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  • 1.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Uncover the theory practice gap in Swedish transport planning: an interdisciplinary approach2020In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the gap between planning theory and planning practice in Swedish infrastructure planning. Planning theory was of limited relevance in order to understand the planning processes and the documents. Instead sociology, political theory and philosophy appeared as useful theoretical resources. Bourdieu’s theories on social and cultural capital, and ‘the feel for the game’ were useful in understanding planning practice. In order to develop communicative planning theory into a useful asset for planning practice the system perspective and the emphasis on public spheres from Habermas communicative action theory, critical realism and political pluralism might well serve as theoretical point of departures.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    'Green cities' going greener? Local environmental policy-making and place branding in the 'Greenest City in Europe'2016In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 1197-1215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of cities around the world have taken advantage of their green image of the purpose of place branding. In the research literature, it is suggested that these practices are motivated by place-based competition over financial and social capital, combined with more holistic motives of sustainable urban development. However, although an increasing number of green cities are engaged in place branding, few studies have researched the impact of place branding on environmental policy-making in a city, building up to the question: how is local environmental policy-making affected by green place branding? Addressing this issue, this paper critically investigates how the continuity of local environmental policy-making is affected by place-branding practices. To tackle this task, the paper firstly develops an analytical framework aiming to understand how green cities emerge and become famous based on their policy-making. Secondly, using that framework, this paper present an in-depth case study of a city branding itself as the 'Greenest City in Europe'. Drawing on the growing body of work on green cities, this paper investigates the 'understudied' practice of using policy for the purpose of place branding as well as the impact of place branding 'on the environment'.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Ida
    Stockholms University, Department of Human Geography, Stockholm, Sweden.
    'Green cities' going greener?: Local environmental policy-making and place branding in the 'Greenest City in Europe'2016In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 1197-1215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of cities around the world have taken advantage of their green image of the purpose of place branding. In the research literature, it is suggested that these practices are motivated by place-based competition over financial and social capital, combined with more holistic motives of sustainable urban development. However, although an increasing number of green cities are engaged in place branding, few studies have researched the impact of place branding on environmental policy-making in a city, building up to the question: how is local environmental policy-making affected by green place branding? Addressing this issue, this paper critically investigates how the continuity of local environmental policy-making is affected by place-branding practices. To tackle this task, the paper firstly develops an analytical framework aiming to understand how green cities emerge and become famous based on their policy-making. Secondly, using that framework, this paper present an in-depth case study of a city branding itself as the 'Greenest City in Europe'. Drawing on the growing body of work on green cities, this paper investigates the 'understudied' practice of using policy for the purpose of place branding as well as the impact of place branding 'on the environment'.

  • 4.
    Asheim, Bjørn
    et al.
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Moodysson, Jerker
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Tödtling, Franz
    Institute for Regional Development and Environment, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Austria.
    Constructing regional advantage: Towards state-of-the-art regional innovation system policies in Europe?2011In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 1133-1139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The core arguments of the constructed regional advantage (CRA) approach stem from the work that started in Brussels in an expert group appointed by DG Research of the EU Commission. In 2006, DG Research launched the final report on "Constructing Regional Advantage" as the new way of taking on and combating new challenges and problems of globalization for European regions (Asheim et al., 2006). CRA means turning comparative advantage into competitive advantage through an explicit policy push promoting a Chamberlinian monopolistic competition based on product differentiation creating unique products, an assumption which was fundamental for Porter's cluster approach also. While building on the lessons from the dynamic principle of the theory of competitive advantage (Porter, 1990, 1998) as well as of the innovation system approach (Lundvall, 2008) emphasizing that competitiveness can be influenced by innovation policies and supporting regulatory and institutional frameworks, the constructed advantage approach recognizes the important interplay between industrial and institutional dynamics as well as calls for greater attention to multi-level governance. What is especially highlighted is the role of a proactive public-private partnership and impact of the public sector and public policy support by acknowledging to a greater extent the importance of institutional complementarities in knowledge economies. This approach represents an improved understanding of key regional development challenges as well as a better anticipation and response to the problems by addressing system failures of lack of connectivity in regional innovation systems (RIS).

  • 5.
    Benneworth, Paul
    et al.
    Center for Higher Education Policy Studies, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.
    Coenen, Lars
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Moodysson, Jerker
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Asheim, Bjørn
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Exploring the multiple roles of Lund University in strengthening Scania's regional innovation system: Towards institutional learning?2009In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 17, no 11, p. 1645-1664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities are increasingly seen as potential contributors to regional innovative capacity by serving as local knowledge conduits, bringing global state-of-the-art science and technology into the region. In practice, however, more active university engagement with their regional innovation systems is not as straightforward as it may seem. The article uses examples from a successful case by which less successful regions could be inspired. Our analysis considers how various forms of technological learning intersecting within Lund University around three distinct sectoral engagement efforts have been built up and how this created new structural regional innovation capacity.

  • 6.
    Berg, Su-Hyun
    University of Kiel.
    Creative Cluster Evolution: The case of the film and TV industries in Seoul, South Korea2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 1993-2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can the concept of co-evolution help to analyse and explain the dynamics of creative industries? This article tackles the question by investigating the film and TV cluster in Seoul, South Korea. The analysis of the 35 semi-structured interviews confirms the dynamics of the film and TV industries in Korea. First, Hallyu began with the export of Korean TV drama series across East Asia. The state deregulation and neo-liberal reforms during the 1990s in Korea boosted an explosion of the export of the Korean film and TV industry. Second, the core of the film and TV production is concentrated within Seoul, while dispersion of those industries occurred in Gyeong-gi province. Third, from an institutional perspective, tensions between the central government and the film and TV industry can be observed, which have been intensifying since 2006. This paper concludes that particularly co-evolution could potentially be an important concept to explain and analyse dynamics in creative industries.

