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  • 1.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hussain, Shakir
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Etnic origin, local labour markets and self-employment in Sweden: A multilevel approach2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 885-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the importance of ethnic origin and local labour markets conditions for self-employment propensities in Sweden. In line with previous research, we find differences in the self-employment rate between different immigrant groups as well as between different immigrant cohorts. We use a multilevel regression approach in order to quantify the role of ethnic background, point of time for immigration and local market conditions in order to further understand differences in self-employment rates between different ethnic groups. We arrive at the following: The self-employment decision is to a major extent guided by factors unobservable in register data. Such factors might be, that is, individual entrepreneurial ability and access to financial capital. The individual’s ethnic background and point of time for immigration play a smaller role for the self-employment decision but are more important than local labour market conditions.

  • 2.
    Algers, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301).
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301).
    Is it time to use activity-based urban transport models? A discussion of planning needs and modelling possibilities2005In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 767-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For some decades now, transport researchers have put considerable efforts into developing what is called activity-based approaches for modelling urban travel demand. The basic idea is that travel demand is derived from people's desires to take part in different activities. In particular, the interrelationships among different activities with respect to temporal and spatial constraints are in focus. It means that such models treat the activities and the travelling of the households with respect to where and when the activities can be carried out and how they may be scheduled, given characteristics of the households and potential opportunities, the transport networks and various institutional constraints. We discuss what demands we see on future travel demand models, with a focus on urban analysis. This discussion is somewhat biased towards what role activity-based models could play in meeting these demands. We then review in some detail three prominent and distinctly different representatives of operational activity-based models to give an indication of what new modelling possibilities they offer. Theoretical appeal, empirical validity, usefulness for planning, need for data and easiness of implementation are discussed. In the final section we draw some conclusions about the prospects of these models and of their descendants.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Lina
    et al.
    Department of Economics and Statistics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Department of Economics and Statistics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hussain, Shakir
    School of Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Ethnic origin, local labour markets and self-employment in Sweden: A Multilevel Approach2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 885-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the importance of ethnic origin and local labour markets conditions for self-employment propensities in Sweden. In line with previous research, we find differences in the self-employment rate between different immigrant groups as well as between different immigrant cohorts. We use a multilevel regression approach in order to quantify the role of ethnic background, point of time for immigration and local market conditions in order to further understand differences in self-employment rates between different ethnic groups. We arrive at the following: The self-employment decision is to a major extent guided by factors unobservable in register data. Such factors might be, that is, individual entrepreneurial ability and access to financial capital. The individual’s ethnic background and point of time for immigration play a smaller role for the self-employment decision but are more important than local labour market conditions.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Ejermo, Olof
    Lund University.
    How does accessibility to knowledge sources affect the innovativeness of corporations?: evidence from Sweden2005In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 741-765 Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the innovative performance of 130 Swedish corporations during 1993-1994. The number of patents per corporation is explained as a function of the accessibility to internal and external knowledge sources of each corporation. A coherent way of handling accessibility measures, within and between corporations located across regions, is introduced. We examine the relative importance of intra- and interregional knowledge sources from 1) the own corporation, 2) other corporations, and 3) universities. The results show that there is a positive relationship between the innovativeness of a corporation and its accessibility to university researchers within regions where own research groups are located. Good accessibility among the corporation's research units does not have any significant effects on the likelihood of generation of patents. Instead the size of the R&D staff of the corporation seems to be the most important internal factor. There is no indication that intraregional accessibility to other corporations' research is important for a corporation's innovativeness. However, there is some indication of reduced likelihood for own corporate patenting when other corporate R&D is located in nearby regions. This may reflect a negative effect from competition for R&D labor.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Ejermo, Olof
