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  • 1.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Rashid, Amir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Bianchi, C.
    Nicolescu, Cornel Mihai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    System dynamics models for decision making in product multiple lifecycles2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 101, p. 20-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main drivers for adopting product multiple lifecycles are to gain ecological and economic advantages. However, in most of the cases it is not straight forward to estimate the potential ecological and economic gain that may result from adopting product multiple lifecycles. Even though many researchers have concluded that product multiple lifecycles result in gain, there are examples which indicate that the gain is often marginal or even none in many cases. The purpose of this research is to develop system dynamics models that can assist decision makers in assessing and analysing the potential gain of product multiple lifecycles considering the dynamics of material scarcity. The foundation of the research presented in this paper is laid based on literature review. System dynamics principles have been used for modelling and simulations have been done on Stella iThink platform. The data used in the models have been extracted from different reports published by World Steel Association and U.S. Geological Survey. Some of the data have been assumed based on expert estimation. The data on iron ore reserves, iron and steel productions and consumptions have been used in the models. This research presents the first system dynamics model for decision making in product multiple lifecycles which takes into consideration the dynamics of material scarcity. Physical unavailability and price of material are the two main factors that would drive product multiple lifecycles approach and more sustainable decisions can be made if it is done by taking holistic system approach over longer time horizon. For an enterprise it is perhaps not attractive to conserve a particular type of material through product multiple lifecycles approach which is naturally abundant but extremely important if the material becomes critical. An enterprise could through engineering, proper business model and marketing may increase the share of multiple lifecycle products which eventually would help the enterprise to reduce its dependency on critical materials.

  • 2.
    Abu Hatab, Assem
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; Arish University.
    Tirkaso, Wondmagegn Tafesse
    Tadesse, Elazar
    Lagerkvist, Carl-Johan
    An extended integrative model of behavioural prediction for examining households’ food waste behaviour in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia2022In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 179, article id 106073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In developing countries, urbanization and demographic changes are increasing food waste generation at household levels. However, it remains unclear how behavioural and personal characteristics influence the behaviours of urban consumers in developing countries regarding food waste. In this study, we extended the integrative model of behavioural prediction to examine the determinants of food waste behaviour amongst a sample of 698 urban dwellers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The empirical results revealed that attitudes and perceived behavioural control were the most important predictors of intention toward food waste reduction. With regard to food waste behaviours, the results showed that the more an individual feels obliged to discard less food, the higher the odds that the quantity of food that gets wasted by the household would be reduced. Likewise, knowledge about the negative impacts of wasting food and an ability to interpret information on labels of food products were associated with decreased quantities of household food waste. In addition, lower psychological distance to food waste was generally associated with lower quantities of wasted food. Finally, sociodemographic characteristics and food-shopping routines were found to be significant predictors of food waste behaviours. Overall, these findings constitute an entry point for more research and policy measures in order to understand determinants of household food waste behaviours in developing countries and to design effective interventions to reinforce their behaviours towards more sustainable food consumption patterns.

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  • 3.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ragn-Sells AB.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Expanding roles for the Swedish waste management sector in interorganizational resource management2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 124, p. 85-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several waste management (WM) professionals see an ongoing shift in the focus of the industry, from that of atransport and treatment sector to that of a more integrated sustainable service provision and material productionsector. To further develop such transitional ambitions, WM organizations are increasingly looking toward interorganizationalresource network concepts (such as the circular economy and industrial symbiosis) as models ofhow they would like to create new value together with their customers and partners.This article aims to take a step in addressing uncertainties behind such transitions by analyzing barriers forinter-organizational resource management and in turn uncovering some potential opportunities and risks ofnovel offerings from the WM sector. Obstacles for developing innovative inter-organizational resource networkshave been identified based on studies of implementing industrial symbiosis networks. Subsequently, managingexecutives from Swedish private and public WM organizations were interviewed regarding the sector’s capacityto overcome such barriers – opportunities and risks of providing new resource management services – and howtheir organizations might approach the role of actively facilitating more resource efficient regions.Eco-Industrial park management and contracting out holistic resource management are some areas in whichthe respondents see WM organizations offering new services. In relation to such approaches, various risks (e.g.being cut out of investment benefits, or unstable supply) and opportunities (e.g. new markets and enhancedsustainability profiles) were identified. Additionally, it was seen that WM companies would need to makesubstantial changes to their business approach, becoming less dependent on flows of mixed materials forexample, if they are to become even more central value chain actors. To strengthen such approaches, it was seenthat the sector will need to find methods to strategically build strong, long term partnerships, expand upon andtake advantage of available knowledge resources (i.e. best practice technologies and regional material flows),and explore new business models (i.e. stockpiling, park management, or waste minimization). Additionally,working with sector representatives to argue for a more balanced market conditions next to primary productionshould assist the viability of new offerings in the wider market.

  • 4.
    Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F.
    et al.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Dewulf, Jo
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Guinée, Jeroen
    Leiden University, the Netherlands.
    Schulze, Rita
    Leiden University, the Netherlands.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Drielsma, Johannes
    Euromines, Belgium.
    Towards product-oriented sustainability in the (primary) metal supply sector2019In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 145, p. 40-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consideration of sustainable supply of (primary) metals is increasingly influencing the policy agenda of western societies. Environmental sustainability can be managed from different perspectives, including a site-oriented one (strongly used by the mining sector) and a product-oriented one (as with life cycle assessment). The objectives of this article are to analyse and discuss the differences in these perspectives; to discuss potential benefits to the metal/mining sector of also considering the product-oriented perspective; and to propose ways for a smooth implementation. We made use of literature and expert knowledge, on top of interviews with different stakeholders, to identify why and how these perspectives are (not) used in the metal/mining sector. Moreover, we identified three key concerns related to the implementation of a product-oriented perspective in the sector (e.g., use of unrepresentative life cycle inventory (LCI) datasets for metal-based products) and proposed three corrective actions for all of them (e.g., increase the quantity and quality of LCI). Finally, we discuss how the corrective actions could be implemented in the sector in a smooth way and some potential benefits from its implementation.

  • 5. Ammenberg, J.
    et al.
    Anderberg, S.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Biogas in the transport sector—actor and policy analysis focusing on the demand side in the Stockholm region2018In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 129, p. 70-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has ambitions to phase out fossil fuels and significantly increase the share of biofuels it uses. This article focuses on Stockholm County and biogas, with the aim to increase the knowledge about regional preconditions. Biogas-related actors have been interviewed, focusing on the demand side. Biogas solutions play an essential role, especially regarding bus transports and taxis. Long-term development has created well-functioning socio-technical systems involving collaboration. However, uncertainties about demand and policy cause hesitation and signs of stagnating development. Public organizations are key actors regarding renewables. For example, Stockholm Public Transport procures biogas matching the production at municipal wastewater treatment plants, the state-owned company Swedavia steers via a queuing system for taxis, and the municipalities have shifted to “environmental cars”. There is a large interest in electric vehicles, which is expected to increase significantly, partially due to suggested national policy support. The future role of biogas will be affected by how such an expansion comes about. There might be a risk of electricity replacing biogas, making it more challenging to reach a fossil-free vehicle fleet. Policy issues strongly influence the development. The environmental car definition is of importance, but its limited focus fails to account for several different types of relevant effects. The dynamic policy landscape with uncertainties about decision makers’ views on biogas seems to be one important reason behind the decreased pace of development. A national, long-term strategy is missing. Both the European Union and Sweden have high ambitions regarding a bio-based and circular economy, which should favor biogas solutions.

