Change search
Refine search result
123 1 - 50 of 140
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. National Institute of Economic Research.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Direct and indirect effects of waste management policies on household waste behaviour: The case of Sweden2018In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 76, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish legislation makes municipalities responsible for recycling or disposing of household waste. Municipalities therefore play an important role in achieving Sweden’s increased levels of ambition in the waste management area and in achieving the goal of a more circular economy. This paper studies how two municipal policy instruments – weight-based waste tariffs and special systems for the collection of food waste – affect the collected volumes of different types of waste. We find that a system of collecting food waste separately is more effective overall than imposing weight-based waste tariffs in respect not only of reducing the amounts of waste destined for incineration, but also of increasing materials recycling and biological recovery, despite the fact that the direct incentive effects of these two systems  should be similar. Separate food waste collection was associated with increased recycling not only of food waste but also of other waste. Introducing separate food waste collection indirectly signals to households that recycling is important and desirable, and our results suggest that this signalling effect may be as important as direct incentive effects.

  • 2.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Steel slags in a landfill top cover: Experiences from a full-scale experiment2014In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 692-701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A full scale field study has been carried out in order to test and evaluate the use of slags from high-alloy steel production as the construction materials for a final cover of an old municipal landfill. Five test areas were built using different slag mixtures within the barrier layer (liner). The cover consisted of a foundation layer, a liner with a thickness of 0.7 m, a drainage layer of 0.3 m, a protection layer of 1.5 m and a vegetation layer of 0.25 m. The infiltration varied depending on the cover design used, mainly the liner recipe but also over time and was related to seasons and precipitation intensity. The test areas with liners composed of 50% electric arc furnace (EAF) slag and 50% cementitious ladle slag (LS) on a weight basis and with a proper consistence of the protection layer were found to meet the Swedish infiltration criteria of ⩽50 l (m2 a)−1 for final covers for landfills for non-hazardous waste: the cumulative infiltration rates to date were 44, 19 and 0.4 l (m2 a)−1 for A1, A4 and A5, respectively. Compared to the precipitation, the portion of leachate was always lower after the summer despite high precipitation from June to August. The main reason for this is evapotranspiration but also the fact that the time delay in the leachate formation following a precipitation event has a stronger effect during the shorter summer sampling periods than the long winter periods. Conventional techniques and equipment can be used but close cooperation between all involved partners is crucial in order to achieve the required performance of the cover. This includes planning, method and equipment testing and quality assurance.

  • 3.
    Arm, M
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Self-cementing properties of crushed demolished concrete in unbound layers: results from triaxial tests and field tests2001In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 235-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 2-year study is underway to evaluate the expected growth in stiffness in layers of crushed concrete from demolished structures. This growth is said to be a result of self-cementing properties. The study consists of repeated load triaxial tests on manufactured specimens after different storing time together with falling weight deflectometer, FWD, measurements on test sections. Results so far show a clear increase with time in resilient modulus and in back-calculated layer modulus for all concrete materials. The increase is the largest in the first months and then diminishes. The field measurements show a more considerable growth in stiffness than the laboratory tests, with a doubled value two years after construction. Comparative investigations on natural aggregates, mostly crushed granite do not show any growth in stiffness, neither in the laboratory nor in the field. Consequences for the choice of design modulus are discussed. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Arm, Maria
    et al.
    SGI Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Pascal, Suer
    SGI Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Technical environmental long-term properties of industrial residues: summary of field and laboratory investigations2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 101-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, use of industrial residues is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. A three-year research project was therefore initiated aiming to (1) identify the crucial processes of ageing related to the usefulness of residues in roads; (2) investigate the consequences of these processes for technical and environmental properties of the residues, and (3) propose a method for accelerated ageing to predict the long-term properties. This paper gives an overview of the project methodology, a summary of the test results and references to papers where further details are given. The project, running through 2006-2008, compared naturally aged samples of two residues used as sub-bases in existing asphalt paved roads with samples of fresh residues from producers' piles. Steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type and municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash were chosen. The samples were thoroughly characterised in order to identify which ageing processes had been crucial. The results showed that: - Bottom ash from the pavement edge was more aged than bottom ash from the road centre. However, no difference in pH was found, instead the differences were caused by differences in water exposure. - Steel slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas slag from the road centre was identical to fresh slag. - Water exposure to the subbase materials after ten years in an asphalt paved road was calculated to less than 0.1–0.5 litres per kg. - Ageing reactions in steel slag and MSWI bottom ash, ready for use, were too small to be verified by laboratory measurement of deformation properties under loaded conditions. An accelerated ageing test for steel slag was set up to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. An accelerated ageing test for bottom ash was set up to achieve the pozzolan reactions that were observed in SEM analyses of in situ specimens. It is recommended to use uncrushed particles when properties of aged material are studied, in order to preserve the original particle surfaces.

  • 5. Bernstad Saraiva, Anna
    et al.
    Davidsson, Åsa
    Bissmont, Mimmi
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Lifecycle assessment of a system for food waste disposers to tank: A full-scale system evaluation2016In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 54, p. 169-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increased interest for separate collection of household food waste in Sweden has led to development of a number of different collection-systems - each with their particular benefits and drawbacks. In the present study, two systems for collection of food waste in households were compared; (a) use of food waste disposers (FWD) in kitchen sinks and (b) collection of food waste in paper bags for further treatment. The comparison was made in relation to greenhouse gas emissions as well as primary energy utilization. In both cases, collected food waste was treated through anaerobic digestion and digestate was used as fertilizer on farmland. Systems emissions of greenhouse gases from collection and treatment of 1 ton of food waste (dry matter), are according to the performed assessment lower from the FWD-system compared to the reference system (-990 and -770 kg CO2-eq./ton food waste dry matter respectively). The main reasons are a higher substitution of mineral nitrogen fertilizer followed by a higher substitution of diesel. Performed uncertainty analyses state that results are robust, but that decreasing losses of organic matter in pre-treatment of food waste collected in paper bags, as well as increased losses of organic matter and nutrients from the FWD-system could change the hierarchy in relation to greenhouse gas emissions. Owing to a higher use of electricity in the FWD-system, the paper bag collection system was preferable in relation to primary energy utilization. Due to the many questions still remaining regarding the impacts of an increased amount of nutrients and organic matter to the sewage system through an increased use of FWD, the later treatment of effluent from the FWD-system, as well as treatment of wastewater from kitchen sinks in the reference system, was not included in the assessment. In future work, these aspects would be of relevance to monitor. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Life cycle assessment of a national policy proposal - The case of a Swedish waste incineration tax2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 1046-1058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the core of EU and Swedish waste policy is the so-called waste hierarchy, according to which waste should first be prevented, but should otherwise be treated in the following order of prioritisation: reuse, recycling when environmentally motivated, energy recovery, and last landfilling. Some recent policy decisions in Sweden aim to influence waste management in the direction of the waste hierarchy. In 2001 a governmental commission assessed the economic and environmental impacts of introducing a weight-based tax on waste incineration, the purpose of which would be to encourage waste reduction and increase materials recycling and biological treatments This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the waste incineration tax proposal. It was done in the context of a larger research project concerning the development and testing of a framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). The aim of this paper is to assess the life cycle environmental impacts of the waste incineration tax proposal, and to investigate whether there are any possibilities of more optimal design of such a tax. The proposed design of the waste incineration tax results in increased recycling, but only in small environmental improvements. A more elaborate tax design is suggested, in which the tax level would partly be related to the fossil carbon content of the waste.

