to humans through the food chain. Analysis of the literature indicates a direct correlation between PFAS concentrations in soil and bioaccumulation in plants. Furthermore, plant uptake largely changes with chain length, functional group, plant species and organ. Low accumulations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) have been found in peeled potatoes and cereal seeds, while short-chain compounds can accumulate at high levels in leafy vegetables and fruits. Significant variations in PFAS buildup in plants according to soil amendment are also found, suggesting a particular interaction with soil organic matter. Here, we identify a series of challenges that PFASs pose to the development of a safe agriculture for future generations.

  • 39.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Alves, Andreia
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Schütze, André
    Koch, Holger M.
    Haug, Line S.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Voorspoels, Stefan
    Evaluation of exposure to phthalate esters and DINCH in urine and nails from a Norwegian study population2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 151, p. 80-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters (PEs) and 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) used as additives in numerous consumer products are continuously released into the environment, leading to subsequent human exposure which might cause adverse health effects. The human biomonitoring approach allows the detection of PEs and DINCH in specific populations, by taking into account all possible routes of exposure (e.g. inhalation, transdermal and oral) and all relevant sources (e.g. air, dust, personal care products, diet). We have investigated the presence of nine PE and two DINCH metabolites and their exposure determinants in 61 adult residents of the Oslo area (Norway). Three urine spots and fingernails were collected from each participant according to established sampling protocols. Metabolite analysis was performed by LC-MS/MS. Metabolite levels in urine were used to back-calculate the total exposure to their corresponding parent compound. The primary monoesters, such as monomethyl phthalate (MMP, geometric mean 89.7 ng/g), monoethyl phthalate (MEP, 104.8 ng/g) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, 893 ng/g) were observed in higher levels in nails, whereas the secondary bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and DINCH oxidative metabolites were more abundant in urine (detection frequency 84-100%). The estimated daily intakes of PEs and DINCH for this Norwegian population did not exceed the established tolerable daily intake and reference doses, and the cumulative risk assessment for combined exposure to plasticizers with similar toxic endpoints indicated no health concerns for the selected population. We found a moderate positive correlation between MEP levels in 3 urine spots and nails (range: 0.56-0.68). Higher frequency of personal care products use was associated with greater MEP concentrations in both urine and nail samples. Increased age, smoking, wearing plastic gloves during house cleaning, consuming food with plastic packaging and eating with hands were associated with higher levels in urine and nails for some of the metabolites. In contrast, frequent hair and hand washing was associated with lower urinary levels of monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5-OH-MEHP), respectively.

  • 40.
    Graells, Tiscar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hernández-García, Marta
    Pérez-Jové, Josefa
    Guy, Lionel
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Padilla, Emma
    Legionella pneumophila recurrently isolated in a Spanish hospital: Two years of antimicrobial resistance surveillance2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 166, p. 638-646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to monitor the spread, persistence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Legionella spp. strains found in a hospital water distribution system. These environmental studies are intended to help detect the presence of antibiotic resistant strains before they infect patients.

    METHODS: Antimicrobial surveillance tests were performed at 27 different sampling points of the water network of a large Spanish hospital over two years. Water samples were screened for Legionella according to ISO 11731:2007. Legionella spp. isolates were identified by serotyping and by mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF). Epidemiological molecular typing was done by Pulse-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and by Sequence-Based Typing (SBT). Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using disk diffusion and ETEST®.

    RESULTS: Legionella spp. were recurrently isolated for 2 years. All isolates belonged the same group, L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14. Isolates were all attributed by SBT to sequence type (ST) ST328, although PFGE revealed 5 different patterns. No significant change in antibiotic susceptibility could be observed for this study period, irrespectively of the method used.

    CONCLUSION: Colonization of water systems by Legionella spp. is still occurring, although all the prevention rules were strictly followed. Antibiotic resistance monitoring may help us to find resistance in bacteria with environmental reservoirs but difficult to isolate from patients. The knowledge of the antibiotic susceptibility in environmental strains may help us to predict changes in clinical strains. This study might also help reconsidering Legionnaires' disease (LD) diagnostic methods. L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 present all along the time of the investigation in the water distribution system can cause LD. However, they may not be detected by routine urine tests run on patients, thereby missing an ongoing LD infection.