  • 7.
    Berg, Su-Hyun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Department of Geography, University of Kiel, Germany.
    Creative Cluster Evolution: The case of the film and TV industries in Seoul, South Korea2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 1993-2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can the concept of co-evolution help to analyse and explain the dynamics of creative industries? This article tackles the question by investigating the film and TV cluster in Seoul, South Korea. The analysis of the 35 semi-structured interviews confirms the dynamics of the film and TV industries in Korea. First, Hallyu began with the export of Korean TV drama series across East Asia. The state deregulation and neo-liberal reforms during the 1990s in Korea boosted an explosion of the export of the Korean film and TV industry. Second, the core of the film and TV production is concentrated within Seoul, while dispersion of those industries occurred in Gyeong-gi province. Third, from an institutional perspective, tensions between the central government and the film and TV industry can be observed, which have been intensifying since 2006. This paper concludes that particularly co-evolution could potentially be an important concept to explain and analyse dynamics in creative industries.

  • 8.
    Berggren, Eva
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Lindholm Dahlstrand, Åsa
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Knowledge Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Research (KEEN).
    Creating an entrepreneurial region: Two waves of academic spin-offs from Halmstad University2009In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 1171-1189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a Swedish case study of the regional effects of academic spin-offs.It is based on empirical data from Halmstad University and the Halmstad region, on the west coast ofSweden. The Halmstad case functions as an illustration of co-existing territorial and functionalrationales, where a “rurban” lifestyle is combined with an increasingly “pracademic”knowledge. Spillover effects of university research (directly as well as indirectly) in the form ofacademic spin-offs have been traced over time. In doing so, we are able to identify two waves ofacademic entrepreneurship with direct and indirect regional effects. These waves contribute tothe strengthening of the regional entrepreneurship and the attractiveness of the region. Theestablishment and (early) actions of the university can be seen as a stone that was thrown in thewater, causing several waves to appear in the region. Whether these waves will be reinforcedenough to create an entrepreneurial region, or just slowly disappear as rings on the water, alsodepends on the creation of an absorptive capacity and construction of the regional innovationsystem.

  • 9.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Municipal Contact Centres: A Slower Approach Towards Sustainable Local Development by E-government2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 2292-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is Swedish government policy to use information and communication technologies to increase sustainability. This has implications for planning and local organization of communities. In the municipalities where most public services are provided, there are growing numbers of local contact centres (CCs) aiming to meet citizens’ needs for information and coordination of public services. The CCs localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice focusing on needs and demands of individual citizens and their unique situations. The municipalities hereby have to plan for service provision in new ways to meet more individualized needs that are also in line with improved sustainability. CCs are both local offices and advanced services on-line, as e-governmental services. E-government could be considered fast government, but this article aims to turn that obvious first impression upside down and discuss how e-government can slow down and make services more local, personalized and sustainable. Theoretically we take off from a time-geographical modelling of slow processes that has implication for slower, more sustainable development. Based on in-depth case studies of municipal CCs we argue that they are tools towards improved sustainability and localism, and that they are “slowing up” administrative processes. In particular, we point out that e-government has a potential to plan for, and promote, sustainability and slow local development.

  • 10.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Division of Media and Design.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Municipal Contact Centres: A Slower Approach Towards Sustainable Local Development by E-government2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 2292-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is Swedish government policy to use information and communication technologies to increase sustainability. This has implications for planning and local organization of communities. In the municipalities where most public services are provided, there are growing numbers of local contact centres (CCs) aiming to meet citizens’ needs for information and coordination of public services. The CCs localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice focusing on needs and demands of individual citizens and their unique situations. The municipalities hereby have to plan for service provision in new ways to meet more individualized needs that are also in line with improved sustainability. CCs are both local offices and advanced services on-line, as e-governmental services. E-government could be considered fast government, but this article aims to turn that obvious first impression upside down and discuss how e-government can slow down and make services more local, personalized and sustainable. Theoretically we take off from a time-geographical modelling of slow processes that has implication for slower, more sustainable development. Based on in-depth case studies of municipal CCs we argue that they are tools towards improved sustainability and localism, and that they are “slowing up” administrative processes. In particular, we point out that e-government has a potential to plan for, and promote, sustainability and slow local development.

  • 11.
    Bill, Frederic
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Olaison, Lena
    The Incubus Paradox: Attempts at Foundational Rethinking of the “SME Support Genre”2009In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 1135-1152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the lacking scientific support regarding efficiency, public authorities launch and owner-managers' participate in public support programmes. Previous research has failed to address this enigma and dissolve the underlying paradox. Drawing on mythical inspiration, this article offers a framework grounded on the medieval demonic character of incubus/subbuci, by means of which this incubus paradox is analytically treated. Empirically, an indirect approach based on inserting a fictive case into a general focus-group method is adopted, thus avoiding leading questions. Two images of the small-business support syndrome emerge from the proposed mythical framework: The first one, which could be named just “incubus” ascribes malevolence to the helpers and a good deal of naivety on the part of the support programme participants. The second one, the paradox, suggests that there will be no measurable growth effect of support measures since none of the stakeholders identified in this discourse intend to actually foster development and growth in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The field material indicates that these two images jointly provide a comprehensive understanding, that there is not an incubus and a victim but rather several incubuses operating within the confines of a support programme. Thus, instead of claiming that the support agents are malevolent, the conclusion is that they have their own agenda. Since our inquiry, in addition indicates that this is true also for the participating SME representatives, they can hardly be seen as victims in the traditional sense. They rather exploit an arena where it is possible to strengthen one's own identity as responsible business persons bringing financial support to their region.

  • 12.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Thellbro, Camilla
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Svensson, Johan
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Per
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Between protocol and reality: Swedish municipal comprehensive planning2018In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 35-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial planning using a landscape approach has been recognized as being essential for reconciling ecological, cultural and socioeconomic dimensions in sustainable development (SuD). Although embraced as a concept, there is a lack of planning tools capable of incorporating multi-level, multifunctional and multi-sectoral perspectives, especially in a rural context. The departure point in this paper is the legal requirements for municipal comprehensive planning (MCP) in Sweden and an e-mail survey about incentives, stakeholder involvement, policy integration and implementation in MCP in all 15 Swedish mountain municipalities. The purpose of this explorative study is to examine whether MCP could be a tool in planning for SuD. Results indicate a general lack of resources and a low status of MCP that affect, and even limit, stakeholder involvement, policy integration and implementation. However, legal requirements for MCP are targeted at SuD, and municipal personnel responsible for planning appreciate the potential of MCP. Therefore, there is potential to develop the MCP into an effective landscape planning tool. To accomplish this, the status of an active planning process has to be raised, the mandate of the local planning agency has to be secured, and residents and land users have to be involved throughout the planning process.

