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  • 1. Abunge, Caroline
    et al.
    Coulthard, Sarah
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Connecting Marine Ecosystem Services to Human Well-being: Insights from Participatory Well-being Assessment in Kenya2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1010-1021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The linkage between ecosystems and human well-being is a focus of the conceptualization of ecosystem services as promoted by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. However, the actual nature of connections between ecosystems and the well-being of individuals remains complex and poorly understood. We conducted a series of qualitative focus groups with five different stakeholder groups connected to a small-scale Kenyan coastal fishery to understand (1) how well-being is understood within the community, and what is important for well-being, (2) how people's well-being has been affected by changes over the recent past, and (3) people's hopes and aspirations for their future fishery. Our results show that people conceive well-being in a diversity of ways, but that these can clearly map onto the MA framework. In particular, our research unpacks the freedoms and choices element of the framework and argues for greater recognition of these aspects of well-being in fisheries management in Kenya through, for example, more participatory governance processes.

  • 2.
    Almroth-Rosell, Elin
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Skogen, Morten D.
    A North Sea and Baltic Sea Model Ensemble Eutrophication Assessment2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to combine observations and an ensemble of ecological models is suggested to produce a eutrophication assessment. Using threshold values and methodology from the Oslo and Paris Commissions (OSPAR) and the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM), four models are combined to assess eutrophication for the Baltic and North Seas for the year 2006. The assessment indicates that the entire southeastern part of the North Sea, the Kattegat, the Danish Straits, the Gulf of Finland, and the Gulf of Riga as well as parts of the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, and the Baltic proper may be classified as problem areas. The Bothnian Bay and parts of the Baltic proper, the Bornholm Basin, and the Arkona Basin are classified as potential problem areas. This method is a useful tool for the classification of eutrophication; however, the results depend on the threshold values, and further work is needed within both OSPAR and HELCOM to harmonize these values.

  • 3. Anderberg, S
    et al.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Flow and distribution of chromium in the Swedish environment: A new approach to studying environmental pollution1989In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 216-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Point source emission from industrial production processes has been themajor focus of environmental concern in the past. In this article it isargued that the accumulating amount of goods/products in societyshould also be focused on in the future. From these goods substances willsooner or later be leached out to the environment. A case study usingchromium in Sweden is presented in this paper as one example of asubstance that may accumulate in the environment. Total flows ofchromium for the 20th century, based on trade statistics, production ofgoods and persistence of products in the environment are estimated. Itwas found that yearly consumption emissions are higher than the productionemissions, i.e. point source emissions from different industries. 

  • 4.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Tema V LIU.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Flow and distribution of chormium in the swedish environment: A new approach to studying environmental pollution1989In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 18, p. 216-220Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Anderson, L.G.
    et al.
    Carlsson, K. - Å.
    Hall, P. O. J.
    Holm, E.
    Josefsson, D.
    Olsson, K.
    Persson, B. R. R.
    Persson, T.
    Roos, P.
    Tengberg, A.
    Wedborg, M.
    The effect of the Siberian tundra on the environment of the shelf seas and the Arctic Ocean1999In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 270-280Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Meier, H. E. Markus
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Rowe, Owen
    Wikner, Johan
    Haglund, Peter
    Eilola, Kari
    Legrand, Catherine
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Tysklind, Mats
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. S345-S356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 degrees C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase similar to 30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Meier, H. E. Markus
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University.
    Rowe, Owen
    Umeå University.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå university.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University.
    Eilola, Kari
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Umeå University.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Department of Ecology.
    Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Supplement 3, p. S345-S356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 degrees C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase similar to 30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Meier, H.E. Markus
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rowe, Owen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Eilola, Kari
    Legrand, Catherine
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Suppl 3, p. S345-S356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to have large effectson the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2–4 Cwarming and 50–80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100.Precipitation may increase *30 % in the north, causingincreased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter(AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity.Coupled physical–biogeochemical models indicate that, inthe south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing codrecruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release,thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north,heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, whilephytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophiclevels in the food web may increase energy losses andconsequently reduce fish production. Future managementof the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climatechange on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as wellas the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load.Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassingboth autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g.,bacterial) processes.

