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  • 1.
    Abbas, Haider
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Magnusson, Christer
    Department of Computer and System Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Yngström, Louise
    Department of Computer and System Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hemani, Ahmed
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Addressing Dynamic Issues in Information Security Management2011Ingår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 19, nr 1, 5-24 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The paper addresses three main problems resulting from uncertainty in information securitymanagement: i) dynamically changing security requirements of an organization ii) externalities caused by a securitysystem and iii) obsolete evaluation of security concerns.

    Design/methodology/approach – In order to address these critical concerns, a framework based on optionsreasoning borrowed from corporate finance is proposed and adapted to evaluation of security architecture anddecision-making for handling these issues at organizational level. The adaptation as a methodology is demonstrated by a large case study validating its efficacy.

    Findings – The paper shows through three examples that it is possible to have a coherent methodology, buildingon options theory to deal with uncertainty issues in information security at an organizational level.

    Practical implications – To validate the efficacy of the methodology proposed in this paper, it was applied tothe SHS (Spridnings- och Hämtningssystem: Dissemination and Retrieval System) system. The paper introduces themethodology, presents its application to the SHS system in detail and compares it to the current practice.

    Originality/value – This research is relevant to information security management in organizations, particularlyissues on changing requirements and evaluation in uncertain circumstances created by progress in technology.

  • 2.
    Abbas, Haider
    et al.
    KTH, School of ICT, Electronic Systems.
    Magnusson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Yngström, Louise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hemani, Ahmed
    ICT/Materialfysik.
    Addressing Dynamic Issues in Information Security Management2011Ingår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 19, nr 1, 5-24 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett ramverk för behandling av osäkerhet inom ledningssystem för informationssäkerhet presenteras. Ramverket baseras på teorier från corporate finance. En fallstudie visar hur ramverket kan appliceras.

  • 3.
    Harnesk, Dan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Shaping security behavior through discipline and agility: Implications for information security management2011Ingår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, E-ISSN 1758-5805, Vol. 19, nr 4, 262-276 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to broaden the understanding about security behaviour bydeveloping a security behavior typology based on the concepts of discipline and agility.Design/methodology/approach: A case study was designed to analyze security behaviours in onepublic nursing centre. The inquiry was organized around the themes discipline and agility, culture,and security processes in order to get an in-depth understanding of the complex relationship betweensecurity management, referred to as discipline, and security in use, referred to as agility.Findings: The paper shows that security behaviour can be shaped by discipline and agility and thatboth can exist collectively if organizations consider the constitutional and existential aspects ofinformation security management.Practical implications: This research makes a pivotal stand for the issue how security behavioursnarrate a broad picture to enhance information security management. In particular, this will improvedesign of information security training and awareness programs.Originality/value: This research is relevant to information security management in organizations,particularly as behavioural and cultural aspects are becoming increasingly significant for maintainingand also designing systemic information security management.

  • 4.
    Hedström, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Social action theory for understanding information security non-compliance in hospitals: the importance of user rationale2013Ingår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, E-ISSN 1758-5805, Vol. 21, nr 4, 266-287 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Employees' compliance with information security policies is considered an essential component of information security management. The research aims to illustrate the usefulness of social action theory (SAT) for management of information security.

    Design/methodology/approach – This research was carried out as a longitudinal case study at a Swedish hospital. Data were collected using a combination of interviews, information security documents, and observations. Data were analysed using a combination of a value-based compliance model and the taxonomy laid out in SAT to determine user rationality.

    Findings – The paper argues that management of information security and design of countermeasures should be based on an understanding of users' rationale covering both intentional and unintentional non-compliance. The findings are presented in propositions with practical and theoretical implications: P1. Employees' non-compliance is predominantly based on means-end calculations and based on a practical rationality, P2. An information security investigation of employees' rationality should not be based on an a priori assumption about user intent, P3. Information security management and choice of countermeasures should be based on an understanding of the use rationale, and P4. Countermeasures should target intentional as well as unintentional non-compliance.

    Originality/value – This work is an extension of Hedström et al. arguing for the importance of addressing user rationale for successful management of information security. The presented propositions can form a basis for information security management, making the objectives underlying the study presented in Hedström et al. more clear

  • 5.
    Hedström, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Social action theory for understanding information security non-compliance in hospitals: The importance of user rationale2013Ingår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 21, nr 4, 266-287 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Employees' compliance with information security policies is considered an essential component of information security management. The research aims to illustrate the usefulness of social action theory (SAT) for management of information security.