  • 13.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Tourism as a vehicle for regional development in peripheral areas – myth or reality?: A longitudinal case study of Swedish regions2016In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 1788-1805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the contemporary so-called ‘competition state era’, many rural and peripheral regions are in decline. Tourism is increasingly viewed as being able to alleviate and rejuvenate regions that are facing economic difficulties. The European Union has launched several programmes with the goal of stimulating growth and employment in peripheral areas. These programmes are often used to support tourism development projects. In this paper, a longitudinal analysis of spatial changes in Swedish tourism is conducted. The analysis is based on statistics regarding overnight stays in Swedish commercial accommodation facilities. The aim is to investigate if tourism and tourism policy contribute to the reduction in disparities between regions. Although there are exceptions, the main findings indicate that the potential for creating sustainable rural tourism growth through tourism policy seems to be much less than the popular discourse suggests. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 14.
    Caesar, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law. Royal Inst Technol, KTH, Div Real Estate Planning & Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kopsch, Fredrik
    Lund Univ, Div Real Estate Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Municipal land allocations: a key for understanding tenure and social mix patterns in Stockholm2018In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 1663-1681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A socially mixed population is a political ambition in Stockholm. By providing a mix of tenure alternatives throughout all neighbourhoods this objective could, at least partially, be fulfilled. Since current tenure proportions display a weak balance in many neighbourhoods it could be assumed that governing politicians - by primarily utilizing Stockholm's vast landownership and municipal housing developers - attempt to bridge observed gaps. Distribution of new rental and ownership apartments in municipal land allocations should acknowledge the existing tenure composition in a neighbourhood. Methodically this article focuses on all (nearly 50,000) apartments channelled through Stockholm's land allocation system between 2002 and 2012. After classification of all apartments based on tenure, location, year and developer (private or municipal) the information is merged with yearly housing stock characteristics for 128 neighbourhoods. The outcome is a unique data set allowing for statistical assessment of whether Stockholm's tenure (and in extension social) mix ambition is reflected in practice. The present article aims to highlight the crucial importance of landownership in Swedish municipalities with an aspiration to achieve or maintain a balanced tenure mix. While the findings indicate Stockholm is complying fairly well with its ambition, the results do reveal some contradicting signs.

  • 15.
    Coenen, Lars
    et al.
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Moodysson, Jerker
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Putting constructed regional advantage into Swedish practice2009In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 587-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of the pre-history and evolution of a regional innovation system initiative supporting activities at the intersection of traditional food production and modern biotechnology. Drawing on established ideas on the triple helix of industry, university and government and its impact on innovative capacity (as they are formulated in the regional innovation systems approach) and more recently introduced ideas on differentiated industrial knowledge bases, the study illustrates how regional innovation system support initiatives are formulated and implemented in close dialogue with the actors and activities constituting the systems under support. The initiative analysed in this paper is a good example of pro-active and fine-tuned regional innovation policy, referred to as constructed regional advantage. By focusing on an initiative targeting the renewal of a mature industry in a declining phase of its life cycle, the paper fills a gap in the literature which so far has dealt mostly with emerging industries at the start of their life cycle. Two innovation trajectories that contributed to the formulation of the initiative, and now benefits from it, are used to illustrate the arguments.

  • 16.
    Coenen, Lars
    et al.
    Dept. of Social/Economic Geography, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Moodysson, Jerker
    Dept. of Social/Economic Geography, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Asheim, Bjørn
    Dept. of Social/Economic Geography, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nodes, networks and proximities: On the knowledge dynamics of the Medicon Valley biotech cluster2004In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 1003-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical research on the knowledge dynamics of biotechnology demonstrates a dual local-global knowledge flow pattern. The sector is characterised by strong spatial concentration around nodes of excellence that are interconnected through a global network. This requires a specification of the notion of proximity as a facilitator of learning processes which emphasises its multifaceted configuration. This study highlights the significance of relational proximity within epistemic communities shaping innovation processes across multi-spatial scales. These arguments are illustrated with a database-survey on collaboration in scientific publication by 109 biotechnology firms in the Danish-Swedish life-science cluster Medicon Valley.

  • 17.
    Dahlström, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    James, Laura
    Regioinal policies for knowledge anchoring in European regions2012In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 1867-1887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of regional policy tools for supporting economic development in theknowledge economy requires an understanding of the links between extra- and intra-regionalknowledge interactions. In this paper, we argue that policymakers must shift from focusingprimarily on the development of regionalized relationships and institutions, in which knowledgeis “embedded”, to a more outward looking approach. We develop the idea of knowledgeanchoring which refers to the many ways in which firms (and other actors) incorporate newknowledge into regional economies through interactions and relations that include actors whoare located close by as well as at a distance. In this way, knowledge may be “anchored”territorially because it has become part of the routines and activities of many firms in aparticular region. Whilst individual firms are concerned to access extra-regional knowledge andsecure it within their own organizations, policymakers are concerned with wider knowledgeanchoring to tie knowledge into a regional economy. The paper explores the ways in whichexisting regional policy supports extra-regional knowledge interactions and the subsequentrecirculation of knowledge. We suggest that the key features of knowledge anchoring as a policyconcept are that it is flexible with regard to the nature and scale of knowledge interactions, andthat it focuses on the linking of extra- and intra-regional relations via the combination and“stretching-out” of knowledge interactions across time and space.

  • 18.
    Edquist, Charles
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Eriksson, Marie-Louise
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Sjogren, H.
    Characteristics of collaboration in product innovation in the regional system of innovation of East Gothia2002In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 563-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this article is on product innovations introduced by firms (establishments) and the collaborations they enter into with other firms and organizations in carrying out this activity. The theoretical framework combines innovation theories with the literature on regional innovation systems and the knowledge-based economy. Empirically we have investigated characteristics of collaboration among manufacturing establishments in the region of East Gothia in Sweden, with specific focus on the number of employees involved in the innovation projects, mechanisms of knowledge transfer between organizations, as well as financing and patenting in relation to product innovations.