  • 7.
    Blomqvist, Evalena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Förbrännings- och aerosolteknik.
    Bäfver, Linda
    Jones, Frida
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Förbrännings- och aerosolteknik.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Förbrännings- och aerosolteknik.
    Sulfur recirculation for increased electricity production in Waste-to-Energy plants2014In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 67-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Carlsson, My
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Holmström, David
    Profu AB, Mölndal.
    Bohn, Irene
    NSR, North Western Scania Waste Management Company, Helsingborg.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu AB, Mölndal.
    Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando
    AnoxKaldnes AB, Klosterängsvägen 11A, 226 47 Lund.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Impact of physical pre-treatment of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste on greenhouse-gas emissions and the economy in a Swedish anaerobic digestion system2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 38, p. 117-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several methods for physical pre-treatments of source sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SSOFMSW) before for anaerobic digestion (AD) are available, with the common feature that they generate a homogeneous slurry for AD and a dry refuse fraction for incineration. The selection of efficient methods relies on improved understanding of how the pre-treatment impacts on the separation and on the slurry’s AD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the performance of physical pre-treatment of SSOFMSW on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and on the economy of an AD system including a biogas plant with supplementary systems for heat and power production in Sweden. Based on the performance of selected Swedish facilities, as well as chemical analyses and BMP tests of slurry and refuse, the computer-based evaluation tool ORWARE was improved as to accurately describe mass flows through the physical pre-treatment and anaerobic degradation. The environmental and economic performance of the evaluated system was influenced by the TS concentration in the slurry, as well as the distribution of incoming solids between slurry and refuse. The focus to improve the efficiency of these systems should primarily be directed towards minimising the water addition in the pre-treatment provided that this slurry can still be efficiently digested. Second, the amount of refuse should be minimised, while keeping a good quality of the slurry. Electricity use/generation has high impact on GHG emissions and the results of the study are sensitive to assumptions of marginal electricity and of electricity use in the pre-treatment.

  • 9.
    Carlsson, My
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando
    AnoxKaldnes AB.
    The effects of substrate pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion systems: a review2012In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 1634-1650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focus is placed on substrate pre-treatment in anaerobic digestion (AD) as a means of increasing biogas yields using today’s diversified substrate sources. Current pre-treatment methods to improve AD are being examined with regard to their effects on different substrate types, highlighting approaches and associated challenges in evaluating substrate pre-treatment in AD systems and its influence on the overall system of evaluation. WWTP residues represent the substrate type that is most frequently assessed in pre-treatment studies, followed by energy crops/harvesting residues, organic fraction of municipal solid waste, organic waste from food industry and manure. The pre-treatment effects are complex and generally linked to substrate characteristics and pre-treatment mechanisms. Overall, substrates containing lignin or bacterial cells appear to be the most amendable to pre-treatment for enhancing AD. Approaches used to evaluate AD enhancement in different systems is further reviewed and challenges and opportunities for improved evaluations are identified.

  • 10. Cui, Jirang
    et al.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Characterization of shredded television scrap and implications for materials recovery2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 415-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterization of TV scrap was carried out by using a variety of methods, such as chemical analysis, particle size and shape analysis, liberation degree analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, sink-float test, and IR spectrometry. A comparison of TV scrap, personal computer scrap, and printed circuit board scrap shows that the content of non-ferrous metals and precious metals in TV scrap is much lower than that in personal computer scrap or printed circuit board scrap. It is expected that recycling of TV scrap will not be cost-effective by utilizing conventional manual disassembly. The result of particle shape analysis indicates that the non-ferrous metal particles in TV scrap formed as a variety of shapes; it is much more heterogeneous than that of plastics and printed circuit boards. Furthermore, the separability of TV scrap using density-based techniques was evaluated by the sink-float test. The result demonstrates that a high recovery of copper could be obtained by using an effective gravity separation process. Identification of plastics shows that the major plastic in TV scrap is high impact polystyrene. Gravity separation of plastics may encounter some challenges in separation of plastics from TV scrap because of specific density variations.

  • 11.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Methods for household waste composition studies2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 1100-1112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question is how to conduct household waste composition studies. The review is divided into three parts: overview of known methods, sampling theory, and the waste components. Twenty methods are listed and commented on. There is no adopted, working international standard. In accordance with Pierre Gy’s Theory of Sampling, the seven types of sampling errors, when collecting and splitting solid samples, are described and commented on in relation to sampling of household solid waste. It is concluded that the most crucial choices in household waste composition studies are: to divide the investigation into relevant number and types of strata; to decide the required sample size and number of samples; to choose the sampling location, i.e., sampling at household level or sampling from loads of waste collection vehicles; and to choose the type and number of waste component categories to be investigated. Various classifications of household waste components used in composition studies are listed and discussed. Difficulties and weaknesses of the reviewed methods are discussed and concluded in suggested questions for further research.

  • 12. Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Pay as you throw: strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing in household waste collection systems in Sweden2010In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 23-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Householders' response to weight-based billing for the collection of household waste was investigated with the aim of providing decision support for waste management policies. Three questions were addressed: How much and what kind of information on weight-based billing is discernible in generic Swedish waste collection statistics? Why do local authorities implement weight-based billing, and how do they perceive the results? and, Which strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing have been observed on the local level? The study showed that municipalities with pay-by-weight schemes collected 20% less household waste per capita than other municipalities. Surprisingly, no part of this difference could be explained by higher recycling rates. Nevertheless, the majority of waste management professionals were convinced that recycling had increased as a result of the billing system. A number of contradicting strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing were revealed.