  • 9. Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Rowe, Owen
    Wikner, Johan
    Haglund, Peter
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Tysklind, Mats
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. S345-S356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 degrees C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase similar to 30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gren, Åsa
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute, Sweden.
    Gren, Åsa
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gren, Åsa
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    A social-ecological analysis of ecosystem services in two different farming systems2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. 102-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this exploratory study we use existing in situ qualitative and quantitative data on biophysical and social indicators to compare two contrasting Swedish farming systems (low intensity and high intensity) with regard to ecosystem service supply and demand of a broad suite of services. We show that the value (demand) placed on a service is not necessarily connected to the quantity (supply) of the service, most clearly shown for the services recreation, biodiversity, esthetic experience, identity, and cultural heritage. To better capture this complexity we argue for the need to develop portfolios of indicators for different ecosystem services and to further investigate the different aspects of supply and demand. The study indicates that available data are often ill-suited to answer questions about local delivery of services. If ecosystem services are to be included in policy, planning, and management, census data need to be formatted and scaled appropriately.

  • 14. Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Comparison of a mass balance and an ecosystem model approach when evaluating the carbon cycling in a lake ecosystem2006In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 476-483Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Andersson, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Petersson, Mona
    Saving the Baltic Sea, the Inland Waters of Its Drainage Basin, or Both?: Spatial Perspectives on Reducing P-Loads in Eastern Sweden2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 914-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient loads from inland sources to the Baltic Sea and adjacent inland waters need to be reduced in order to prevent eutrophication and meet requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). We here investigate the spatial implications of using different possible criteria for reducing water-borne phosphorous (P) loads in the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District (NBS-RBD) in Sweden. Results show that most catchments that have a high degree of internal eutrophication do not express high export of P from their outlets. Furthermore, due to lake retention, lake catchments with high P-loads per agricultural area (which is potentially of concern for the WFD) did not considerably contribute to the P-loading of the Baltic Sea. Spatially uniform water quality goals may, therefore, not be effective in NBS-RBD, emphasizing more generally the need for regional adaptation of WFD and BSAP-related goals.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Ingela
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography and Quarternary Geology.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography and Quarternary Geology.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Geography. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Saving the Baltic Sea, the Inland Waters of Its Drainage Basin, or Both? Spatial Perspectives on Reducing P-Loads in Eastern Sweden2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 914-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient loads from inland sources to the Baltic Sea and adjacent inland waters need to be reduced in order to prevent eutrophication and meet requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). We here investigate the spatial implications of using different possible criteria for reducing water-borne phosphorous (P) loads in the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District (NBS-RBD) in Sweden. Results show that most catchments that have a high degree of internal eutrophication do not express high export of P from their outlets. Furthermore, due to lake retention, lake catchments with high P-loads per agricultural area (which is potentially of concern for the WFD) did not considerably contribute to the P-loading of the Baltic Sea. Spatially uniform water quality goals may, therefore, not be effective in NBS-RBD, emphasizing more generally the need for regional adaptation of WFD and BSAP-related goals.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Rosberg, Jörgen
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Pers, Charlotta
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Olsson, Jonas
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Estimating catchment nutrient flow with the HBV-NP model: Sensitivity to input data2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 521-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic catchment model HBV-N has been further developed by adding routines for phosphorus transport and is now called the HBV-NP model. The model was shown to satisfactorily simulate nutrient dynamics in the Ronnea catchment (1 900 km(2)). Its sensitivity to input data was tested, and results demonstrated the increased sensitivity to the selection of input data on a subcatchment scale when compared with the catchment scale. Selection of soil and land use databases was found to be critical in some subcatchments but did not have a significant impact on a catchment scale. Although acceptable on a catchment scale, using templates and generalization, with regards to emissions from point sources and rural households, significantly decreased model performance in certain subcatchments when compared with using more detailed local information. A division into 64 subcatchments resulted in similar model performance at the catchment outlet when compared with a lumped approach. Adjusting the imported matrixes of the regional leaching of nitrogen, from agricultural land, against mean subcatchment water percolation did not have a significant impact on the model performance.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Mathias H
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Animal Ecology.
    Dock-Åkerman, Emily
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Animal Ecology.
    Ubral-Hedenberg, Ramona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Animal Ecology.
    Öhman, Marcus C
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Animal Ecology.
    Sigray, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Swimming Behavior of Roach (Rutilus rutilus) and Three-spined Stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus) in Response to Wind Power Noise and Single tone frequencies2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 636-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-induced underwater noise is drastically increasing as the result of offshore installations and human activities in the marine environment. Many of these structures and activities produce low-frequency noise that could potentially disturb or have harmful effects on several species of teleost fishes. Within the next decade, thousands of wind turbines will be in use in coastal and offshore waters and there is increasing concern on how they may influence marine life. The aims of this study were to examine how swimming behavior of roach (Rutilus rutilus) and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were influenced by single-frequency sounds and noise generated by an offshore wind turbine, and the function of sound pressure level.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Mathias H
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Asplund, Maria E
    Department of Marine Ecology, Göteborg University.
    Öhman, Marcus C
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Importance of Using Multiple Sampling Methodologies for Estimating of Fish Community Composition in Offshore Wind Power Construction Areas of the Baltic Sea2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 634-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is standard procedure that an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is conducted before larger constructions are built. To adequately describe the impact, methods used in an EIA should be carefully adapted considering both the character of the constructions under development and the environment that will be affected. Various sampling techniques are applied to estimate fish abundances and species composition. Methods used, including trawling, seine and gill netting, angling, echo-sound sampling, fishery data, video recordings, dredging, and visual counts using SCUBA, will all give different estimates of fish community composition.