    How does Accessibility to Knowledge Sources Affect the Innovativeness of Corporations?: Evidence from Sweden2005In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 741-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the innovative performance of 130 Swedish corporations during 1993-1994. The number of patents per corporation is explained as a function of the accessibility to internal and external knowledge sources of each corporation. A coherent way of handling accessibility measures, within and between corporations located across regions, is introduced. We examine the relative importance of intra- and interregional knowledge sources from 1) the own corporation, 2) other corporations, and 3) universities. The results show that there is a positive relationship between the innovativeness of a corporation and its accessibility to university researchers within regions where own research groups are located. Good accessibility among the corporation's research units does not have any significant effects on the likelihood of generation of patents. Instead the size of the R&D staff of the corporation seems to be the most important internal factor. There is no indication that intraregional accessibility to other corporations' research is important for a corporation's innovativeness. However, there is some indication of reduced likelihood for own corporate patenting when other corporate R&D is located in nearby regions. This may reflect a negative effect from competition for R&D labor.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Grasjo, Urban
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Spatial dependence and the representation of space in empirical models2009In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 159-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-formed spatial model should most likely not produce spatial autocorrelation at all. From this perspective spatial autocorrelation is not (pure) statistical nuisance but a sign of that a model lacks a representation of an important economic phenomenon. In a Knowledge Production Function (KPF) context, this paper shows that a representation of space reflecting the potential of physical interaction between localities by means of accessibility variables on the "right-hand-side"aEuro"a simple alternative to spatial lag and spatial error which can be estimated by OLS-captures substantive spatial dependence. Results are verified with Monte Carlo simulations based on Anselin's (Int Reg Sci Rev 26(2):153-166, 2003) taxonomy of modelled and unmodelled effects. The analysis demonstrates that an accessibility representation of explanatory variables depict the network nature of spatial interaction, such that spatial dependence is actually modelled.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Gråsjö, Urban
    Spatial dependence and the representation of space in empirical models2009In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 159-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Gråsjö, Urban
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Division of Law, Politics and Economics.
    Spatial dependence and the representation of space in empirical models2009In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 159-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Samhällsekonomi.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Samhällsekonomi.
    Agglomeration and productivity: evidence from firm-level data2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 601-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do agglomerations stimulate productivity? An extensive literature on agglomeration economies, or urban increasing returns, has analyzed this question with aggregated spatial data. This paper estimates the relationship between agglomeration and productivity at the firm level using static and dynamic models. It makes use of a rich dataset comprising register information on all manufacturing firms in Sweden with 10 or more employees over the period 1997-2004. Three things emerge. First, firms located in larger regions are more productive when controlling for size, human capital, physical capital, ownership structure, import: and export, industry classification, and time trend. Second, results from dynamic panel estimations suggests a learning effect in that agglomeration enhances firms' productivity. Third, the role of agglomeration phenomena does not seem to have a clear coupling to firm size.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Thulin, Per
    Does spatial employment density spur inter-firm job switching?2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 245-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inter-firm job switching of workers is a much cited but seldom measured source of the productivity advantages of spatial employment density. It has been advanced as a conduit for localized knowledge flows as well as labor market matching efficiency. Using a matched employer–employee dataset for Sweden, we estimate the influence spatial employment density has on the probability of inter-firm job switching of private sector workers. Our estimates suggest that a doubling of employment density per square kilometer increases the probability that a random worker switches employer by 0.2 % points. The same effect is substantially higher for more skilled workers. While the effect of a doubling of density is limited, the actual differences in density across the regions in our data amount to a factor over 40, rendering differences in density an important explanation for regional variations in rates of inter-firm job switching.

  • 11. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Does spatial employment density spur inter-firm job switching?2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 245-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inter-firm job switching of workers is a much cited but seldom measured source of the productivity advantages of spatial employment density. It has been advanced as a conduit for localized knowledge flows as well as labor market matching efficiency. Using a matched employer-employee dataset for Sweden, we estimate the influence spatial employment density has on the probability of inter-firm job switching of private sector workers. Our estimates suggest that a doubling of employment density per square kilometer increases the probability that a random worker switches employer by 0.2 % points. The same effect is substantially higher for more skilled workers. While the effect of a doubling of density is limited, the actual differences in density across the regions in our data amount to a factor over 40, rendering differences in density an important explanation for regional variations in rates of inter-firm job switching.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Roland
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    The efficiency of Swedish regional policy2005In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 811-832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I evaluate the efficiency of Swedish regional policy. I analyze the government's regional policy goals and means as presented in Government Bills 1997/1998:62 and 2001/2002:4. In the light of the literature on where growth occurs as well as the results of the regional policy so far, the realism of the government's goal of "sustainable economic growth in the whole country" could be questioned. Subsidies to companies in problematic regions have uncertain or even negative effects. The government could therefore eliminate these subsidies and replace them with venture capital loans. It could also stop its subsidies to municipal housing companies for shutting down apartments. The positive effects of the government's tax and subsidy system for the municipalities, motivated by its distribution goal, come at the price of negative effects on incentives for a high national rate of growth. The government could replace this system with extended general subsidies. Investments in transportation projects that do not show a net benefit, such as the large Bothnia Railway in northern Sweden should be reconsidered. However, I find significant and systematic evidence that the government's investments in regional colleges, particularly in research, have been successful.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Roland
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH.
    Bo, Söderberg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Financing roads and railways with decentralized real estate taxes: the case of Sweden2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 839-853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roads and railways in Sweden are mainly financed with national government taxes. However, the regional distribution of benefits differs widely from that of tax payments. As a consequence, overspending is likely to occur. A condition for efficiency is that the collective of users should pay for such projects. Therefore, we propose a new regional order for financing projects: government expenditures for transportation projects should be transferred to regions as well as the real estate tax to finance them. We present estimates of the size of such expenditures and of the income from real estate taxes following decentralization to regions.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Roland
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Söderberg, B.
    Financing roads and railways with decentralized real estate taxes: The case of Sweden2012In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 839-853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roads and railways in Sweden are mainly financed with national government taxes. However, the regional distribution of benefits differs widely from that of tax payments. As a consequence, overspending is likely to occur. A condition for efficiency is that the collective of users should pay for such projects. Therefore, we propose a new regional order for financing projects: government expenditures for transportation projects should be transferred to regions as well as the real estate tax to finance them. We present estimates of the size of such expenditures and of the income from real estate taxes following decentralization to regions.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Roland
    et al.
    KTH.
    Söderberg, Bo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Real estate administration.
    Financing roads and railways with decentralized real estate taxes: the case of Sweden2012In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 839-853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roads and railways in Sweden are mainly financed with national government taxes. However, the regional distribution of benefits differs widely from that of tax payments. As a consequence, overspending is likely to occur. A condition for efficiency is that the collective of users should pay for such projects. Therefore, we propose a new regional order for financing projects: government expenditures for transportation projects should be transferred to regions as well as the real estate tax to finance them. We present estimates of the size of such expenditures and of the income from real estate taxes following decentralization to regions.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Åke E.
    et al.
    Jonkoping Univ, JIBS, Box 1026, S-55111 Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Johansson, Börje
    Jonkoping Univ, JIBS, Box 1026, S-55111 Jonkoping, Sweden.;Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Inside and outside the black box: organization of interdependencies2018In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 501-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production theory has remained substantially unchanged since the publication of the theory of production by Frisch (Theory of production, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1928; Nord 613 Tidskr Tek Okon 1:12-27, 1935). The theory is based on the idea of a firm deciding on the possible input and output combinations of a single unit of production. His theory was substantially copied in contributions by Carlson (A study on the pure theory of production, University of Chicago, Chicago, 1939) and Schneider (Einfuhrung in die Wirtschaftstheorie. 4 Bande, Mohr, Tubingen, 1947), and later by practically all textbooks in microeconomics. The idea is to model the firm as a black box in which a finite number of externally purchased inputs are transformed into a finite number of outputs to be sold in the market(s). Most of the time, the prices are externally determined. Often, the production process is summarized by some simplified production function as, for example, in the form of a CES function. Another and conceptually richer approach is the formulation of an activity analysis model. In the latter case, simple internal interdependencies can be included. In this paper, we indicate how internal interdependencies can also be modeled within a special CES framework. In recent decades, there has been a remarkable growth in the number of production units of firms such as IKEA, Walmart and Apple to name a few such global networking firms. Most of the analysis of these network firms has been modeled by logistics and other operations-research analysts (Simchi-Levi et al. 2008) and to a limited extent by researchers in business administration schools. Very little has been done in economics. We propose a modeling approach consistent with the microeconomic theory.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Åke E.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Inside and outside the black box: organization of interdependencies2018In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 501-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production theory has remained substantially unchanged since the publication of the theory of production by Frisch (Theory of production, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1928; Nord613 Tidskr Tek Økon 1:12–27, 1935). The theory is based on the idea of a firm deciding on the possible input and output combinations of a single unit of production. His theory was substantially copied in contributions by Carlson (A study on the pure theory of production, University of Chicago, Chicago, 1939) and Schneider (Einführung in die Wirtschaftstheorie. 4 Bände, Mohr, Tübingen, 1947), and later by practically all textbooks in microeconomics. The idea is to model the firm as a “black box” in which a finite number of externally purchased inputs are transformed into a finite number of outputs to be sold in the market(s). Most of the time, the prices are externally determined. Often, the production process is summarized by some simplified production function as, for example, in the form of a CES function. Another and conceptually richer approach is the formulation of an activity analysis model. In the latter case, simple internal interdependencies can be included. In this paper, we indicate how internal interdependencies can also be modeled within a special CES framework. In recent decades, there has been a remarkable growth in the number of production units of firms such as IKEA, Walmart and Apple to name a few such global networking firms. Most of the analysis of these network firms has been modeled by logistics and other operations-research analysts (Simchi-Levi et al. 2008) and to a limited extent by researchers in business administration schools. Very little has been done in economics. We propose a modeling approach consistent with the microeconomic theory. 

  • 18. Anderstig, C.
    et al.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Interregional allocation models of infrastructure investments1989In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 23, p. 287-298Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    The geography of innovation and entrepreneurship2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the special issue "The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship" in the Annals of Regional Science surveys a collection of nine papers which consider agglomeration economies and spatial heterogeneity of regions and firms through the lenses of innovation and entrepreneurship. They all make use of extensive and detailed data sources that enable models to provide a richer picture of how firms, industries and regions are affected by innovation and entrepreneurship but also how these entities shape and foster renewal. These factors include spatial concentration, industry composition, labor market characteristics, immigration, firm characteristics, R&D activities and R&D collaboration. The papers add to the understanding of the geography of innovation and entrepreneurship by suggesting alternative ways of identifying spillovers, combing and integrating internal and external knowledge sources, and by estimating the impact on innovation, new firm formation and growth.

  • 20.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The geography of innovation and entrepreneurship2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the special issue “The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship” in the Annals of Regional Science surveys a collection of nine papers which consider agglomeration economies and spatial heterogeneity of regions and firms through the lenses of innovation and entrepreneurship. They all make use of extensive and detailed data sources that enable models to provide a richer picture of how firms, industries and regions are affected by innovation and entrepreneurship but also how these entities shape and foster renewal. These factors include spatial concentration, industry composition, labor market characteristics, immigration, firm characteristics, R&D activities and R&D collaboration. The papers add to the understanding of the geography of innovation and entrepreneurship by suggesting alternative ways of identifying spillovers, combing and integrating internal and external knowledge sources, and by estimating the impact on innovation, new firm formation and growth.

  • 21.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Wallin, Tina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Access to banks and external capital acquisition: Perceived innovation obstacles2018In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 161-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine whether low access to banks is perceived as problematic when obtaining financial capital for innovation activities. Data on innovation obstacles from the Swedish Community Innovation Survey are combined with geo-coded data at the firm level, which allows us to proxy access to external capital by the Euclidian distance from each firm to its nearest bank and the supply within a radius of five kilometres. The results indicate that both a longer distance to the nearest bank and fewer banks in the vicinity are related to experiencing greater difficulties in obtaining external financial capital for innovations.

  • 22.
    Bergkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Regional valuation of infrastructure and transport attributes for Swedish road freight2001In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 547-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is it possible to identify regional differences among shippers in their valuation of infrastructure improvements? In this study, the question is analysed using a random utility approach, where parameters are estimated by a logit model. Data consist of a Swedish stated-preference study from 1992. The results indicate that regional differences exist, but that a considerable heterogeneity in the empirical data means that in some cases the results are not robust. However, when industrial mix, shipping distance, and goods values are held constant, the analysis still indicates the existence of regional differences. Independently of the limitations in the results, the study has implications for any infrastructure benefit analysis where parameters from spatial averages are used. The results are based on short-term decisions, and one should recognise that parameters may vary in the mid- and long-term.

  • 23.
    Berglund, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Brännäs, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Plants' entry and exit in Swedish municipalities2001In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 431-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants' entry and exit behaviour in Swedish municipalities are studied within a fixed-effect, integer-valued autoregressive model. Based on eight industrial sectors, 1985-1993, and all municipalities, models are estimated by a generalized method of moment estimator. Influences on entry and exit are systematic and spatially as well as temporally variable. Responses to explanatory variables differ between sectors. Average income, local unemployment and higher education are found to be important determinants of both entry and exit across sectors.

  • 24.
    Birkelöf, Lena Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Exploring differences in expenditure for the functionally impaired: neighborhood interaction and the federal structure2010In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 185-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to study the determinants of the differences in expenditure on services for functionally impaired individuals among municipalities in Sweden. Expenditure per capita differs greatly across municipalities, even when accounting for the nature of the service. A spatial autoregressive model is used to test whether the decisions on the expenditure level in a neighboring municipality affect the municipality’s own expenditure. The results show that a positive spatial interaction exists among neighbors. However, when controlling for level differences among counties the spatial interaction coefficient becomes negative although not significantly determined. Therefore, the positive interaction first found can be interpreted either as a result of differences in the way county councils diagnose individuals or due to interaction or mimicking among the neighbors belonging to the same county council.

  • 25.
    Bjerke, Lina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Patterns of innovation and collaboration in small and large firms2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 221-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the patterns of innovation and collaboration by using unique regional survey data on more than 600 Swedish firms. The data also include the smallest firms, which have been largely neglected in the existing literature on innovations. In the context of collaboration, however, small firms are of particular interest because external interactions and joint projects can be expected to play a very central role in innovation processes in firms where internal resources are very limited. The results show that the probability of innovation is higher among collaborating firms, yet not all types of collaborations matter. Extra-regional collaborations appear as most important in promoting firm innovation, and collaboration seems to be most favourable when the partners involved have some organizational or knowledge relatedness. Small firms, in particular, seem to gain from such extra-regional linkages.

  • 26.
    Bjerke, Lina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Mellander, Charlotta
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Moving home again? Never! The locational choices of graduates in Sweden2017In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 707-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two major challenges in Europe’s rural areas are an aging population and the diminishing share of human capital. While this pattern has been occurring for a long time, the effects are becoming acutely visible and impactful. The long-term loss of younger individuals has in many ways “drained” the labor market and the economic market power of rural areas. This is the context of our research: the locational choice of university graduates from an urban–rural perspective. Using micro data covering the entire Swedish population, we identify all university graduates from the year 2001. We analyze them with respect to whether they live in a rural or urban region before starting university and where they live after graduation at two points in time: 5 and 10 years. We use a series of multinomial logit regressions to determine what factors affect their short-term and long-term choices of location. We find that having children is one of the most influential factors for moving back home after graduation, irrespective of type of region. We find only minor differences between the two time perspectives.