  • 13.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Meijer, Jan-Erik
    Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Comparison of different collection systems for sorted household waste in Sweden2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 1298-1305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composition and quantity per person of municipal solid waste (MSW) have been analyzed in six municipalities in southern Sweden with similar socio-economic conditions but with different collection systems. Samples of residual waste have been sorted, classified and weighed in 21 categories during 26 analyses that took place from 1998-2004. Collection data of the total waste flow, including source sorted recycling materials, in the same area have been compiled and compared. Multivariate data analyses have been applied. Weight-based billing reduced delivered amounts of residual household waste by 50%, but it is unknown to what extent improper material paths had developed. With curbside collection more metal, plastic and paper packaging was separated and left to recycling. When separate collection of biodegradables was included in the curbside system, the overall sorting of dry recyclables increased. The large uncertainty associated with waste composition analyses makes it difficult to draw strong conclusions regarding the effects on specific recyclables or the changes in the composition of the residual waste.

  • 14.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Åberg, Helena
    Department of Food, Health and Environment, University of Gothenburg.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Berg, Per E.O.
    HB Anttilator, Stagnellsgatan 3, SE, 652 23, Karlstad.
    Inconsistent pathways of household waste2009In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 1798-1806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to provide policy-makers and waste management planners with information about how recycling programs affect the quantities of specific materials recycled and disposed of. Two questions were addressed: which factors influence household waste generation and pathways? and how reliable are official waste data? Household waste flows were studied in 35 Swedish municipalities, and a wide variation in the amount of waste per capita was observed. When evaluating the effect of different waste collection policies, it was found to be important to identify site-specific factors influencing waste generation. Eleven municipal variables were investigated in an attempt to explain the variation. The amount of household waste per resident was higher in populous municipalities and when net commuting was positive. Property-close collection of dry recyclables led to increased delivery of sorted metal, plastic and paper packaging. No difference was seen in the amount of separated recyclables per capita when weight-based billing for the collection of residual waste was applied, but the amount of residual waste was lower. Sixteen sources of error in official waste statistics were identified and the results of the study emphasize the importance of reliable waste generation and composition data to underpin waste management policies.

  • 15. Davidsson, Å.
    et al.
    Saraiva, A. Bernstad
    Magnusson, N.
    Bissmont, Mimmi
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Technical evaluation of a tank-connected food waste disposer system for biogas production and nutrient recovery2017In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 65, p. 153-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a tank-connected food waste disposer system with the objective to optimise biogas production and nutrient recovery from food waste in Malmo was evaluated. The project investigated the source separation ratio of food waste through waste composition analyses, determined the potential biogas production in ground food waste, analysed the organic matter content and the limiting components in ground food waste and analysed outlet samples to calculate food waste losses from the separation tank. It can be concluded that the tank-connected food waste disposer system in Malmo can be used for energy recovery and optimisation of biogas production. The organic content of the collected waste is very high and contains a lot of energy rich fat and protein, and the methane potential is high. The results showed that approximately 38% of the food waste dry matter is collected in the tank. The remaining food waste is either found in residual waste (34% of the dry matter) or passes the tank and goes through the outlet to the sewer (28%). The relatively high dry matter content in the collected fraction (3-5% DM) indicates that the separation tank can thicken the waste substantially. The potential for nutrient recovery is rather limited considering the tank content. Only small fractions of the phosphorus (15%) and nitrogen (21%) are recyclable by the collected waste in the tank. The quality of the outlet indicates a satisfactory separation of particulate organic matter and fat. The organic content and nutrients, which are in dissolved form, cannot be retained in the tank and are rather led to the sewage via the outlet. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 16. Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Accelerated carbonation of steel slags in a landfill cover construction2010In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 132-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steel slags from high-alloyed tool steel production were used in a full scale cover construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. In order to study the long-term stability of the steel slags within the final cover, a laboratory experiment was performed. The effect on the ageing process, due to i.e. carbonation, exerted by five different factors resembling both the material characteristics and the environmental conditions is investigated. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity and mineralogy (evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction, XRD, and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, TG/DTA) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions.Samples aged for 3 and 10 months were evaluated in this paper. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate that among the investigated factors, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere were able to exert the most relevant effect. However, further investigations are required in order to clarify the role of the temperature.

  • 17.
    Donaj, Pawel J.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Kaminsky, W.
    Buzeto, F.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Pyrolysis of polyolefins for increasing the yield of monomers' recovery2012In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 840-846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pyrolysis of plastic waste is an alternative way of plastic recovery and could be a potential solution for the increasing stream of solid waste. The objective of this work was to increase the yield the gaseous olefins (monomers) as feedstock for polymerization process and to test the applicability of a commercial Ziegler-Natta (Z-N): TiCI4/MgCl2 for cracking a mixture of polyolefins consisted of 46% wt. of low density polyethylene (LDPE), 30% wt. of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and 24% wt. of polypropylene (PP). Two sets of experiments have been carried out at 500 and 650 C via catalytic pyrolysis (1% of Z-N catalyst) and at 650 and 730 degrees C via only-thermal pyrolysis. These experiments have been conducted in a lab-scale, fluidized quartz-bed reactor of a capacity of 1-3 kg/h at Hamburg University. The results revealed a strong influence of temperature and presence of catalyst on the product distribution. The ratios of gas/liquid/solid mass fractions via thermal pyrolysis were: 36.9/48.4/15.7% wt. and 42.4/44.7/13.9% wt. at 650 and 730 degrees C while via catalytic pyrolysis were: 6.5/89.0/4.5% wt. and 54.3/41.9/3.8% wt. at 500 and 650 degrees C, respectively. At 650 degrees C the monomer generation increased by 55% up to 23.6% wt. of total pyrolysis products distribution while the catalyst was added. Obtained yields of olefins were compared with the naphtha steam cracking process and other potentially attractive processes for feedstock generation. The concept of closed cycle material flow for polyolefins has been discussed, showing the potential benefits of feedstock recycling in a plastic waste management.

  • 18.
    Eboh, Francis Chinweuba
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Andersson, Bengt-Åke
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Economic evaluation of improvements in a waste-to-energy combined heat and power plant2019In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving the efficiency of waste-to-energy combined heat and power plants increases their production of both electricity and heat. Economic evaluation of such improvements enables adequate decisions to be made between the various alternatives with respect to economic viability of the plant. In this study, the cost and profitability of different modifications to improve efficiency in a waste-to-energy plant are considered: these include the re-arrangement of air heaters, the introduction of a reheater, flue gas condensation (FGC) and an integrated gasification-combustion process. The base case and the modifications are evaluated and compared when operating either as a combined heat and power plant or as a power plant. Modelling, simulation and cost estimations were performed with the Aspen Plus software. Although the integrated gasification-combustion technology with FGC has the highest exergy efficiency, its higher capital cost is greater than all of the other alternatives. Modification 6, which involves both re-arrangement and changing the air heating medium has the lowest capital cost with respect to enhancing exergy efficiency. Modifications 1 and 7, involving FGC, are the best alternatives for the capital cost per total unit of revenue generated. These modifications not only provides the highest heat production but also the highest net present value (NPV). The base case and the modifications investigated all have positive NPV, indicating that a waste-to-energy combined heat and power plant is an attractive investment. However, an increase of about 122% in the gate fees would be required for a system with only electricity production to be profitable.