  • 20. Andrews, Christopher
    et al.
    Dick, Jan
    Jonasson, Christer
    Callaghan, Terry
    Assessment of Biological and Environmental Phenology at a Landscape Level from 30 Years of Fixed-Date Repeat Photography in Northern Sweden2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 600-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 30-year series (1978–2007) of photographic records were analysed to determine changes in lake ice cover, local (low elevation) and montane (high elevation) snow cover and phenological stages of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) at the Abisko Scientific Research Station, Sweden. In most cases, the photographic-derived data showed no significant difference in phenophase score from manually observed field records from the same period, demonstrating the accuracy and potential of using weekly repeat photography as a quicker, cheaper and more adaptable tool to remotely study phenology in both biological and physical systems. Overall, increases in ambient temperatures coupled with decreases in winter ice and snow cover, and earlier occurrence of birch foliage, signal a reduction in the length of winter, a shift towards earlier springs and an increase in the length of available growing season in the Swedish sub-arctic.

  • 21.
    Andréasson, Johan
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Bergström, Sten
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Graham, Phil
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Hydrological change - Climate change impact simulations for Sweden2004In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 33, no 4-5, p. 228-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change resulting from the enhanced greenhouse effect is expected to give rise to changes in hydrological systems. This hydrological change, as with the change in climate variables, will vary regionally around the globe. Impact studies at local and regional scales are needed to assess how different regions will be affected. This study focuses on assessment of hydrological impacts of climate change over a wide range of Swedish basins. Different methods of transferring the signal of climate change from climate models to hydrological models were used. Several hydrological model simulations using regional climate model scenarios from Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme (SWECLIM) are presented. A principal conclusion is that subregional impacts to river flow vary considerably according to whether a basin is in northern or southern Sweden. Furthermore, projected hydrological change is just as dependent on the choice of the global climate model used for regional climate model boundary conditions as the choice of anthropogenic emissions scenario.

  • 22. Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Annerstedt, Matilda
    Axelsson, Robert
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Garrido, Pablo
    Grahn, Patrik
    Jonsson, K. Ingemar
    Pedersen, Simen
    Schlyter, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Skärbäck, Erik
    Smith, Mike
    Stjernquist, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Solving Problems in Social-Ecological Systems: Definition, Practice and Barriers of Transdisciplinary Research2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 254-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments.

  • 23.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Annerstedt, Matilda
    Department of Work Science, Business Economics & Environmental Psychology, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Agricultural Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Garrido Rodriquez, Pablo
    Faculty of Forest Sciences, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Grahn, Patrik
    Department of Work Science, Business Economics & Environmental Psychology, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Agricultural Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Man and Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Pedersen, Simen
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Applied Ecology and Agricultural Sciences, Hedmark University College, Evenstad.
    Schlyter, Peter
    Environmental and Resource, Dynamics Group, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University.
    Skärbäck, Erik
    Department of Work Science, Business Economics & Environmental Psychology, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Agricultural Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Smith, Mike
    Forest Research, Northern Research Station, Centre for Human and Ecological Sciences, Roslin.
    Stjernquist, Ingrid
    Environmental and Resource, Dynamics Group, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University.
    Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 254-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments.