  • 6.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    Division of Energy Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    Division of Energy Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Biogas in the transport sector: Actor and policy analysis focusing on the demand side in the Stockholm region2018In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 129, p. 70-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has ambitions to phase out fossil fuels and significantly increase the share of biofuels it uses. This articlefocuses on Stockholm County and biogas, with the aim to increase the knowledge about regional preconditions.Biogas-related actors have been interviewed, focusing on the demand side. Biogas solutions play an essentialrole, especially regarding bus transports and taxis. Long-term development has created well-functioning sociotechnicalsystems involving collaboration. However, uncertainties about demand and policy cause hesitation andsigns of stagnating development.Public organizations are key actors regarding renewables. For example, Stockholm Public Transport procuresbiogas matching the production at municipal wastewater treatment plants, the state-owned company Swedaviasteers via a queuing system for taxis, and the municipalities have shifted to “environmental cars”.There is a large interest in electric vehicles, which is expected to increase significantly, partially due tosuggested national policy support. The future role of biogas will be affected by how such an expansion comesabout. There might be a risk of electricity replacing biogas, making it more challenging to reach a fossil-freevehicle fleet. Policy issues strongly influence the development. The environmental car definition is of importance,but its limited focus fails to account for several different types of relevant effects. The dynamic policylandscape with uncertainties about decision makers’ views on biogas seems to be one important reason behindthe decreased pace of development. A national, long-term strategy is missing. Both the European Union andSweden have high ambitions regarding a bio-based and circular economy, which should favor biogas solutions.

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    fulltext
  • 7.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 388-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. Biogas is a biofuel that can contribute to a more renewable and local energy system. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework, which is proposed in a companion article (Part II), is used to assess the suitability of four types of feedstocks for producing biogas (considering Swedish conditions). The assessed feedstocks are ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste. The results have synthesized and structured a lot of information, which facilitates considerably for those that want an overview and to be able to review several different areas simultaneously. Among the assessed feedstocks, biogas production from household food waste and ley is the most straightforward. For straw and farmed blue mussels, there are more obstacles to overcome including some significant barriers. For all feedstock there are challenges related to the institutional conditions. The assessment contributes to the knowledge about sustainable use of these feedstocks, and the limitations and opportunities for biogas development. It supports more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

  • 8. André, Hampus
    et al.
    Ljunggren, M.
    Towards comprehensive assessment of mineral resource availability?: Complementary roles of life cycle, life cycle sustainability and criticality assessments2021In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 167, article id 105396Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    André, Hampus
    et al.
    KTH.
    Nilsson, Louisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    Are second-hand shell jackets better than users think? A comparison of perceived, assessed and measured functionality throughout lifespans2024In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 204, article id 107470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the case of outdoor shell jackets, this research studies obsolescence and potential lifespan extension by re-examining how product functionality, objectively and subjectively, develops over the course of product lifespans. In particular, the study focuses on second-hand stores for outdoor products. Functionality is indicated by user perceptions, visual assessments, laboratory measurements and price data, collected at first use, second-hand resale and end-of-life. Perceived functionality and price decline more rapidly (5–6 % per year) than assessed and measured functionality (around 3 % per year). This could be explained by properties related to appearance, which are not assessed nor measured but influence user perceptions and price. Discontentment regarding such properties appears more relevant for obsolescence than inadequate performance, suggesting the potential for design for attachment and timeless design. The relative stability of measured functionality over time suggests that a barrier for second-hand sales, concern about performance, could be ameliorated by a potential functionality-label.

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  • 10.
    André, Hampus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Nilsson, Louisa
    bMid Sweden University, Campus Kunskapens väg 8, 831 25 Östersund, Sweden, Akademigatan 1.
    Are second-hand shell jackets better than users think? A comparison of perceived, assessed and measured functionality throughout lifespans2024In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 204, p. 107470-, article id 107470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the case of outdoor shell jackets, this research studies obsolescence and potential lifespan extension by re-examining how product functionality, objectively and subjectively, develops over the course of product lifespans. In particular, the study focuses on second-hand stores for outdoor products. Functionality is indicated by user perceptions, visual assessments, laboratory measurements and price data, collected at first use, second-hand resale and end-of-life. Perceived functionality and price decline more rapidly (5–6 % per year) than assessed and measured functionality (around 3 % per year). This could be explained by properties related to appearance, which are not assessed nor measured but influence user perceptions and price. Discontentment regarding such properties appears more relevant for obsolescence than inadequate performance, suggesting the potential for design for attachment and timeless design. The relative stability of measured functionality over time suggests that a barrier for second-hand sales, concern about performance, could be ameliorated by a potential functionality-label.

  • 11.
    Arekrans, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Sopjani, Liridona
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Science, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey, N.L., México, 64849.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Barriers to access-based consumption in the circular transition: A systematic review2022In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 184, article id 106364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Barriers to access-based consumption (ABC) have been extensively studied in different strands of literature. However, cumulative knowledge is not organized to date, and a comprehensive overview of barriers identified by empirical studies in diverse strands is lacking. Such a picture is essential for laying the ground for further change-oriented research and actual changes in practice. This article reports on the results of a systematic review on barriers to transitioning from ownership- to access-based consumption. The review focuses on the literature strands product-service systems, circular economy, sharing economy, and collaborative consumption. Through open and axial coding of 289 barriers reported in 45 empirical studies, we found 17 themes of barriers concerning consumers, business, and society. The analysis of the barriers reveals four significant insights important for the research and practitioner community:

    1. the overall experience of ABC and trust mechanisms need to be better understood;
    2. organizational aspects in traditional business need a system change;
    3. regulation plays a fundamental role in making ABC work for business, society, and sustainability; and
    4. sharing risks and experimentation for new learnings are necessary.

    These four major insights suggest that consumers need business and government to offer enabling conditions for ABC – spanning from raising awareness and understanding to improving user experience. Furthermore, businesses need governments to create the necessary structures to support ABC offerings – from decreasing risks to increasing incentives. How and which mechanisms can further facilitate circular behaviors is a salient topic for future investigations.

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  • 12. Bailey, G.
    et al.
    Joyce, Peter James
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Schrijvers, D.
    Schulze, R.
    Sylvestre, A. M.
    Sprecher, B.
    Vahidi, E.
    Dewulf, W.
    Van Acker, K.
    Review and new life cycle assessment for rare earth production from bastnäsite, ion adsorption clays and lateritic monazite2020In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 155, article id 104675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rare Earth Elements (REEs) are one of the most important–albeit critical–commodities for our green technologies. However, there is a general perception that REEs are produced using mining and processing techniques that are unsustainable. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the most widely accepted methodology to evaluate the environmental impacts of rare earth oxide (REO) production. This article aims to provide a synthesis of the currently existing LCA studies on REEs using two strategies. Firstly, an overview of published LCA results of REO production. Secondly, a detailed LCA using the best available life cycle inventories (LCIs) in order to: i). evaluate the state-of-the-art LCI for this sector ii). Understand better the impacts related to each of the three main production routes and iii). Contribute to the development of a preliminary benchmark for the sector. The analysis of the published LCA results reveal that the three main methodological issues with published LCAs are data gaps, allocation, and waste management. The dominating contributor to the global warming potential of the production of REOs in all two of the three routes is chemical extraction and separation.

  • 13.
    Berglund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Spatial cost efficiency in waste paper handling: the case of corrugated board in Sweden2004In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 367-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the spatial cost efficiency of the Swedish legislation regarding waste disposal handling. We focus on the case of corrugated board and recognize that the different counties in Sweden possess different economic prerequisites in terms of waste paper recovery and utilization potential. We employ data for six corrugated board mills and 20 counties and a non-linear programming model to identify the least cost strategy for reaching the politically specified recycling target of a 65% recovery rate for corrugated board. That is, the total costs of recovering a minimum of 65% in each county are calculated and compared with the case when the country as a whole recovers 65% of all old corrugated board is collected but there exist no uniform target for each county. The conclusion is that from an efficiency point of view the recovery efforts should be concentrated to the highly populated and urbanized counties, and not be uniformly divided throughout the country. In the base case, the results suggest that the cost efficient county-specific recovery rates should range from 51 to 72%.