  • 19. Ecke, Holger
    Sequestration of metals in carbonated municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash2003In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 631-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management is in need of a reliable and economical treatment method for metals in fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). However, no state-of-the-art technique has gained wide acceptance yet. This paper is a synthesis of five elsewhere published investigations covering a project which aimed to assess the possibilities and limitations of adding carbon dioxide (CO2) to fly ash as a stabilization method. Carbonation factors that were studied are the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2), the addition of water, the temperature, and the reaction time. Laboratory experiments were performed applying methods such as factorial experimental design, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and leaching assays including pHstat titration and sequential extraction. Leaching data were verified and complemented using chemical equilibrium calculations. Data evaluation was performed by means of multivariate statistics such as multiple linear regression, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares (PLS) modeling. It was found that carbonation is a good prospect for a stabilization technique especially with respect to the major pollutants lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Their mobility decreased with increasing factor levels. Dominating factors were the partial pressure of CO2 and the reaction time, while temperature and the addition of water were of minor influence. However, the treatment caused a mobilization of cadmium (Cd), requiring further research on possible countermeasures such as metal demobilization through enhanced silicate formation.

  • 20.
    Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Svensson, Malin
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 1301-1309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 26-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  • 21.
    Edo Gimenez, Mar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Energy Engineering, Department of Engineering Sciences & Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Gao, Qiuju
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Persson, Per-Erik
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fate of metals and emissions of organic pollutants from torrefaction of waste wood, MSW, and RDF2017In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 68, p. 646-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Torrefaction of municipal solid waste (MSW), refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and demolition and construction wood (DC) was performed at 220°C and a residence time of 90 min in a bench-scale reactor. The levels of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) contained in emission from the torrefaction process were evaluated. In addition, main ash-forming elements and trace metals in the raw feedstock and char were determined. The use of MSW in fuel blends with DC resulted in lower PCDD and PCDF emissions after torrefaction, compared with the RDF blends. The migration of chlorine from the feedstock to the gas phase reduces the chlorine content of the char which may reduce the risk of alkali chloride-corrosion in char combustion. However, trace metals catalytically active in the formation of PCDD and PCDF remain in the char, thereby may promote PCDD and PCDF formation during subsequent char combustion for energy recovery; this formation is less extensive than when the feedstock is used.

  • 22.
    Edo, Mar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Persson, Per-Erik
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Assessment of chemical and material contamination in waste wood fuels: a case study ranging over nine years2016In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 49, p. 311-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased demand for waste wood (WW) as fuel in Swedish co-combustion facilities during the last years has increased the import of this material. Each country has different laws governing the use of chemicals and therefore the composition of the fuel will likely change when combining WW from different origins. To cope with this, enhanced knowledge is needed on WW composition and the performance of pre-treatment techniques for reduction of its contaminants. In this study, the chemical and physical characteristics of 500 WW samples collected at a co-combustion facility in Sweden between 2004 and 2013 were investigated to determine the variation of contaminant content over time. Multivariate data analysis was used for the interpretation of the data. The concentrations of all the studied contaminants varied widely between sampling occasions, demonstrating the highly variable composition of WW fuels. The efficiency of sieving as a pre-treatment measure to reduce the levels of contaminants was not sufficient, revealing that sieving should be used in combination with other pre-treatment methods. The results from this case study provide knowledge on waste wood composition that may benefit its management. This knowledge can be applied for selection of the most suitable pre-treatments to obtain high quality sustainable WW fuels.

  • 23.
    Edo, Mar
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Gao, Qiuju
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Persson, Per-Erik
    VafabMiljö Kommunalförbund, SE-721 87 Västerås.
    Jansson, Stina
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Fate of metals and emissions of organic pollutants from torrefaction of waste wood, MSW, and RDF2017In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 68, p. 646-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Torrefaction of municipal solid waste (MSW), refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and demolition and construction wood (DC) was performed at 220 °C and a residence time of 90 min in a bench-scale reactor. The levels of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) contained in emission from the torrefaction process were evaluated. In addition, main ash-forming elements and trace metals in the raw feedstock and char were determined. The use of MSW in fuel blends with DC resulted in lower PCDD and PCDF emissions after torrefaction, compared with the RDF blends. The migration of chlorine from the feedstock to the gas phase reduces the chlorine content of the char which may reduce the risk of alkali chloride-corrosion in char combustion. However, trace metals catalytically active in the formation of PCDD and PCDF remain in the char, thereby may promote PCDD and PCDF formation during subsequent char combustion for energy recovery; this formation is less extensive than when the feedstock is used.

  • 24.
    Einhaeupl, Paul
    et al.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium; UAntwerpen, Belgium.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Van Acker, Karel
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium; Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Van Passel, Steven
    UAntwerpen, Belgium.
    Eliciting stakeholder needs - An anticipatory approach assessing enhanced landfill mining2019In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 98, p. 113-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill owners, governmental institutions, technology providers, academia and local communities are important stakeholders involved in Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM). This concept of excavating and processing historical waste streams to higher added values can be seen as a continuation of traditional landfill mining (LFM) and seems to be an innovative and promising idea for potential environmental and societal benefits. However, ELFMs profitability is still under debate, and environmental as well as societal impacts have to be further investigated. This study provides a first step towards an anticipatory approach, assessing ELFM through stakeholder integration. In the study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with various stakeholders, involved in a case study in Flanders, Belgium. Participants were selected across a quadruple helix (QH) framework, i.e. industrial, governmental, scientific, and local community actors. The research comprises 13 interviews conducted with an aim to elicit stakeholder needs for ELFM implementation using a general inductive approach. In total 18 different stakeholder needs were identified. The paper explains how the stakeholder needs refer to the different dimensions of sustainability, which groups of stakeholders they primarily affect, and what types of uncertainty could be influenced by their implementation. The stakeholder needs are structured into societal, environmental, regulatory and techno-economic needs. Results show additional economic, environmental, and societal aspects of ELFM to be integrated into ELFM research, as well as a need for the dynamic modeling of impacts. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Marielle
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Truong, Xu-Bin
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    High-rate anaerobic co-digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge and activated sludge by CSTRs with sludge recirculation2016In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 56, p. 166-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft fibre sludge from the pulp and paper industry constitutes a new, widely available substrate for thebiogas production industry, with high methane potential. In this study, anaerobic digestion of kraft fibresludge was examined by applying continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with sludge recirculation.Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 800 days, one on fibre sludge (R1), and the other on fibre sludgeand activated sludge (R2). Additions of Mg, K and S stabilized reactor performance. Furthermore, theCa:Mg ratio was important, and a stable process was achieved at a ratio below 16:1. Foaming was abatedby short but frequent mixing. Co-digestion of fibre sludge and activated sludge resulted in more robustconditions, and high-rate operation at stable conditions was achieved at an organic loading rate of 4 gvolatile solids (VS) L1 day1, a hydraulic retention time of 4 days and a methane production of230 ± 10 Nm L per g VS.