  • 24. Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Isacson, Maths
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Gavrilov, Dmitri V.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Backstrom, Mattias
    Degerman, Erik
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Kazakova-Apkarimova, Elena Yu.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Sadbom, Stefan
    Tornblom, Johan
    Learning About the History of Landscape Use for the Future: Consequences for Ecological and Social Systems in Swedish Bergslagen2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 146-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Barriers and bridges to implement policies about sustainable development and sustainability commonly depend on the past development of social-ecological systems. Production of metals required integration of use of ore, streams for energy, and wood for bioenergy and construction, as well as of multiple societal actors. Focusing on the Swedish Bergslagen region as a case study we (1) describe the phases of natural resource use triggered by metallurgy, (2) the location and spatial extent of 22 definitions of Bergslagen divided into four zones as a proxy of cumulative pressure on landscapes, and (3) analyze the consequences for natural capital and society. We found clear gradients in industrial activity, stream alteration, and amount of natural forest from the core to the periphery of Bergslagen. Additionally, the legacy of top-down governance is linked to today's poorly diversified business sector and thus municipal vulnerability. Comparing the Bergslagen case study with other similar regions in Russia and Germany, we discuss the usefulness of multiple case studies.

  • 25.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Isacson, Maths
    Gavrilov, Dmitri V.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Degerman, Erik
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Kazakova-Apkarimova, Elena Yu.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sadbom, Stefan
    Törnblom, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Learning about the history of landscape use for the future: consequences for ecological and social systems in Swedish Bergslagen2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 146-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Barriers and bridges to implement policies about sustainable development and sustainability commonly depend on the past development of social-ecological systems. Production of metals required integration of use of ore, streams for energy, and wood for bioenergy and construction, as well as of multiple societal actors. Focusing on the Swedish Bergslagen region as a case study we (1) describe the phases of natural resource use triggered by metallurgy, (2) the location and spatial extent of 22 definitions of Bergslagen divided into four zones as a proxy of cumulative pressure on landscapes, and (3) analyze the consequences for natural capital and society. We found clear gradients in industrial activity, stream alteration, and amount of natural forest from the core to the periphery of Bergslagen. Additionally, the legacy of top-down governance is linked to today's poorly diversified business sector and thus municipal vulnerability. Comparing the Bergslagen case study with other similar regions in Russia and Germany, we discuss the usefulness of multiple case studies.

  • 26.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    SLU.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Örebro.
    Rönnbäck, Britt-Inger
    Östman, Anders
    Lazdinis, Marius
    SLU.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    SLU.
    Arnberg, W.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Olsson, Jan
    Örebro.
    Two-dimensional gap analysis: a tool for efficient conservation planning and biodiversity policy implementation2003In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 527-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of biodiversity by securing representative and well-connected habitat networks in managed landscapes requires a wise combination of protection, management, and restoration of habitats at several scales. We suggest that the integration of natural and social sciences in the form of "Two-dimensional gap analysis" is an efficient tool for the implementation of biodiversity policies. The tool links biologically relevant "horizontal" ecological issues with "vertical" issues related to institutions and other societal issues. Using forest biodiversity as an example, we illustrate how one can combine ecological and institutional aspects of biodiversity conservation, thus facilitating environmentally sustainable regional development. In particular, we use regional gap analysis for identification of focal forest types, habitat modelling for ascertaining the functional connectivity of "green infrastructures", as tools for the horizontal gap analysis. For the vertical dimension we suggest how the social sciences can be used for assessing the success in the implementation of biodiversity policies in real landscapes by identifying institutional obstacles while implementing policies. We argue that this interdisciplinary approach could be applied in a whole range of other environments including other terrestrial biota and aquatic ecosystems where functional habitat connectivity, nonlinear response to habitat loss and a multitude of economic and social interests co-occur in the same landscape.

  • 27.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences. Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Britt-Inger
    Div. of Geogr. Info. Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Swedish Space Corporation, Swedish Land Survey, Sweden; Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Geographical Information Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Östman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Geographical Information Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; Intergraph, Sweden .
    Lazdinis, Marius
    Lithuanian Agricultural University, Lithuania; Southern Illinois University, United States; Lithuanian Ministry of Environment, Lithuania; Department of Conservation Biology, Swedish University of Agriculture, Sweden; Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Université Laval, Canada; Department of Conservation Biology, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden .
    Arnberg, Wolter
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Olsson, Jan
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Two-dimensional gap analysis: a tool for efficient conservation planning and biodiversity policy implementation2003In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 527-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of biodiversity by securing representative and well-connected habitat networks in managed landscapes requires a wise combination of protection, management, and restoration of habitats at several scales. We suggest that the integration of natural and social sciences in the form of "Two-dimensional gap analysis" is an efficient tool for the implementation of biodiversity policies. The tool links biologically relevant "horizontal" ecological issues with "vertical" issues related to institutions and other societal issues. Using forest biodiversity as an example, we illustrate how one can combine ecological and institutional aspects of biodiversity conservation, thus facilitating environmentally sustainable regional development. In particular, we use regional gap analysis for identification of focal forest types, habitat modelling for ascertaining the functional connectivity of "green infrastructures", as tools for the horizontal gap analysis. For the vertical dimension we suggest how the social sciences can be used for assessing the success in the implementation of biodiversity policies in real landscapes by identifying institutional obstacles while implementing policies. We argue that this interdisciplinary approach could be applied in a whole range of other environments including other terrestrial biota and aquatic ecosystems where functional habitat connectivity, nonlinear response to habitat loss and a multitude of economic and social interests co-occur in the same landscape.