  • 14. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Swedish Competition Authority.
    A note on inter-country differences in waste paper recovery and utilization2002In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 175-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries worldwide express waste paper recycling targets in terms of recovery and utilization rates. The main purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the most important determinants of inter-country differences in these waste paper rates. By employing two regression models and using data for 89 and 81 countries, respectively, the paper concludes that relative waste paper recovery and use are largely market-determined, and depend thus on long-standing economic factors such as population intensity and competitiveness in the world market for paper and board products. We also find evidence that supports the conjecture that rich countries tend to recover relatively more waste paper than is the case in low-income countries, reflecting the higher demand for waste management and environmental policies in more developed economies. As recovery and utilization rates are determined largely by long-standing economic and demographic characteristics the degree of policy flexibility in affecting these rates may be limited. In particular, an ambitious utilization rate target may be very costly to enforce as it can conflict with existing trade patterns of paper and board products as well as with other environmental goals. Additional policy targets may, therefore, be desirable, especially since paper recycling is motivated primarily by environmental concerns and seldom is a benign activity in itself.

  • 15.
    Berlin, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability, Industrial Dynamics & Entrepreneurship.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability, Industrial Dynamics & Entrepreneurship.
    Nuur, Cali
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability, Industrial Dynamics & Entrepreneurship.
    Supply network collaborations in a circular economy: A case study of Swedish steel recycling2022In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 179, p. 106112-106112, article id 106112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply network collaboration has been recognised as a vital enabler in the transition to a circular economy. Even so, the existing literature has directed limited attention to the nature of these relationships and the motivation behind them. Hence, there is a need to understand the actual activities of actors engaged in collaboration to address this knowledge gap. The steel industry presents an interesting example. Given that more than one-third of the world's steel production originates from scrap, its supply is essential to the survival of the steel industry. Based on an explorative case study, this paper investigates collaboration of steel producers, a procurement intermediary and scrap dealers to facilitate steel recycling. These actors deal with the practical challenge of variation in the quantity and quality of steel scrap by engaging in various types of collaboration. This paper seeks to analyse the nature of these collaborations and answer the question of why actors engage in supply network collaboration. The paper identifies a complex web of relationships and outlines differing motives for and against collaboration, with specific focus on three types. While quality control is the main motive in dyadic vertical collaboration between a buyer and a supplier, efficiency is the main motive for both horizontal collaboration between buyers and lateral collaboration amongst all actors in the supply network. Thus, this paper adds to the conventional wisdom of sequential, dyadic, linear and vertical relationships, providing a deeper understanding of the types of supply network collaboration from the underexplored context of steel recycling.

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  • 16.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Recycling revisited - life cycle comparisons of global warming impact and total energy use of waste management strategies2005In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 309-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of waste materials has been analysed from a life cycle perspective in a number of studies over the past 10-15 years. Publications comparing the global warming impact and total energy use of recycling versus incineration and landfilling were reviewed in order to find out to what extent they agree or contradict each other, and whether there are generally applicable conclusions to be drawn when certain key factors are considered. Four key factors with a significant influence on the ranking between recycling, incineration, and landfilling were identified. Producing materials from recycled resources is often, but not always, less energy intensive and causes less global warming impact than from virgin resources. For non-renewable materials the savings are of such a magnitude, that apparently the only really crucial factor is what material is replaced. For paper products, however, the savings of recycling are much smaller. The ranking between recycling and incineration of paper is sensitive to for instance paper quality, energy source avoided by incineration, and energy source at the mill.

  • 17.
    Blomberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The economics of secondary aluminium supply: An econometric analysis based on European data2009In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 58, no 8, p. 455-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economics of secondary aluminium supply in Western Europe. We derive a supply model of secondary aluminium recovery and recycling, which integrates microeconomic theory of production with a dynamic model of scrap generation and accumulation. The supply function contains the secondary output price, a vector of input prices, and a measure of the size of the stock of old aluminium scrap. The model is estimated using pooled cross-section and annual time-series data for four European countries, Germany, France, Italy and the United Kingdom, over the time period 1983-2000. The estimated own-price elasticity of secondary aluminium supply is low (0.21) as is the supply response to changes in the stock of old scrap. The empirical results are useful for analyzing market behavior and policy impacts in the secondary aluminium market. The low supply responses to changes in the output price can - in combination with the high-income elasticity of material demand - help explain the observed price volatility of secondary aluminium prices. They also suggest that price-based policies influencing the supply side of the market may only have limited impacts on aluminium recycling rates, and that national collection of aluminium scrap is likely to have small influences on secondary aluminium production internationally.

  • 18. Bockin, Daniel
    et al.
    Willskytt, Siri
    André, Hampus
    Tillman, Anne-Marie
    Soderman, Maria Ljunggren
    How product characteristics can guide measures for resource efficiency - A synthesis of assessment studies2020In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 154, article id 104582Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Brancoli, Pedro
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rousta, Kamran
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Life cycle assessment of supermarket food waste2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 118, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Retail is an important actor regarding waste throughout the entire food supply chain. Although it produces lower amounts of waste compared to other steps in the food value chain, such as households and agriculture, it has a significant influence on the supply chain, including both suppliers in the upstream processes and consumers in the downstream. The research presented in this contribution analyses the impacts of food waste at a supermarket in Sweden. In addition to shedding light on which waste fractions have the largest environmental impacts and what part of the waste life cycle is responsible for the majority of the impacts, the results provide information to support development of strategies and actions to reduce of the supermarket's environmental footprint. Therefore, the food waste was categorised and quantified over the period of one year, the environmental impacts of waste that were generated regularly and in large amounts were assessed, and alternative waste management practices were suggested. The research revealed the importance of not only measuring the food waste in terms of mass, but also in terms of environmental impacts and economic costs. The results show that meat and bread waste contributes the most to the environmental footprint of the supermarket. Since bread is a large fraction of the food waste for many Swedish supermarkets, this is a key item for actions aimed at reducing the environmental footprint of supermarkets. Separation of waste packaging from its food content at the source and the use of bread as animal feed were investigated as alternative waste treatment routes and the results show that both have the potential to lead to a reduction in the carbon footprint of the supermarket.

  • 20.
    Brancoli, Pedro
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Eriksson, Mattias
    Bread loss rates at the supplier-retailer interface – Analysis of risk factors tosupport waste prevention measures2019In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, p. 128-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper quantifies bread waste throughout the Swedish supply chain and investigates the loss rate of prepackagedbread products at the supplier-retailer interface. The goal is to understand the extent of bread waste inSweden and to identify risk factors for high quantities of waste at the supplier-retailer interface, in order toprovide information supporting waste prevention measures. The study uses primary data, in combination withnational statistics and data from sustainability reports and the literature. Primary data were collected from 380stores of a Swedish retail company and a bakery. Bread waste was calculated to be 80 410 tons/year in Sweden,the equivalent of 8.1 kg per person/year, and was found to be concentrated at households and in retail, specificallyat the supplier-retailer interface. The results provide evidence that take-back agreements between suppliersand retailers, where the retailer only pays for sold products and the supplier bears the cost of the unsoldproducts and their collection and treatment, are risk factors for high waste generation. Current business modelsmay need to be changed to achieve a more sustainable bread supply chain with less waste.

