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  • 1.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Characteristics of low speed accidents with buses in public transport2002In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 637-647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-speed accidents with buses in public transport in the city of Uppsala during the years 1986–2000 are coded in 17 variables concerning mainly physical properties of the accident. The taxonomy uses classifications from existing schemes, but some are altered and some new are added to capture common features of reports of bus accidents in this population. It is found that side contacts and singles are the most common accidents, and that more than a quarter of all accident involvements occurs at bus stops. Inter-rater reliability calculations for the categories show that all except one have reliabilities above 80%. The level of internal validity, calculated as agreement of frequencies between time periods, is acceptable, despite many possible sources of change and bias. It is argued that the validity of this database far exceeds that of the, for research purposes normally used, non-company self-reports, state- and police-archives, due to more extensive reporting and corroborating evidence. The practical usefulness of these results and accident taxonomies in general is discussed.

  • 2.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Öström, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Alcohol and drugs in fatally and non-fatally injured motor vehicle drivers in northern Sweden2009In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 129-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol and drugs are important risk factors for traffic injuries, a major health problem worldwide. This prospective study investigated the epidemiology and the presence of alcohol and drugs in fatally and hospitalized non-fatally injured drivers of motor vehicles in northern Sweden. During a 2-year study period, blood from fatally and hospitalized non-fatally injured drivers was tested for alcohol and drugs. The study subjects were recruited from well-defined geographical areas with known demographics. Autopsy reports, medical journals, police reports, and toxicological analyses were evaluated. Of the fatally injured, 38% tested positive for alcohol and of the non-fatally 21% tested positive; 7% and 13%, respectively, tested positive for pharmaceuticals with a warning for impaired driving; 9% and 4%, respectively, tested positive for illicit drugs. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were benzodiazepines, opiates, and antidepressants. Tetrahydrocannabinol was the most frequently detected illicit substance. No fatally injured women had illegal blood alcohol concentration. The relative proportion of positively tested drivers has increased and was higher than in a similar study 14 years earlier. This finding indicates that alcohol and drugs merit more attention in future traffic safety work.

  • 3.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    VTI, Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Anund, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. VTI, Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Fors, Carina
    VTI, Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in young male drivers2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 112, p. 127-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment. The driving task was essentially the same in both scenarios, i.e. to stay on the road, without much interaction with other road users. A 2 x 2 design, with the conditions rural versus suburban, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived), was used. The results show that there were only minor effects of the road environment on subjective and physiological indicators of sleepiness. In contrast, there was an increase in subjective sleepiness, longer blink durations and increased EEG alpha content, both due to time on task and to night-time driving. The two road environments differed both in terms of the demand on driver action and of visual load, and the results indicate that action demand is the more important of the two factors. The notion that driver fatigue should be countered in a more stimulating visual environment such as in the city is thus more likely due to increased task demand rather than to a richer visual scenery. This should be investigated in further studies.

  • 4. Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Anund, Anna
    Fors, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in young male drivers2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 112, p. 127-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment. The driving task was essentially the same in both scenarios, i.e. to stay on the road, without much interaction with other road users. A 2 x 2 design, with the conditions rural versus suburban, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived), was used. The results show that there were only minor effects of the road environment on subjective and physiological indicators of sleepiness. In contrast, there was an increase in subjective sleepiness, longer blink durations and increased EEG alpha content, both due to time on task and to night-time driving. The two road environments differed both in terms of the demand on driver action and of visual load, and the results indicate that action demand is the more important of the two factors. The notion that driver fatigue should be countered in a more stimulating visual environment such as in the city is thus more likely due to increased task demand rather than to a richer visual scenery. This should be investigated in further studies.

  • 5.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in young male drivers2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 112, p. 127-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment. The driving task was essentially the same in both scenarios, i.e. to stay on the road, without much interaction with other road users. A 2 x 2 design, with the conditions rural versus suburban, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived), was used. The results show that there were only minor effects of the road environment on subjective and physiological indicators of sleepiness. In contrast, there was an increase in subjective sleepiness, longer blink durations and increased EEG alpha content, both due to time on task and to night-time driving. The two road environments differed both in terms of the demand on driver action and of visual load, and the results indicate that action demand is the more important of the two factors. The notion that driver fatigue should be countered in a more stimulating visual environment such as in the city is thus more likely due to increased task demand rather than to a richer visual scenery. This should be investigated in further studies.

  • 6. Albertsson, P
    et al.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    A literature review on bus and coach incidents in Europe2004In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Is there a pattern in European bus and coach incidents?: A literature analysis with special focus on injury causation and injury mechanisms2005In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to identify and describe a pattern in bus and coach incident related injuries and fatalities, and to suggest possible future measures for improvement of bus and coach safety, a literature analysis was performed. The results formed a multi-faceted pattern, which briefly can be described as follows; women travelled more frequently by bus as compared to men. Injuries sustained predominantly affected women 60 years of age and older. Of all traffic fatalities in Europe, bus and coach fatalities represented 0.3-0.5%. In the OECD countries, the risk of being killed or seriously injured was found to be seven to nine times lower for bus and coach occupants as compared to those of car occupants. Despite the fact that fatalities were more frequent on rural roads, a vast majority of all bus and coach casualties occurred on urban roads and in dry weather conditions. Boarding and alighting caused about one-third of all injury cases. Collisions were a major injury-contributing factor. Buses and coaches most frequently collided with cars, but unprotected road users were hit in about one-third of all cases of a collision, the point of impact on the bus or the coach being typically frontal or side. Rollovers occurred in almost all cases of severe coach crashes. In this type of crash projection, total ejection, partial ejection, intrusion and smoke inhalation were the main injury mechanisms and among those, ejection being the most dangerous. A 2-point belt may prevent passenger ejection, but in frontal crashes when the upper abdominal parts and the head hit the seatback in front, it could, however, contribute to head and thoracic injuries. Hence, a 3-point belt provides the best restraint in rollovers and frontal crashes.