  • 26. Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    What life-cycle assessment does and does not do in assessments of waste management2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 989-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In assessments of the environmental impacts of waste management, life-cycle assessment (LCA) helps expanding the perspective beyond the waste management system. This is important, since the indirect environmental impacts caused by surrounding systems, such as energy and material production, often override the direct impacts of the waste management system itself. However, the applicability of LCA for waste management planning and policy-making is restricted by certain limitations, some of which are characteristics inherent to LCA methodology as such, and some of which are relevant specifically in the context of waste management. Several of them are relevant also for other types of systems analysis. We have identified and discussed such characteristics with regard to how they may restrict the applicability of LCA in the context of waste management. Efforts to improve LCA with regard to these aspects are also described. We also identify what other tools are available for investigating issues that cannot be adequately dealt with by traditional LCA models, and discuss whether LCA methodology should be expanded rather than complemented by other tools to increase its scope and applicability.

  • 27.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Assefa, Getachew
    Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    Environmental Strategies Research - FMS, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Environmental Strategies Research - FMS, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    What life-cycle assessment does and does not do in assessments of waste management2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 989-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In assessments of the environmental impacts of waste management, life-cycle assessment (LCA) helps expanding the perspective beyond the waste management system. This is important, since the indirect environmental impacts caused by surrounding systems, such as energy and material production, often override the direct impacts of the waste management system itself. However, the applicability of LCA for waste management planning and policy-making is restricted by certain limitations, some of which are characteristics inherent to LCA methodology as such, and some of which are relevant specifically in the context of waste management. Several of them are relevant also for other types of systems analysis. We have identified and discussed such characteristics with regard to how they may restrict the applicability of LCA in the context of waste management. Efforts to improve LCA with regard to these aspects are also described. We also identify what other tools are available for investigating issues that cannot be adequately dealt with by traditional LCA models, and discuss whether LCA methodology should be expanded rather than complemented by other tools to increase its scope and applicability.

  • 28.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Re-cycling of remediated soil: evaluation of leaching tests as tools for characterization2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 215-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, leaching tests with deionized water (D.W.) are frequently utilized in risk assessment, but implementation of these results to evaluate the risk of spreading in the environment is difficult. One problem is that most leaching procedures only consider heavy metals release, whereas organic pollutants are left out. The aim of the present study was to assess the possible pollutant miti­gation in four remediated soils, three with heavy metals and one with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), utilizing three different leaching solutions: D.W., a weak ionic solution (0.001 M CaCl2) and an artificially made soil wa­ter (ASW). In general, batch leaching implied larger contaminant removal than column leaching, possibly due to the more rough treatment of the soil particles, and guidelines would at times be exceeded by batch leaching but not column leaching. Utilization of CaCl2 was found to release much less heavy metal than D.W., whereas the metals mobilized by ASW were removed from solution by the filtration of soil leachates. Low molecular weight PAH was most efficiently mobilized by CaCl2, while D.W. worked better for high molecular weight PAH. Despite very low initial PAH-concentrations, tap- and groundwater criteria were exceeded by all leaching solutions.

  • 29.
    Engelmann, Pâmela de Medeiros
    et al.
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    dos Santos, Victor Hugo Jacks Mendes
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Barbieri, Cristina Barazzetti
    General Institute of Forensics, Brazil.
    Augustin, Adolpho Herbert
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Ketzer, João Marcelo
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Rodrigues, Luiz Frederico
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Environmental monitoring of a landfill area through the application of carbon stable isotopes, chemical parameters and multivariate analysis2018In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 76, p. 591-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leachate produced during an organic matter decomposition process has a complex composition and can cause contamination of surface and groundwaters adjacent to a landfill area. The monitoring of these areas is extremely important for the characterization of the leachate produced and to avoid or mitigate environmental damages. Thus, the present study has the objective of monitoring the area of a Brazilian landfill using conventional parameters (dissolved metals and anions in water) and alternative, stable carbon isotopes parameters (δ13C of dissolved organic and inorganic carbons in water) in addition to multivariate analysis techniques. The use of conventional and alternative parameters together with multivariate analysis showed that cells of the residues are at different phases of stabilization of the organic matter and probably already at C3 of the methanogenic phase of decomposition. In addition, the data showed that organic matter stabilization ponds present in the landfill are efficient and improve the quality of the leachate. Enrichment of the heavy 13C isotope in both surface and groundwater suggested contamination in two sampling sites.

  • 30.
    Eriksson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Box 7070, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.; Mat Mattekn & Uppsala AB, Gimogatan 11 A, S-75220 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Persson Osowski, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Malefors, Christopher
    Mat Mattekn & Uppsala AB, Gimogatan 11 A, S-75220 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Björkman, Jesper
    Mat Mattekn & Uppsala AB, Gimogatan 11 A, S-75220 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Emelie
    Sala Municipal, Catering Serv Unit, Tech Off, Box 304, S-73325 Sala, Sweden..
    Quantification of food waste in public catering services: A case study from a Swedish municipality2017In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 61, p. 415-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste is a major problem that must be reduced in order to achieve a sustainable food supply chain. Since food waste valorisation measures, like energy recovery, have limited possibilities to fully recover the resources invested in food production, there is a need to prevent food waste. Prevention is most important at the end of the value chain, where the largest number of sub-processes have already taken place and occur in vain if the food is not used for its intended purpose, i.e. consumption. Catering facilities and households are at the very end of the food supply chain, and in Sweden the public catering sector serves a large number of meals through municipal organisations, including schools, preschools and elderly care homes. Since the first step in waste reduction is to establish a baseline measurement in order to identify problems, this study sought to quantify food waste in schools, preschools and elderly care homes in one municipality in Sweden. The quantification was conducted during three months, spread out over three semesters, and was performed in all 30 public kitchen units in the municipality of Sala. The kitchen staff used kitchen scales to quantify the mass of wasted and served food divided into serving waste (with sub-categories), plate waste and other food waste. The food waste level was quantified as 75 g of food waste per portion served, or 23% of the mass of food served. However, there was great variation between kitchens, with the waste level ranging from 33 g waste per portion served (13%) to 131 g waste per portion served (34%). Wasted food consisted of 64% serving waste, 33% plate waste and 3% other food waste. Preschools had a lower waste level than schools, possibly due to preschool carers eating together with the children. Kitchens that received warm food prepared in another kitchen (satellite kitchens) had a 42% higher waste level than kitchens preparing all food themselves (production units), possibly due to the latter having higher flexibility in cooking the right amount of food and being able to chill and save surplus food. The large variation between kitchens indicates that they have different causes of food waste, but also different opportunities to reduce it. Detailed waste quantification for each kitchen can therefore be the first step in the process of waste reduction.