  • 21.
    Brandén Klang, Anders
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Vikman, Per-Åke
    bThe Swedish Institute for Transport and Communications Analysis, Akademigatan 2, SE-831 25 Östersund, Sweden.
    Brattebö, Helge
    Sustainable management of combustible household waste-Expanding the integrated evaluation model2008In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 8-9, p. 1101-1111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A previously described model for the evaluation of sustainability in waste management has been expanded and applied to biodegradable and other combustible household waste. The model was applied to a case-study focusing on the special conditions in a municipality in the sparsely populated region of northern Sweden. In this region it is usual that the collection distances are long, the volume of waste is low and treatment facilities are remote. Four scenarios for the management of municipal household waste were compared: incineration, anaerobic digestion, composting and landfilling. A system analysis was performed to ensure that each scenario fulfil all the functions that the waste could provide (heat, electricity, fuel, and soil with a high nutrient content) and a sensitivity analysis was carried out to test the reliability of the results. The results show that the evaluation model can be used to assess the sustainability aspects of different treatment scenarios for combustible household waste. The model also allows for an individual interpretation of the results presented, depending on the choice of priorities. The effects of varying the time horizons and the difference in impact depending on what fuels are ultimately replaced in energy production are discussed.

  • 22.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Klavins, Maris
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Stenis, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mykhaylenko, Valeriy
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Denafas, Gintaras
    Fac Chem Technol, Lithuania.
    Turkadze, Tsitsino
    Akaki Tsereteli State Univ, Republic of Georgia.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rudovica, Vita
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rosendal, Rene Moller
    Danish Waste Solut ApS, Denmark.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Paradigms on landfill mining: From dump site scavenging to ecosystem services revitalization2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 123, p. 73-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the next century to come, one of the biggest challenges is to provide the mankind with relevant and sufficient resources. Recovery of secondary resources plays a significant role. Industrial processes developed to regain minerals for commodity production in a circular economy become ever more important in the European Union and worldwide. Landfill mining (LFM) constitutes an important technological toolset of processes that regain resources and redistribute them with an accompanying reduction of hazardous influence of environmental contamination and other threats for human health hidden in former dump sites and landfills. This review paper is devoted to LFM problems, historical development and driving paradigms of LFM from 'classical hunting for valuables' to 'perspective in ecosystem revitalization'. The main goal is to provide a description of historical experience and link it to more advanced concept of a circular economy. The challenge is to adapt the existing knowledge to make decisions in accordance with both, economic feasibility and ecosystems revitalization aspects. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • 23.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Klavins, Maris
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Stenis, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM), Sweden.
    Mykhaylenko, Valeriy
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Denafas, Gintaras
    Fac Chem Technol, Lithuania.
    Turkadze, Tsitsino
    Akaki Tsereteli State Univ, Republic of Georgia.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Rudovica, Vita
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Rosendal, Rene Moller
    Danish Waste Solut ApS, Denmark.
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Paradigms on landfill mining: From dump site scavenging to ecosystem services revitalization2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 123, p. 73-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the next century to come, one of the biggest challenges is to provide the mankind with relevant and sufficient resources. Recovery of secondary resources plays a significant role. Industrial processes developed to regain minerals for commodity production in a circular economy become ever more important in the European Union and worldwide. Landfill mining (LFM) constitutes an important technological toolset of processes that regain resources and redistribute them with an accompanying reduction of hazardous influence of environmental contamination and other threats for human health hidden in former dump sites and landfills. This review paper is devoted to LFM problems, historical development and driving paradigms of LFM from 'classical hunting for valuables' to 'perspective in ecosystem revitalization'. The main goal is to provide a description of historical experience and link it to more advanced concept of a circular economy. The challenge is to adapt the existing knowledge to make decisions in accordance with both, economic feasibility and ecosystems revitalization aspects. (

  • 24.
    Carlsson, My
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Naroznova, Irina
    Department of Environmental Engineering (DTU Environment), Technical University of Denmark.
    Möller, Jacob Steen
    Department of Environmental Engineering (DTU Environment), Technical University of Denmark.
    Scheutz, Charlotte
    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Technical University of Denmark.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Importance of food waste pre-treatment efficiency for global warming potential in life cycle assessment of anaerobic digestion systems2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 102, p. 58-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A need for improvement of food waste (FW) pre-treatment methods has been recognized, but few life cycle assessments (LCA) of FW management systems have considered the pre-treatment with respect to input energy, loss of organic material and nutrients for anaerobic digestion (AD) and/or further treatment of the refuse. The objective of this study was to investigate how FW pre-treatment efficiency impacts the environmental performance of waste management, with respect to global warming potential (GWP). The modeling tool EASETECH was used to perform consequential LCA focusing on the impact of changes in mass distribution within framework conditions that were varied with respect to biogas utilization and energy system, representing different geographical regions and/or different time-frames. The variations of the GWP due to changes in pre-treatment efficiency were generally small, especially when biogas and refuse were substituting the same energy carriers, when energy conversion efficiencies were high and slurry quality good enough to enable digestate use on land. In these cases other environmental aspects, economy and practicality could be guiding when selecting pre-treatment system without large risk of sub-optimization with regards to GWP. However, the methane potential of the slurry is important for the net LCA results and must be included in the sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, when biogas is used as vehicle fuel the importance of pre-treatment is sensitive to assumptions and approach of modelling marginal energy which must be decided based on the focus and timeframe of the study in question

  • 25.
    Carraro, Giacomo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Unaccounted energy saving from the nitrogen output of biogas plants2024In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Catulli, Maurizio
    et al.
    Univ Hertfordshire, Business Sch, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England..
    Sopjani, Liridona
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Reed, Nick
    Univ Hertfordshire, Sch Life & Med Sci, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England..
    Tzilivakis, John
    Univ Hertfordshire, Sch Life & Med Sci, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England..
    Green, Andrew
    Univ Hertfordshire, Sch Life & Med Sci, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England..
    A socio-technical experiment with a resource efficient product service system2021In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 166, article id 105364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a socio-technical experiment relating to a sustainable innovation project conducted in a protected niche or "living lab" and evaluates the ability of the experiment to generate learning and strategic direction. The study focused on a Product Service System (PSS) for renting infant mobility products to consumers. A PSS is a resource efficient system of products and services supported by networks and infrastructure. In the experiment, refurbished products were rented to 1044 families, with some products being reutilized three times. Learnings were generated through five stages: combining competences and resources, steering and facilitating change, engaging users at early stages, offering users opportunities to modify practices through trial and capturing and mediating mutual learning through knowledge co-creation. The observed environmental benefits included reduction of particulate plastic matter released into the environment and transportation of materials. Considerable barriers to the implementation of the PSS in the open market were identified, including attrition through loss or damage, product liability and consumer distrust in sharing products due to fear of contagion.

  • 27.
    Chen, Z.
    et al.
    University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200093, China.
    Jiang, M.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, China.
    Qi, Lingfei
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wei, W.
    Shanghai Meteorological Service, Shanghai, 200030, China.
    Yu, Z.
    University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200093, China.
    Yu, X.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Using existing infrastructures of high-speed railways for photovoltaic electricity generation2022In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 178, article id 106091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities worldwide are stepping up efforts to reshape their infrastructure to ensure a carbon-neutral and sustainable future, leading to the rapid electrification of transportation systems. The electricity demand of this sector, particularly that of high-speed railways, is increasing. Application of the existing infrastructures of railway stations and available land along rail lines for photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation has the potential to power high-speed bullet trains with renewable energy and supply surplus electricity to surrounding users. In this work, a methodology based on a geographic information system was established to evaluate the PV potential along rail lines and on the roofs of train stations. The Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway (HSR) was used as a case study. Its total PV potential reached 5.65 GW (of which the station potential accounted for 264 MW, approximately 4.68%, of the total potential), with a lifelong generation capacity of 155 TWh, which corresponds to approximately 12% of the total new installed capacity of China in 2020. Although electricity prices and solar resources differed along the railway line, all PV systems were profitable. Moreover, a comparison between the electricity consumption and generation shows that the PV+HSR system can cover most of the electricity demand of the Beijing-Shanghai HSR without a storage system. This concept can be further expanded to other rail lines and stations. Within the context of global carbon peaks and carbon neutrality, the integration of PV and railway systems should be promoted. 