  • 41.
    Gustafsson, Asa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Swetox, Karolinska Institutet, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Forskargatan 20, SE-151 36 Södertälje, Sweden.
    Krais, Annette M.
    Gorzsás, András
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Gerde, Per
    Isolation and characterization of a respirable particle fraction from residential house-dust2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 161, p. 284-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor air pollution has caused increasing concern in recent years. As we spend most of our lives indoors, it is crucial to understand the health effects caused by indoor air pollution. Household dust serve as good proxy for accessing indoor air pollution, especially smaller dust particles that can pass into the lungs are of interest. In this study we present an efficient method for the isolation of dust particles in the respirable size range. The respirable fraction was recovered from vacuum cleaner bags, separated by stepwise sieving, followed by characterization for size, morphology, surface area, organic content and elemental composition. The respirable fraction was obtained in a yield of 0.6% with a specific surface area of 2.5 m(2)/g and a Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter of 3.73 +/- 0.15 mu m. Aluminum and zink were the dominating metals measured in the dust, whereas the major mineral components were found to be silicon dioxide and calcium carbonate. The fraction of organic matter in the dust was measured to be 69 +/- 1%. The organic matrix contained bacterial and fungi and a presence of skin fragments. We present here an efficient and fast method for the isolation of dust particles in the respirable size range. That is of considerable value due to the need for large quantities of respirable particle fractions to conduct toxicological studies and risk assessment work.

  • 42. Gyllenhammar, Irina
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Germany.
    Sundström, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    McCleaf, Philip
    Euren, Karin
    Eriksson, Sara
    Ahlgren, Sven
    Lignell, Sanna
    Aune, Marie
    Kotova, Natalia
    Glynn, Anders
    Influence of contaminated drinking water on perfluoroalkyl acid levels in human serum - A case study from Uppsala, Sweden2015In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 140, p. 673-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012 a contamination of drinking water with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was uncovered in the City of Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the present study was to determine how these substances have been distributed from the contamination source through the groundwater to the drinking water and how the drinking water exposure has influenced the levels of PFAAs in humans over time. The results show that PFAA levels in groundwater measured 2012-2014 decreased downstream from the point source, although high Sigma PFAA levels (> 100 ng/L) were still found several kilometers from the point source in the Uppsala aquifer. The usage of aqueous film forming fire-fighting foams (AFFF) at a military airport in the north of the city is probably an important contamination source. Computer simulation of the distribution of PFAA-contaminated drinking water throughout the City using a hydraulic model of the pipeline network suggested that consumers in the western and southern parts of Uppsala have received most of the contaminated drinking water. PFAA levels in blood serum from 297 young women from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled during 1996-1999 and 2008-2011 were analyzed. Significantly higher concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were found among women who lived in districts modeled to have received contaminated drinking water compared to unaffected districts both in 1996-1999 and 2008-2011, indicating that the contamination was already present in the late 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFHxS in serum showed that women in districts with contaminated drinking water also had an increased percentage of branched isomers. Our results further indicate that exposure via contaminated drinking water was the driving factor behind the earlier reported increasing temporal trends of PFBS and PFHxS in blood serum from young women in Uppsala.

  • 43.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Multiple pathways link urban green-: and bluespace to mental health in young adults.2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 166, p. 223-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    A growing body of scientific literature indicates that urban green- and bluespace support mental health; however, little research has attempted to address the complexities in likely interrelations among the pathways through which benefits plausibly are realized.

    OBJECTIVES:

    The present study examines how different plausible pathways between green/bluespace and mental health can work together. Both objective and perceived measures of green- and bluespace are used in these models.

    METHODS:

    We sampled 720 students from the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Residential greenspace was measured in terms of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), tree cover density, percentage of green areas, and Euclidean distance to the nearest green space. Bluespace was measured in terms of its presence in the neighborhood and the Euclidean distance to the nearest bluespace. Mental health was measured with the 12-item form of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The following mediators were considered: perceived neighborhood green/bluespace, restorative quality of the neighborhood, social cohesion, physical activity, noise and air pollution, and environmental annoyance. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to analyze the data.