  • 8.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå Universitetet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Is there a pattern in European bus and coach incidents? A literature analysis with special focus on injury causation and injury mechanisms2005In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to identify and describe a pattern in bus and coach incident related injuries and fatalities, and to suggest possible future measures for improvement of bus and coach safety, a literature analysis was performed. The results formed a multi-faceted pattern, which briefly can be described as follows, women travelled more frequently by bus as compared to men. Injuries sustained predominantly affected women 60 years of age and older. Of all traffic fatalities in Europe, bus and coach fatalities represented 0.3-0.5%. In the OECD countries, the risk of being killed or seriously injured was found to be seven to nine times lower for bus and coach occupants as compared to those of car occupants. Despite the fact that fatalities were more frequent on rural roads, a vast majority of all bus and coach casualties occurred on urban roads and in dry weather conditions. Boarding and alighting caused about one-third of all injury cases. Collisions were a major injury-contributing factor. Buses and coaches most frequently collided with cars, but unprotected road users were hit in about one-third of all cases of a collision, the point of impact on the bus or the coach being typically frontal or side. Rollovers occurred in almost all cases of severe coach crashes. In this type of crash projection, total ejection, partial ejection, intrusion and smoke inhalation were the main injury mechanisms and among those, ejection being the most dangerous. A 2-point belt may prevent passenger ejection, but in frontal crashes when the upper abdominal parts and the head hit the seatback in front, it could, however, contribute to head and thoracic injuries. Hence, a 3-point belt provides the best restraint in rollovers and frontal crashes. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI.
    Changes in driver behaviour as a function of handsfree mobile telephones: a simulator study1994In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 441-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of a mobile telephone task on drivers' reaction time, lane position, speed level, and workload were studied in two driving conditions (an easy or rather straight versus a hard or very curvy route). It was predicted that the mobile telephone task would have a negative effect on drivers' reaction time, lane position, and workload and lead to a reduction of speed. It was also predicted that the effects would be stronger for the hard driving task. The study was conducted in the VTI driving simulator. A total of 40 subjects, experienced drivers aged 23 to 61, were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions (telephone and easy or hard driving task versus control and easy or hard driving task). Contrary to the predictions, the strongest effects were found when the subjects were exposed to the easy driving task. In the condition where drivers had to perform the easy driving task, findings showed that a mobile telephone task had a negative effect on reaction time and led to a reduction of the speed level. In the condition where drivers had to perform the hard driving task, findings showed that a mobile telephone task had an effect only on the drivers' lateral position. Finally, the mobile telephone task led to an increased workload for both the easy and the hard driving task. The results are discussed in terms of which subtask, car driving or telephone task, the subjects gave the highest priority. Some implications for information systems in future cars are discussed

  • 10. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut, VTI.
    The effects of a mobile telephone task on driver behaviour in a car following situation1995In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 707-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of a mobile telephone task on young and elderly drivers' choice reaction time, headway, lateral position, and workload were studied when the subjects were driving in a car-following situation, in the VTI driving simulator. It was found that a mobile telephone task had a negative effect upon the drivers' choice reaction time, and that the effect was more pronounced for the elderly drivers. Furthermore, the subjects did not compensate for their increased reaction time by increasing their headway during the phone task. The subjects' mental workload, as measured by the NASA-TLX, increased as a function of the mobile telephone task. No effect on the subjects' lateral position could be detected. Taken together, these results indicate that the accident risk can increase when a driver is using the mobile telephone in a car following situation. The reasons for the increased risk, and possible ways to eliminate it, are also discussed.

  • 11. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Vogel, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Traffic sense: which factors influence the skill to predict the development of traffic scenes?2003In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 749-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted to evaluate the skill to predict the development of traffic situations. A stop-controlled intersection was filmed over several days, and 12 scenes with varying traffic complexity were selected. In half of the scenes, the traffic rules were violated, in half of the scenes, the rules were observed. A total of 36 participants were asked to watch the scenes and predict how the scene would most likely develop in the 2 s after the film was paused. Additionally, the participants rated how certain they were about their prediction, and how complex and dangerous they assessed the scenes to be. With the method used here, experienced drivers were not found to make more correct predictions of situational development, and no difference in skill to predict could be found between genders. Nevertheless, more experienced drivers were more certain in their judgements and evaluated the situations on average as less complex and dangerous than did less experienced drivers. Scenes in which the traffic rules were violated were more difficult to predict correctly. The scenes in which the participants predicted violations were rated as more complex and dangerous. It is concluded that the low-cost method used here is more useful for examining which scenes are generally easy or difficult to predict and how they are experienced subjectively than to investigate differences in performance for different driver categories.

  • 12. Antona-Makoshi, Jacobo
    et al.
    Mikami, Koji
    Lindkvist, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Davidsson, Johan
    Schick, Sylvia
    Accident analysis to support the development of strategies for the prevention of brain injuries in car crashes2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 117, p. 98-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    2+ injuries. Belted occupants were at lower risks than unbelted occupants for most brain injury categories, including concussions. After controlling for the effects of age and crash severity, belted female occupants involved in frontal crashes were estimated to be 1.5 times more likely to sustain a concussion than male occupants in similar conditions. Belted elderly occupants were found to be at 10.5 and 8 times higher risks for sub-dural haemorrhages than non-elderly belted occupants in frontal and side crashes, respectively. Adopted occupant protection strategies appear to be insufficient to achieve significant decreases in risk of both life-threatening brain injuries and concussions for all car occupants. Further effort to develop occupant and injury specific strategies for the prevention of brain injuries are needed. This study suggests that these strategies may consider prioritization of life-threatening brain vasculature injuries, particularly in elderly occupants, and concussion injuries, particularly in female occupants.

  • 13.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys .
    Landscape heritage objects' effect on driving: a combined driving simulator and questionnaire study.2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 62, p. 168-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the literature, landscape (panoramas, heritage objects e.g. landmarks) affects people in various ways. Data are primarily developed by asking people (interviews, photo sessions, focus groups) about their preferences, but to a lesser degree by measuring how the body reacts to such objects. Personal experience while driving a car through a landscape is even more rare.

    In this paper we study how different types of objects in the landscape affect drivers during their drive. A high-fidelity moving-base driving simulator was used to measure choice of speed and lateral position in combination with stress (heart rate measure) and eye tracking. The data were supplemented with questionnaires. Eighteen test drivers (8 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 37 were recruited. The test drivers were exposed to different new and old types of landscape objects such as 19th century church, wind turbine, 17th century milestone and bus stop, placed at different distances from the road driven.

    The findings are in some respect contradictory, but it was concluded that that 33% of the test drivers felt stressed during the drive. All test drivers said that they had felt calm at times during the drive but the reason for this was only to a minor degree connected with old and modern objects. The open landscape was experienced as conducive to acceleration. No significant differences could be observed concerning the test drivers' gaze between old or modern objects, but a significant difference was observed between the test drivers' gaze between road stretches with faraway objects and stretches without objects.

  • 14.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ihlstrom, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Goran
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 114, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers. The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation). The hypothesis tested was that split shifts contribute to sleepiness during afternoon, which can increase the safety risks. The overall results supported this hypothesis. In total, five of the 18 drivers reached levels of severe sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale 8) with an average increase in KSS of 1.94 when driving in the afternoon after working a morning shift compared with being off duty in the morning. This increase corresponded to differences observed between shift workers starting and ending a night shift. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task showed significantly increased response time with split shift working (afternoon: 0.337 s; split shift 0.347 s), as did the EEG-based Karolinska Drowsiness Score mean/max. Blink duration also increased, although the difference was not significant. One driver fell asleep during the drive. In addition, 12 of the 18 bus drivers reported that in their daily work they have to fight to stay awake while driving at least 2-4 times per month. While there were strong individual differences, the study clearly showed that shift working bus drivers struggle to stay awake and thus countermeasures are needed in order to guarantee safe driving with split shift schedules.