  • 28.
    Compañero, Reinol Josef
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability, Industrial Dynamics & Entrepreneurship.
    Samuelsson, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    A value of information approach to recycling2024In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 209, article id 107758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainties with respect to the chemical composition of scrap limit its suitability as an input to recycling. This study offers an alternative approach in dealing with this concern and explores the hypothetical case where this uncertainty is nonexistent. The effect of fully knowing the scrap composition is simulated using an optimization software adopted to scrap-based, stainless-steel production. Through the systematic implementation of this information-driven model in the studied cases, the results suggest that with access to perfect information, recycling incentives can be realized. Essentially, the steel scraps’ consumption increased since it was possible to select and combine scrap quantities with varying composition profiles to achieve the targeted product compositions. This also meant that elements already in the scrap were allocated in a manner that was less dependent on pure alloy additions. Being able to demonstrate the value of information on scrap composition could rationalize upgrades on current scrap management systems.

  • 29.
    Croxatto Vega, G.
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Sohn, J.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Voogt, J.
    Wageningen Food & Biobased Research, Netherlands.
    Birkved, M.
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Olsen, S. I.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ekman Nilsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Insights from combining techno-economic and life cycle assessment – a case study of polyphenol extraction from red wine pomace2021In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 167, article id 105318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine the environmental and economic performance of emerging processes for the valorization of red wine pomace, a techno-economic assessment (TEA) and a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) are combined at an early design stage. A case study of two polyphenol extraction methods at laboratory scale, solvent extraction (SE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), were first analyzed via a carbon footprint (CFP). Subsequently, the laboratory scale design was improved and translated into industrial scale and a TEA was performed on the industrial scale designs. Finally, LCA was applied again with all impact indicators and the information gathered from both the TEA and LCA was combined into concise decision support, using Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). SE performs better than PLE, due to a lower solvent to DW ratio and a less expensive processing setup in both environmental and economic terms. The CFP of at laboratory scale aided in showing potential environmental hotspots and highlighted the need to reduce solvent use. The MCDA showed a shift in decision support depending on how strongly economic or environmental benefits are valued and eases the interpretation of the 19 different indicators derived from the TEA-LCA results. Both SE and PLE with a solvent to dry weight (DW) ratio of 5 and 10, respectively, perform competitively while SE with a solvent to DW ratio of 10 outperforms PLE with a solvent to DW ratio of 25. The case study illustrated how early design calculations (CFP), and combined LCA and TEA may be combined to improve process design. 

  • 30. Dalemo, M.
    et al.
    Sonesson, U.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Environmental Technology and Work Science.
    Mingarini, K.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Environmental Technology and Work Science.
    Frostell, Björn M
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Environmental Technology and Work Science.
    Jönsson, H.
    Nybrant, T.
    Sundqvist, J-O
    Thyselius, L.
    ORWARE – A simulation model for organic waste handling systems.: Part 1: Model description1997In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 17-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch), for the handling of organic waste in urban areas has been constructed. The model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental effects, plant nutrient utilisation and energy turnover for this large and complex system. The ORWARE model consists of several sub-models; sewage plant, incineration, landfill, compost, anaerobic digestion, truck transport, transport by sewers, residue transport and spreading of residues on arable land. The model is intended for simulating different scenarios, and the results are: emissions to air and water, energy turnover and the amount of residues returned to arable land. All results are presented, both as the gross figure for the entire system and figures for each process. Throughout the model all physical flows are described by the same variable vector, consisting of 43 substances. This extensive vector facilitates a thorough analysis of the results, but involves some difficulties in acquiring relevant data. In this paper, the model is described. Results from a hypothetical case study are presented in a companion paper.

  • 31.
    Dalemo, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sonesson, U.
    Bjorklund, A.
    Mingarini, K.
    Frostell, B.
    Jonsson, H.
    Nybrant, T.
    Sundqvist, J.-O.
    Thyselius, Lennart
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    ORWARE - A simulation model for organic waste handling systems.: Part 1: Model description1997In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 17-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic Waste Research), for the handling of organic waste in urban areas has been constructed. The model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental effects, plant nutrient utilisation and energy turnover for this large and complex system. The ORWARE model consists of several sub-models; sewage plant, incineration, landfill, compost, anaerobic digestion, truck transport, transport by sewers, residue transport and spreading of residues on arable land. The model is intended for simulating different scenarios, and the results are: emissions to air and water, energy turnover and the amount of residues returned to arable land. All results are presented, both as the gross figure for the entire system and figures for each process. Throughout the model all physical flows are described by the same variable vector, consisting of 43 substances. This extensive vector facilitates a thorough analysis of the results, but involves some difficulties in acquiring relevant data. In this paper, the model is described. Results from a hypothetical case study are presented in a companion paper.A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch), for the handling of organic waste in urban areas has been constructed. The model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental effects, plant nutrient utilization and energy turnover for this large and complex system. The ORWARE model consists of several sub-models; sewage plant, incineration, landfill, compost, anaerobic digestion, truck transport, transport by sewers, residue transport and spreading of residues on arable land. The model is intended for simulating different scenarios, and the results are: emissions to air and water, energy turnover and the amount of residues returned to arable land. All results are presented, both as the gross figure for the entire system and figures for each process. Throughout the model all physical flows are described by the same variable vector, consisting of 43 substances. This extensive vector facilitates a thorough analysis of the results, but involves some difficulties in acquiring relevant data. In this paper, the model is described. Results from a hypothetical case study are presented in a companion paper.

  • 32. Dalemo, Magnus
    et al.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Jönsson, Håkan
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Effects of including nitrogen emissions from soil in environmental systems analysis of waste management strategies1998In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 24, p. 363-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impacts of nitrogen emissions from soil resulting from the use of organic fertilizers, such as manure, are large compared with the corresponding impacts of mineral fertilizers. However, soil emissions are rarely included in systems analysis of waste management strategies. This study examines whether the inclusion of soil emissions can affect the environmental ranking of systems for managing solid biodegradable waste. Waste management scenarios based on incineration, anaerobic digestion and composting, respectively, were compared. The scenarios were analysed using the organic waste research (ORWARE) simulation model. A simplified model for calculating nitrogen availability and emissions was also constructed. Life-cycle analysis methodology was used for choosing system boundaries and evaluating the results. Global warming, acidification and eutrophication were the impact categories considered. The results indicate the vital importance of considering nitrogen emissions from soil when comparing biological waste management systems with other waste management methods, especially with regard to eutrophication effects. Soil emissions are also important when comparing the environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and composting systems. However, the variation in nitrogen emissions from soil is large and depends on the spreading technique used, climate, drainage and soil texture