    RESULTS:

    Higher NDVI within a 300 m buffer around the residence was associated with better mental health through higher perceived greenspace; through higher perceived greenspace, leading to increased restorative quality, and subsequently to increased physical activity (i.e., serial mediation); through lower noise exposure, which in turn was associated with lower annoyance; and through higher perceived greenspace, which was associated with lower annoyance. Presence of bluespace within a 300 m buffer did not have a straightforward association with mental health owing to competitive indirect paths: one supporting mental health through higher perceived bluespace, restorative quality, and physical activity; and another engendering mental ill-health through higher noise exposure and annoyance.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    We found evidence that having more greenspace near the residence supported mental health through several indirect pathways with serial components. Conversely, bluespace was not clearly associated with mental health.

  • 44.
    Hernroth, Bodil
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. KVA.
    Baden, Susanne P
    University of Gothenburg.
    Alteration of host-pathogen interactions in the wake of climate change: increasing risk for shellfish associated infections?2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 161, p. 425-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for climate-related spread of infectious diseases through marine systems has been highlighted in several reports. With this review we want to draw attention to less recognized mechanisms behind vector-borne transmission pathways to humans. We have focused on how the immune systems of edible marine shellfish, the blue mussels and Norway lobsters, are affected by climate related environmental stressors. Future ocean acidification (OA) and warming due to climate change constitute a gradually increasing persistent stress with negative trade-off for many organisms. In addition, the stress of recurrent hypoxia, inducing high levels of bioavailable manganese (Mn) is likely to increase in line with climate change. We summarized that OA, hypoxia and elevated levels of Mn did have an overall negative effect on immunity, in some cases also with synergistic effects. On the other hand, moderate increase in temperature seems to have a stimulating effect on antimicrobial activity and may in a future warming scenario counteract the negative effects. However, rising sea surface temperature and climate events causing high land run-off promote the abundance of naturally occurring pathogenic Vibrio and will in addition, bring enteric pathogens which are circulating in society into coastal waters. Moreover, the observed impairments of the immune defense enhance the persistence and occurrence of pathogens in shellfish. This may increase the risk for direct transmission of pathogens to consumers. It is thus essential that in the wake of climate change, sanitary control of coastal waters and seafood must recognize and adapt to the expected alteration of host-pathogen interactions.

  • 45.
    Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Lindh, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Enheten för metallbiologisk forskning.
    Minqin, Ren
    Friman, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Watt, Frank
    Iron and copper accumulation in the brain of coxsackievirus-infected mice exposed to cadmium2006In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 308-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cadmium (Cd) is a potentially toxic metal widely distributed in the environment and known to cause adverse health effects in humans. During coxsackievirus infection, the concentrations of essential and nonessential trace elements (e.g., iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and Cd) change in different target organs of the infection. Fe and Cu are recognized cofactors in host defence reactions, and Fe is known to be associated with certain pathological conditions of the brain. However, whether nonessential trace elements could influence the balance of essential trace elements in the brain is unknown. In this study the brain Fe, Cu, and Cd contents were measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and their distributions determined by nuclear microscopy in the early phase (day 3) of coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) infection in nonexposed and in Cd-exposed female Balb/c mice. In CB3 infection the brain is a well-known target that has not been studied with regard to trace element balance. The brain concentration of Cu compared with that of noninfected control mice was increased by 9% (P < 0.05) in infected mice not exposed to Cd and by 10% (not significant) in infected Cd-exposed mice. A similar response was seen for Fe, which in infected Cd-exposed mice, compared to noninfected control mice, tended to increase by 16%. Cu showed an even tissue distribution, whereas Fe was distributed in focal deposits. Changes in Cd concentration in the brain of infected mice were less consistent but evenly distributed. Further studies are needed to define whether the accumulation and distribution of trace elements in the brain have an impact on brain function.