  • 15. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Fors, Carina
    Ihlstrom, Jonas
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 114, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers. The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation). The hypothesis tested was that split shifts contribute to sleepiness during afternoon, which can increase the safety risks. The overall results supported this hypothesis. In total, five of the 18 drivers reached levels of severe sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale 8) with an average increase in KSS of 1.94 when driving in the afternoon after working a morning shift compared with being off duty in the morning. This increase corresponded to differences observed between shift workers starting and ending a night shift. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task showed significantly increased response time with split shift working (afternoon: 0.337 s; split shift 0.347 s), as did the EEG-based Karolinska Drowsiness Score mean/max. Blink duration also increased, although the difference was not significant. One driver fell asleep during the drive. In addition, 12 of the 18 bus drivers reported that in their daily work they have to fight to stay awake while driving at least 2-4 times per month. While there were strong individual differences, the study clearly showed that shift working bus drivers struggle to stay awake and thus countermeasures are needed in order to guarantee safe driving with split shift schedules.

  • 16.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 114, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers.

    The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation). The hypothesis tested was that split shifts contribute to sleepiness during afternoon, which can increase the safety risks. The overall results supported this hypothesis. In total, five of the 18 drivers reached levels of severe sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ≥8) with an average increase in KSS of 1.94 when driving in the afternoon after working a morning shift compared with being off duty in the morning. This increase corresponded to differences observed between shift workers starting and ending a night shift. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task showed significantly increased response time with split shift working (afternoon: 0.337. s; split shift 0.347. s), as did the EEG-based Karolinska Drowsiness Score mean/max. Blink duration also increased, although the difference was not significant. One driver fell asleep during the drive. In addition, 12 of the 18 bus drivers reported that in their daily work they have to fight to stay awake while driving at least 2-4 times per month. While there were strong individual differences, the study clearly showed that shift-working bus drivers struggle to stay awake and thus countermeasures are needed in order to guarantee safe driving with split shift schedules.

  • 17.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Karolinska Institutet.
    The alerting effect of hitting a rumble strip: a simulator study with sleepy drivers.2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 1970-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A moving base driving simulator experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of milled rumble strips on driver fatigue. There were rumble strips both at the edge line and centre line. Four different physical designs of milled rumble strips (yielding noise values from 1.5 to 16 dBA) and two placements on shoulder were used in the experiment. Sound and vibrations from real milled rumble strips were reproduced in the simulator. In total 35 regular shift workers drove during the morning hours after a full night shift. The main results showed an increase in sleepiness indicators (EEG alpha/theta activity, eye closure duration, standard deviation of lateral position, subjective sleepiness) from start to before hitting the rumble strip, an alerting effect in most parameters (not subjective sleepiness) after hitting the strip. The alertness enhancing effect was, however, short and the sleepiness signs returned 5 min after the rumble strip hit. Essentially no effects were seen due to type of strip. It was concluded that various aspects of sleepiness are increased before hitting a rumble strip and that the effect is very short-lived. Type of strip, as used in the present study did not have any effect.

  • 18. Avineri, Erel
    et al.
    Shinar, David
    Susilo, Yusak
    University of the West of England, Bristol, UK.
    Pedestrians' behaviour in cross walks: The effects of fear of falling and age2012In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 30-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedestrians are exposed to risks when crossing roads in urban areas. The crossing behaviour of pedestrians was studied as a factor contributing to their exposure to risks on the road and to their involvement in road accidents. This work explores two specific aspects of crossing behaviour: crossing speed and head pitches the proportion of time pedestrians point their heads down (rather than towards the traffic) when crossing a road. The last one is used as an indicator of the (lack of) attention to cross-traffic. We also explored the possible effect of fear of falling (FOF) among pedestrians, as it might be associated with slow walking, less attention to cross traffic, and more attention to the pavement and their footsteps. This paper reports on a field study that combined an observatory technique with short survey. 203 pedestrians in two sites (signalised and unsignalised crosswalks) were video recorded while crossing the road. The FOF of pedestrians and other measures of pedestrian behaviour at crosswalks were revealed by means of questionnaire. Age and gender had the most significant effects on crossing speed, and FOF had a significant effect on the proportion of downward head pitches during crossing.

  • 19.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Estimation of the severity of safety critical events2012In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 50, p. 6p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, various measures are used to estimate the severity of a traffic conflict. However, these measures are all limited to estimating the crash risk and do not include any estimates of the possible consequences of a potential crash. In accident analysis the estimated severity of the event is related to the outcome of the crash, such as injury levels. This article proposes a new method for estimating the severity of safety critical events based on both an estimate of crash risk and an estimate of possible consequence that, in addition to a measure of safety margins, takes vehicle mass as well as the relative speed of the involved road users into consideration. The article compares the estimated severity of 61 conflicts and 9 accidents of the proposed method with the traffic conflict technique.

    The results from the severity estimates of our proposed method show a significant difference in the severity levels of events involving vehicles with similar mass compared to critical events involving vehicles with dissimilar mass and events involving pedestrians. The proposed method gives the possibility to compare different conflicts, with regard to severity, with each other regardless of what type of conflict it is, e.g. intersection or rural road, or what kind of road users that are involved.

    In addition, an event classification, i.e. serious or very serious event, based on the severity estimate of the proposed method, shows promising results indicating that the severities are estimated in a homogenous way. The article concludes that our proposed method of estimating the severity of critical event seems to be able to reflect the dangerousness in a more realistic way than the traffic conflict technique and should facilitate the development of traffic safety analysis methods.

  • 20.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Várhelyi, András
    Lund University, Dept Technol & Soc, Lund, Sweden.
    Development of a method for detecting jerks in safety critical events2012In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 50, p. 9p. 83-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for detecting jerks in safety critical events, based on the characteristics of the braking caused by the driver in time critical situations, has been developed and evaluated in a small pilot test and also applied on a naturalistic driving study. A portable event data recorder, capable of measuring and recording acceleration profiles for a predetermined time period before and after the safety critical situation, has also been developed to ensure high data quality used to evaluate the proposed method. Thus, an analysis of the acceleration profile is possible during the entire braking event. The study involves analyses of acceleration profiles and different characteristics of the rate of change of the acceleration profiles, i.e. jerks, such as negative jerk, used in previous studies, and a peak-to-peak value of the jerk. The finding is that the proposed method provides a more distinct difference between critical and potentially critical events and thus may be an appropriate method used to detect safety critical events.

  • 21.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Várhelyi, András
    Lund University, Dept Technol & Soc, Lund, Sweden .
    Jerky driving: an indicator of accident proneness?2011In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 5p. 1359-1363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses continuously logged driving data from 166 private cars to derive the level of jerks caused by the drivers during everyday driving. The number of critical jerks found in the data is analysed and compared with the self-reported accident involvement of the drivers. The results show that the expected number of accidents for a driver increases with the number of critical jerks caused by the driver. Jerk analyses make it possible to identify safety critical driving behaviour or “accident prone” drivers. They also facilitate the development of safety measures such as active safety systems or advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, which could be adapted for specific groups of drivers or specific risky driving behaviour.