  • 27. Blum, U.
    et al.
    Haynes, K
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    The Regional and Urban Effects of High Speed Trains: Introduction to the Special Issue1997In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Firm entry in the Swedish wholesale trade sector: dDoes market definition matter?2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 703-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firm entry into local markets has often been studied using administrative areas such as municipalities as the assumed relevant markets. However, administrative areas and the actual relevant markets based on local demand for firms’ products often do not coincide, which could bias the results of studies treating administrative areas as the relevant markets. Based on a behavioral assumption regarding how retailers act when purchasing products from wholesale trade firms, we create alternative markets using Voronoi diagrams. We then compare the empirical results of investigating the determinants of firm entry using municipalities as the relevant markets with the results obtained using Voronoi markets. The results indicate that, in both cases, the same variables are statistically significant in affecting entry, though the estimated effects differ in size.

  • 29.
    Bäckström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), 164 90 Stockholm.
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Commuting and timing of retirement2016In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 125-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interregional commuting is an important feature of labour supply and regional labour market adjustment. In this study, we examine the effect of long-distance commuting (LDC) on timing of retirement. Previous research indicates negative health effects and substantial disutility of commuting. Potentially, this may affect the labour supply of older workers via early retirement. Longitudinal population register data from Sweden on employed older workers are used for semi-parametric estimation of survival in the labour force. The results for men indicate shorter survival in the labour force/ earlier retirement for LDCs, primarily among men with high education. For women, there is no evidence of LDC being associated with early retirement. For women with high education, there are indications of longer survival in the labour force among the commuters. The seemingly contradictory results for the highly educated may be due to gender differences in commuting distances and socio-economic attributes of commuters.

  • 30.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Forecasting demand for high-speed rail2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31. Caragliu, Andrea
    et al.
    Del Bo, Chiara F.
    Kourtit, Karima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Nijkamp, Peter
    The winner takes it all: forward-looking cities and urban innovation2016In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 617-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a new perspective on urban innovation and enters the debate on the contribution of non-material growth-enhancing factors to the socio-economic performance of cities. Because of the often widespread availability of "hard" production factors, most cities increasingly compete for attracting non-material production factors whose role, in light of the more widespread diffusion of physical production factors, may ultimately determine their long-run economic success. Against this background, our paper focuses on a relatively neglected non-material factor, viz. urban risk attitude. In fact, cities offer the competitive and challenging environment where individual characteristics of actors may enjoy their highest returns; risk-loving and innovative individuals may sort in large urban agglomerations. The paper tests whether cities attracting such individuals and, thus, enjoying a more positive and open attitude towards risk, tend to innovate more. The empirical analysis of the paper is based on the most recent (2008/2009) wave of the European Values Study. Micro- data on about 80,000 individuals located in different EU urban areas are used to calculate city-specific attitudes towards risk that go beyond individual characteristics. This city-level risk attitude variable is then used within a knowledge production function approach, as an explanatory variable for urban innovation (patent applications to the European Patent Office) along with more traditional knowledge determinants (human capital and R&D expenditures). Our empirical results show that cities with a more open and positive attitude towards risk ceteris paribus also tend to be more innovative. In addition, we find that, unlike traditional knowledge production factors, this factor faces no decreasing returns. While further research might be beneficial in order to more precisely pinpoint the extent of such effects, our findings appear to be robust and suggest a positive role for the urban attitude towards risky endeavours in explaining urban innovation.

  • 32.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Elert, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Start-ups and firm in-migration: evidence from the Swedish wholesale industry2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 471-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a data set covering 13,471 Swedish limited liability firms in the Swedish wholesale industries during 2000–2004 to ascertain the determinants of new start-ups and of in-migration of firms. Access to a large harbor, international airport or large railroad classification yard in the municipality nearly triples the number of start-ups and increases the expected number of in-migrating firms with 53 %. The presence of a university, many educated workers and low local taxes are also associated with more start-ups and firm in-migration.

  • 33.
    Dzansi, James
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Do Remittance Inflows Promote Manufacturing Growth?2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 89-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies show that manufacturing growth is fundamental to sustained economic growth and development. However, recent Dutch disease perspective studies suggest that remittance inflows have the potential to impede manufacturing growth of the recipient economies. This paper contributes to the literature by investigating the effect of remittance inflows on manufacturing growth directly. The main claim of the paper is that the Dutch disease perspective identifies only one of the several channels through which remittance inflows impacts on manufacturing growth and hence unlikely to reflect the ultimate impact of remittances on manufacturing growth. This study uses the 3-digit level manufacturing data on a sample of 40 remittance-dependent economies over the period from 1991 to 2004. The empirical results indicate positive and robust effect of remittance inflows on manufacturing growth. This finding implies that one of the mechanisms through which remittance inflows could lift standards of living in poor countries is via the impact on manufacturing growth.

  • 34.
    Edmark, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Location choices of Swedish independent schools2019In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 219-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the location decisions of the Swedish privately provided independent schools. It makes use of the great expansion of such schools following the 1992 independent school reform, to study the local determinants of independent school entry. The analysis thus provides evidence on the location choices made by private agents in a mixed market setting. The modifiable areal unit problem is addressed by employing a set of alternative measures for local school markets, constructed from highly detailed geographical data on schools and students. The results suggest that independent schools were more likely to choose locations with a larger share of students with high-educated parents; a higher student population density; and a lower share of students with Swedish-born parents. There is also some evidence that independent schools were less likely to locate in municipalities with a left-wing political majority.

  • 35.
    Ekberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    SUR estimation of earnings differentials between three generations of immigrants and natives2010In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 705-720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a Seemingly Unrelated Regressions estimation of earnings differentials between three generations of immigrants and natives in Sweden. The results show that male first-generation immigrants were at an earnings advantage compared to male natives. Among male second-generation immigrants the earnings differentials compared to natives were very small, while third-generation immigrants were at an earnings disadvantage compared to natives. The same pattern was found among females. Thus, the results indicate that ethnic differences in earnings are likely to occur even after several generations spent in a country and that the problem of immigrant assimilation that exists in many European countries may last for several generations.

  • 36.
    Elert, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    What determines entry? Evidence from Sweden2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 55-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I examined what conditions affected the entry of Swedish limited liability firms 2000–2008, while making a distinction between regular entrants and those that survive for at least 2 years. I used a dataset that makes it possible to trace entry geographically as well as in what industry it occurs down to the 5-digit NACE level. Results suggest that the conditions influencing regular entry were similar to those influencing surviving entry. Political variables, e.g., municipal tax rate and the ideology of local rule, were of limited importance. Meanwhile, municipalities with industries with high minimum efficient scale of production or high market concentration rates were considerably less likely to see new firm formation. Substantially, more entry occurred in municipalities with high-income and a well-educated population. The importance of the level of education appears stronger for surviving entrants than for regular entrants, pointing to the importance of human capital.

  • 37.
    Elert, Niklas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Start-ups and firm in-migration: Evidence from the Swedish wholesale and trade industry2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 479-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a data set covering 13,471 Swedish limited liability firms in theSwedish wholesale industries during 2000–2004 to ascertain the determinants of newstart-ups and of in-migration of firms. Access to a large harbor, international airport orlarge railroad classification yard in the municipality nearly triples the number of start-ups and increases the expected number of in-migrating firms with 53%. The presenceof a university, many educated workers and low local taxes are also associated withmore start-ups and firm in-migration.

  • 38.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure and Planning.
    Road pricing with limited information and heterogeneous users: A successful case2001In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 595-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since strictly optimal (first-best) road pricing policies require information that we will probably never have, it is important to investigate what can be done under more restrictive assumptions as to what information is available. One such case is examined in this paper, where the main restrictive assumptions are that all users have the same choice set and that all alternatives have the same monetary cost. Individuals have utility functions with constant marginal utilities of time and money, but these marginal utilities vary across individuals, and are assumed to be unobservable. We show that for this model, any toll reform that reduces aggregate travel time and redistributes the toll revenues equally to all users makes everyone better off. This holds regardless of the distribution of marginal utilities of time and money, and for any road network.

  • 39. Eliasson, K.
    et al.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Attributes influencing self-employment propensity in urban and rural Sweden2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 479-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies aiming at promoting entrepreneurship are in general formed on national levels, without any consideration of differences between urban and rural areas. Usually, cities are provided with better and more modern infrastructure; cities have better supply of physical, financial and human capital, and connected services, and cities have a more modern industrial structure in the sense that their shares of growing industry are higher. Thus, it is possible that policies for entrepreneurship, which in general are designed for urban areas, might be less effective when they are implemented in rural areas. A first step to test the validity of this hypothesis could be to investigate the differences between cities and countryside regarding self-employment propensity and factors affecting the choice to become self-employed. Based on an exceptionally rich data set containing very detailed socio-economic and geographical information on all residents in Sweden, this paper examines: (a) the scope and structure of self-employment propensity in urban and rural areas, respectively, in Sweden, divided into full-time and part-time self-employment, and (b) the importance of a number of attributes that may have an impact on individuals' propensity to start an enterprise in the two area types. Variables being tested are connected to demography and education, labor market status, plant characteristics, self-employment experience, financial resources, family links and regional attributes. The main results indicate that self-employment entry is influenced by the same factors in the same way in urban and rural areas. However, countryside's industrial structure has a smaller share of growing industries. The fact that countryside's startups follow the existing industrial structure means that this "modernity gap" between densely built up areas and countryside remains. From a policy perspective, this must be seen as a serious problem for countryside's growth potential. This gives an argument for designing a special entrepreneurship policy for the countryside in order to increase its share of growing trades and thereby modernize its industrial structure.

  • 40.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Attributes influencing self-employment propensity in urban and rural Sweden2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 479-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies aiming at promoting entrepreneurship are in general formed on national levels, without any consideration of differences between urban and rural areas. Usually, cities are provided with better and more modern infrastructure; cities have better supply of physical, financial and human capital, and connected services, and cities have a more modern industrial structure in the sense that their shares of growing industry are higher. Thus, it is possible that policies for entrepreneurship, which in general are designed for urban areas, might be less effective when they are implemented in rural areas. A first step to test the validity of this hypothesis could be to investigate the differences between cities and countryside regarding self-employment propensity and factors affecting the choice to become self-employed. Based on an exceptionally rich data set containing very detailed socio-economic and geographical information on all residents in Sweden, this paper examines: (a) the scope and structure of self-employment propensity in urban and rural areas, respectively, in Sweden, divided into full-time and part-time self-employment, and (b) the importance of a number of attributes that may have an impact on individuals' propensity to start an enterprise in the two area types. Variables being tested are connected to demography and education, labor market status, plant characteristics, self-employment experience, financial resources, family links and regional attributes. The main results indicate that self-employment entry is influenced by the same factors in the same way in urban and rural areas. However, countryside's industrial structure has a smaller share of growing industries. The fact that countryside's startups follow the existing industrial structure means that this "modernity gap" between densely built up areas and countryside remains. From a policy perspective, this must be seen as a serious problem for countryside's growth potential. This gives an argument for designing a special entrepreneurship policy for the countryside in order to increase its share of growing trades and thereby modernize its industrial structure.

  • 41.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Westlund, Hans
    Attributes influencing self-employment propensity in urban and rural Sweden2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 479-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies aiming at promoting entrepreneurship are in general formed on national levels, without any consideration of differences between urban and rural areas. Usually, cities are provided with better and more modern infrastructure; cities have better supply of physical, financial and human capital, and connected services, and cities have a more modern industrial structure in the sense that their shares of growing industry are higher. Thus, it is possible that policies for entrepreneurship, which in general are designed for urban areas, might be less effective when they are implemented in rural areas. A first step to test the validity of this hypothesis could be to investigate the differences between cities and countryside regarding self-employment propensity and factors affecting the choice to become self-employed. Based on an exceptionally rich data set containing very detailed socio-economic and geographical information on all residents in Sweden, this paper examines: (a) the scope and structure of self-employment propensity in urban and rural areas, respectively, in Sweden, divided into full-time and part-time self-employment, and (b) the importance of a number of attributes that may have an impact on individuals' propensity to start an enterprise in the two area types. Variables being tested are connected to demography and education, labor market status, plant characteristics, self-employment experience, financial resources, family links and regional attributes. The main results indicate that self-employment entry is influenced by the same factors in the same way in urban and rural areas. However, countryside's industrial structure has a smaller share of growing industries. The fact that countryside's startups follow the existing industrial structure means that this "modernity gap" between densely built up areas and countryside remains. From a policy perspective, this must be seen as a serious problem for countryside's growth potential. This gives an argument for designing a special entrepreneurship policy for the countryside in order to increase its share of growing trades and thereby modernize its industrial structure.

  • 42.
    Florida, Richard
    et al.
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Mellander, Charlotta
    Jönköping University.
    Holgersson, Thomas
    Jönköping University.
    Up in the air: the role of airports for regional economic development2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 197-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our research examines the role of airports in regional development. Specifically, we examine two things: (1) the factors associated with whether or not a metro will have an airport, and (2) the effect of airport activities on regional economic development. Based on multiple regression analysis for U.S. metros, our research generates four key findings. First, airports are more likely to be located in larger metros with higher shares of cultural workers and warmer winters. Second, airports add significantly to regional development measured as economic output per capita. Third, the effect of airports on regional development occurs through two channels—their capacity to move both people and cargo, with the former being somewhat more important. Fourth, the impact of airports on regional development varies with their size and scale.

  • 43.
    Florida, Richard
    et al.
    Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.
    Mellander, Charlotta
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, The Prosperity Institute of Scandinavia (PIS). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Holgersson, Thomas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Statistics.
    Up in the air: The role of airports for regional economic development2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 197-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our research examines the role of airports in regional development. Specifically, we examine two things: (1) the factors associated with whether or not a metro will have an airport, and (2) the effect of airport activities on regional economic development. Based on multiple regression analysis for U.S. metros, our research generates four key findings. First, airports are more likely to be located in larger metros with higher shares of cultural workers and warmer winters. Second, airports add significantly to regional development measured as economic output per capita. Third, the effect of airports on regional development occurs through two channels—their capacity to move both people and cargo, with the former being somewhat more important. Fourth, the impact of airports on regional development varies with their size and scale.

  • 44.
    Florida, Richard
    et al.
    Martin Prosperity Institute, Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, Canada.
    Mellander, Charlotta
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Stolarick, Kevin
    OCAD University, Toronto, Canada.
    Human capital in cities and suburbs2016In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 91-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on talent or human capital generally focuses on the metro level and neglects the relative effects of its distribution between center cities and their surrounding suburbs. This research examines the connection between human capital in urban centers (defined here as principal cities) versus suburbs on the economic performance of US metropolitan areas. The findings indicate that this distribution of human capital has significant connection to metro economic performance, with suburban human capital being more strongly related to performance than human capital in the principal city. This result also varies by metro size.

  • 45.
    Fukao, Kyoji
    et al.
    Hitotsubashi University, Kunitachi, Japan.
    Kravtsova, Victoria
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Nakajima, Kentaro
    Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.
    How important is geographical agglomeration to factory efficiency in Japan's manufacturing sector?2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 659-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the productivity spillovers from efficient factories have been investigated using factory-level data of Japan's Census of Manufactures. The following three steps have been performed by estimating: first, efficiency of each factory using a nonparametric data envelopment analysis model for each industry, second, geographical distances to the most efficient factory in the prefecture and Japan overall are third, determinants of factories' performance. Results suggest that clustering occurs in each industry and efficient factories concentrate in certain regions. The share of efficient firms in total firms is particularly high in the Chubu and Tohoku regions. For many industries closeness to the most efficient factories plays a statistically significant positive role in the efficiency of manufacturing factories in Japan. However, this is not the case in high-tech industries.

  • 46.
    Gerdes, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Does immigration induce native flight from public schools?2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 645-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For more than a century, parents in Denmark could enroll their children into privately operated free schools. Results from this study indicate an increase in native Danes' propensity to enroll their children in free schools as the share of children with immigrant background becomes larger in their municipality of residence. The effect is most pronounced in small, and medium-sized municipalities, while it seems absent in larger municipalities. The study explores changes in the immigrant population in Danish municipalities 1992-2004, a period marked by a substantial influx of refugees, where a state-sponsored placement policy restricted their initial choice of residence.

  • 47.
    Hacker, R Scott
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    The Impact of International Capital Mobility on the Volatility of Labor Income2000In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 157-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If project risk is positively related to project return, then the greater diversification available from international capital mobility also leads to more investment in the riskier projects with high expected returns. This results in internationally immobile laborers facing greater risk in the demand for their services, since these services are provided to riskier projects and the laborers do not receive the diversification benefit that capitalists do. This paper develops a model which shows that when there is more capital mobility between two countries, there is a tendency for both countries to experience an increase in the volatility of labor income under perfect wage flexibility, and this impact is stronger in the country less richly endowed with labor and financial wealth.

  • 48.
    Hacker, R Scott
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Einarsson, Henrik
    The Pattern, Pull, and Potential of Baltic Sea Trade2003In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 15-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the current conditions of trade in the Baltic Sea region and considers the strength of trade affinities between countries and country groups within that region. The evidence supports a strong affinity between Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to the Baltic Nordic countries. The paper also considers how sensitive Swedish exports are to per capita GDP of importing countries and how that varies across industries. Some of the evidence supports a positive relation between product differentiation and the per-capita GDP sensitivity. Among this evidence is the finding that for Swedish exports, distance sensitivity and per-capita GDP sensitivity are negatively related.

  • 49.
    Ho, Cynthia Sin Tian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    The Effect of Bank Branch Closure on New Firm Formation: The Swedish CaseIn: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the effect of local bank branch closures on new firm formation in Sweden is analysed using a panel database that captures the ge- ographical locations of all Swedish bank branches from 2000 to 2013. Previous research has shown that the farther a firm is located away from the bank, the higher the monitoring costs will be for the banks. Furthermore, an increase in distance will also result in an increase in information asymmetry because of the banks’ eroded ability to collect and analyse soft information. Due to high risks associated with the lack of information and uncertainty, banks might not be as willing to extend credits to a distant firm compared to a nearer firm. Using spatial econometric analysis at a municipal level, it is shown that bank proximity to firms, firm density, establishment size and human capital are vital for new firm formation in Sweden, after accounting for possible reverse causality. From the random effects spatial panel model, the increase in distance to the banks due to bank branch clo- sure is shown to negatively affect new firm formation. Furthermore, the presence of neighbourhood spillover effects is evidenced through Moran’s I statistics, which means that the omission of spatial effects in the analysis would have resulted in biased estimates.

  • 50.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Hovsepyan, Vardan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Correction to: The income return to entrepreneurship: theoretical model and outcomes for Swedish regions2018In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 61, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The original version of this article unfortunately contains an error in Appendix A.

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