    Design/methodology/approach – This research was carried out as a longitudinal case study at a Swedish hospital. Data were collected using a combination of interviews, information security documents, and observations. Data were analysed using a combination of a value-based compliance model and the taxonomy laid out in SAT to determine user rationality.

    Findings – The paper argues that management of information security and design of countermeasures should be based on an understanding of users' rationale covering both intentional and unintentional non-compliance. The findings are presented in propositions with practical and theoretical implications: P1. Employees' non-compliance is predominantly based on means-end calculations and based on a practical rationality, P2. An information security investigation of employees' rationality should not be based on an a priori assumption about user intent, P3. Information security management and choice of countermeasures should be based on an understanding of the use rationale, and P4. Countermeasures should target intentional as well as unintentional non-compliance.

    Originality/value – This work is an extension of Hedström et al. arguing for the importance of addressing user rationale for successful management of information security. The presented propositions can form a basis for information security management, making the objectives underlying the study presented in Hedström et al. more clear

  • 6.
    Holm, Hannes
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Estimates on the effectiveness of web application firewalls against targeted attacks2013Ingår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 21, nr 4, 250-265 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to estimate the effectiveness of web application firewalls (WAFs) at preventing injection attacks by professional penetration testers given presence or absence of four conditions: whether there is an experienced operator monitoring the WAF; whether an automated black box tool has been used when tuning the WAF; whether the individual tuning the WAF is an experienced professional; and whether significant effort has been spent tuning the WAF.

    Design/methodology/approach – Estimates on the effectiveness of WAFs are made for 16 operational scenarios utilizing judgments by 49 domain experts participating in a web survey. The judgments of these experts are pooled using Cooke's classical method.

    Findings – The results show that the median prevention rate of a WAF is 80 percent if all measures have been employed. If no measure is employed then its median prevention rate is 25 percent. Also, there are no strong dependencies between any of the studied measures.

    Research limitations/implications – The results are only valid for the attacker profile of a professional penetration tester who prepares one week for attacking a WA protected by a WAF.

    Practical implications – The competence of the individual(s) tuning a WAF, employment of an automated black box tool for tuning and the manual effort spent on tuning are of great importance for the effectiveness of a WAF. The presence of an operator monitoring it has minor positive influence on its effectiveness.

    Originality/value – WA vulnerabilities are widely considered a serious concern. To manage them in deployed software, many enterprises employ WAFs. However, the effectiveness of this type of countermeasure under different operational scenarios is largely unknown.

  • 7.
    Holm, Hannes
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Almroth, Jonas
    Swedish Research Defense Agency.
    Persson, Mats
    Swedish Research Defense Agency.
    A quantitative evaluation of vulnerability scanning2011Ingår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 19, nr 4, 231-247 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate if automated vulnerability scanning accurately identifies vulnerabilities in computer networks and if this accuracy is contingent on the platforms used.

    Design/methodology/approach – Both qualitative comparisons of functionality and quantitative comparisons of false positives and false negatives are made for seven different scanners. The quantitative assessment includes data from both authenticated and unauthenticated scans. Experiments were conducted on a computer network of 28 hosts with various operating systems, services and vulnerabilities. This network was set up by a team of security researchers and professionals.

    Findings – The data collected in this study show that authenticated vulnerability scanning is usable. However, automated scanning is not able to accurately identify all vulnerabilities present in computer networks. Also, scans of hosts running Windows are more accurate than scans of hosts running Linux.

    Research limitations/implications – This paper focuses on the direct output of automated scans with respect to the vulnerabilities they identify. Areas such as how to interpret the results assessed by each scanner (e.g. regarding remediation guidelines) or aggregating information about individual vulnerabilities into risk measures are out of scope.

    Practical implications – This paper describes how well automated vulnerability scanners perform when it comes to identifying security issues in a network. The findings suggest that a vulnerability scanner is a useable tool to have in your security toolbox given that user credentials are available for the hosts in your network. Manual effort is however needed to complement automated scanning in order to get satisfactory accuracy regarding network security problems.

    Originality/value – Previous studies have focused on the qualitative aspects on vulnerability assessment. This study presents a quantitative evaluation of seven of the most popular vulnerability scanners available on the market.