  • 22.
    Belin, Mats-Åke
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Vedung, Evert
    Uppsala universitet.
    Cameron, Max
    Monash University,Australien.
    Tingvall, Claes
    Swedish Transport Administration.
    Speed cameras i Sweden and Victoria, Australia: a case study2010In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 2165-2170Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Belin, Matts-Åke
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Public Health Sciences and Swedish Transport Administrations.
    Tillgren, Per
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Public Health Sciences and Mälardalen University.
    Vedung, Evert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Cameron, Max
    Monash University, Accident Research Centre.
    Tingvall, Claes
    Swedish Transport Administration and Monash Universite, Accident Research Centre.
    Speed Cameras in Sweden and Victoria, Australia: A case study2010In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 2165-2170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the ideas behind two different speed camera systems in Australia, Victoria, and Sweden are explored and compared. The study shows that even if the both systems technically have the same aim – to reduce speeding – the ideas of how that should be achieved differ substantially. The approach adopted in Victoria is based on the concept that speeding is a deliberate offence in which a rational individual wants to drive as fast as possible and is prepared to calculate the costs and benefits of his behaviour. Therefore, the underlying aim of the intervention is to increase the perceived cost of committing an offence whilst at the same time decrease the perceived benefits, so that the former outweigh the latter. The Swedish approach, on the other hand, appears to be based on a belief that road safety is an important priority for the road users and one of the reasons to why road users drive too fast is lack of information and social support.

    In order to evaluate road safety interventions and how their effects are created together with the ambition to transfer technology, there is a need for a comprehensive understanding of the systems and their modi operandi in their specific contexts. This study has shown that there are major differences between the ideas behind the two speed camera programs in Victoria, Australia and Sweden and that these ideas have an impact on the actual design of the different systems and how these are intended to create road safety effects.

  • 24.
    Berggård, Glenn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Pedestrians in wintertime: effects of using anti-slip device2010In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 1199-1204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedestrians slipping and falling is a major safety problem around the world, not least in countries with long winters such as Sweden. About 25 000–30 000 people need medical care every year for treatment of fall injuries in Sweden. Use of appropriate shoes and anti-slip devices are examples of individual measures that have been suggested to prevent slipping and falling.An intervention study was performed during the period February to April 2008. The study, which focused on healthy adults in northern Sweden, examined the effect of using anti-slip devices on daily walking journeys and prevention of slip and falls.The respondents were divided into three groups: an Intervention Group, a Control Group, with similar distribution of gender and age, and a Comparison Group. Four questionnaires were distributed: (1) background, (2) daily diary of distance walked and occurrence of incidents or accidents reported weekly, (3) detailed incident or fall report and (4) experiences of using anti-slip devices for those who used these devices during the trial period.Half of the respondents stated that they had previous experience of using anti-slip devices. In this study, 52% of the respondents used anti-slip devices. Anti-slip devices improve the walking capability during wintertime. Among those using appropriate anti-slip devices, the average daily walking distance was found to be statistically significantly longer compared to people not using anti-slip devices. This study indicates that an increase in daily walking distance can be made without increasing the risk of slips/falls when using anti-slip devices. The study also indicates that by using appropriate anti-slip devices and having information about when and where to use them, based on their design, people avoid having slips and falls. The respondents experienced in using anti-slip devices in this study will continue to use them and will also recommend others to use anti-slip devises.

  • 25.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Driver irritation and aggressive behaviour2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 1069-1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sample of 98 drivers responded to a Swedish version of the UK Driving Anger Scale [UK DAS; [Lajunen, T., Parker, D., Stradling, S.G., 1998. Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers. Transport. Res. Part F 1, 107-121]. The results indicated that the Swedish version, like the British original, measures three sources of driver irritation: "progress impeded", "reckless driving", and "direct hostility". Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relationships between the three sources of self-reported driver irritation, aggressive actions, speed, sex, age, and annual mileage. The models suggested a positive relationship between the amount of driver irritation and frequency of aggressive actions for all three sources of irritation. Female drivers tended to become more irritated than male drivers, while the male drivers tended to act aggressively more often. Surprisingly, drivers who reported that they enjoy fast speeds did not become more irritated than slower drivers when obstructed. The important conclusions are that experienced irritation often leads to openly aggressively actions, and that expression of aggressive behaviours may be a cause of other drivers' feeling of irritation. 

  • 26.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Dalarna University.
    Driver irritation and aggressive behaviour2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 1069-1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sample of 98 drivers responded to a Swedish version of the UK Driving Anger Scale [UK DAS; [Lajunen, T., Parker, D., Stradling, S.G., 1998. Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers. Transport. Res. Part F 1, 107–121]. The results indicated that the Swedish version, like the British original, measures three sources of driver irritation: “progress impeded”, “reckless driving”, and “direct hostility”. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relationships between the three sources of self-reported driver irritation, aggressive actions, speed, sex, age, and annual mileage. The models suggested a positive relationship between the amount of driver irritation and frequency of aggressive actions for all three sources of irritation. Female drivers tended to become more irritated than male drivers, while the male drivers tended to act aggressively more often. Surprisingly, drivers who reported that they enjoy fast speeds did not become more irritated than slower drivers when obstructed. The important conclusions are that experienced irritation often leads to openly aggressively actions, and that expression of aggressive behaviours may be a cause of other drivers’ feeling of irritation.

  • 27.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Björnstig, Johanna
    The Emergency and Disaster Medical Center, University Hospital, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine. Rättsmedicin.
    Passenger car collision fatalities - with special emphasis on collisions with heavy vehicles2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 158-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1995 and 2004, 293 passenger car occupants died in collisions with other vehicles in northern Sweden (annual incidence: 3.3 per 100,000 inhabitants, 6.9 per 100,000 cars, or 4.8 per 109 km driven); half of these deaths involved heavy vehicles. The annual number of passenger car occupant death per 100,000 cars in var-truck/bus collisions has remained unchanged since the 1980s, , but in car-car collisions it has decreased to one third of its former level. As crash objects, trucks and buses killed five times as many car occupants per truck/bus kilometer driven as did cars.

    The collisions were characterized by crashes in the oncoming vehicle´s lane, under icy, snowy, or wet conditions; crashes into heavy vehicles generally occurred in daylight, on workdays, in winter, and on 90 and 70 km/h two-lane roads. Head and chest injuries accouted for most of the fatal injuries. multiple fatal injuries and critical and deadly head injuries characterized the deaths in collisions with heavy vehicles.

    An indication of suicide was present in 4% of the deaths; for thos who crashed into trucks, this percentage was doubled. Among the driver victims, 4% had blood alcohol levels above the legal limit of 0.2 g/L.

    Frontal collision risks might be reduced by a mid-barrier, by building less injurious fronts on trucks and buses, by efficient skid prevention, and by use of flexible speed limits varying with road and light conditions.