  • 31.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Profu i Göteborg AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Multiple system modelling of waste management2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 2620-2630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased environmental awareness, planning and performance of waste management has become more and more complex. Therefore waste management has early been subject to different types of modelling. Another field with long experience of modelling and systems perspective is energy systems. The two modelling traditions have developed side by side, but so far there are very few attempts to combine them. Waste management systems can be linked together with energy systems through incineration plants. The models for waste management can be modelled on a quite detailed level whereas surrounding systems are modelled in a more simplistic way. This is a problem, as previous studies have shown that assumptions on the surrounding system often tend to be important for the conclusions. In this paper it is shown how two models, one for the district heating system (MARTES) and another one for the waste management system (ORWARE), can be linked together. The strengths and weaknesses with model linking are discussed when compared to simplistic assumptions on effects in the energy and waste management systems. It is concluded that the linking of models will provide a more complete, correct and credible picture of the consequences of different simultaneous changes in the systems. The linking procedure is easy to perform and also leads to activation of project partners. However, the simulation procedure is a bit more complicated and calls for the ability to run both models.

  • 32. Ermolaev, E.
    et al.
    Jarvis, Å.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences .
    Smårs, S.
    Pell, M.
    Jönsson, H.
    Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from food waste composting at different temperatures2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 46, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from composting of source-sorted food waste were studied at set temperatures of 40, 55 and 67 degrees C in 10 trials performed in a controlled environment 200 L compost reactor. CH4 and N2O concentrations were generally low. In trials with 16% O-2, the mean total CH4 emission at all temperatures was 0.007% of the mineralized carbon (C), while at 67 degrees C this fraction was 0.001%. Total CH4 production was higher in the 40 degrees C trial and the limited oxygen (1% O-2) trial, with emissions of 0.029 and 0.132% of the mineralized C respectively. An early increase in N2O production was observed in trials with higher initial nitrate contents. Increased CH4 and N2O production in trials at 40 and 55 degrees C after 50% of the initial C was mineralized resulted in higher total greenhouse gas emissions. Overall, the global warming potentials in CO2-equivalents from CH4 emissions were higher than from N2O, except for composts run at 67 degrees C.

  • 33.
    Evangelopoulos, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Arato, Samantha
    Persson, Henry
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Kantarelis, Efthymios
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Reduction of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by solvent extraction and the influence on their thermal decompositionIn: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumption of electronics increases due to modern society’s growing needs, which leads to increasing generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Recycling of WEEE has been a global concern during the last few decades because of the toxic compounds that are produced during recycling. Different recycling techniques have been adapted on a commercial scale in order to overcome this issue, but the recycling of WEEE still lacks the technology to treat different kinds of feedstocks and to maximise the recycling rates. Pyrolysis is an alternative that has not been commercialised yet. One of the challenges for the implementation of this technology is the toxic brominated organic compounds that can be found in the pyrolysis oils.

    In this study, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), one of the major flame retardants, is reduced in three different WEEE fractions through solvent extraction as a treatment prior to pyrolysis. Two solvents have been experimentally investigated: isopropanol and toluene, the latter of which can be derived from pyrolysis oil. The results indicate that TBBPA was extracted during pre-treatment. Moreover, the total bromine content of WEEE material was reduced after the treatment with a maximum reduction of 36.5%. The pyrolysis experiments indicate that reduction of several brominated organic compounds was achieved in almost all the tested cases, and two brominated compounds (2,4,6-tribromophenol and 2,5-Dibromobenzo(b)thiophene) reached complete removal. Also, the thermal decomposition behaviour of the raw samples and the treated was investigated, showing that the reduction of TBBPA influences the decomposition by shifting the starting decomposition temperature.

  • 34.
    Evangelopoulos, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Sophonrat, Nanta
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jilvero, Henrik
    Stena Recycling Int AB, Dept Res & Dev, POB 4088, S-40040 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Weihong, Yang
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Investigation on the low-temperature pyrolysis of automotive shredder residue (ASR) for energy recovery and metal recycling2018In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 76, p. 507-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive shredder residue (ASR) or shredder light fraction (SLF) is the remaining fraction from the metal recovery of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs). While processes for metal recovery from ELVs are well developed, the similar process for ASR remains a challenge. In this work, low-temperature pyrolysis of the ASR fraction was investigated under the assumption that a low temperature and inert environment would enhance the metal recovery, i.e. the metals would not be further oxidised from their original state and the organic material could be separated from the metals in the form of volatiles and char. Pyrolysis experiments were performed in a tube reactor operating at 300, 400 and 500 degrees C. The gas and oil obtained by pyrolysis were analysed by micro-GC (micro-Gas Chromatography) and GC/MS (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry), respectively. It was found that the gas produced contained a high amount of CO2, limiting the energy recovery from this fraction. The oil consisted of a high concentration of phenolic and aromatic compounds. The solid residue was crushed and fractionated into different particle sizes for further characterization. The pyrolysis temperature of 300 degrees C was found to be insufficient for metal liberation, while the char was easier to crush at tested temperature of 400 and 500 degrees C. The intermediate temperature of 400 degrees C is then suggested for the process to keep the energy consumption low.