  • 33.
    Davis, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Geyer, R.
    Ley, J.
    He, J.
    Clift, R.
    Kwan, A.
    Time-dependent material flow analysis of iron and steel in the UK.: Part 2. Scrap generation and recycling2007In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 118-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis of the use of iron and steel in the UK and explores how much of the iron and steel is recycled when it becomes obsolete after use. The first part of this paper series investigated production and consumption trends of iron and steel in the UK, whereas this paper focuses on scrap generation and recycling. Information on the amounts of iron and steel going into different groups of goods, together with values for their estimated lifetimes, have enabled modelling of the annual release of iron and steel from the use phase in the form of end-of-life scrap. This is an application to material flow accounting of the theory of residence time distributions used routinely in chemical reaction engineering. By comparing modelled generation of scrap with actual scrap consumption in the UK, we obtain estimates of loss or accumulation of iron and steel scrap in the UK. The model indicates that as much as 30% of the scrap that was potentially available in 2001 as end-of-life scrap has either been accumulated within the economic system or lost to landfill. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Dervishaj, Arlind
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    From LCA to circular design: A comparative study of digital tools for the built environment2024In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 200, p. 1-19, article id 107291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews digital tools for supporting the Circular Economy (CE) in the built environment. The study provides a bibliometric analysis and focuses on computer-aided design (CAD), building information modeling (BIM), and computational plugins that can be used by practitioners. While Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the primary methodology for evaluating buildings' environmental performance, the study identifies tools beyond LCA, including computational methods and circularity indicators, that can support the evaluation of circular design strategies. Our review highlights limitations in tools’ functionalities, including a lack of representative data for LCA and underdeveloped circularity indicators. The paper calls for further development of these tools in terms of interoperability aspects, integration of more sources of data for LCA and circularity, and possibilities for a comprehensive evaluation of design choices. Computational plugins offer greater flexibility, while BIM-LCA integrations have the potential to replace dedicated LCA software and spreadsheets. Additionally, the study identifies opportunities for novel digital methods, such as algorithms for circular design with various types of reused building elements, and sharing of digital twins and material passports. This research can inform future studies and support architects and engineers in their efforts to create a sustainable built environment.

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  • 35.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carbon implications of end-of-life management of building materials2009In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 276-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the effects of post-use material management on the life cycle carbon balance of buildings, and compare the carbon balance of a concrete-frame building to that of a wood-frame building. The demolished concrete is either landfilled, or is crushed into aggregate followed by exposure to air for periods ranging from 4 months to 30 years to increase carbonation uptake of CO2. The demolished wood is assumed to be used for energy to replace fossil fuels. We calculate the carbon flows associated with fossil fuel used for material production, calcination emission from cement manufacture, carbonation of concrete during and after its service life, substitution of fossil fuels by recovered wood residues, recycling of steel, and fossil fuel used for post-use material management. We find that carbonation of crushed concrete results in significant uptake of CO2. However, the CO2 emission from fossil fuel used to crush the concrete significantly reduces the carbon benefits obtained from the increased carbonation due to crushing. Stockpiling crushed concrete for a longer time will increase the carbonation uptake, but may not be practical due to space constraints. Overall, the effect of carbonation of post-use concrete is small. The post-use energy recovery of wood and the recycling of reinforcing steel both give higher carbon benefit than the post-use carbonation. We conclude that carbonation of concrete in the post-use phase does not affect the validity of earlier studies reporting that wood-frame buildings have substantially lower carbon emission than concrete-frame buildings.

  • 36.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Carbon implications of end-of-life management of building materials2009In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 276-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the effects of post-use material management on the life cycle carbon balance of buildings, and compare the carbon balance of a concrete-frame building to that of a wood-frame building. The demolished concrete is either landfilled, or is crushed into aggregate followed by exposure to air for periods ranging from 4 months to 30 years to increase carbonation uptake of CO2. The demolished wood is assumed to be used for energy to replace fossil fuels. We calculate the carbon flows associated with fossil fuel used for material production, calcination emission from cement manufacture, carbonation of concrete during and after its service life, substitution of fossil fuels by recovered wood residues, recycling of steel, and fossil fuel used for post-use material management. We find that carbonation of crushed concrete results in significant uptake of CO2. However, the CO2 emission from fossil fuel used to crush the concrete significantly reduces the carbon benefits obtained from the increased carbonation due to crushing. Stockpiling crushed concrete for a longer time will increase the carbonation uptake, but may not be practical due to space constraints. Overall, the effect of carbonation of post-use concrete is small. The post-use energy recovery of wood and the recycling of reinforcing steel both give higher carbon benefit than the post-use carbonation. We conclude that carbonation of concrete in the post-use phase does not affect the validity of earlier studies reporting that wood-frame buildings have substantially lower carbon emission than concrete-frame buildings.

  • 37.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy implication of retrofitting a wood-framed apartment building to passive house standard2010In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 54, no 12, p. 1152-1160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we analyze the life cycle primary energy implication of retrofitting a four-storey wood-frame apartment building to the energy use of a passive house. The initial building has an annual final energy use of 110 kWh/m(2) for space and tap water heating. We model improved thermal envelope insulation, ventilation heat recovery, and efficient hot water taps. We follow the building life cycle to analyze the primary energy reduction achieved by the retrofitting, considering different energy supply systems. Significantly greater life cycle primary energy reduction is achieved when an electric resistance heated building is retrofitted than when a district heated building is retrofitted. The primary energy use for material production increases when the operating energy is reduced but this increase is more than offset by greater primary energy reduction during the operation phase of the building, resulting in significant life cycle primary energy savings. Still, the type of heat supply system has greater impact on primary energy use than the final heat reduction measures.

  • 38.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Life cycle primary energy implication of retrofitting a wood-framed apartment building to passive house standard2010In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 54, no 12, p. 1152-1160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we analyze the life cycle primary energy implication of retrofitting a four-storey wood-frame apartment building to the energy use of a passive house. The initial building has an annual final energy use of 110 kWh/m(2) for space and tap water heating. We model improved thermal envelope insulation, ventilation heat recovery, and efficient hot water taps. We follow the building life cycle to analyze the primary energy reduction achieved by the retrofitting, considering different energy supply systems. Significantly greater life cycle primary energy reduction is achieved when an electric resistance heated building is retrofitted than when a district heated building is retrofitted. The primary energy use for material production increases when the operating energy is reduced but this increase is more than offset by greater primary energy reduction during the operation phase of the building, resulting in significant life cycle primary energy savings. Still, the type of heat supply system has greater impact on primary energy use than the final heat reduction measures.

  • 39.
    Dornburg, Veronika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Optimising waste treatment systems - Part A: Methodology and technological data for optimising energy production and economic performance2006In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 68-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The treatment and utilisation of biomass residues and waste for energy and recycling can contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emission reduction. Therefore, a waste treatment structure should be designed for an efficient saving of fossil primary energy in terms of maximal primary energy savings or minimal costs per unit of primary energy savings. However, this is a complex task, given the large number of technologies, recycling options and their logistic consequences, that necessitate an integrated analysis. Also, on longer term various new and improved technologies become available which can affect performances for options from an economic and/or energy point of view. For that reason, an optimisation tool, that optimises a biomass and waste treatment system for a given amount of biomass and waste, is developed in this study. This optimal biomass and waste treatment system is composed of several treatment installations, that are characterised by scale, location and kind of technology. Important aspects that are taken into account in the analysis are heat distribution, biomass and waste transport and economies of scale. A broad variety of technologies for material recycling, conversion of biomass and/or waste to heat, electricity or transportation fuel are included in the optimisation tool. Performance data of these technologies are based on an extensive review. Examples of included technologies comprise: integrated gasification with combined cycle, waste incineration, pyrolysis, digestion, co-firing in fossil power plants, biomass incineration, hydro-thermal upgrading, paper recycling and chipboard production. A comparison of the different technologies in relation to scale shows that primary energy savings and costs per unit of primary energy savings diverge significantly. In general, the optimisation tool developed here is suitable for analyses of optimal biomass and waste treatment structures in different regions with regard to primary energy savings and their costs. By means of scenario analysis, robust optimal solutions in terms of primary energy savings and their costs can be identified and the influence of important parameters can be analysed. A case study of the Dutch biomass and waste treatment systems has been carried out with the optimisation tool and is presented in part two of this article.

  • 40.
    Dornburg, Veronika
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Faaij, APC
    Optimising waste treatment systems - Part B: Analyses and scenarios for The Netherlands2006In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 227-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Material recycling as well as energetic production of biomass residues and other solid wastes could significantly contribute to fossil primary energy savings. Waste treatment should, therefore, aim to combine pollution abatement with the efficient saving of fossil primary energy. This article identifies optimal waste treatment strategies in The Netherlands. Here, an optimal strategy is one that either maximises the fossil primary energy savings or minimises the costs per unit of fossil primary energy savings that are achieved by the utilisation of available biomass residues and wastes. Also, the influence of different factors - for example, the availability of wastes or technological developments - on the robustness of technological options and on the variation of costs and fossil primary energy savings is studied. With a specially developed optimisation tool (described in Part I of this article series) several variants of Dutch waste treatment systems ('scenarios') are analysed by back casting to the year 2020. This tool allows for quick analyses of complete waste treatment infrastructures. The results show that the objective of the Dutch government to supply 120PJ of primary energy demand in 2020 from biomass and waste seems more than feasible, while in 2000 about 43 PJ were realised. Including material recycling up to 437 PJ primary energy could be saved with an optimised waste treatment infrastructure. Choices made about alternative waste treatment strategies influence the costs strongly. Total costs for the Dutch waste treatment system - not considering revenues from waste treatment tariffs - vary from revenues of 230EUEO million/year to costs of 820EURO million/year. The contributions of material and energy recycling to avoid primary energy use change significantly under different preconditions. In the 11 different scenarios considered, of the primary energy savings achieved 25-76% resulted from material recycling, 20-80% from heat and electricity production, and a more modest 0-21% from the production of transport fuel. (Biomass) integrated gasification with combined cycle, hydro-thermal upgrading and waste separation emerge as key technologies from this study, while for example, waste incineration and biomass co-firing in coal power plants do not come out as most attractive options for the longer term. Generally, large-scale conversion units seem favourable to achieve better economies and energy recovery.

  • 41.
    Durinck, D.
    et al.
    Katholieke University of Leuven.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Arnout, S.
    Katholieke University of Leuven.
    Heulens, J.
    Katholieke University of Leuven.
    Jones, P.T.
    Katholieke University of Leuven.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Blanpain, B.
    Katholieke University of Leuven.
    Wollants, P.
    Katholieke University of Leuven.
    Hot stage processing of metallurgical slags2008In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 1121-1131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Slags are an indispensable tool for the pyrometallurgical industry to extract and purify metals at competitive prices. Large volumes are produced annually, leading to important economical and ecological issues regarding their afterlife. To maximise the recycling potential, slag processing has become an integral part of the valorisation chain. However, processing is often directed solely towards the cooled slag. In this article, the authors present an overview of the scientific studies dedicated to the hot stage of slag processing, i.e. from the moment of slag/metal separation to complete cooling at the slag yard. Using in-depth case studies on C2S driven slag disintegration and chromium leaching, it is shown that the functional properties of the cooled slag can be significantly enhanced by small or large scale additions to the high temperature slag and/or variations in the cooling path, even without interfering with the metallurgical process. The technology to implement such hot stage processing steps in an industrial environment is currently available. No innovative technological solutions are required. Rather, advances in hot stage slag processing seem to rely primarily on further unravelling the relationships between process, structure and properties. This knowledge is required to identify the critical process parameters for quality control. Moreover, it could even allow to consciously alter slag compositions and cooling paths to tailor the slag to a certain application.

  • 42.
    Ekman Nilsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sohn, Joshua
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Sweden.
    Vega, Giovanna
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Sweden; University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Birkved, Morten
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Olsen, Stig
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Sweden.
    Testing the no agricultural waste concept – an environmental comparison of biorefinery value chains in various regions2021In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 174, article id 105702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is great opportunity, the bioeconomy is not a silver bullet in the quest to solve various environmental problems. This assessment tests the no agricultural waste concept, an agricultural system where all residues are utilized within a value chain, to elucidate whether the concept does indeed improve environmental performance across various regions, and if so, explores how various biorefinery concepts might be organized into various value chains to attain environmental benefits. In order to valorize this, the study illustrates how to do a step-wise assessment in order to design biorefinery set-ups based on their feedstock compatibility and region of implementation. The results show that no agricultural waste systems do not always result in environmental benefits, especially when environmental impacts are measured via a holistic interpretation of environmental damages, namely monetizing environmental damages. Furthermore, disagreement is shown when comparing environmental impacts interpreted via a single impact category, here global warming potential (GWP) and monetized environmental damages (MED). The performance of the various biorefineries was highly affected by the degree of decarbonization present in the energy grid of each region. While energy intensive biorefineries are able to provide benefit in terms of global warming savings, tradeoffs are observed where impacts are shifted to other areas of environmental impact. Despite these tradeoffs, across multiple regions, there is great potential for large-scale implementation of biorefineries as a tool for ameliorating environmental damages.

  • 43.
    Elsadek, Mohamed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering. Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Helwan, P.O. Box 87, Cairo, Egypt.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering. Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Helwan, P.O. Box 87, Cairo, Egypt.
    Suup, Malin
    Boliden Mineral AB, SE-936 32, Boliden, Sweden.
    Sand, Anders
    Boliden Mineral AB, SE-936 32, Boliden, Sweden.
    Heikkinen, Eetu
    Process Metallurgy, University of Oulu, PO Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.
    Khoshkhoo, Mohammad
    Boliden Mineral AB, SE-936 32, Boliden, Sweden.
    Sundqvist-Öqvist, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Recycling of pyrite and gypsum mining residues through thermochemical conversion into valuable products2023In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 199, article id 107219Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Eriksson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Box 7070, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ghosh, Ranjan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Econ, Box 7013, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Mattsson, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Ismatov, Alisher
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Econ, Box 7013, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Take-back agreements in the perspective of food waste generation at the supplier-retailer interface2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 83-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste must be minimised to make food supply chains sustainable. This is especially relevant since food waste valorisation measures, such as energy recovery, have limited possibilities to fully recover the resources invested in food production. However, waste minimisation is costly when it includes new infrastructure or technology. Policy measures, on the other hand, can provide a low-cost option. Food rejection practices in supermarkets, such as take-back agreements (TBA), have long been identified as risk factors for food waste generation at the supplier-retailer interface, but given the relational, and often discreet, nature of these agreements, there is little evidence of their impact. In this study we provide, concrete evidence of different rejection practices. This is done by studying three types of food chains those for bread, fresh fruit and vegetables, and milk with different rejection practices in Sweden. Based on a combination of primary company information and stakeholder interviews, we found that a full TBA is in operation for bread. The retailer only pays for bread that is sold and any bread left unsold three days before the best-before date is returned to the supplier. For fresh fruit and vegetables, only goods of 'inadequate' quality are returned, but supermarkets have sole rights of determination on quality, posing a risk of categorising unsold fruit and vegetables as inadequate quality and returning them to suppliers. In the case of milk, suppliers take back unsold items, but only for waste management. The trend found in this study was that bread had the highest waste, and the most extensive take-back policy. Fresh fruit and vegetables had medium levels of waste, partly due to unverified rejections, while milk had a very low level of waste combined with an even lower level of rejections. It can be concluded that a food supply chain system where the direct costs of waste management or incentives for waste reduction are separated from the organisation responsible for generating the waste poses a significant risk factor in food waste generation and is therefore a potential hotspot for waste-reducing measures. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 45.
    Eriksson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Box 7032, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Samuel
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Box 7032, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Persson Osowski, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Mapping of food waste quantification methodologies in the food services of Swedish municipalities2018In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 137, p. 191-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since food waste valorisation measures, like energy recovery, have limited possibilities to fully recover the resources invested in food production, there is a need to prevent food waste. Prevention is most important at the end of the value chain, where most sub-processes have already taken place, like in catering facilities. In Sweden, the public catering sector serves a large number of meals through municipal organisations, including schools, preschools and elderly care homes. Many of these organisations quantify food waste, but since Sweden has 290 municipalities with a high degree of independence, the possible variation is significant. This study therefore investigated how food waste is quantified, in order to help formulate a national standard for food waste quantification. Mapping of food waste quantification practices was conducted using a questionnaire and follow-up telephone calls, achieving a response rate of 93%. Of the 290 Swedish municipalities, 55% replied that they quantify food waste on central level. The most common practice at present is to quantify plate- and serving waste from school lunches during two weeks per year, and to compile waste data in spreadsheets and compare the values against the number of plates used, giving a result in grams per portion served. There are many similarities between municipalities, so there is great potential to implement a common standard that many municipalities already fulfil. This is important in order to gain acceptance and fast implementation, thereby speeding up the process of establishing a benchmark for food waste in the Swedish public sector catering sector.