  • 28.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    The effect of stricter licensing on road traffic injury events involving 15 to 17-year-old moped drivers in Sweden: a time series intervention study2015In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 83, p. 154-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to evaluate and quantify the effect of the introduction of the AM driving license on non-fatal moped-related injuries in Sweden. With the introduction of the new license category in October 2009, prospective moped drivers are now required to pass a mandatory theory test following a practical and theoretical course. In addition, obtaining a license to operate a moped is now considerably more costly.

    METHODS:Time series intervention analysis on monthly aggregated injury data (1st Jan 2007-31st Dec 2013) was performed using generalized additive models for location, shape and scale (GAMLSS) to quantify the effect size on injury events involving teenage (15-17 years) moped drivers, while controlling for trend and seasonality. Exposure was adjusted for by using the number of registered mopeds in traffic as a proxy.

    RESULTS:The introduction of AM license was associated with a 41% reduction in the rate of injury events involving 15-year-old moped drivers (IRR 0.59 [95% CI: 0.48-0.72]), and a 39% and 36% decrease in those involving 16-year-old (IRR 0.61 [95% CI: 0.48-0.79]) and 17-year-old drivers (IRR 0.64 [95% CI: 0.46-0.90]), respectively. The effect in the 15-year-old stratum was decreased roughly by half after adjusting for exposure, but remained significant, and the corresponding estimates in the other age groups did not change noticeably.

    CONCLUSIONS:This study provides quasi-experimental evidence of an effect on non-fatal moped-related injuries as a result of stricter licensing rules. Only part of the effect could be explained by a reduction in the number of mopeds in traffic, indicating that other mechanisms must be studied to fully understand the cause of the reduction in injuries.

  • 29.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Does gender moderate the association between intellectual ability and accidental injuries?: Evidence from the 1953 Stockholm Birth Cohort study2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 106, p. 109-114Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Bruce, C. R.
    et al.
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Unsworth, C. A.
    La Trobe University, Australia; CQUniversity, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden; Curtin University, Australia.
    Dillon, M. P.
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Tay, R.
    RMIT University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    Bird, P.
    Gosforth Clin, Australia.
    Carey, L. M.
    La Trobe University, Australia; Florey Institute Neurosci and Mental Health Neurorehabil and, Australia.
    Hazard perception skills of young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be improved with computer based driver training: An exploratory randomised controlled trial2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 109, p. 70-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of road traffic injuries than their peers. Increased risk correlates with poor hazard perception skill. Few studies have investigated hazard perception training using computer technology with this group of drivers. Objectives: *Determine the presence and magnitude of the between-group.and within- subject change in hazard perception skills in young drivers with ADHD who receive Drive Smart training. *Determine whether training facilitated change in hazard perception is maintained over time. Methods: This was a feasibility study, randomised control trial conducted in Australia. The design included a delayed treatment for the control group. Twenty-five drivers with a diagnosis of ADHD were randomised to the Immediate Intervention or Delayed Intervention group.The Immediate Intervention group received a training session using a computer application entitled Drive Smart. The Delayed Intervention group watched a documentary video initially (control condition), followed by the Drive Smart computer training session. The participants hazard perception skill was measured using the Hazard Perception Test (HPT). Findings: After adjusting for baseline scores, there was a significant betweengroup difference in post-intervention HPT change scores in favour of the Immediate Intervention group. The magnitude of the effect was large. There was no significant within-group delayed intervention effect. A significant maintenance effect was found at 6 week follow-up for the Immediate Intervention group. Conclusions: The hazard perception skills of participants improved following training with large effect size and some maintenance of gain. A multimodal approach to training is indicated to facilitate maintenance. A full-scale trial is feasible.

  • 31.
    Bruce, C. R.
    et al.
    Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Unsworth, Carolyn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Dillon, M. P.
    Prosthetics and Orthotics, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Tay, R.
    School of Business IT & Logistcs, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Bird, P.
    The Gosforth Clinic, Maroochydore QLD, Australia.
    Carey, L. M.
    Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Hazard perception skills of young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be improved with computer based driver training: An exploratory randomised controlled trial2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 109, p. 70-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of road traffic injuries than their peers. Increased risk correlates with poor hazard perception skill. Few studies have investigated hazard perception training using computer technology with this group of drivers.

    Objectives

    *Determine the presence and magnitude of the between-group and within- subject change in hazard perception skills in young drivers with ADHD who receive Drive Smart training. *Determine whether training-facilitated change in hazard perception is maintained over time.

    Methods

    This was a feasibility study, randomised control trial conducted in Australia. The design included a delayed treatment for the control group. Twenty-five drivers with a diagnosis of ADHD were randomised to the Immediate Intervention or Delayed Intervention group.The Immediate Intervention group received a training session using a computer application entitled Drive Smart. The Delayed Intervention group watched a documentary video initially (control condition), followed by the Drive Smart computer training session. The participant’s hazard perception skill was measured using the Hazard Perception Test (HPT).

    Findings

    After adjusting for baseline scores, there was a significant betweengroup difference in post-intervention HPT change scores in favour of the Immediate Intervention group. The magnitude of the effect was large. There was no significant within-group delayed intervention effect. A significant maintenance effect was found at 6-week follow-up for the Immediate Intervention group.

    Conclusions

    The hazard perception skills of participants improved following training with large effect size and some maintenance of gain. A multimodal approach to training is indicated to facilitate maintenance. A full-scale trial is feasible.

  • 32.
    Brüde, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Elvik, Rune
    Ålborg Universitet.
    The turning point in the number of traffic fatalities: Two hypotheses about changes in underlying trends2015In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 74, p. 60-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of traffic fatalities reached a peak in many highly motorised countries around 1970. Some previous studies have suggested that the turning point in the number of traffic fatalities was inevitable and did not reflect a change in the underlying trends influencing the number of traffic fatalities. Other studies suggest that trends in traffic growth and fatality rate changed from before to after the turning point. This paper proposes two hypotheses about the turning point in the number of traffic fatalities. One hypothesis is that the long-term trends in traffic growth and fatality rate were the same before and after the turning point. The other hypothesis is that the long-term trends in traffic growth and fatality rate were different before and after the turning point was reached, in particular that the annual percentage decline in fatality rate became greater after the turning point than before. Such a change would suggest that road safety policy became more effective. Analysis of data for six countries (Denmark, Great Britain, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United States) lends stronger support to the latter hypothesis than to the former. The lesson for policy makers, in particular in countries where the number of traffic fatalities is still growing, is that they should not expect a turning point to be reached without policy interventions.

  • 33.
    Carsten, Oliver
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jamson, Samantha
    University of Leeds.
    Vehicle-based studies of driving in the real world: The hard truth?2013In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 58, p. 162-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-world studies of driving behaviour and safety have face validity and have the distinct advantage of focussing on driving in its natural habitat. But their very naturalism can lead to problems with confounds and with noise in the data. This paper reviews the three major categories of on-road studies — controlled observation, field operational tests and naturalistic driving studies — and discusses the major applications of each study type. It also assesses some of the methodological issues that arise in one or more category of study.

  • 34. Clifton, Kelly
    et al.
    Kreamer Fults, Kandice
    National Center for Smart Growth Research and Education, University of Maryland.
    An examination of the environmental attributes associated with pedestrian-vehicular crashes near public schools2007In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 708-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines pedestrian-vehicular crashes in the vicinity of public schools, the severity of injuries sustained, and their relationship to the physical and social attributes near the schools. Multivariate models of crash severity and crash risk exposure were estimated as a function of social and physical characteristics of the area immediately surrounding schools in Baltimore City, Maryland. Results show that the presence of a driveway or turning bay on the school entrance decreases both crash occurrence and injury severity. Conversely, the presence of recreational facilities on the school site is positively associated with crash occurrence and injury severity of crashes. Findings related to neighborhood characteristics were mixed but the significant variables - transit access, commercial access, and population density - are generally associated with increased pedestrian demand and should be interpreted with care. The results of this study are relevant for Safe Routes to School projects and point to areas meriting further study.

  • 35. Dawson, Drew
    et al.
    Ian Noy, Y.
    Härmä, Mikko
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Belenky, Gregory
    Modelling fatigue and the use of fatigue models in work settings2011In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 549-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, theoretical models of the sleep and circadian system developed in laboratory settings have been adapted to predict fatigue and, by inference, performance. This is typically done using the timing of prior sleep and waking or working hours as the primary input and the time course of the predicted variables as the primary output. The aim of these models is to provide employers, unions and regulators with quantitative information on the likely average level of fatigue, or risk, associated with a given pattern of work and sleep with the goal of better managing the risk of fatigue-related errors and accidents/incidents. The first part of this review summarises the variables known to influence workplace fatigue and draws attention to the considerable variability attributable to individual and task variables not included in current models. The second part reviews the current fatigue models described in the scientific and technical literature and classifies them according to whether they predict fatigue directly by using the timing of prior sleep and wake (one-step models) or indirectly by using work schedules to infer an average sleep-wake pattern that is then used to predict fatigue (two-step models). The third part of the review looks at the current use of fatigue models in field settings by organizations and regulators. Given their limitations it is suggested that the current generation of models may be appropriate for use as one element in a fatigue risk management system. The final section of the review looks at the future of these models and recommends a standardised approach for their use as an element of the 'defenses-in-depth' approach to fatigue risk management.

  • 36. Di Milia, Lee
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    The distribution of sleepiness, sleep and work hours during a long distance morning trip: A comparison between night- and non-night workers2013In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 53, p. 17-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined the extent of driver sleepiness during a long distance morning trip. Sleepiness at this time may be high because of night work, waking early to commence work or travel, sleep disorders and the monotony of driving long distances. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness score ≥10) and sleep restriction (≤5h) in a sample of 649 drivers. Participants driving between 08:00 and 10:00 on three highways in regional Australia participated in a telephone interview. Approximately 18% of drivers reported chronic sleepiness. The proportions of night workers (NW) and non-night workers (NNW) with chronic sleepiness were not significantly different but males reported a significantly greater proportion of chronic sleepiness than females. The NW group had a significantly greater proportion of drivers with ≤5h of sleep in the previous 24 and 48h, fewer nights of full sleep (≤4), acute sleepiness and longer weekly work hours. The NW group reported driving a significantly longer distance at Time 1 (Mean=140.29±72.17km, versus 117.55±89.74km) and an additional longer distance to complete the journey (Mean=89.33±95.23km, versus 64.77±94.07km). The high proportions of sleep restriction and acute sleepiness among the NW group, and the amount of chronic sleepiness in the NW and NNW groups reported during a long distance morning trip may be of concern for driver safety.

  • 37.
    Dixit, Vinayak V.
    et al.
    School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Harrison, Glenn. W.
    Department of Risk Management and Insurance, Robinson College of Business, Georgia State University, United States.
    Rutström, Elisabet
    Dean’s Behavioral Economics Lab, Robinson College of Business and Department of Economics, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University, USA.
    Estimating the subjective risks of driving simulator accidents2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 62, p. 63-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the subjective risks of driving behavior using a controlled virtual reality experiment. Use of a driving simulator allows us to observe choices over risky alternatives that are presented to the individual in a naturalistic manner, with many of the cues one would find in the field. However, the use of a simulator allows us the type of controls one expects from a laboratory environment. The subject was tasked with making a left-hand turn into incoming traffic, and the experimenter controlled the headways of oncoming traffic. Subjects were rewarded for making a successful turn, and lost income if they crashed. The experimental design provided opportunities for subjects to develop subjective beliefs about when it would be safe to turn, and it also elicited their attitudes towards risk. A simple structural model explains behavior, and showed evidence of heterogeneity in both the subjective beliefs that subjects formed and their risk attitudes. We find that subjective beliefs change with experience in the task and the driver's skill. A significant difference was observed in the perceived probability to successfully turn among the inexperienced drivers who did and did not crash even though there was no significant difference in drivers' risk attitudes among the two groups. We use experimental economics to design controlled, incentive compatible tasks that provide an opportunity to evaluate the impact on driver safety of subject's subjective beliefs about when it would be safe to turn as well as their attitudes towards risk. This method could be used to help insurance companies determine risk premia associated with risk attitudes or beliefs of crashing, to better incentivize safe driving.

  • 38. Dobbertin, Konrad M.
    et al.
    Freeman, Michael D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Lambert, William E.
    Lasarev, Michael R.
    Kohles, Sean S.
    The relationship between vehicle roof crush and head, neck and spine injury in rollover crashes2013In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 58, p. 46-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is well established that rollover crashes are associated with a higher risk of serious injury and death than other types of crashes. Some of the most serious injuries that can result from a rollover crash are those to the head, neck and spine. The mechanism of injury to these body parts in a rollover is a matter of dispute in the literature. Some authors have concluded that the magnitude of vehicle roof deformation or vertical roof crush resulting from a rollover crash is not causally associated with head and neck injury severity, while others offer support for a causal association between roof crush and the degree of injury. A better understanding of the cause of serious injuries resulting from rollover crashes is important for improving injury prevention. Methods: This study utilized data from the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the years 1997 through 2007. Both cross-sectional and matched case-control designs along with a new composite injury metric termed the Head, Neck and Spine New Injury Severity Score (HNS-NISS) were used to analyze these data. Results: The cross-sectional analysis demonstrated a 64% (95% CI: 26-114%) increase in the odds of a life-threatening injury as estimated by the HNS-NISS with every 10 cm of increased roof crush. The results of the matched case-control analysis demonstrated a 44% (95% CI: 8-91%) increase in the odds of sustaining any injury to the head, neck or spine with every 10 cm increase in roof crush. Conclusion:These results lend statistical support to a causal association between roof crush and head, neck and spine injury severity. Though they do not constitute definitive proof, they do contradict previously published theories suggesting that roof deformation is unrelated to such injuries. 

  • 39.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Broberg, Thomas
    Volvo Cars .
    Safe mobility for elderly drivers: Considerations based on expert and self-assessment2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 66, p. 104-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To further understand the needs of the growing population of elderly drivers and create solutions for safe mobility it is important to understand the driving scenarios and aspects in day to day traffic that may be of challenge for this group. More so, individual differences in how drivers perceive their own driving ability may have an effect on how individuals limit their mobility and/or increase their exposure to risk situations, with a potential negative effect on safety.

    In this study two sets of assessments have been used in order to identify scenarios and aspects needing consideration in creating safe mobility for elderly drivers; an expert assessment using on-road driving together with assessments through semi structured in-depth interviews. This combination also enables categorisation of the drivers, comparing their own perception of their driving performance with the expert assessment based on actual on-road driving.

    Four different categories of drivers were identified: adequate (positive), over, under and adequate (negative) estimators. A number of important aspects were identified in the study. Adapting speed to the situation and driving too fast, especially on straight roads in the city, is one aspect. Seeking the attention of other road users at intersections and roundabouts is another important consideration identified. Awareness of difficulties related to speed adaptation and attention was low amongst all the driver categories. However, a difference in attitude was seen in the categories with a more humble and acceptant attitude amongst the adequate and under estimator groups, as compared to the over estimators suggesting that the aspect of attitudes is another important factor for consideration.

  • 40.
    Elvik, Rune
    et al.
    Institute of Transport Economics.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Hels, Tove
    Rigspolitiet, Denmark.
    van Schagen, Ingrid
    SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, Netherlands.
    Updated estimates of the relationship between speed and road safety at the aggregate and individual levels2019In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 123, p. 114-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies of the relationship between the speed of traffic and road safety, stated as the number of fatalities and the number of injury accidents, are reviewed and their results synthesised by means of meta-analysis. All studies were based on data fully or partly for years after 2000. Previously proposed models of the relationship between the speed of traffic and road safety, including the Power Model and an Exponential Model, are supported. Summary estimates of coefficients show that the relationship between speed and road safety remains strong. The Power Model and the Exponential Model both fit the data very well. The relationship between speed and road safety is the same at the individual driver level as at the aggregate level referring to the mean speed of traffic.

  • 41.
    Engström, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. The National Society for Road Safety, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nyberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Young drivers: Reduced crash risk with passengers in the vehicle2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 341-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that the effect of passengers on accident propensity among young drivers is ambiguous—in some cases positive and some negative. In Sweden, various kinds of information are compiled in registers, including a national accident database and exposure data collected in a national investigation of the driving habits of license holders. Access to such data offers a good opportunity to study crash risks related to driving with and without passengers. This was done for drivers in three different age groups (18–24, 25–64 and >65 years) accompanied by one, two or three or more passengers. Differences in crash risk were estimated using incidence density ratios (IDRs) and 95% confidence intervals. The results show that passengers had an overall protective effect, that is, the crash risk was higher for those who drove alone, regardless of their age or gender. This protective effect increased with every extra passenger (up to eight), indicating that the more passengers in the vehicle, the safer the driving. The influence of passengers was weakest (albeit still positive) among the youngest drivers (ages 18–24 years), especially the males in that group. The protective impact showed the same pattern on all days of the week, but was most marked from Friday to Sunday for most of the drivers, regardless of age.

  • 42.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    The protective effect of a helmet in three bicycle accidents: A finite element study2016In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 91, p. 135-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is some controversy regarding the effectiveness of helmets in preventing head injuries among cyclists. Epidemiological, experimental and computer simulation studies have suggested that helmets do indeed have a protective effect, whereas other studies based on epidemiological data have argued that there is no evidence that the helmet protects the brain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a helmet in single bicycle accident reconstructions using detailed finite element simulations. Strain in the brain tissue, which is associated with brain injuries, was reduced by up to 43% for the accident cases studied when a helmet was included. This resulted in a reduction of the risk of concussion of up to 54%. The stress to the skull bone went from fracture level of 80 MPa down to 13-16 MPa when a helmet was included and the skull fracture risk was reduced by up to 98% based on linear acceleration. Even with a 10% increased riding velocity for the helmeted impacts, to take into account possible increased risk taking, the risk of concussion was still reduced by up to 46% when compared with the unhelmeted impacts with original velocity. The results of this study show that the brain injury risk and risk of skull fracture could have been reduced in these three cases if a helmet had been worn.

  • 43.
    Falk, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Do drivers become less risk-prone after answering a questionnaire on risky driving behaviour?2010In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 235-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies showed that answering a questionnaire regarding self-reported risky driving behaviour and attitudes led to a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in self-reported risky driving behaviour at a follow-up some five weeks after answering the first questionnaire. In Study I participants (193 men, 18-20 years old) also reported more concern about hurting others, increased subjective probability of accidents, but less thinking about injuries at follow-up. In Study 2 (149 men, 18-19 years old) effects on attitudes at follow-up were not tested. The results are discussed in terms of the question-behaviour effect, that is, questioning a person about a certain behaviour can influence his future performance of that behaviour. Assuming that most young male drivers essentially disapprove of traffic violations, it is argued that answering the questionnaire served as an intervention that made attitudes more accessible and led to a polarization towards stronger disapproval of traffic violations, which in turn influenced reported risky driving behaviour. The need to develop alternative instruments for evaluating effects of experimental traffic safety interventions is also discussed.

  • 44.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Perceived Risk Among Parents Concerning the Travel Situation for Children with Disabilities2002In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 34, p. 553-562Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Gregersen, NP
    Perceived Risk among Parents Concerning the Travel Situation for Children with Disabilities2002In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 149-158Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Farah, Haneen
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa.
    Bekhor, Shlomo
    Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa.
    Polus, Abishai
    Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa.
    Risk Evaluation by Modeling of Passing Behavior on Two-Lane Rural Highways2009In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 887-894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passing maneuver on rural two-lane highways is a complex task, which has a significant effect on capacity, level of service and safety. The maneuver is conditioned on the gap between two successive vehicles on the opposing lane. The minimum time to collision, defined as the remaining gap between the passing vehicle and the oncoming vehicle at the end of the passing process, expresses a measure of the risk involved in the passing maneuver.

    This paper develops a model that explains the minimum time to collision. The model formulation is based on the analysis of drivers' passing decisions on two-lane rural highways using an interactive driving simulator. The simulator enables the collection of vehicle speeds and positions for different road and traffic scenarios. In addition to the driver simulator, participants responded to a questionnaire which collected information about their socio-demographic characteristics.

    The composed dataset was analyzed and processed to develop a model that predicts the risk associated with the passing behavior. Tobit regression models were found to be more suitable, in comparison to ordinary least square models and Hazard-based Duration models. The explanatory variables tested represent road geometry, traffic conditions and drivers' characteristics. It was found that while the traffic related variables had the most important effect on the measure of risk chosen, factors related to the geometric design and the driver characteristics also had a significant contribution.

  • 47.
    Flannagan, Carol. A. C.
    et al.
    University of Michigan.
    Bálint, András
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Klinich, Kathleen. D.
    University of Michigan.
    Sander, Ulrich
    Autoliv Research.
    Manary, Miriam A.
    University of Michigan.
    Cuny, Sophie
    Centre Européen d’Etudes de Sécurité et d’Analyse des Risques.
    McCarthy, Michael
    TRL (Transport Research Laboratory).
    Phan, Vuthy
    Centre Européen d’Etudes de Sécurité et d’Analyse des Risques.
    Wallbank, Caroline
    TRL (Transport Research Laboratory).
    Green, Pauk E.
    University of Michigan.
    Sui, Bo
    Autoliv Research.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Fagerlind, Helen
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Comparing motor-vehicle crash risk of EU and US vehicles2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the hypotheses that passenger vehicles meeting European Union (EU) safety standards have similar crashworthiness to United States (US) -regulated vehicles in the US driving environment, and vice versa. The first step involved identifying appropriate databases of US and EU crashes that include in-depth crash information, such as estimation of crash severity using Delta-V and injury outcome based on medical records. The next step was to harmonize variable definitions and sampling criteria so that the EU data could be combined and compared to the US data using the same or equivalent parameters. Logistic regression models of the risk of a Maximum injury according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale of 3 or greater, or fatality (MAIS3+F) in EU-regulated and US-regulated vehicles were constructed. The injury risk predictions of the EU model and the US model were each applied to both the US and EU standard crash populations. Frontal, near-side, and far-side crashes were analyzed together (termed "front/side crashes") and a separate model was developed for rollover crashes.

    For the front/side model applied to the US standard population, the mean estimated risk for the US-vehicle model is 0.035 (sd = 0.012), and the mean estimated risk for the EU-vehicle model is 0.023 (sd = 0.016). When applied to the EU front/side population, the US model predicted a 0.065 risk (sd = 0.027), and the EU model predicted a 0.052 risk (sd = 0.025). For the rollover model applied to the US standard population, the US model predicted a risk of 0.071 (sd = 0.024), and the EU model predicted 0.128 risk (sd = 0.057). When applied to the EU rollover standard population, the US model predicted a 0.067 risk (sd = 0.024), and the EU model predicted 0.103 risk (sd = 0.040).

    The results based on these methods indicate that EU vehicles most likely have a lower risk of MAIS3+F injury in front/side impacts, while US vehicles most likely have a lower risk of MAIS3+F injury in llroovers. These results should be interpreted with an understanding of the uncertainty of the estimates, the study limitations, and our recommendations for further study detailed in the report.

  • 48.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Wallhagen, Susanne
    NTF.
    Drink drivers’ views of a voluntary alcohol interlock programme for drink driving offenders in Sweden2019In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 124, p. 210-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A permanent alcohol interlock programme was introduced in Sweden in 2012. The programme is voluntary and allows drink driving offenders to keep their driving licenses if they install alcohol interlocks in their vehicles. The duration of the programme is one or two years, depending on the severity of the drink driving offence. This study aims to improve our knowledge of drink drivers’ views of the programme, among both participants and those who chose not to participate. These views were collected through paper questionnaires mailed to the drink drivers’ residences. Of 1550 questionnaires mailed to participants and 1492 to non-participants, 689 and 408 were completed, for response rates of 45% among participants and 28% among non-participants. For participants who were employed or had their own business (n = 513), the main reasons for choosing the alcohol interlock were the need to operate a vehicle at work (69.6%, 95% CI: 65.6–73.6%) and to get to/from work (69.4%, 95% CI: 65.4–73.4%). For those not working (n = 153), the main reasons for participating were that the driving license was required to have a social life and meaningful leisure time (79.7%, 95% CI: 73.3–86.2%) and for shopping (65.4%, 95% CI: 57.7–73.0%). For non-participants, the main reasons for not applying were programme costs (64.4%, 95% CI: 59.5–69.3%), being afraid of being considered alcoholics (37.1%, 95% CI: 32.2–42.1%), and doing well without a license (26.5%, 95% CI: 22.0–31.0%). The results also indicate improved health after the drink driving offence. The largest improvement was found in participants in the two-year programme, in which the proportion of respondents who felt good or very good increased by 39.4% (95% CI: 34.2–44.5%) compared to before the drink driving offence.

  • 49.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Lundborg, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Pedestrians on slippery surfaces during winter: methods to describe the problems and practical tests of anti-skid devices2000In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 455-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year there are thousands of pedestrians in Sweden who are injured because of slippery pavements and roadways. Using an appropriate anti-skid device may reduce the risk of slips and falls on ice and snow. Methods to describe functional problems in walking on different slippery surfaces during winter have been developed as rating scales for evaluating walking safety and walking balance and an observation method to observe posture and movements during walking. Practical tests of all 25 anti-skid devices on the market in Sweden were carried out on different slippery surfaces; gravel, sand, salt, snow and ice. The anti-skid devices were described according to the subjects' perception of walking safety, walking balance and priority for own use. The postures and movements during walking were analysed by an expert physical therapist. The wholefoot device 'studs' was perceived as the best according to walking safety and walking balance and had the highest priority for own use.

  • 50.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Lundborg, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Test of Swedish anti-skid devices on five different slippery surfaces2001In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AB - The interest for effective preventive strategies for slips and falls is growing. Much remains to be done, however, to prevent slips and falls in the traffic environment. Some pedestrians are injured because of slippery pavements and roadways. Using an appropriate anti-skid device may reduce the risk of slips and falls on different surfaces outdoors during winter. The aim of this study was to evaluate new anti-skid devices on the Swedish market representing three different designs of anti-skid devices; heel device, fore-foot device and whole-foot device on different slippery surfaces, gravel, sand, salt, snow and ice. The evaluations were done according to subject's perceived walking safety and balance, videorecordings of walking postures and movements, time to take on and off each anti-skid device, advantages/disadvantages with each anti-skid device and a list of priority for own use according to three criteria; safety, balance and appearance. Practical tests were carried out on different slippery surfaces, gravel, sand, salt, snow and ice. The subject's were randomly selected from the registered population over 55 years in a city in northern Sweden. The results showed that eight or more of the ten subjects perceived all four anti-skid devices as fairly good or good regarding walking safety and balance when walking on gravel, sand, and salt. Anti-skid device 3, a whole-foot device was perceived as having none or bad walking safety and balance on snow by seven subjects and anti-skid device 4, a heel device, as having none or bad walking balance on ice by all ten subjects. Eight subjects walked with a normal muscle function in the hip and knee with all anti-skid devices on all surfaces. Small deviations in walking posture and movements were noted in one to two subjects when walking on different surfaces, but no systematic difference between the devices. Anti-skid device 1 'Rewa', a fixed heel device, was perceived as the most rapid one to take on. All four devices were perceived as easy to use and as giving good foothold. Anti-skid device 1 'Rewa' and 4 'Thulin-spike', both heel devices, had the highest priority according to walking safety. 'Rewa' also had the highest priority according to walking balance as well as own use. When combining the criterias 'Rewa' had the highest priority according to walking safety and balance, priority for own use, time to take on and easiness to use.

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