  • 8. Lambert, Quentin
    et al.
    Bazatolle, Thibaut
    Ullberg, Johan
    van Sinderen, Marten
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Business models for an aggregator2012Ingår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, E-ISSN 1758-5805Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Monfelt, Yngve
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Swedish Defennce Research Agency, Division of Information Syatems, Linköping.
    Hallberg, Jonas
    Swedish Defennce Research Agency, Division of Informaton Systems, Linköpng.
    Yngström, Louise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    The 14 layered framework for including social and organisational aspects in security management2011Ingår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 19, nr 2, 124-133 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett socio tekniskt ramverk baserat på tillämpad systemteori presenteras. Ramverket avses i första hand kunna stödja och beskriva kommunikation om informationssäkerhet.

  • 10.
    Nohlberg, M.
    et al.
    School of Humanities and Informatics, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Backstrom, J.
    User-centred security applied to the development of a management information system2007Ingår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 15, nr 5, 372-381 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to use user-centred security development of a prototype graphical interface for a management information system dealing with information security with upper-level management as the intended users. Design/methodology/approach - The intended users were studied in order to understand their needs. An iterative design process was used where the designs were first made on paper, then as a prototype interface and later as a final interface design. All was tested by subjects within the target user group. Findings - The interface was perceived as being successful by the test subjects and the sponsoring organization, Siguru. The major conclusion of the study is that managers use knowledge of information security mainly for financial and strategic matters which focus more on risk issues than security issues. To facilitate the need of managers the study presents three heuristics for the design of management information security system interfaces. Research limitations/implications - This interface was tested on a limited set of users and further tests could be done, especially of users with other cultural/professional backgrounds. Practical implications - This paper presents a useful set of heuristics that can be used in development of management information systems as well as other practical tips for similar projects. Originality/value - This paper gives an example of a successful user-centred security development process. The lessons learned could be beneficial in software development in general and security products in particular.

  • 11.
    Nohlberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Johannes, Bäckström
    Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    User-centered security applied to the development of a management information system2007Ingår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 15, nr 5, 372-381 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to use user-centred security development of a prototype graphical interface for a management information system dealing with information security with upper-level management as the intended users.

    Design/methodology/approach – The intended users were studied in order to understand their needs. An iterative design process was used where the designs were first made on paper, then as a prototype interface and later as a final interface design. All was tested by subjects within the target user group.

    Findings – The interface was perceived as being successful by the test subjects and the sponsoring organization, Siguru. The major conclusion of the study is that managers use knowledge of information security mainly for financial and strategic matters which focus more on risk issues than security issues. To facilitate the need of managers the study presents three heuristics for the design of management information security system interfaces.

    Research limitations/implications – This interface was tested on a limited set of users and further tests could be done, especially of users with other cultural/professional backgrounds.

    Practical implications – This paper presents a useful set of heuristics that can be used in development of management information systems as well as other practical tips for similar projects.

    Originality/value – This paper gives an example of a successful user-centred security development process. The lessons learned could be beneficial in software development in general and security products in particular.

  • 12.
    Rocha Flores, Waldo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Holm, Hannes
    Nohlberg, Marcus
    University of Skövde.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Investigating personal determinants of phishing and the effect of national culture2015Ingår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, E-ISSN 1758-5805, Vol. 23, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of the study was twofold: to investigating the correlation between a sample of personal psychological and demographic factors and resistance to phishing; and to investigate if national culture moderates the strength of these correlations.

    Design/methodology/approach – To measure potential determinants, a survey was distributed to 2099 employees of nine organizations in Sweden, USA, and India. Then, we conducted unannounced phishing exercises in where a phishing attack targeted the same sample.

    Findings – Intention to resist social engineering, general information security awareness, formal IS training, and computer experience were identified to have a positive significant correlation to phishing resilience. Furthermore, the results showed that the correlation between phishing determinants and employees’ observed phishing behavior differs between Swedish, US and Indian employees in six out of fifteen cases.

    Research limitations/implications – The identified determinants all had, even though not a strong, a significant positive correlation. This suggests that more work needs to be done in order to more fully understand determinants of phishing. The study assumes that culture effects apply to all individuals in a nation. However, difference based on cultures might exist based on firm characteristics within a country. The Swedish sample is dominating, while only 40 responses from Indian employees were collected. This unequal size of samples suggests that conclusions based on the results from the cultural analysis should be drawn cautiously. A natural continuation of our research is therefore to further explore the generalizability of our findings by collecting data from other nations with similar cultures as Sweden, USA and India.

    Originality/value – Using direct observations of employees’ security behaviors has rarely been used in previous research. Furthermore, analyzing potential differences in theoretical models based on national culture is an understudied topic in the behavioral information security field. This paper addresses these both two issues.

  • 13.
    Rocha Flores, Waldo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Holm, Hannes
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Svensson, Gustav
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Swedish national grid.
    Using phishing experiments and scenario-based surveys to understand security behaviours in practice2014Ingår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 22, nr 4, 393-406 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of the study was threefold: to understand security behaviours in practice by investigating factors that may cause an individual to comply with a request posed by a perpetrator; to investigate if adding information about the victim to an attack increases the probability of the attack being successful; and, finally, to investigate if there is a correlation between self-reported and observed behaviour.

    Design/methodology/approach - Factors for investigation were identified based on a review of existing literature. Data were collected through a scenario-based survey, phishing experiments, journals and follow-up interviews in three organisations.

    Findings - The results from the experiment revealed that the degree of target information in an attack increased the likelihood that an organisational employee falls victim to an actual attack. Further, an individual's trust and risk behaviour significantly affected the actual behaviour during the phishing experiment. Computer experience at work, helpfulness and gender (females tend to be less susceptible to a generic attack than men), had a significant correlation with behaviour reported by respondents in the scenario-based survey. No correlation between the results from the scenario-based survey and the experiments was found.

    Research limitations/implications - One limitation is that the scenario-based survey may have been interpreted differently by the participants. Another is that controlling how the participants reacted when receiving the phishing mail, and what actually triggered each and every participant to click on the attached link, was not possible. Data were however collected to capture these aspects during and after the experiments. In conclusion, the results do not imply that one or the other method should be ruled out, as they have both advantages and disadvantages which should be considered in the context of collecting data in the critical domain of information security.

    Originality/value - Two different methods to collect data to understand security behaviours have rarely been used in previous research. Studies that add target information to understand if such information could increase the probability of attack success is sparse. This paper includes both approaches.

  • 14.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Holm, Hannes
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Afzal, Muhammad
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Security mistakes in information system deployment projects2011Ingår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 19, nr 2, 80-94 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to assess the influence of a set of human and organizational factors in information system deployments on the probability that a number of security-related mistakes are in the deployment. Design/methodology/approach - A Bayesian network (BN) is created and analyzed over the relationship between mistakes and causes. The BN is created by eliciting qualitative and quantitative data from experts of industrial control system deployments in the critical infrastructure domain. Findings - The data collected in this study show that domain experts have a shared perception of how strong the influence of human and organizational factors are. According to domain experts, this influence is strong. This study also finds that security flaws are common in industrial control systems operating critical infrastructure. Research limitations/implications - The model presented in this study is created with the help of a number of domain experts. While they agree on qualitative structure and quantitative parameters, future work should assure that their opinion is generally accurate. Practical implications - The influence of a set of important variables related to organizational/human aspects on information security flaws is presented. Social implications - The context of this study is deployments of systems that operate nations' critical infrastructure. The findings suggest that initiatives to secure such infrastructures should not be purely technical. Originality/value - Previous studies have focused on either the causes of security flaws or the actual flaws that can exist in installed information systems. However, little research has been spent on the relationship between them. The model presented in this paper quantifies such relationships.

  • 15.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Holm, Hannes
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Estimates of success rates of remote arbitrary code execution attacks2012Ingår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 20, nr 2, 107-122 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the importance of the factors that influence the success rate of remote arbitrary code execution attacks. In other words, attacks which use software vulnerabilities to execute the attacker's own code on targeted machines. Both attacks against servers and attacks against clients are studied. Design/methodology/approach: The success rates of attacks are assessed for 24 scenarios: 16 scenarios for server-side attacks and eight for client-side attacks. The assessment is made through domain experts and is synthesized using Cooke's classical method, an established method for weighting experts' judgments. The variables included in the study were selected based on the literature, a pilot study, and interviews with domain experts. Findings: Depending on the scenario in question, the expected success rate varies between 15 and 67 percent for server-side attacks and between 43 and 67 percent for client-side attacks. Based on these scenarios, the influence of different protective measures is identified. Practical implications: The results of this study offer guidance to decision makers on how to best secure their assets against remote code execution attacks. These results also indicate the overall risk posed by this type of attack. Originality/value: Attacks that use software vulnerabilities to execute code on targeted machines are common and pose a serious risk to most enterprises. However, there are no quantitative data on how difficult such attacks are to execute or on how effective security measures are against them. The paper provides such data using a structured technique to combine expert judgments.

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