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  • 1.
    Azad, Azade
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Ginner Hau, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Adolescent Females with Limited Delinquency: A Follow-Up on Educational Attainment and Recidivism2019In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Research has established a strong relationship between education and later life outcomes, where the connection between different school problems and delinquency have been widely acknowledged. These studies have often sampled male juvenile offenders exhibiting extensive and/or persistent delinquency. Less is known about the educational attainment of female juvenile offenders, especially those who display limited delinquency. In a previous study (Azad and Ginner Hau in Child Youth Serv Rev 95:384–396, 2018), the characteristics of this particular group of offenders were explored where the results showed limited self-reported delinquency but elevated school problems.

    Objective

    The present aim was to conduct a follow-up study of the same sample of female adolescents, in order to study their educational attainment during adolescence and the rate of recidivism within 24 months after being sentenced through registry data.

    Method

    The sample consisted of adolescent females (N = 144) who were convicted of a crime and sentenced to youth service between 2007 and 2012 in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Results

    The results showed that the majority of the females did not reoffend within 2 years after being sentenced. They did, however, display high educational deficits. Their grade point average at the end of both compulsory education and upper secondary school was much lower than that of young females in general, and the majority had either dropped out, never begun or received zero in all subjects at the end of upper secondary school.

    Conclusions

    The low school results indicate a need to support young delinquent females’ educational attainment in order to improve their overall life chances.

  • 2. Chen, Bin-Bin
    et al.
    Wiium, Nora
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    A Life History Approach to Understanding Developmental Assets Among Chinese Adolescents2019In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 155-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Life history theory provides a unifying perspective on understanding human behaviors as adaptive strategies in response to particular environmental conditions. There is little empirical literature on the relationships between life history strategies and positive youth development.

    Objective: This study examines the relationships between environmental certainty, life history strategies and external and internal developmental assets among adolescents.

    Methods: Participants were 577 adolescents (53.5% boys) from Shanghai, China. Data on environmental certainty, life history strategies and developmental assets were collected from adolescents’ self-reports.

    Results: Adolescents with a slower life strategy reported higher levels of both external and internal assets. Furthermore, perceptions of environmental certainty were associated with both external and internal assets through a slower life history strategy.

    Conclusions: Developmental assets may be a part of or the result of the slow life history strategy in response to certain environments. This pattern also complements and expands previous findings linking life history strategy and negative adolescent development. The present study suggests profitable avenues of study in the areas of social environments and positive youth development.

  • 3. Crocetti, Elisabetta
    et al.
    Hale, William W., III
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Abubakar, Amina
    Gao, Cheng-Hai
    Agaloos Pesigan, Ivan Jacob
    Generalized Anxiety Symptoms and Identity Processes in Cross-Cultural Samples of Adolescents from the General Population2015In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 159-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 20 % of adolescents around the world experience mental health problems, most commonly depression or anxiety. High levels of anxiety disorder symptoms can hinder adolescent development, persist into adulthood, and predict negative mental outcomes, such as suicidal ideation and attempts. We analyzed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms in cross-cultural samples from the general population. We sought to examine cultural and gender differences, and correlates of GAD symptoms in samples of adolescents from six countries located in three different continents (Europe: Bulgaria, Italy, the Netherlands; Africa: Kenya; Asia: China and Philippines). Participants were 3,445 (51 % male) adolescents aged between 14 and 18 years old. They filled self-report measures of GAD symptoms and identity. First, it was found that the scores on GAD symptoms varied significantly across countries, with Dutch respondents reporting the lowest levels whereas Filipino participants exhibited the highest levels of GAD symptoms. Second, gender differences (i.e., girls reported more GAD symptoms than boys) were significant in each country (as well as in the total sample), with the only exception being that of Kenya. Third, GAD symptoms were significantly related to identity processes and similarities and differences across countries were examined. This study highlighted that prevalence, gender differences, and correlates of GAD vary across countries. Therefore, it is important when researching GAD symptoms to examine one's research findings within a global perspective.

  • 4.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Frescati Hagv 14, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Frescati Hagv 14, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åhlén, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    School Climate, Academic Achievement and Educational Aspirations in Roma Minority and Bulgarian Majority Adolescents2018In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 645-658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: School climate can promote students' academic achievement and high educational aspirations. School climate refers to the quality and character of school life, norms, values, social interactions and organizational processes within a school.

    Objective: We examined for the present sample whether (a) school climate relates to academic achievement and educational aspirations and (b) such relations vary for Roma minority compared to their majority peers.

    Method: Participants in this cross-sectional study were 356 adolescents aged 11-19years old (159 Roma, 197 Bulgarian majority), 332 mothers (149 Roma, 183 majority), 231 fathers (104 Roma, 127 majority) and 221 majority teachers who completed self-report surveys to address the study goals. Adolescents provided data on educational aspirations and academic achievement, parents on their children's educational aspirations and teachers reported on school climate. We employed linear mixed models to explore associations of school climate, academic achievement and educational aspirations among Roma and Bulgarian majority youth.

    Results: There were negative associations between teacher-reported school climate and students' academic achievement, as well as adolescent and parental educational aspirations for Roma adolescents only. Roma adolescents and parents reported lower academic achievement and educational aspirations than their majority counterparts.

    Conclusions: This study supports the relevance of school climate in relation to academic achievement and aspirations of disadvantaged minority students. Interventions should pay close attention to perceptions and attitudes in a school to successfully promote positive outcomes among students.

  • 5. Eichas, Kyle
    et al.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Olsson, Tina M.
    Contributions of Positive Youth Development to Intervention Science2019In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 279-287Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Advances in knowledge of how to promote positive youth development (PYD) have significant potential to enrich intervention science. As part of a broader movement in the direction of a more fully integrated intervention science, PYD intervention research can provide practitioners in youth behavioral and mental health with an updated set of intervention tools beyond problem-focused strategies for reducing or preventing dysfunction.

    Objective: The objective of this commentary is to highlight potential contributions of PYD research to the development of more complete models of youth intervention, as well as to identify directions for future PYD intervention research.

    Method: This commentary discusses and expands on findings from the present articles that contribute to an empirical foundation for connecting PYD promotion with the science and practice of treatment and prevention.

    Results: The findings point to practical advantages that result from understanding the empirical links among PYD, treatment, and prevention on the way to achieving a more fully integrated intervention science, as well as methodological challenges involved in pursuing this agenda.

    Conclusions: In this context, the next generation of intervention science will be driven by integrating PYD’s contextual, cultural, relational, global, and participatory values into the science of building and testing youth interventions.

  • 6. Ferrer-Wreder, L.
    et al.
    Adamson, Lena
    KTH.
    Kumpfer, K. L.
    Eichas, K.
    Advancing Intervention Science Through Effectiveness Research: A Global Perspective2012In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 109-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Effectiveness research is maturing as a field within intervention and prevention science. Effectiveness research involves the implementation and evaluation of the effectiveness of the dissemination of evidence-based interventions in everyday circumstances (i. e., type 2 translational research). Effectiveness research is characterized by diverse types of research studies. Progress in this field has the potential to inform several debates within intervention science [e. g., fidelity versus local and cultural adaptation; identification of core components, effective dissemination systems). Objective: To provide illustrations from different countries (Ireland, Italy, South Africa, Sweden, New Zealand, and the United States) of how intervention science might raise the value of future effectiveness or type 2 translational research. Methods: Themes raised by individual articles and across articles are summarized and expanded on in this commentary. Results: Themes consist of raising awareness about the importance of effectiveness research on the cultural adaptation of evidence-based interventions and intervention support structures, as well as further development of strategies to bridge the gap between research and practice. Conclusions: Effectiveness research has an important role to play in affecting systemic change on a population level and allowing us to gain a realistic global understanding of the phenomena we hope to change through interventions. Articles in this special issue provide reports from social scientists and practitioners located in various parts of the world and offer a rich, diverse portrait of effectiveness research and theory development. The totality of the work contained in this special issue anticipates many of the changes that intervention and prevention science will undergo as we progress and develop effective dissemination strategies for evidence-based interventions that promote positive youth development and prevent youth and family problems on a global scale.

  • 7.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adamson, Lena
    Kumpfer, Karol L.
    Eichas, Kyle
    Advancing Intervention Science Through Effectiveness Research: A Global Perspective2012In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 109-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Effectiveness research is maturing as a field within intervention and prevention science. Effectiveness research involves the implementation and evaluation of the effectiveness of the dissemination of evidence-based interventions in everyday circumstances (i.e., type 2 translational research). Effectiveness research is characterized by diverse types of research studies. Progress in this field has the potential to inform several debates within intervention science [e.g., fidelity versus local and cultural adaptation; identification of core components, effective dissemination systems). Objective: To provide illustrations from different countries (Ireland, Italy, South Africa, Sweden, New Zealand, and the United States) of how intervention science might raise the value of future effectiveness or type 2 translational research. Methods: Themes raised by individual articles and across articles are summarized and expanded on in this commentary. Results: Themes consist of raising awareness about the importance of effectiveness research on the cultural adaptation of evidence-based interventions and intervention support structures, as well as further development of strategies to bridge the gap between research and practice. Conclusions: Effectiveness research has an important role to play in affecting systemic change on a population level and allowing us to gain a realistic global understanding of the phenomena we hope to change through interventions. Articles in this special issue provide reports from social scientists and practitioners located in various parts of the world and offer a rich, diverse portrait of effectiveness research and theory development. The totality of the work contained in this special issue anticipates many of the changes that intervention and prevention science will undergo as we progress and develop effective dissemination strategies for evidence-based interventions that promote positive youth development and prevent youth and family problems on a global scale.

  • 8.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundell, Knut
    Mansoory, Shahram
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tinkering with Perfection: Theory Development in the Intervention Cultural Adaptation Field2012In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 149-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Testing evidence-based interventions (EBIs) outside of their home countryhas become increasingly commonplace. There is a need for theoretically guided researchon how to best create and test the effects of culturally adapted interventions.

    Objective To illustrate how the field might raise the scientific and practical value offuture effectiveness and dissemination trials of culturally adapted interventions, as well asto provide support for theoretically informed research on this subject to take greater root.

    Methods Nine theories that offer guidance on how to adapt existing EBIs for a newcultural group were summarized and evaluated.

    Results Commonalities among the selected theories included a focus on the need forcollaboration as part of the adaptation process and shared emphasis on taking systematicsteps to select an intervention to adapt, as well as calls for adaptations to be guided byspecific types of empirical studies. Among the theories, variability existed in terms of whatconstituted an adaptation.

    Conclusions As EBIs go global, intervention adaptation promises to be the subject ofsubstantial future scholarly attention. There is a need to develop systematic evidence-basedmethods that allow for some degree of adaptation, while still bringing about EBIs’ desiredbenefits.

  • 9.
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ortega, Enrique
    University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    An attachment family-based intervention to prevent adolescents' problem behaviors: a pilot study in Italy2013In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 71-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In spite of the proven effectiveness of parenting based programs to prevent adolescent risk behaviors, such programs are rarely implemented in Mediterranean countries.

    Objective

    This pilot study was aimed at assessing the feasibility and the effects of a parenting based universal prevention program (Connect) in Italy.

    Methods

    Our sample comprised 147 mothers and 147 youths, aged 11–14 (M = 12.46, SD = .72). We adopted a quasi-experimental design. Forty percent of the parents in the sample were in the intervention condition (receiving 10 one hour lessons a week). ANCOVAs and Cohen’s d coefficients were used to compute intervention effects.

    Results

    The results showed that, despite difficulty in recruiting parents, the program held promising effects regarding the prevention of alcohol use at a universal level (Cohen’s d = .55); the intervention also marginally decreased the level of non-empathic answers from parents, at least in the short term (Cohen’s d = .32).

    Conclusions

    This study highlighted the importance of focusing on families to prevent problem behaviors in adolescence. It also points to the need for new strategies to engage parents in universal prevention.

  • 10.
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Ozdemir, Metin
    Orebro Univ, Orebro, Sweden..
    Stattin, Hakan
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Psychol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    The Implementation Integrity of Parenting Programs: Which Aspects Are Most Important?2019In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 917-933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The implementation of preventive interventions is considered a crucial aspect of their success. However, few studies have investigated which components of implementation are most important. Objective We aimed to understand whether the components of implementation integrity-adherence, quality of delivery, dose, and participants' involvement-influenced the effectiveness of four parenting programs. We also investigated factors associated with these components. Method Data come from a national evaluation of parenting programs in Sweden. The study was a randomised controlled effectiveness trial, with a sample of 535 parents with 3-12-year-old children. Measures included parenting behaviors (angry outbursts, harsh parenting, attempts to understand, rewarding, and praising), child conduct problems (ECBI and SNAP-V), and measures tapping into the four components (adherence, quality of delivery, dose, and participant involvement). Results We ran multilevel models and found that implementation quality (adherence and quality of delivery) did not influence the effects on parents and children. Conversely, participant involvement was associated with improvements in parenting and child conduct. Finally, parents' perceptions of their leaders as supportive and understanding were associated with parents' responsiveness and attendance. Conclusions Our study highlights the importance of having actively engaged parents to maximise intervention effects.

  • 11.
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    et al.
    Malardarens Univ, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Hogskoleplan 1, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Ozdemir, Metin
    Orebro Univ, Ctr Dev Res, Sch Law Psychol & Social Work JPS, Orebro, Sweden.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Implementation Integrity of Parenting Programs: Which Aspects Are Most Important?2019In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 917-933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The implementation of preventive interventions is considered a crucial aspect of their success. However, few studies have investigated which components of implementation are most important.

    Objective: We aimed to understand whether the components of implementation integrity-adherence, quality of delivery, dose, and participants' involvement-influenced the effectiveness of four parenting programs. We also investigated factors associated with these components.

    Method: Data come from a national evaluation of parenting programs in Sweden. The study was a randomised controlled effectiveness trial, with a sample of 535 parents with 3-12-year-old children. Measures included parenting behaviors (angry outbursts, harsh parenting, attempts to understand, rewarding, and praising), child conduct problems (ECBI and SNAP-V), and measures tapping into the four components (adherence, quality of delivery, dose, and participant involvement).

    Results: We ran multilevel models and found that implementation quality (adherence and quality of delivery) did not influence the effects on parents and children. Conversely, participant involvement was associated with improvements in parenting and child conduct. Finally, parents' perceptions of their leaders as supportive and understanding were associated with parents' responsiveness and attendance.

    Conclusions: Our study highlights the importance of having actively engaged parents to maximise intervention effects.

  • 12.
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Weichold, Karina
    Univ Jena, Dept Dev Psychol, CADS, Steiger 3-1, S-07743 Jena, Sweden..
    Evaluation of a Life Skills Program to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol Use in Two European Countries: One-Year Follow-Up2016In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 607-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Life skills programs are effective tools to combat youth substance use. However there is a lack of studies concerning their effectiveness in Europe. Objective This study investigated the 1 year follow up effects and the program implementation of a life skills school-based intervention (IPSY: Information ? Psychosocial Competence = Protection) aimed at preventing alcohol use, in German and Italian adolescents. Methods Participants were 1131 German (57 % intervention group, mean age 10.45 years, 54 % females), and 159 Italian adolescents (45 % intervention group, mean age 11.14 years, 50 % females). Using a quasi-experimental design, data were gathered before the intervention (t1), after (2-7 months later, t2), and 1 year after the post-test (t3), thus covering a time span of about 1.5 years. MANOVAs and ANOVAs with repeated measurements were performed. Results IPSY was well accepted in both the German and Italian schools. German and Italian youth who participated in the program decreased their consumption of wine. German youth who participated in the IPSY-program decreased their expected alcohol consumption and increased their knowledge of assertive behaviors, school involvement, and resistance to peer pressure, compared to the control group. Italian youth in the intervention group also increased in assertive behaviors and the perception of being appreciated by others, relative to the control group. In both countries, beer consumption, communication skills and problem solving were not affected. Conclusions Our study suggests that life skills-based programs may be a useful tool in the prevention of risk behaviors in adolescence in a broader European context.

  • 13.
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    et al.
    Division of Public Health Sciences, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardarens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Özdemir, Metin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Implementation Integrity of Parenting Programs: Which Aspects Are Most Important?2019In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 917-933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The implementation of preventive interventions is considered a crucial aspect of their success. However, few studies have investigated which components of implementation are most important.

    Objective: We aimed to understand whether the components of implementation integrity—adherence, quality of delivery, dose, and participants’ involvement—influenced the effectiveness of four parenting programs. We also investigated factors associated with these components.

    Method: Data come from a national evaluation of parenting programs in Sweden. The study was a randomised controlled effectiveness trial, with a sample of 535 parents with 3–12-year-old children. Measures included parenting behaviors (angry outbursts, harsh parenting, attempts to understand, rewarding, and praising), child conduct problems (ECBI and SNAP-V), and measures tapping into the four components (adherence, quality of delivery, dose, and participant involvement).

    Results: We ran multilevel models and found that implementation quality (adherence and quality of delivery) did not influence the effects on parents and children. Conversely, participant involvement was associated with improvements in parenting and child conduct. Finally, parents’ perceptions of their leaders as supportive and understanding were associated with parents’ responsiveness and attendance.

    Conclusions: Our study highlights the importance of having actively engaged parents to maximise intervention effects.

  • 14.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Carlberg, M.
    National Board for Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hellgren, L.
    National Board for Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Deliberate self-harm behaviour in Swedish adolescent girls reports from public assessment and treatment agencies2008In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 37, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-harming behaviour among adolescents, and particularly adolescent girls, has evoked much public attention. This article presents a Swedish study about what information assessment and treatment agencies have about self-harming behaviour in the form of cutting and burning in adolescent girls. The study was made on assignment by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. All public agencies assessing or treating adolescents with psychological problems in three Swedish cities were asked to deliver information about self-harming behaviour in the form of self-cutting or self-burning in girls between 13 and 18 years of age. In addition, the young offender institutions within the National Board of Institutional Care treating teenager girls were asked to deliver information about self-harming behaviour in their clients. We found that about 1% of the total population of girls in these ages were known to have cut or burnt themselves and about one third of the girls in the institutions. Attempts to distinguish subgroups among the girls were only partly successful. Although some subgroups could be identified, the overlap between them was large. The conclusion was that this behaviour may be seen as an expression of a wide variety of problems in a heterogeneous group of young persons. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 15.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Hill, Teci
    Lang, Annicka
    Treatment alliance in residential treatment of criminal adolescents2007In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 163-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on relationship aspects in residential treatment of criminal young persons has largely been neglected despite the general finding in treatment research that such aspects have a large bearing on outcome. In this article, two studies of associations between relationship aspects and outcome in this treatment context are presented. In one of them, two treatment units practicing Aggression Replacement Training and CBT-techniques and 2 U with more conventional, relationally oriented treatment approaches were studied using process questionnaires and interviews. In the other study, adolescents who had been sentenced to treatment were interviewed about treatment experiences 1 year after release. Despite considerable attrition, several interesting findings were noted: The boys' alliance ratings were associated with the collaborative aspect of the staff's alliance ratings, but not with the bond aspect, warm and close staff feelings were related to negative outcome and the boys' conceptions of the treatment model but not of the relationship with the staff was associated with positive outcome. The results suggest that a distinction should be made between a mutual bond aspect of the staff-boy relationship that was not related to outcome and a collaborative aspect which was related to outcome. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 16.
    Larsson, Margaretha
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. University of Skövde.
    Johansson Sundler, Annelie
    University of Skövde ; Mälardalen University.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Björk, Maria
    University of Skövde ; Jönköping University.
    Altering the Parenting Role: Parents’ Experience of Supporting the Health and Well-Being of Their Adolescent Girls2015In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 419-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In research the relationships between parents and their adolescent daughters have been viewed from problem oriented perspectives, usually exploring negative effects and health-related problems. Health and well-being are complex phenomena and knowledge is needed on how parents can support the health and well-being of their daughter.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to illuminate parents’ experiences of supporting the health and well-being of their adolescent girls.

    Methods

    A descriptive design with a phenomenological approach including interviews, individually or in group with ten mothers and five fathers was conducted.

    Results

    Supporting the health and well-being of adolescent girls was experienced as challenging. The parents needed to altering the parenting role: from being the one who had previously set the limits they needed to rethink and be available for support. In this process interplay, communication and trust were important to support the health and well-being of the girls in an efficient way. This meaning was further illuminated by four constituents: Balancing the need for control, maintaining a trusting relationship, interplay to facilitate their daughters’ transition to independence, and an ambiguous parenting role.

    Conclusions

    This study highlights the importance of parents being involved in the everyday life of their adolescent daughter to support her health and well-being. The parents’ ability to contribute to the health and well-being of their girl seemed in this study dependent on their ability to communicate and alter the parenting role with sensitivity to the lifeworld of the adolescent girl.

  • 17.
    Larsson, Margaretha
    et al.
    Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University of Växjö, Växjö, Sweden.
    Sundler, Annelie Johansson
    School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University of Växjö, Växjö, Sweden.
    Björk, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Altering the Parenting Role: Parents’ Experience of Supporting the Health and Well-Being of Their Adolescent Girls2015In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 419-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In research the relationships between parents and their adolescent daughters have been viewed from problem oriented perspectives, usually exploring negative effects and health-related problems. Health and well-being are complex phenomena and knowledge is needed on how parents can support the health and well-being of their daughter.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to illuminate parents’ experiences of supporting the health and well-being of their adolescent girls.

    Methods

    A descriptive design with a phenomenological approach including interviews, individually or in group with ten mothers and five fathers was conducted.

    Results

    Supporting the health and well-being of adolescent girls was experienced as challenging. The parents needed to altering the parenting role: from being the one who had previously set the limits they needed to rethink and be available for support. In this process interplay, communication and trust were important to support the health and well-being of the girls in an efficient way. This meaning was further illuminated by four constituents: Balancing the need for control, maintaining a trusting relationship, interplay to facilitate their daughters’ transition to independence, and an ambiguous parenting role.

    Conclusions

    This study highlights the importance of parents being involved in the everyday life of their adolescent daughter to support her health and well-being. The parents’ ability to contribute to the health and well-being of their girl seemed in this study dependent on their ability to communicate and alter the parenting role with sensitivity to the lifeworld of the adolescent girl.

  • 18.
    Larsson, Margaretha
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University of Växjö, Växjö, Sweden.
    Sundler, Annelie Johansson
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University of Växjö, Växjö, Sweden.
    Björk, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. The Research Group CHILD, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Altering the Parenting Role: Parents' Experience of Supporting the Health and Well-Being of Their Adolescent Girls2015In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 419-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In research the relationships between parents and their adolescent daughters have been viewed from problem oriented perspectives, usually exploring negative effects and health-related problems. Health and well-being are complex phenomena and knowledge is needed on how parents can support the health and well-being of their daughter.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to illuminate parents’ experiences of supporting the health and well-being of their adolescent girls.

    Methods

    A descriptive design with a phenomenological approach including interviews, individually or in group with ten mothers and five fathers was conducted.

    Results

    Supporting the health and well-being of adolescent girls was experienced as challenging. The parents needed to altering the parenting role: from being the one who had previously set the limits they needed to rethink and be available for support. In this process interplay, communication and trust were important to support the health and well-being of the girls in an efficient way. This meaning was further illuminated by four constituents: Balancing the need for control, maintaining a trusting relationship, interplay to facilitate their daughters’ transition to independence, and an ambiguous parenting role.

    Conclusions

    This study highlights the importance of parents being involved in the everyday life of their adolescent daughter to support her health and well-being. The parents’ ability to contribute to the health and well-being of their girl seemed in this study dependent on their ability to communicate and alter the parenting role with sensitivity to the lifeworld of the adolescent girl.

  • 19. Larsson, Margaretha
    et al.
    Sundler J, Annelie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Björk, Maria
    Altering the Parenting Role: Parents’ Experience of Supporting the Health and Well-Being of Their Adolescent Girls. 2015In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 419-432Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Larsson, Margaretha
    et al.
    innaeus Univ Vaxjo, Fac Hlth & Life Sci, Vaxjo, Sweden.
    Sundler Johansson, Annelie
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Univ Skovde, Sch Hlth & Educ, S-54128 Skovde, Sweden.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    Bjork, Maria
    Jonkoping Univ, Res Grp CHILD, Jonkoping, Sweden; Linnaeus Univ Vaxjo, Fac Hlth & Life Sci, Vaxjo, Sweden.
    Altering the Parenting Role: Parents' Experience of Supporting the Health and Well-Being of Their Adolescent Girls2015In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 419-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In research the relationships between parents and their adolescent daughters have been viewed from problem oriented perspectives, usually exploring negative effects and health-related problems. Health and well-being are complex phenomena and knowledge is needed on how parents can support the health and well-being of their daughter. The aim of this study was to illuminate parents' experiences of supporting the health and well-being of their adolescent girls. A descriptive design with a phenomenological approach including interviews, individually or in group with ten mothers and five fathers was conducted. Supporting the health and well-being of adolescent girls was experienced as challenging. The parents needed to altering the parenting role: from being the one who had previously set the limits they needed to rethink and be available for support. In this process interplay, communication and trust were important to support the health and well-being of the girls in an efficient way. This meaning was further illuminated by four constituents: Balancing the need for control, maintaining a trusting relationship, interplay to facilitate their daughters' transition to independence, and an ambiguous parenting role. This study highlights the importance of parents being involved in the everyday life of their adolescent daughter to support her health and well-being. The parents' ability to contribute to the health and well-being of their girl seemed in this study dependent on their ability to communicate and alter the parenting role with sensitivity to the lifeworld of the adolescent girl.

  • 21.
    Mansoory, Shahram
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Trost, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Youth Well-Being Contextualized: Perceptions of Swedish Fathers2019In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 773-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fathers can have a critical role to play in supporting the well-being of youth. However, little is known about how fathers perceive youth well-being. The Five Cs model of positive youth development was the theoretical starting point of this study, in part due to this framework’s focus on the importance of bi-directional, person–context relations (Geldhof et al., in: Molenaar, Lerner, Newell (eds) Handbook of developmental systems theory and methodology, Guilford Press, New York, 2014). Questions posed in the present study were derived from the 4-H study of positive youth development (Lerner et al. in J Early Adolesc 25(1):17–71, 2005), which is rooted in the Five Cs model.

    Objective: The present study explored themes and patterns of meaning in descriptive information from fathers about youth well-being.

    Method: An inductive–deductive approach to thematic analysis was used to examine responses to open-ended survey questions from 201 Swedish fathers regarding youth well-being.

    Results: Based on the fathers’ reports four themes were identified: cognitive well-being, emotional and psychological well-being, physical well-being, and social well-being. While some sub-components of these themes have been identified in earlier literature, new sub-components were also found in each domain of youth well-being (i.e., cognitive, emotional/psychological, physical, social).

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that the understanding of youth well-being is contextual and multi-faceted, and that fathers’ perceptions can be important to consider in future research as they may further our insight into the rich and nuanced characteristics of positive youth development in diverse contexts.

  • 22.
    Ortega, Enrique
    et al.
    Laboratory of Developmental Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Latina, Delia
    Laboratory of Developmental Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Ciairano, Silvia
    Laboratory of Developmental Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Cultural adaptation of the strengthening families program 10-14 to Italian families2012In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 197-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The family context has proven to be a useful target in which to apply prevention efforts aimed at child and adolescent health risk behaviors. There are currently a variety of cultural adaptation models that serve to guide the international adaptation of intervention programs.

    The cultural adaptation process and program reception of the Strengthening Families Program 10-14 (SFP 10-14) was described in this article. The implementation context is one in which strong family bonds and high family communication are the norm.

    We described our cultural adaptation process comparing our efforts to the recommended stages of the main current cultural adaptation models. We pilot tested and implemented the adapted version of our program with a total of 35 families in the city of Turin Italy.

    This study showed that the SFP 10-14 may indeed be quite suitable for Italian families given the particularities of Italian society regarding strong family bonds and extended social networks. We described the language translation, cultural adaptation process for program materials, staff training, onsite supervision, and the process evaluation feedback that were undertaken as part of the adaptation efforts.

    The field of prevention could greatly benefit from the identification of tools and techniques that are applicable to populations with diverse social and cultural backgrounds. The family is extremely important for Italians and represents a rich context in which prevention efforts could be addressed.

  • 23.
    Sedem, Mina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fear of the loss of honor: implications of honor-based violence for the development of youth and their families2015In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 44, p. 225-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Violence committed against young women, and in some cases young men, who are considered to have violated honor-based norms are reported in several countries, making honor-based violence (HBV) a global concern. This article is an overview of research in this area and summarizes key findings from a Swedish program of research dedicated to this subject.

    Objective

    To gain deeper understanding of HBV from the perspective of participating families, as well as to situate these study findings in the wider literature.

    Methods

    The studies reported here were based on qualitative interviews with adolescent girls and young women with immigrant backgrounds and their family members (N = 23) who experienced honor-based conflicts and/or violence—in one case resulting in homicide. Interviews were primarily conducted once in the general study, however, in some cases interviews were conducted on more than one occasion. Interviews were analyzed according to grounded theory.

    Results

    The inductive approach used in these studies was useful and study findings were nuanced. Results indicated, for example, that fear was essential to understanding the genesis and progression of the conflicts within participating families.

    Conclusions

    Practitioners should attend to building trust with families and ameliorating isolation, as well as early-stage awareness raising, education, the promotion of contextually relevant conflict resolution skills. Systematic intervention development is also likely to advance this field.

  • 24.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Anttila, Sten
    Pettersson, Agneta
    Programs for prevention of externalizing problems in children: limited evidence for effect beyond 6 Months post intervention2015In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 251-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Preventing externalizing problems in children is a major societal concern, and a great number of intervention programs have been developed to this aim. To evaluate their preventive effects, well-controlled trials including follow-up assessments are necessary.

    Methods: This is a systematic review of the effect of prevention programs targeting externalizing problems in children. The review covered peer reviewed publications in English, German, French, Spanish and Scandinavian languages. Experimental studies of standardized programs explicitly aiming at preventing externalizing mental ill-health in children (2–19 years), with outcome assessments at ≥6 months post intervention for both intervention and control groups, were included. We also included long-term trials with consecutive observations over several years, even in the absence of follow-up ≥6 months post intervention. Studies of clinical populations or children with impairments, which substantially increase the risk for mental disorders, were excluded.

    Results: Thirty-eight controlled trials assessing 25 different programs met inclusion criteria. Only five programs were supported by scientific evidence, representing selective parent training (Incredible Years and Triple-P), indicated family support (Family Check-Up), and school-based programs (Good Behavior Game, universally delivered, and Coping Power, as an indicated intervention). With few exceptions, effects after 6–12 months were small. Long-term trials showed small and inconsistent effects.

    Conclusions: Despite a vast literature, the evidence for preventive effects is meager, largely due to insufficient follow-up post intervention. Long-term follow up assessment and effectiveness studies should be given priority in future evaluations of interventions to prevent externalizing problems in children.

  • 25.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lunds universitet.
    Callous-unemotional traits, harm-effect moral reasoning, and bullying among Swedish children2017In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 559-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been associated with bul- lying among children and adolescents, relatively little is known about whether each of the three sub-constructs of CU traits—callous, uncaring, and unemotional—are associated with bullying when they are considered concurrently in the analysis.

    Objective: This study was the first to examine in a single model whether callous, uncaring, and unemotional traits are directly related to the perpetration of bullying and to harm-effect moral reasoning in bullying among children as well as whether these three CU traits are indirectly related to bullying mediated by harm-effect moral reasoning.

    Methods: Self-reported data on CU traits, harm-effect moral reasoning in bullying situa- tions, and bullying perpetration were collected from 381 children from 13 schools in Sweden. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses.

    Results: When all three sub-constructs of CU traits were included in a single model, greater callousness and uncaring were directly associated with greater bullying. In contrast, greater harm-effect moral reasoning was associated with less bullying. Moreover, greater callousness and unemotional were indirectly associated with greater bullying through the reduced use of harm-effect moral reasoning.

    Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that all three CU traits are important to address, although their associations with bullying took some different paths, and that callousness appears to be the most important CU trait in relation to bullying. 

  • 26.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Rosenqvist, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Johansson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Older Teenagers’ Explanations of Bullying2012In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 327-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In accordance with the social information processing model, how adolescents attribute cause to a particular social situation (e.g., bullying) they witness or participate in, influences their online social information processing, and hence, how they will act in the situation.

    Objective

    The aim of the present study was to explore how older teenagers explain why bullying takes place at school, and whether there were any differences in explaining bullying due to gender.

    Methods

    Two hundred and fifteen Swedish students in upper secondary school responded to a questionnaire. Mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative methods) were used to analyze data.

    Results

    The qualitative analysis resulted in three main categories and nine subcategories regarding accounts of bullying causes. According to the findings, the youth explained bullying much more often with individualistic explanations (bully attributing and victim attributing) than non-individualistic explanations (social context attributing). Furthermore, girls tended to provide a greater number of bullying explanations and were more likely to attribute bullying causes to the bully and the victim, as compared to boys.

    Conclusions

    The findings provide insights into older teenagers’ understanding of why bullying occurs in school. The study also identified some gender differences but also some mixed findings regarding gender differences in comparison with previous research with younger participants. The authors concluded that more research has to be done to investigate age and gender differences.

  • 27. Wiium, Nora
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. University of Bergen, Norway.
    Positive Youth Development Across Cultures: Introduction to the Special Issue2019In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Promoting well-being of young people within the positive youth development (PYD) framework has been found to be promising. The basic models of PYD—the 5C’s (competence, confidence, character, connection, and caring) and developmental assets (significant relationships, skills, opportunities and values that promote thriving exemplified by external assets or environmental resources and internal assets or interpersonal strengths), have been largely shown to promote positive aspects of development among diverse samples of young people. However, PYD research has mainly been conducted within the US context.

    Objectives Explore the generalizability of the PYD framework to understand and promote positive aspects of development in young people beyond the US context.

    Method Six papers using cross-sectional methods reported data on adolescents and/or emerging adults (N = 6820) with diverse cultural backgrounds from ten countries (Brazil, China, El Salvador, Ghana, Italy, Kenya, Norway, Slovenia, South-Africa, Turkey) in four continents (Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America). Widely applied PYD scales developed within the US and adequately adapted in each cultural context were used for data collection.

    Results The generalizability of the PYD framework (the presence and positive relations between the 5Cs and developmental assets in promoting optimal development) was largely confirmed among culturally diverse samples of young people investigated in the papers.

    Conclusion While the findings of the current special issue extend the generalizability of the PYD framework beyond the US context, more research is needed to ascertain appropriate developmental assets to facilitate PYD, as defined by the specific context where young people are embedded.

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