  • 46.
    Eriksson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Samuel
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Sweden.
    Persson Osowski, Christine
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Mapping of food waste quantification methodologies in the food services of Swedish municipalities2018In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 137, p. 191-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since food waste valorisation measures, like energy recovery, have limited possibilities to fully recover the resources invested in food production, there is a need to prevent food waste. Prevention is most important at the end of the value chain, where most sub-processes have already taken place, like in catering facilities. In Sweden, the public catering sector serves a large number of meals through municipal organisations, including schools, preschools and elderly care homes. Many of these organisations quantify food waste, but since Sweden has 290 municipalities with a high degree of independence, the possible variation is significant. This study therefore investigated how food waste is quantified, in order to help formulate a national standard for food waste quantification. Mapping of food waste quantification practices was conducted using a questionnaire and follow-up telephone calls, achieving a response rate of 93%. Of the 290 Swedish municipalities, 55% replied that they quantify food waste on central level. The most common practice at present is to quantify plate- and serving waste from school lunches during two weeks per year, and to compile waste data in spreadsheets and compare the values against the number of plates used, giving a result in grams per portion served. There are many similarities between municipalities, so there is great potential to implement a common standard that many municipalities already fulfil. This is important in order to gain acceptance and fast implementation, thereby speeding up the process of establishing a benchmark for food waste in the Swedish public sector catering sector.

  • 47. Eriksson, Mattias
    et al.
    Persson Osowski, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Björkman, Jesper
    Hansson, Emma
    Malefors, Christopher
    Eriksson, Emelie
    Ghosh, Ranjan
    The tree structure: A general framework for food waste quantification in food services2018In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 130, p. 140-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste in the food services industry has been identified as an important unsustainability hotspot, but standardised methods for food waste quantification are lacking. Existing studies on waste quantity assessments have several limitations, such as short and infrequent quantifications times, large methodological variations ranging from physical measurements to visual observations, and lack of comparability across catering unit types. Since lack of comparable waste figures can lead to error-prone analysis, a general framework is needed for waste quantification in food services. This paper presents one such framework that allows data comparisons when overlapping observations are included. The framework was tested in six case studies in professional (public and private) catering units in Sweden. Data were collected from different schools, elderly care homes and hotels and fitted into the framework. The results from these case studies indicate that the framework enables catering units to focus waste quantification on their individual problem areas. It also provides the possibility to extend waste quantification over time without any loss of generalisability. A graphical representation of the framework fits the traditional tree structure and was found to act as a suitable foundation for food waste quantification in food services by structuring collected data. In order to fully utilise the potential of the tree structure, it should be supplemented with precise definitions to create a catering food waste quantification standard.

  • 48. Eriksson, Mattias
    et al.
    Persson Osowski, Christine
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Björkman, Jesper
    Hansson, Emma
    Malefors, Christopher
    Eriksson, Emelie
    Ghosh, Ranjan
    The tree structure: A general framework for food waste quantification in food services2018In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 130, p. 140-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste in the food services industry has been identified as an important unsustainability hotspot, but standardised methods for food waste quantification are lacking. Existing studies on waste quantity assessments have several limitations, such as short and infrequent quantifications times, large methodological variations ranging from physical measurements to visual observations, and lack of comparability across catering unit types. Since lack of comparable waste figures can lead to error-prone analysis, a general framework is needed for waste quantification in food services. This paper presents one such framework that allows data comparisons when overlapping observations are included. The framework was tested in six case studies in professional (public and private) catering units in Sweden. Data were collected from different schools, elderly care homes and hotels and fitted into the framework. The results from these case studies indicate that the framework enables catering units to focus waste quantification on their individual problem areas. It also provides the possibility to extend waste quantification over time without any loss of generalisability. A graphical representation of the framework fits the traditional tree structure and was found to act as a suitable foundation for food waste quantification in food services by structuring collected data. In order to fully utilise the potential of the tree structure, it should be supplemented with precise definitions to create a catering food waste quantification standard.

  • 49. Eriksson, O.
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Identification and testing of potential key parameters in system analysis of municipal solid waste management2010In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 54, no 12, p. 1095-1099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) are well-established methods used for many years in many countries for system analysis of waste management. According to standard LCA procedure the assessment should include improvement analysis, in many cases this is performed by simple sensitivity analyses. An obstacle to perform more thorough sensitivity analyses is that it is hard to distinguish input data important to the results, i.e. key parameters. This paper further elaborates sensitivity analyses performed in an environmental system analysis for a hypothetical Swedish municipality. In this paper, the methodto identify and test input data that can be categorised as potential key parameters is described. The method and the results from computer simulations of the identified parameters are presented, and some conclusions are drawn regarding the robustness of the results for environmental impact from municipal solid waste management. The major conclusion is that the results are robust. Changes in results, when changing the preconditions, are often small and the changes observed do not lead to new conclusions; i.e., a change of ranking order between treatment options. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 50. Eriksson, O.
    et al.
    Frostell, B.
    Bjorklund, A.
    Assefa, G.
    Sundqvist, J.-O.
    Granath, J.
    Carlsson, M.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Thyselius, Lennart
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    ORWARE - A simulation tool for waste management2002In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 287-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch) is described. The model is mainly used as a tool for researchers in environmental systems analysis of waste management. It is a computer-based model for calculation of substance flows, environmental impacts, and costs of waste management. The model covers, despite the name, both organic and inorganic fractions in municipal waste. The model consists of a number of separate submodels, which describes a process in a real waste management system. The submodels may be combined to design a complete waste management system. Based on principles from life cycle assessment the model also comprises compensatory processes for conventional production of e.g. electricity, district heating and fertiliser. The compensatory system is included in order to fulfil the functional units, i.e. benefits from the waste management that are kept constant in the evaluation of different scenarios. ORWARE generates data on emissions, which are aggregated into different environmental impact categories, e.g. the greenhouse effect, acidification and eutrophication. Throughout the model all physical flows are described by the same variable vector, consisting of up to 50 substances. The extensive vector facilitates a thorough analysis of the results, but involves some difficulties in acquiring relevant data. Scientists have used ORWARE for 8 years in different case studies for model testing and practical application in the society. The aims have e.g. been to evaluate waste management plans and to optimise energy recovery from waste. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • rtf