  • 19.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Rational Goals for the Urban Environment: A Swedish Example2009In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 1007-1027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the government's aim to create sustainable urban environments is expressed through the environmental quality objective A good built environment. The objective embraces seven sub-goals and is designed to guide central, regional and local authorities' planning towards urban sustainability. However, for objectives concerning the urban environment, such as the Swedish objective A good built environment, to form a solid basis for decision-making, two types of rationality (functionality) conditions ought to be met. First, the objectives should guide and motivate those who are responsible for their implementation. This is applicable when the goals satisfy the criteria of precision, evaluability, approachability and motivity. Second, when the goals are parts of larger goal systems, the goal systems should be coherent. Using the objective A good built environment as an empirical basis, this article gives a few examples of how environmental goals can fail to guide and motivate action towards improved urban sustainability.

  • 20. Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Determinants of net migration to rural areas, and the impacts of migration on rural labor markets and self-employment in rural Sweden2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 693-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across most of Europe, the countryside seems to show a polarized development in which large districts are depopulating, while certain areas, mainly around big- and mid-sized cities, are increasing in population. The latter development is often described in concepts of “rural gentrification” and “rurbanization”, symbolizing a transformation of rural communities to communities with urban values and lifestyles. Most studies of the effects of these processes have focused on social and cultural consequences, as e.g. the displacements of lower-income households with higher-income residents and of rural culture and values with urban ones. This paper examines the phenomenon from another perspective, namely the effects of the “rurbanization” processes on countryside’s labour markets and economic life. This paper aims at analysing the determinants of net migration to rural areas in general and to different types of regions, and the impacts of inmigration on rural labour markets, self-employment and other socio-economic conditions in Sweden for the period of 2003–2005. We find that net migration into rural areas increases with the size of adjacent local and regional centres, whereas net migration decreases with the average commuting distance of workers in the rural areas. When comparing in-migrants to rural areas with rural area stayers, our results indicate that the former has lower incomes, a lower employment ratio and a lower degree of entrepreneurial activities. These differences could—at least partly—be explained by the fact that rural area stayers were on average 6 years older than rural area inmigrants, i.e. the two groups were in different stages of their life cycles.

  • 21.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Determinants of Net Migration to Rural Areas, and the Impacts of Migration on Rural Labour Markets and Self-Employment in Rural Sweden2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 693-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across most of Europe, the countryside seems to show a polarized development in which large districts are depopulating, while certain areas, mainly around big- and mid-sized cities, are increasing in population. The latter development is often described in concepts of “rural gentrification” and “rurbanization”, symbolizing a transformation of rural communities to communities with urban values and lifestyles. Most studies of the effects of these processes have focused on social and cultural consequences, as e.g. the displacements of lower-income households with higher-income residents and of rural culture and values with urban ones. This paper examines the phenomenon from another perspective, namely the effects of the “rurbanization” processes on countryside’s labour markets and economic life. This paper aims at analysing the determinants of net migration to rural areas in general and to different types of regions, and the impacts of inmigration on rural labour markets, self-employment and other socio-economic conditions in Sweden for the period of 2003–2005. We find that net migration into rural areas increases with the size of adjacent local and regional centres, whereas net migration decreases with the average commuting distance of workers in the rural areas. When comparing in-migrants to rural areas with rural area stayers, our results indicate that the former has lower incomes, a lower employment ratio and a lower degree of entrepreneurial activities. These differences could—at least partly—be explained by the fact that rural area stayers were on average 6 years older than rural area inmigrants, i.e. the two groups were in different stages of their life cycles.

  • 22.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Westlund, Hans
    Johansson, Mats
    Determinants of Net Migration to Rural Areas, and the Impacts of Migration on Rural Labour Markets and Self-Employment in Rural Sweden2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 693-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Across most of Europe, the countryside seems to show a polarized development in which large districts are depopulating, while certain areas, mainly around big- and mid-sized cities, are increasing in population. The latter development is often described in concepts of "rural gentrification" and "rurbanization", symbolizing a transformation of rural communities to communities with urban values and lifestyles. Most studies of the effects of these processes have focused on social and cultural consequences, as e.g. the displacements of lower-income households with higher-income residents and of rural culture and values with urban ones. This paper examines the phenomenon from another perspective, namely the effects of the "rurbanization" processes on countryside's labour markets and economic life. This paper aims at analysing the determinants of net migration to rural areas in general and to different types of regions, and the impacts of in-migration on rural labour markets, self-employment and other socio-economic conditions in Sweden for the period of 2003-2005. We find that net migration into rural areas increases with the size of adjacent local and regional centres, whereas net migration decreases with the average commuting distance of workers in the rural areas. When comparing in-migrants to rural areas with rural area stayers, our results indicate that the former has lower incomes, a lower employment ratio and a lower degree of entrepreneurial activities. These differences could-at least partly-be explained by the fact that rural area stayers were on average 6 years older than rural area in-migrants, i.e. the two groups were in different stages of their life cycles.

  • 23.
    Emmoth, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Gebert Persson, Sabine
    Uppsala University.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University.
    Interpartner Legitimacy Effects on Cluster Initiative Formation and Development Processes2014In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 892-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the growing interest in cluster initiatives (CIs) as a means of regional development, there are still few studies of CIs that offer an inside perspective. This article takes such an inside perspective, focusing on the internal legitimacy aspects of the formation and evolving processes of CIs. We propose the inclusion of interpartner legitimacy effects in order to better understand the formation and development of CIs. A case study method is applied on a Swedish CI in the tourism industry. Faced with the situation that their region was lagging behind other Swedish regions in the development of tourism, the actors were spurred to promote a CI. Its central purposes were to consolidate the regional tourism industry, strengthen the regional brand and to establish the entire region as a single coherent destination. This paper contributes to the research body of regional development and CIs by showing how different types of interpartner legitimacies hinder and facilitate the CI process.

  • 24.
    Emmoth, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Gebert Persson, Sabine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. Mittuniversitetet.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Interpartner legitimacy effects on cluster inititiative formation and development processes2014In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the growing interest in cluster initiatives (CIs) as a means of regional development, there are still few studies of CIs that offer an inside perspective. This article takes such an inside perspective, focusing on the internal legitimacy aspects of the formation and evolving processes of CIs. We propose the inclusion of interpartner legitimacy effects in order to better understand the formation and development of CIs. A case study method is applied on a Swedish CI in the tourism industry. Faced with the situation that their region was lagging behind other Swedish regions in the development of tourism, the actors were spurred to promote a CI. Its central purposes were to consolidate the regional tourism industry, strengthen the regional brand and to establish the entire region as a single coherent destination. This paper contributes to the research body of regional development and CIs by showing how different types of interpartner legitimacies hinder and facilitate the CI process.