  • 35.
    Fallman, AM
    Swedish Geotech Inst, SE-58193 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Leaching of chromium and barium from steel slag in laboratory and field tests - a solubility controlled process?2000In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 20, no 2-3, p. 149-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differences in concentrations in leachates and leaching conditions were found in laboratory and field tests on electric are furnace steel slag. Solid phases were assumed to control the leachate concentrations of chromium and barium. Geochemical modelling was used to indicate solubility controlling solid phases. The mineral BaSO4(c) and solid solutions of Ba(S,Cr)O-4 were predicted to control the concentrations of barium and chromium in the leachates, respectively. These solids were not expected to be present as primary minerals in the steel slag but were rapidly formed, within 6 h. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 36. Finnveden, Goran
    et al.
    Bjorklund, Anna
    Reich, Marcus Carlsson
    Eriksson, Ola
    Sörbom, Adrienne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. s1-S8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials.

  • 37.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research - fms, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research - fms, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson Reich, Marcus
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Sörbom, Adrienne
    Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. S1-S8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials.

  • 38.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Reich, Marcus Carlsson
    Eriksson, Ola
    Sorbom, Adrienne
    Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. S1-S8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials.

  • 39.
    Frändegård, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 42, p. 137-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the economic potential of integrating material separation and resource recovery into a landfill remediation project, and discusses the result and the largest impact factors. The analysis is done using a direct costs/revenues approach and the stochastic uncertainties are handled using Monte Carlo simulation.

    Two remediation scenarios are applied to a hypothetical landfill. One scenario includes only remediation, while the second scenario adds resource recovery to the remediation project. Moreover, the second scenario is divided into two cases, case A and B. In case A, the landfill tax needs to be paid for re-deposited material and the landfill holder does not own a combined heat and power plant (CHP), which leads to disposal costs in the form of gate fees. In case B, the landfill tax is waived on the re-deposited material and the landfill holder owns its own CHP.

    Results show that the remediation project in the first scenario costs about €23/ton. Adding resource recovery as in case A worsens the result to −€36/ton, while for case B the result improves to −€14/ton. This shows the importance of landfill tax and the access to a CHP. Other important factors for the result are the material composition in the landfill, the efficiency of the separation technology used, and the price of the saleable material.

  • 40.
    Gentil, Emmanuel C.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Damgaard, Anders
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Hauschild, Michael
    DTU Management, Innovation and Sustainability Group, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Environmental Strategies Research - fms, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Thorneloe, Susan
    US EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, United States.
    Kaplan, Pervin Ozge
    US EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, United States.
    Barlaz, Morton
    Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, NC State University, Raleigh, United States.
    Muller, Olivier
    PricewaterhouseCoopers, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France.
    Matsui, Yasuhiro
    Graduate School of Environmental Science, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.
    Ii, Ryota
    Pacific Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.
    Christensen, Thomas H.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Models for waste life cycle assessment: Review of technical assumptions2010In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 2636-2648Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of waste life cycle assessment (LCA) models have been gradually developed since the early 1990s, in a number of countries, usually independently from each other. Large discrepancies in results have been observed among different waste LCA models, although it has also been shown that results from different LCA studies can be consistent. This paper is an attempt to identify, review and analyse methodologies and technical assumptions used in various parts of selected waste LCA models. Several criteria were identified, which could have significant impacts on the results, such as the functional unit, system boundaries, waste composition and energy modelling. The modelling assumptions of waste management processes, ranging from collection, transportation, intermediate facilities, recycling, thermal treatment, biological treatment, and landfilling, are obviously critical when comparing waste LCA models. This review infers that some of the differences in waste LCA models are inherent to the time they were developed. It is expected that models developed later, benefit from past modelling assumptions and knowledge and issues. Models developed in different countries furthermore rely on geographic specificities that have an impact on the results of waste LCA models. The review concludes that more effort should be employed to harmonise and validate non-geographic assumptions to strengthen waste LCA modelling.

  • 41. Gentil, Emmanuel C.
    et al.
    Damgaard, Anders
    Hauschild, Michael
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Thorneloe, Susan
    Kaplan, Pervin Ozge
    Barlaz, Morton
    Muller, Olivier
    Matsui, Yasuhiro
    Ii, Ryota
    Christensen, Thomas H.
    Models for waste life cycle assessment: Review of technical assumptions2010In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 2636-2648Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of waste life cycle assessment (LCA) models have been gradually developed since the early 1990s, in a number of countries, usually independently from each other. Large discrepancies in results have been observed among different waste LCA models, although it has also been shown that results from different LCA studies can be consistent. This paper is an attempt to identify, review and analyse methodologies and technical assumptions used in various parts of selected waste LCA models. Several criteria were identified, which could have significant impacts on the results, such as the functional unit, system boundaries, waste composition and energy modelling. The modelling assumptions of waste management processes, ranging from collection, transportation, intermediate facilities, recycling, thermal treatment, biological treatment, and landfilling, are obviously critical when comparing waste LCA models. This review infers that some of the differences in waste LCA models are inherent to the time they were developed. It is expected that models developed later, benefit from past modelling assumptions and knowledge and issues. Models developed in different countries furthermore rely on geographic specificities that have an impact on the results of waste LCA models. The review concludes that more effort should be employed to harmonise and validate non-geographic assumptions to strengthen waste LCA modelling.

  • 42.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sintca, Carissa
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Combining submerged and solid state fermentation to convert waste bread into protein and pigment using the edible filamentous fungus N. intermedia.2019In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 97, p. 63-70, article id S0956-053X(19)30509-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste streams from ethanol and bread production present inexpensive, abundant and underutilized renewable substrates that are highly available for valorisation into high-value products. A combined submerged to solid state fermentation strategy was studied using the edible filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia to biotransform ethanol plant residues 'thin stillage' and waste bread as substrates for the production of additional ethanol, biomass and a feed product rich in pigment. The fungus was able to degrade the stillage during submerged fermentation, producing 81 kg ethanol and 65 kg fungal biomass per ton dry weight of thin stillage. Concurrently, the second solid state fermentation step increased the protein content in waste bread by 161%. Additionally, 1.2 kg pigment per ton waste bread was obtained at the best conditions (6 days solid state fermentation under light at 95% relative humidity at 35 °C with an initial substrate moisture content of 40% using washed fungal biomass to initiate fermentation). This study presents a means of increasing the value of waste bread while reducing the treatment load on thin stillage in ethanol plants.