  • 46. Karvala, Kirsi
    et al.
    Sainio, Markku
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyback, Maj-Helen
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Prevalence of various environmental intolerances in a Swedish and Finnish general population2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 161, p. 220-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of various environmental intolerances (EIs), using several criteria in a Swedish and a Finnish general population. Ill-health attributed to low-level environmental exposures is a commonly encountered challenge in occupational and environmental medicine. Methods: In population-based questionnaire surveys, the Vasterbotten Environmental Health Study (Sweden) and the Osterbotten Environmental Health Study (Finland), EI was inquired by one-item questions on symptom attribution to chemicals, certain buildings, or electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and difficulties tolerating sounds. The respondents were asked whether they react with central nervous system (CNS) symptoms or have a physician-diagnosed EI attributed to the corresponding exposures. Prevalence rates were determined for different age and sex groups and the Swedish and Finnish samples in general. Results: In the Swedish sample (n = 3406), 12.2% had self-reported intolerance to chemicals, 4.8% to certain buildings, 2.7% to EMFs, and 9.2% to sounds. The prevalence rates for the Finnish sample (n = 1535) were 15.2%, 7.2%, 1.6%, and 5.4%, respectively, differing statistically significantly from the Swedish. EI to chemicals and certain buildings was more prevalent in Finland, while EI to EMFs and sounds more prevalent in Sweden. The prevalence rates for EI with CNS-symptoms were lower and physician-diagnosed EIs considerably lower than self-reported EIs. Women reported EI more often than men and the young (18-39 years) to a lesser degree than middle-aged and elderly. Conclusions: The findings reflect the heterogeneous nature of EI. The differences in EI prevalence between the countries might reflect disparities concerning which exposures people perceive harmful and focus their attention to.

  • 47.
    Kippler, M
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Goessler, W
    Intstitut für Chemie, Karl-Franzens-Universtät, Universitätsplatz, Graz, Austria.
    Nermell, B
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Lönnerdal, B
    Dept of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA.
    El Arifeen, S
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bandgladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Vahter, M
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Factors influencing intestinal cadmium uptake in pregnant Bangladeshi women: A prospective cohort study2009In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 109, no 7, p. 914-921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental studies indicate that zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) status, in addition to iron (Fe) status, affect gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium (Cd), an environmental pollutant that is toxic to kidneys, bone and endocrine systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate how various nutritional factors influence the uptake of Cd in women, particularly during pregnancy. The study was carried out in a rural area of Bangladesh, where malnutrition is prevalent and exposure to Cd via food appears elevated. The uptake of Cd was evaluated by associations between erythrocyte Cd concentrations (Ery-Cd), a marker of ongoing Cd exposure, and concentrations of nutritional markers. Blood samples, collected in early pregnancy and 6 months postpartum, were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Ery-Cd varied considerably (range: 0.31-5.4mug/kg) with a median of 1.1mug/kg (approximately 0.5mug/L in whole blood) in early pregnancy. Ery-Cd was associated with erythrocyte manganese (Ery-Mn; positively), plasma ferritin (p-Ft; negatively), and erythrocyte Ca (Ery-Ca; negatively) in decreasing order, indicating common transporters for Cd, Fe and Mn. There was no evidence of Cd uptake via Zn transporters, but the association between Ery-Cd and p-Ft seemed to be dependent on adequate Zn status. On average, Ery-Cd increased significantly by 0.2mug/kg from early pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, apparently due to up-regulated divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). In conclusion, intestinal uptake of Cd appears to be influenced either directly or indirectly by several micronutrients, in particular Fe, Mn and Zn. The negative association with Ca may suggest that Cd inhibits the transport of Ca to blood.

  • 48.
    Kumar, Jitender
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Persistent organic pollutants and liver dysfunction biomarkers in a population-based human sample of men and women2014In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 134, no SI, p. 251-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are stable organic compounds generated through different industrial activities. Liver is involved in the metabolism of POPs, and hence exposure to POPs may interfere with liver function. Although a few studies have shown adverse effects of POPs on liver function, large-scale studies involving humans are lacking. We performed this large population-based cross-sectional study to assess the associations between different POPs and liver dysfunction biomarkers.

    METHODS: A total of 992 individuals (all aged 70 years, 50% males) were recruited as part of Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. The total toxic equivalency (TEQ) value was calculated for seven mono-ortho and two non-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and octachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (OCDD) to assess their toxicological effects. The association of TEQ values, summary measures of 16 PCBs (sum of PCBs) and three organochlorine pesticides (sum of OC pesticides) with liver dysfunction biomarkers (bilirubin; alkaline phosphatase, ALP; alanine aminotransferase, ALT; and gamma-glutamyltransferase, GGT) was analyzed utilizing linear regression analysis.

    RESULTS: The mono-ortho PCB TEQ values were found to be significantly positively associated with bilirubin (β=0.71, P=0.008), while sum of OC pesticide concentrations was negatively associated with ALP (β=-0.02, P=0.002) after adjusting for various potential confounders. When analyzed individually, a number of different POPs were associated with ALP, ALT and bilirubin. No such association with GGT was observed.

    CONCLUSION: Various POPs including PCBs, OCDD and pesticides were associated with the liver dysfunction biomarkers bilirubin, ALT and ALP, suggesting adverse effects on liver function from these environmental pollutants.

  • 49.
    Kumar, Jitender
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Persistent organic pollutants and liver dysfunction biomarkers in a population-based human sample of men and women2014In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 134, p. 251-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are stable organic compounds generated through different industrial activities. Liver is involved in the metabolism of POPs, and hence exposure to POPs may interfere with liver function. Although a few studies have shown adverse effects of POPs on liver function, large-scale studies involving humans are lacking. We performed this large population-based cross-sectional study to assess the associations between different POPs and liver dysfunction biomarkers.

    Methods: A total of 992 individuals (all aged 70 years, 50% males) were recruited as part of Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. The total toxic equivalency (TEQ) value was calculated for seven mono-ortho and two non-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and octachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (OCDD) to assess their toxicological effects. The association of TEQ values, summary measures of 16 PCBs (sum of PCBs) and three organochlorine pesticides (sum of OC pesticides) with liver dysfunction biomarkers (bilirubin; alkaline phosphatase, ALP; alanine amino-transferase, ALT; and gamma-glutamyltransferase, GGT) was analyzed utilizing linear regression analysis.

    Results: The mono-ortho PCB TEQ values were found to be significantly positively associated with bilirubin (beta=0.71, P=0.008), while sum of OC pesticide concentrations was negatively associated with ALP (beta= -0.02, P=0.002) after adjusting for various potential confounders. When analyzed individually, a number of different POPs were associated with ALP, ALT and bilirubin. No such association with GGT was observed.

    Conclusion: Various POPs including PCBs, OCDD and pesticides were associated with the liver dysfunction biomarkers bilirubin, ALT and ALP, suggesting adverse effects on liver function from these environmental pollutants. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 50.
    La Merrill, M A
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, and Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, Oslo, Norway.
    van Bavel, B
    MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, and Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, Oslo, Norway.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    The association between p,p'-DDE levels and left ventricular mass is mainly mediated by obesity2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 160, p. 541-546, article id S0013-9351(17)31176-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The pesticide metabolite p,p'-DDE has been associated with left ventricular (LV) mass and known risk factors for LV hypertrophy in humans and in experimental models. We hypothesized that the associations of p,p'-DDE with LV hypertrophy risk factors, namely elevated glucose, adiposity and hypertension, mediate the association of p,p'-DDE with LV mass.

    METHODS: p,p'-DDE was measured in plasma from 70-year-old subjects (n = 988) of the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). When these subjects were 70-, 75- and 80- years old, LV characteristics were measured by echocardiography, while fasting glucose, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were assessed with standard clinical techniques.

    RESULTS: We found that p,p'-DDE levels were associated with increased fasting glucose, BMI, hypertension and LV mass in separate models adjusted for sex. Structural equation modeling revealed that the association between p,p'-DDE and LV mass was almost entirely mediated by BMI (70%), and also by hypertension (19%).

    CONCLUSION: The obesogenic effect of p,p'-DDE is a major determinant responsible for the association of p,p'-DDE with LV mass.

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