  • 25.
    Emmoth, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Gebert Persson, Sabine
    Uppsala universitet, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Interpartner legitimacy effects on cluster inititiative formation and development processes2014In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 892-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the growing interest in cluster initiatives (CIs) as a means of regional development, there are still few studies of CIs that offer an inside perspective. This article takes such an inside perspective, focusing on the internal legitimacy aspects of the formation and evolving processes of CIs. We propose the inclusion of interpartner legitimacy effects in order to better understand the formation and development of CIs. A case study method is applied on a Swedish CI in the tourism industry. Faced with the situation that their region was lagging behind other Swedish regions in the development of tourism, the actors were spurred to promote a CI. Its central purposes were to consolidate the regional tourism industry, strengthen the regional brand and to establish the entire region as a single coherent destination. This paper contributes to the research body of regional development and CIs by showing how different types of interpartner legitimacies hinder and facilitate the CI process.

  • 26.
    Emmoth, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna Univ, Sch Technol & Business Studies, Falun, Sweden.
    Gebert-Persson, Sabine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lundberg, Helene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Interpartner Legitimacy Effects on Cluster Initiative Formation and Development Processes2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 892-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the growing interest in cluster initiatives (CIs) as a means of regional development, there are still few studies of CIs that offer an inside perspective. This article takes such an inside perspective, focusing on the internal legitimacy aspects of the formation and evolving processes of CIs. We propose the inclusion of interpartner legitimacy effects in order to better understand the formation and development of CIs. A case study method is applied on a Swedish CI in the tourism industry. Faced with the situation that their region was lagging behind other Swedish regions in the development of tourism, the actors were spurred to promote a CI. Its central purposes were to consolidate the regional tourism industry, strengthen the regional brand and to establish the entire region as a single coherent destination. This paper contributes to the research body of regional development and CIs by showing how different types of interpartner legitimacies hinder and facilitate the CI process.

  • 27.
    Engstrand, Åsa-Karin
    et al.
    Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling vid Linköpings universitet.
    Sätre Åhlander, Ann-Mari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Euroasian Studies.
    Collaboration for local economic development: business networks, politics and universities in two Swedish cities2008In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 487-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we want to show how conceptions about collaboration for local eocnomic development in Sweden are constructed on national and local levels. We also show how these conceptions have been realized in two different company networks; in the city of Östersund (“Odenskog företagsstaden”) and in the city of Karlskrona (“Telecom City”). In politics and research, local collaboration or cluster formation are viewed as important tools and levers for local economic development. However, we argue that the local labour markets and unemployment rates in our case studies do not differ significantly, despite very different strategies for collaboration. Therefore, we suspect that the political focus on collaboration is a way of legitimizing the change in regional policy rather than a delegation of real power to the local level. If this continues, we fear that the current regional policy is reduced to a discourse of popular concepts rather than a real instrument for local economic development.

  • 28.
    Engstrand, Åsa-Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sätre-Åhlander, Ann-Mari
    Uppsala University.
    Collaboration for local economic development: Business networks, politics and universities in two Swedish cities2008In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 487-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we want to show how conceptions about collaboration for local eocnomic development in Sweden are constructed on national and local levels. We also show how these conceptions have been realized in two different company networks, in the city of Östersund ("Odenskog företagsstaden") and in the city of Karlskrona ("Telecom City"). In politics and research, local collaboration or cluster formation are viewed as important tools and levers for local economic development. However, we argue that the local labour markets and unemployment rates in our case studies do not differ significantly, despite very different strategies for collaboration. Therefore, we suspect that the political focus on collaboration is a way of legitimizing the change in regional policy rather than a delegation of real power to the local level. If this continues, we fear that the current regional policy is reduced to a discourse of popular concepts rather than a real instrument for local economic development.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Forslund, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    How do universities contribute to employment growth?: The role of human capital and knowledge bases2014In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 2584-2604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to analyze whether employment growth is faster in regions housing a university compared to non-university regions. We argue that universities per se are less likely to trigger externalities that facilitate employment growth. Instead we propose that it depends on the concentration of different skills in that particular region. This is analyzed by running a number of OLS regressions, based on official data on municipal level from Statistics Sweden, on how concentrations of human capital, analytic-, synthetic- and symbolic- knowledge bases in Swedish university regions influence employment growth 2002-2008. The results indicate that presence of universities per se do not influence employment growth. However, the findings suggest that university regions with high concentrations of human capital and, in particular, with employees characterized by the synthetic knowledge base, show higher growth rates. This implies that the influence of universities on employment is greatest in regions with high concentrations of skills able to apply the knowledge created in universities. Consequently, the regional composition of skills needs to match the knowledge produced by universities for significant university-induced spillovers to occur. 

  • 30.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hansen, Högni
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Geography Section, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Winther, Lars
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Geography Section, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Employment growth and regional development: industrial change and contextual differences between Denmark and Sweden2017In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 1756-1778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potential drivers behind uneven regional development in the context of employment growth in Denmark and Sweden. In particular, we are interested in the roles of urbanization, industrial change and the rise of the new economy as manifested in the growth of the two economies in 2002–2007. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to analyse the impact of a number of key industrial sectors on regional employment growth in the two countries. The empirical analysis is based on longitudinal matched employer–employee data retrieved from official registers in each economy from 2002 to 2007, a period of strong national growth following the crisis of early 2000. Our findings indicate that the two economies follow a similar pattern in addressing total employment growth; but looking at changes in employment levels across the national borders of these two relatively similar open economies, we find that, although in general these economies react relatively similarly to changes, embarking on a narrower analysis of the individual sectors reveals marked national differences. This indicates that context matters in the analysis of regional economic dynamics in terms of structure, system and policy. 