  • 43. Guerrero, Lilliana Abarca
    et al.
    Maas, Ger
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries2013In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 220-232Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems in cities. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 44. Gunnarsson, Carina C.
    et al.
    Mattsson Petersen, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Water hyacinths as a resource in agriculture and energy production: a literature review2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 117-129Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water hyacinths are becoming a problem in lakes, ponds and waterways in many parts of the world. This paper contains a literature study of different ways to use water hyacinths, mainly in agricultural or alternative energy systems. The literature review indicated that water hyacinths can be rich in nitrogen, up to 3.2% of DM and have a C/N ratio around 15. The water hyacinth can be used as a substrate for compost or biogas production. The sludge from the biogas process contains almost all of the nutrients of the substrate and can be used as a fertiliser. The use of water hyacinth compost on different crops has resulted in improved yields. The high protein content makes the water hyacinth possible to use as fodder for cows, goats, sheep and chickens. Water hyacinth, due to its abundant growth and high concentrations of nutrients, has a great potential as fertiliser for the nutrient deficient soils of Africa and as feed for livestock. Applying the water hyacinths directly without any other processing than sun drying, seems to be the best alternative in small-scale use due to the relatively small losses of nutrients and workload required. To meet the ever-growing energy demand, biogas production could be one option but it requires investments and technological skills that would impose great problems in developing countries where the water hyacinth is often found. Composting as an alternative treatment has the advantage of a product that is easy to work into the soil compared with dried water hyacinths, because of the decomposed structure. Harvesting and transport of water hyacinths can be conducted manually on a small scale and does not require a new harvesting technique to be introduced. Transporting of fresh water hyacinths means, if used as fertiliser in amounts large enough to enhance or effect crop growth, an unreasonably large labour requirement. Based on the labour need and the limited access to technology, using dried water hyacinths, as green manure is a feasible alternative in many developing countries. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 45.
    Gustavsson, L.
    et al.
    Karlskoga Environment and Energy Company, Karlskoga, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Treatment of sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds in reed-bed mesocosms: Water, BOD, carbon and nutrient removal2012In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 104-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the mid-1970s, Sweden has been depositing 1 million ton d.w sludge/year, produced at waste water treatment plants. Due to recent legislation this practice is no longer a viable method of waste management. It is necessary to improve existing and develop new sludge management techniques and one promising alternative is the dewatering and treatment of sludge in constructed wetlands. The aim of this study was to follow reduction of organic carbon, BOD and nutrients in an industrial sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds passing through constructed small-scale wetlands, and to investigate any toxic effect such as growth inhibition of the common reed Phragmites australis. The result showed high reduction of all tested parameters in all the outgoing water samples, which shows that constructed wetlands are suitable for carbon and nutrient removal. The results also showed that P. australis is tolerant to xenobiotics and did not appear to be affected by the toxic compounds in the sludge. The sludge residual on the top of the beds contained low levels of organic carbon and is considered non-organic and could therefore be landfilled. Using this type of secondary treatment method, the amount of sludge could be reduced by 50-70%, mainly by dewatering and biodegradation of organic compounds.

  • 46.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Remote sensing of methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from waste incineration2018In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 75, p. 319-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incomplete combustion processes lead to the formation of many gaseous byproducts that can be challenging to monitor in flue gas released via chimneys. This study presents ground-based remote sensing approaches to make greenhouse gas (GHG) flux measurements of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from a waste incineration chimney at distances of 150-200 m. The study found emission of N2O (corresponding to 30-40 t yr(-1)), which is a consequence of adding the reduction agent urea to decrease NOx emissions due to NOx regulation; a procedure that instead increases N2O emissions (which is approximately 300 times more potent as a GHG than CO2 on a 100-year time scale). CH4 emissions of 7-11 t yr(-1) was also detected from the studied chimney despite the usage of a high incineration temperature. For this particular plant, local knowledge is high and emission estimates at corresponding levels have been reported previously. However, emissions of CH(4 )are often not included in GHG emission inventories for waste incineration. This study highlights the importance of monitoring combustion processes, and shows the possibility of surveying CH4 and N2O emissions from waste incineration at distances of several hundred meters. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Hadin, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion2016In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 65, p. 506-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  • 48. Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    An econometric analysis of regional differences in household waste collection: the case of plastic packaging waste in Sweden2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1720-1731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish producer responsibility ordinance mandates producers to collect and recycle packaging materials. This paper investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste in Swedish municipalities. This is done by the use of a regression analysis based on cross-sectional data for 252 Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that local policies, geographic/demographic variables, socio-economic factors and environmental preferences all help explain inter-municipality collection rates. For instance, the collection rate appears to be positively affected by increases in the unemployment rate, the share of private houses, and the presence of immigrants (unless newly arrived) in the municipality. The impacts of distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density on collection outcomes turn out, though, to be both statistically and economically insignificant. A reasonable explanation for this is that the monetary compensation from the material companies to the collection entrepreneurs vary depending on region and is typically higher in high-cost regions. This implies that the plastic packaging collection in Sweden may be cost ineffective. Finally, the analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which flat and/or volume-based fees are used.

  • 49.
    Hagelqvist, Alina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Batchwise mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of secondary sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal sewage sludge2013In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 820-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residues from forest-industry wastewater-treatment systems are treated as waste at many pulp and paper mills. These organic substances have previously been shown to have potential for production of large quantities of biogas. There is concern, however, that the process would require expensive equipment because of the slow degradation of these substances. Pure non-fibrous sludge from forest industry showed lower specific methane production during mesophilic digestion for 19 days, 53 ± 26 Nml/g of volatile solids as compared to municipal sewage sludge, 84 ± 24 Nml/g of volatile solids. This paper explores the possibility of using anaerobic co-digestion with municipal sewage sludge to enhance the potential of methane production from secondary sludge from a pulp and paper mill. It was seen in a batch anaerobicdigestion operation of 19 days that the specific methane production remained largely the same for municipal sewage sludge when up to 50% of the volatile solids were replaced with forest-industry secondary sludge. It was also shown that the solid residue from anaerobic digestion of the forest-industry sludge should be of suitable quality to use for improving soil quality on lands that are not used for food production.

  • 50.
    Hagelqvist, Alina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Murto, Marika
    Department of Biotechnology, Lund University.
    Anaerobic self-degradation of pig and dairy manure using co-digestion with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge to shorten the start-up time2013In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to find a way to shorten the start-up time of a pig and dairy manure based anaerobic digester without addition of external inoculum. Self-degradation was tested to simulate the setting of many sites where the use of external seed culture is not feasible because of the large distance to a nearest location where appropriate material can be collected. In this case study, co-digestion of pig and dairy manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge was tested using different compositions. The results showed that one tertiary mixture of 17 per cent of piggery manure, 17 per cent of dairy manure and 66 per cent of pulp and paper mill sludge resulted in a considerably shorter start-up time (about 15 days) as well as in a higher methane yield (120 ml CH4/g VS added after 44 days of batch operation) as compared to other mixtures tested. This mixture composition is recommended to start-up the full-scale process. Concentrations of ammonium of 0.4 g/l combined with slowly degradable material favoured a rapid start and efficient digestion.

123 1 - 50 of 140
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf