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  • 1.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Turismvetenskap.
    Political crises and destination choice: An exploratory study of Swedish-Iranian second-home buyers2018Inngår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 205-218Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Political crises, which have a known impact on the choice of tourism destination, can also negatively affect the choice of second-home destination and purchase. The purpose of this study is to investigate why some Swedish-Iranian second-home buyers prefer Spain to Turkey for political reasons. More than 30 short dialogues were conducted with Swedish-Iranian buyers at the exhibition "Buying Properties Abroad" in Kista, September 2015, following the start of a series of political crises in Turkey. A simple question was asked: Why are you choosing Spain rather than Turkey? The most important category of reasons were political factors, followed by cultural reasons. Political anxiety, instability, and insecurity in Turkey, the risk of civil war, a police society, lack of democratic order, the fact that Turkey is not a member of the European Union, the government's negative attitudes towards Kurds, and the emergence of Islamic State were the political reasons most mentioned. One conclusion that can be drawn is that political crises affect second-home tourism/tourists in the same way that they do ordinary tourism/tourists. The research has some important implications for Turkish policymakers, tourism stakeholders at a macrolevel, their competitors, especially in Spain, and potential buyers. Based on this research, some suggestions for future studies are also given. 

  • 2.
    Hanefors, Monica
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning och humaniora, Socialantropologi.
    Book review: The Tourist Experience2003Inngår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 177-178Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Hay Walters, Nicole
    School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, College of Business and Management,.
    Still a white paradise?: Photographic representations of Jamaica as a tourism destination2016Inngår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 16, nr 1/2, s. 59-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual images, from travel brochures and television commercials to internet advertisements, represent a powerful element of tourist destination marketing. This article seeks to understand how destination marketing represents people and places through visual images while examining the role of tourism discourse in the construction of cultural meanings and identity. Using Jamaica as a case study, the researchers explore the issue of contemporary touristic images. A combination of content and discourse analysis was used to examine images included in printed marketing materials and on the DMO’s website drawing upon postcolonial theory as a critical and contextual perspective that provides an interpretation of the meanings that are conveyed by these representations. The main findings indicate that decades after the end of colonialism in Jamaica, marketers perpetuate the presentation of paradisal destination images using visual representations. It is argued that colonial tropes and practices of “Othering” remain fundamental to the meaning and rationale of seeing Jamaica and the travel experience. However, this study also identified strategies that could be further explored in an effort to counteract colonial discourse, as the use of culture and local folkways opens up avenues for the (re)evaluation and (re)representation of Jamaica and the holiday experience

  • 4.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Kulturgeografi.
    Mörner, Cecilia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Kulturgeografi.
    The Legacy of Mining: Visual Representations and Narrative Constructions of a Swedish Heritage Tourist Destination2011Inngår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 1-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the marketing and management efforts that have been undertaken to make the Falun World Heritage Site a successful tourist destination in terms of hegemonic, visual representations and narrative constructions. Visual representation is assumed to be a vital aspect of the construction of narratives used to promote tourist destinations. The idea of a narrative as something that constructs sites as comprehensible places through visual representation can be used to illuminate the logic of heritage tourism and branding destinations. The paper argues that representations of a heritage site that are closely related to hegemonic ideas of the site’s history are not necessarily the most profitable ones. If the heritage site is to contribute to local development and tourism, it is essential to understand what the representations of heritage communicate. Using the Falun World Heritage Site as a case study, the article aims to show how the attraction of a site can be hindered by hegemonic assumptions of its history, and therefore of its most interesting and valuable aspects. Analyses of Falun’s marketing, as well as the site itself, show that the constructed hegemonic narratives about the Falun Mine primarily concern men, masculinity and nationalism. Visitors are offered an opportunity to take part through narratives of the Swedish Great Power Period, as constructed and experienced by male geniuses and male mineworkers. These are the stories that correspond to the hegemonic view of those who manage and market the site.

  • 5.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    Tourism development in the Russian Arctic: Reproducing or challenging the hegemonic masculinities of the frontier2018Inngår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 67-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The image of the Arctic can be understood as a part of a larger discourse of the north as an uncivilized, untamed frontier, not suitable or accessible for modern, urban people, but a place for strong adventurers, hunters, and explorers. In this study, we seek to understand how hegemonic masculinities of the north both inform and are challenged by tourism and its representations and practices in the Russian Arctic, in particular the Nenets Autonomous District (NAD). The study is based on the analysis of data collected during several field trips to the region during the period of 2012-2013 and 2014, including semistructured interviews with key stakeholders and observations of tourism practices, as well as content analysis of promotional images of selected tourism companies. Tourism in the NAD is typically adventure based: snowmobile safaris, fishing, hunting, and white-water rafting. There are also different types of indigenous tourism, such as living with reindeer herders for a period of time. The tourism industry covered herein consisted of microfirms and small businesses. The entrepreneurs were all middle-aged Russian men and the tourists were predominantly male middle class Russians from metropolitan regions, traveling as groups of friends or colleagues. The results show that despite the willingness of the tourism entrepreneurs to broaden their customer groups and offerings, the products reproduce the destination as a playground for (male) "hook and bullet" tourists. However, there are also examples of how tourism may challenge or reconstruct the understandings of typically masculine or feminine duties or roles in some specific local contexts.

  • 6. Mlozi, Shogo
    et al.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Haahti, Antti
    Salunke, Sandeep
    Determinants of Place Identity and Dependence: The Case of International Tourists in Tanzania2012Inngår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 97-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Mörner, Cecilia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    The Legacy of Mining: Visual Representations and Narrative Constructions of a Swedish Heritage Tourist Destination2011Inngår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 1-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the marketing and management efforts that have been undertaken to make the Falun World Heritage Site a successful tourist destination in terms of hegemonic, visual representations and narrative constructions. Visual representation is assumed to be a vital aspect of the construction of narratives used to promote tourist destinations. The idea of a narrative as something that constructs sites as comprehensible places through visual representation can be used to illuminate the logic of heritage tourism and branding destinations. The paper argues that representations of a heritage site that are closely related to hegemonic ideas of the site’s history are not necessarily the most profitable ones. If the heritage site is to contribute to local development and tourism, it is essential to understand what the representations of heritage communicate. Using the Falun World Heritage Site as a case study, the article aims to show how the attraction of a site can be hindered by hegemonic assumptions of its history, and therefore of its most interesting and valuable aspects. Analyses of Falun’s marketing, as well as the site itself, show that the constructed hegemonic narratives about the Falun Mine primarily concern men, masculinity and nationalism. Visitors are offered an opportunity to take part through narratives of the Swedish Great Power Period, as constructed and experienced by male geniuses and male mineworkers. These are the stories that correspond to the hegemonic view of those who manage and market the site.

  • 8.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Hair, Joseph
    Kennesaw State University, Georgia.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    To protect and attract: firms cooperating in nature-based tourism destinations2008Inngår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 159-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores solutions to potential communication problems that arise from cooperation in nature-based tourism (NBT) destinations. The questions posed in this article are: "When is a local firm in an NBT destination likely to cooperate with other firms?" and "How can cooperation be facilitated among NBT firms?" The primary focus of our research, therefore, is how to facilitate cooperation in NBT destinations. To do so, we first review different risk elements by describing a simulated scenario in which two participants (NBT firms) confront a prisoner's dilemma with different options-cooperation and competition. The outcome of that scenario demonstrates that cooperation is only rational when the benefits of cooperation are greater than those for competition. Such situations do not occur in single games involving the prisoner's dilemma, but only in infinitely repeated games. Because cooperation may not be rational from a game theoretic perspective, policy makers and the firms involved should work actively to increase the benefits of cooperation. We conclude that cooperation is best achieved by having activities coordinated either by a strong, aggressive company or a strategic hierarchical network. Our logic is that coordinating activities from one point will increase the likelihood that partners have the same information and thus minimize conflicts.

  • 9.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth.
    Hair, Joseph Franklin
    Kennesaw State University.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    To protect and attract: firms cooperating in nature-based tourism destinations2008Inngår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 159-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores solutions to potential communication problems that arise from cooperation in nature-based tourism (NBT) destinations. The questions posed in this article are: "When is a local firm in an NBT destination likely to cooperate with other firms?" and "How can cooperation be facilitated among NBT firms?" The primary focus of our research, therefore, is how to facilitate cooperation in NBT destinations. To do so, we first review different risk elements by describing a simulated scenario in which two participants (NBT firms) confront a prisoner's dilemma with different options—cooperation and competition. The outcome of that scenario demonstrates that cooperation is only rational when the benefits of cooperation are greater than those for competition. Such situations do not occur in single games involving the prisoner's dilemma, but only in infinitely repeated games. Because cooperation may not be rational from a game theoretic perspective, policy makers and the firms involved should work actively to increase the benefits of cooperation. We conclude that cooperation is best achieved by having activities coordinated either by a strong, aggressive company or a strategic hierarchical network. Our logic is that coordinating activities from one point will increase the likelihood that partners have the same information and thus minimize conflicts.

  • 10.
    Zhang, Jundan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Review: Making Sense of Reality: Culture and Perception in Everyday LifeInngår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Zhang, Jundan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Review: Making sense of reality: Culture and perception in everyday life2017Inngår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 16, nr 3, artikkel-id 171-172Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Zhang, Jundan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    The Irreducible Ethics in Reflexivity: Rethinking Reflexivity in Conducting Ethnography in Shangri-La, Southwest China2017Inngår i: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 19-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Because this research started in Shangri-La County in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Southwest China, I have had different people in different occasions ask me similar questions: Are you a Han or a Tibetan? Why do you want to do research in Shangri-La? These are indeed common questions to start with if one is studying a place and people that are different from one's own "origins." However, if we take such questions seriously and look deeper, we can see that they are not only posed on the condition of knowledge or assumptions, but also posed as a concern and sometimes curiosity on how the researcher may reflect upon her research as a political action and deal with relations with other people, especially in a situation that research seems to be institutionalized and the researcher appears to have more influence and power. In this article, I attempt to look into the contents and contexts of the recent "reflexive calls" in tourism studies and social research in general. Through critically questioning what "reflexivity" is and what context it has been applied, I argue that both the researcher and the researched subjects are a mixture of "selves," and they both go through the process of interpreting information and thus always attempt to negotiate with their surroundings. Therefore, I argue that we must rethink the current normalized ideas of "reflexivity" in social research, to examine/self-examine the researcher's intention or actual capacity to practice "reflexivity." Hence, the ethical way for me to follow in this research is to not claim myself being "reflexive," rather to act on it.

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