  • 31.
    Feldman, JM
    et al.
    Natl Inst Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden Ctr Innovat & Entrepreneurship, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Medium-sized firms and the limits to growth: A case study in the evolution of a spin-off firm2000In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 631-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores potential barriers to growth in key areas which can become increasingly problematic for some smaller to medium-sized firms (SMEs) as they grow and evolve from their early status as small scale spin-offs. These potential growth barriers can occur in: finance, competition from new firms or products and organizational integration of resources. Finns that fail to properly plan, manage and allocate resources will encounter difficulties in each area. Such firms are said to have poor 'governance systems'. While not proposing a universal theory about small firm behaviour, we argue that firms can encounter the same problems associated with poor communication, bureaucracy and loss of entrepreneurial spirit that plague large firms. We also show that the routines used to promote growth based on collaboration can sometimes create problems for firms as they ignore new challenges. We elaborate various theories on the limits to growth by examining the case of IV, a university spin-off.

  • 32.
    Feldman, Jonathan
    Department of Economic History, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    The Managerial Equation and Innovation Platforms: The Case of Linköping and Berzelius Science Park2007In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 1027-1045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the political and economic origins of a science park in Linköping, Sweden. It shows how different “innovation platforms” emerged to develop the medical industrial sector. An innovation platform is a foundation for growth corresponding to a given set of organizations or networks that incubate and sustain innovative teams tied to a given sector. Large firms and incubator-linked science parks represent different kinds of innovative platforms. The paper centres on the concept of the “managerial equation”, arguing that growth projects like science parks build on coalitions and networks linking innovative resources, acquired knowledge tied to a given sector and power linked to decision-making power and financial resources. Changes within these elements of the equation explain the rise and fall of innovative platforms. Failures in learning in one platform lead to the rise of another. An absence of power (such as supporting resources) can also account for platform changes. Regional development decisions do not simply reflect path dependent specializations as regions use related capacities to break into “new” sectors. Commitments to Triple Helix formations linking universities, corporations and the government reflect changes within each branch of the Helix and political decision-making creating a diversity of development pathways.

  • 33.
    Feldman, Jonathan Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The Managerial Equation and Innovation Platforms: The Case of Linköping and Berzelius Science Park2007In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 1027-1045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the political and economic origins of a science park in Linköping, Sweden. It shows how different "innovation platforms" emerged to develop the medical industrial sector. An innovation platform is a foundation for growth corresponding to a given set of organizations or networks that incubate and sustain innovative teams tied to a given sector. Large firms and incubator-linked science parks represent different kinds of innovative platforms. The paper centres on the concept of the "managerial equation", arguing that growth projects like science parks build on coalitions and networks linking innovative resources, acquired knowledge tied to a given sector and power linked to decision-making power and financial resources. Changes within these elements of the equation explain the rise and fall of innovative platforms. Failures in learning in one platform lead to the rise of another. An absence of power (such as supporting resources) can also account for platform changes. Regional development decisions do not simply reflect path dependent specializations as regions use related capacities to break into "new" sectors. Commitments to Triple Helix formations linking universities, corporations and the government reflect changes within each branch of the Helix and political decision-making creating a diversity of development pathways.

  • 34.
    Fredin, Sabrina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    The dynamics and evolution of local industries-the case of linköping, sweden2014In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 929-948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to analyse how innovative, individual actions influence the evolution of local industries according to three stages. When discussing the evolution of industries or economies, the concept of path dependency is often a central element. Its vague nature makes it however difficult to be used as an interpretative lens when studying the evolution of local industries. In order to limit the broad concept, several aspects have been identified for discussion; all are explicitly linked to path dependency in economic geography literature and all are acknowledged to be of significance for stimulating the evolution of local industries. Based on a review of the evolutionary economic theory literature, the following three stages have been identified: First, the entering of new knowledge which may, or may not, be the starting point for a new local industry; second, the formation of the new local industry; third, the anchoring process of the new local industry. All three stages are intertwined and include the question how the new emerging industry and the existing local structures relate to each other. The three stages will be illustrated through the discussion of the evolution of the IT industry in Linköping, Sweden.

  • 35.
    Fredin, Sabrina
    et al.
    Lund University; Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Jogmark, Marina
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Ekonomi och arbetsliv. Kristianstad University, Research environment Auditing, Organisation and Society (AOS).
    Local culture as a context for entrepreneurial activities2017In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 1556-1574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how an industrial legacy leads to the formation of a distinct local culture and how the culture's survival provides a context for the subsequent entrepreneurial activities in new local industries. The discussion about culture as a key driver of entrepreneurship and economic growth is well established in the academic debate. However, we know little about how culture is formed. Through a qualitative case study of two polar Swedish cities, the study highlights four key factors which are instrumental in the formation of local culture: initial conditions, characteristics of key players, network activities and composition of newcomers. We show how the local entrepreneurs responded to the underlying assumptions of the two different cultures.

  • 36.
    Fredin, Sabrina
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Jogmark, Marina
    Kristianstad University, SWE.
    Local culture as a context for entrepreneurial activities2017In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 1556-1574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how an industrial legacy leads to the formation of a distinct local culture and how the culture’s survival provides a context for the subsequent entrepreneurial activities in new local industries. The discussion about culture as a key driver of entrepreneurship and economic growth is well established in the academic debate. However, we know little about how culture is formed. Through a qualitative case study of two polar Swedish cities, the study highlights four key factors which are instrumental in the formation of local culture: initial conditions, characteristics of key players, network activities and composition of newcomers. We show how the local entrepreneurs responded to the underlying assumptions of the two different cultures.

  • 37.
    Fredin, Sabrina
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden; Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jogmark, Marina
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Local culture as a context for entrepreneurial activities2017In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 1556-1574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how an industrial legacy leads to the formation of a distinct local culture and how the culture's survival provides a context for the subsequent entrepreneurial activities in new local industries. The discussion about culture as a key driver of entrepreneurship and economic growth is well established in the academic debate. However, we know little about how culture is formed. Through a qualitative case study of two polar Swedish cities, the study highlights four key factors which are instrumental in the formation of local culture: initial conditions, characteristics of key players, network activities and composition of newcomers. We show how the local entrepreneurs responded to the underlying assumptions of the two different cultures.

  • 38. Fritsch, Michael
    et al.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Werwatz, Axel
    Regional Innovation Policy (Editorial)2005In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 1123-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Gaddefors, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Cronsell, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Returnees and local stakeholders co-producing the entrepreneurial region2009In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 1191-1203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    he purpose of this article is to examine how returning entrepreneurs and local stakeholders are involved in co-producing an entrepreneurial region. A theoretical framework is proposed based on two metaphors: embeddedness and translation. Moreover, the value of the framework is illustrated by a case drawn from a study conducted over a 3-year period. The work is based on a constructionist approach, and the results emerged from a narrative analysis. Our partial ethnographic methodology gives us the opportunity to follow the interaction between entrepreneurs and local stakeholders over time. The findings show that what needs to become embedded to attain regional development is an entrepreneurial attitude to life in the region, not only the embeddedness of the returning entrepreneurs and their firms. Consequently, the framework results in a perspective emphasizing the interplay over time between entrepreneurs and local stakeholders. The value of the article is that it shows how the co-production of the entrepreneurial region between entrepreneurs and local stakeholders results in a continued regional development.

  • 40.
    Germain-Alamartine, Eloïse
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Moghadam-Saman, Saeed
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Aligning doctoral education with local industrial employers’ needs: a comparative case study2019In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Doctoral education was primarily designed to answer the human resources needs of academia. However, nowadays, increasing numbers of doctorate holders seek employment outside academia. Accordingly, doctoral education can be one of the means by which universities take part in the development of industry in their regions. This study explores whether and how doctoral-level skills are being adapted to the needs of local industrial employers in two different contexts. Two research and science parks situated next to research-intensive universities in Sweden and Spain were chosen as cases for an exploratory and comparative study. In these parks, local industrial employers conduct R&D activities that make them potentially attractive destinations for doctoral graduates. Similarities in the cases were found regarding the process of adaptation of doctoral education at the adjacent universities to meet the industrial employers’ needs in the parks. Discrepancies are also highlighted regarding stages of development, institutional settings, geography and culture. Implications for several stakeholders are formulated to improve the process analysed in the study concerning better alignment of doctoral education with industrial employers’ need for generic skills.

  • 41.
    Germain-Alamartine, Eloïse
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Moghadam-Saman, Saeed
    Univ Stavanger, Norway.
    Aligning doctoral education with local industrial employers needs: a comparative case study2019In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Doctoral education was primarily designed to answer the human resources needs of academia. However, nowadays, increasing numbers of doctorate holders seek employment outside academia. Accordingly, doctoral education can be one of the means by which universities take part in the development of industry in their regions. This study explores whether and how doctoral-level skills are being adapted to the needs of local industrial employers in two different contexts. Two research and science parks situated next to research-intensive universities in Sweden and Spain were chosen as cases for an exploratory and comparative study. In these parks, local industrial employers conduct Ramp;D activities that make them potentially attractive destinations for doctoral graduates. Similarities in the cases were found regarding the process of adaptation of doctoral education at the adjacent universities to meet the industrial employers needs in the parks. Discrepancies are also highlighted regarding stages of development, institutional settings, geography and culture. Implications for several stakeholders are formulated to improve the process analysed in the study concerning better alignment of doctoral education with industrial employers need for generic skills.

  • 42.
    Giovanardi, Massimo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    A Multi-scalar Approach to Place Branding: The 150th Anniversary of Italian Unification in Turin2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 597-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract This study draws from an interpretation of scale as a social construct to elaborate a multi-scalar approach to place branding that represents a growing set of theories and managerial practices aimed at leveraging the reputational capital of places. The article unveils that far from consisting of clear-cut processes which occur within a pre-given and fixed set of scalar boundaries, city, regional, country and supra-national brandings actually converge in a complex mechanism of intertwined practices and discourses. By grounding its theoretical investigation in a case study about the celebration of the 150th anniversary of Italian unification, this paper furthers the understanding of place branding from a multi-level perspective, addressing the tendency of previous studies to treat scale as a fixed hierarchy of nested levels. The findings show that scalar boundaries remain significant for the purpose of coordination and identification among the institutional actors involved. And yet, the investigation highlights that scalar boundaries do not constitute a structure of ontologically given contexts, but rather are the outcome of an ongoing dialectic process among place stakeholders through which scalar relations are constantly reproduced and nurtured during the staging of the place branding project.

  • 43.
    Grassini, Laura
    et al.
    Polytech Univ Bari, Dept Civil Environm Land Bldg Engn & Chem, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari, Italy..
    Monno, Valeria
    Polytech Univ Bari, Dept Civil Environm Land Bldg Engn & Chem, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari, Italy..
    Khakee, Abdul
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Evaluating strategic metropolitan planning in Bari and Taranto2018In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 1682-1700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the Italian Government's decision to fund strategic planning in order to promote a sustainable and competitive development in city-regions in southern Italy, the regional governments were asked to steer proactively strategic planning initiatives within their respective territory. In the cases of Bari and Taranto, it was the first time that 31 municipalities constituting Metropolitan Bari and 28 municipalities constituting sub-region Taranto attempted to think collectively in order to prepare the strategic plan. This paper evaluates strategic planning in Bari and Taranto sub-regions and discusses lessons learnt for future efforts in strategic planning. We examine why were the strategic plans made and how was the planning process organized and what, if any, impact these attempts had on development strategies and governance models at the urban-regional level.

  • 44.
    Gustafsson, E.
    et al.
    School of Business and IT, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Larson, M.
    Department of Service Management, Lund University, Campus Helsingborg, Helsingborg, Sweden .
    Svensson, Bo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Governance in Multi-Project Networks: Lessons from a Failed Destination Branding Effort2014In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1569-1586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes and analyses the process in which the establishment of a Christmas market led to an attempt to establish a regional destination brand named "Delightful Christmas". Our focus is on the network dynamics of the process, in particular its multi-project network characteristics. Empirical findings are based on qualitative data from personal interviews, participant observation and documentation in an action research approach. The process is analysed as a so-called project network (Hellgren & Stjernberg, 1995) involving different actors having different aims in event and destination brand development, thus creating a process with actors of existing, but resource-lacking, dependencies. Despite the disagreements between actors, the common beliefs and hopes for the integrated destination theme remained and innovative work continued for about three years in an environment where conditions were difficult due to insufficient financial resources, project coordination and long-term strategic planning. Conclusions concern the dynamics of a complex multi-project network organization and how its failure can be explained.

  • 45.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Municipalities as intermediaries for the design and local implementation of climate visions2019In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a sustainable society requires the development of visions paving the way for socio-technical changes. In recent years, the literature on sustainable transitions and urban planning has highlighted the intermediation role of municipalities to implement international and national goals and visions at a local level. Yet, empirical research studying municipalities from the lens of the intermediation theory are sparse. This paper aims at contributing to a better understanding of what strategies municipalities use when intermediating between and within different scales of governance (i.e. local, national and international), and what factors influence the choice of strategies. Through semi-structured interviews and document studies, three Swedish municipalities are studied. Results show that these municipalities translate the visions through local experiments, task delegation and coalitions. Additionally, the analysis indicates that the local circumstances, rather than the relations between the local level and the higher levels of governance or the guidance of national policies, influence the choice of intermediation strategy. Particularly, whether the management approach is centralized or decentralized, result- or process-oriented, participative or exclusive, is determinant. Results also indicate that municipalities perform both top-down and bottom-up intermediation, i.e. closing the loop from the local to the national and/or international levels.

  • 46.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Päivärinne, Sofia
    ÅF infrastructure, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strategic spatial planning -a missed opportunity to facilitate district heating systems based on excess heat2019In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic spatial planning is important for developing long-termvisions and strategies towards regional and local sustainability.This paper explores if and how strategic spatial planning could beuseful for overcoming some barriers related to new sustainableways of heating residential areas, using district heating systemsbased on industrial excess heat. This longitudinal study builds oninterviews with municipal and private actors in six Swedishmunicipalities. It highlights that important barriers can beovercome by influencing the design and location of residentialdistricts and industrial activities. Further, it identifies missedopportunities in local spatial planning practice as stakeholders areinvolved late in the planning when much is set, leaving littlespace for stakeholders to have an impact. Consequently, theremight be a lack of knowledge and expertise in how such issuescould enhance planning. Strategic spatial planning could facilitateconditions for excess heat-based systems of district heating as itimplies a broader systems perspective which could enhance abroader planning scope. Plan programs could bring about morestrategic spatial planning processes as these require earlystakeholder involvement. If taking stakeholder involvement onestep further to stakeholder collaboration or co-production, aneven broader planning scope would be achieved.

  • 47.
    Halkier, H.
    et al.
    Department of Culture and Global Studies, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Kozak, M.
    Centre for European Regional and Local Studies (EUROREG), University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland .
    Svensson, Bo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Innovation and Tourism Destination Development2014In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1547-1550Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Halkier, Henrik
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    James, Laura
    University of London.
    Dahlström, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism.
    Manniche, Jesper
    Centre for Regional and Tourism Research, Denmark.
    Knowledge dynamics, regions and public policy2012In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, ISSN ISSN 0965-4313, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 1759-1766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a so-called knowledge economy remains a widespread ambition for Europe. The Lisbon Strategy aimed to make EU “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world” (European Council, 2000), and the current “Europe 2020” strategy is even more ambitious because knowledge is seen as a prerequisite not only for economic growth but also for social cohesion (European Commission, 2010). At a regional scale, this ambition has been translated into economic development policies that draw heavily on concepts from Regional Studies and Economic Geography in aiming to support “clusters”, innovative “milieus” and “triple helix” relations (Amara, 2005; Lagendijk, 2006; Rutten & Boekema, 2007; Borras & Tsagdis, 2008).

    These policies reflect what have become almost axiomatic assumptions about the benefits of geographical proximity, institutional thickness and the development of close relationships/knowledge exchange between firms and other organizations in sectorally defined regional agglomerations of economic activity. To be successful, however, public policies must reflect and respond to current economic structures and processes, and the relationship between public policy and economic development remains intricate and ambiguous. At best, policy-makers will target perceived causes of, for example, slow growth or low levels of innovation in a particular region, but the effects of public initiatives may still be uncertain due to the complex interaction between local and global processes. Policy-making is not just a rationalistic exercise in problem-solving but a heterogeneous multi-tier political process prone to path dependency with regard to governance, strategies and implementation, and hence public initiatives may point to all sorts of directions.

  • 49.
    Hauge, Atle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Power, Dominic
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    The Spaces and Places of Swedish Fashion2009In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 529-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fashion companies are involved not only in producing material commodities (clothes), but also in the parallel production of ideas (fashion). The consistent use of outsourcing in the fashion industry means that material production is constantly on the move to low-cost locations. Still high-cost countries have managed to retain a sizable presence in the world of fashion. For firms in such countries, the creation of value and profitability commonly rests on the ability to produce innovative design, brand value, efficient marketing channels, logistics and distribution. Sweden, for instance, plays host to a range of fashion firms: from the multinational giant Hennes & Mauritz to small innovative designers. This creates an interesting strategic problem for firms: why root knowledge intensive functions in Sweden when customers are mainly found in distant export markets? What localized knowledge processes, networks and other factors make these firms keep their home base in Sweden? The article suggests that both spatial proximity and the role of place are important to answering these questions. In conclusion, three main findings are discussed: that the Swedish fashion cluster is not based on high-tech but it is nevertheless knowledge intensive; that fashion has a multifaceted relationship with space and is produced under conditions simultaneously characterized by both localization and globalization; that place does play a distinct role in processes of fashion branding and more generally in the creation of immaterial value.

  • 50.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    World Heritage and tourism innovation: institutional frameworks and local adaptation2014In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1625-1640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in heritage as a tool for destination development has recently been substantial in Sweden, especially when it comes to receiving World Heritage (WH) status. The possibility of using the WH brand in developing tourism products and marketing destinations has great potential for many heritage destinations. The aim of this paper is to discuss innovation processes within heritage tourism. The focus is on the role of WH status as a factor influencing innovative practices at different Swedish WH sites. This study uses qualitative methods, such as interviews and analysis of written material from five selected Swedish WH sites, with in-depth analysis of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun. To what extent does WH status change the preconditions for tourism development at WH destinations? What is the role of institutional frameworks in this process? This paper will show how WH may facilitate tourism innovation mainly through developing new products and marketing strategies, but also by institutional innovations concerning new forms of collaboration and networks.

123 1 - 50 of 114
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