  • 28. Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Axelsson, Robert
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Dahlberg, Anders
    Degerman, Erik
    Eggers, Sönke
    Esseen, Per-Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Johansson, Therese
    Müller, Jörg
    Paltto, Heidi
    Snäll, Tord
    Soloviy, Ihor
    Törnblom, Johan
    Evidence-Based Knowledge Versus Negotiated Indicators for Assessment of Ecological Sustainability: The Swedish Forest Stewardship Council Standard as a Case Study2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 229-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing ecological sustainability involves monitoring of indicators and comparison of their states with performance targets that are deemed sustainable. First, a normative model was developed centered on evidence-based knowledge about (a) forest composition, structure, and function at multiple scales, and (b) performance targets derived by quantifying the habitat amount in naturally dynamic forests, and as required for presence of populations of specialized focal species. Second, we compared the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification standards' ecological indicators from 1998 and 2010 in Sweden to the normative model using a Specific, Measurable, Accurate, Realistic, and Timebound (SMART) indicator approach. Indicator variables and targets for riparian and aquatic ecosystems were clearly under-represented compared to terrestrial ones. FSC's ecological indicators expanded over time from composition and structure towards function, and from finer to coarser spatial scales. However, SMART indicators were few. Moreover, they poorly reflected quantitative evidence-based knowledge, a consequence of the fact that forest certification mirrors the outcome of a complex social negotiation process.

  • 29.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden .
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden .
    Axelsson, Robert
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden .
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden .
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlberg, Anders
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Degerman, Erik
    Institute of Freshwater Research, Örebro, Sweden .
    Eggers, Sönke
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Essen, Per-Anders
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden .
    Johansson, Therese
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden .
    Müller, Jörg
    National Park Bavarian Forest, Grafenau, Germany.
    Paltto, Heidi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Snäll, Tord
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Solovity, Ihor
    Ukrainian National Forestry University, Lviv, Ukraine .
    Törnblom, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden .
    Evidence-Based Knowledge Versus Negotiated Indicators for Assessment of Ecological Sustainability: The Swedish Forest Stewardship Council Standard as a Case Study2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 229-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing ecological sustainability involves monitoring of indicators and comparison of their states with performance targets that are deemed sustainable. First, a normative model was developed centered on evidence-based knowledge about (a) forest composition, structure, and function at multiple scales, and (b) performance targets derived by quantifying the habitat amount in naturally dynamic forests, and as required for presence of populations of specialized focal species. Second, we compared the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification standards’ ecological indicators from 1998 and 2010 in Sweden to the normative model using a Specific, Measurable, Accurate, Realistic, and Timebound (SMART) indicator approach. Indicator variables and targets for riparian and aquatic ecosystems were clearly under-represented compared to terrestrial ones. FSC’s ecological indicators expanded over time from composition and structure towards function, and from finer to coarser spatial scales. However, SMART indicators were few. Moreover, they poorly reflected quantitative evidence-based knowledge, a consequence of the fact that forest certification mirrors the outcome of a complex social negotiation process.

  • 30.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Andreasson, Johan
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Fogelberg, S
    Johnsson, H
    Pers, Charlotta
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Persson, K
    Climate change impact on water quality: Model results from southern Sweden2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 559-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting from six regional climate change scenarios, nitrogen leaching from arable-soil, water discharge, and nitrogen retention was modeled in the Ronnea catchment. Additionally, biological response was modeled in the eutrophic Lake Ringsjon. The results are compared with similar studies on other catchments. All scenarios gave similar impact on water quality but varied in quantities. However, one scenario resulted in a different transport pattern due to less-pronounced seasonal variations in the hydrology. On average, the study shows that, in a future climate, we might expect: i) increased concentrations of nitrogen in the arable root zone (+50%) and in the river (+13%); ii) increased annual load of nitrogen from land to sea (+22%) due to more pronounced winter high flow; moreover, remote areas in the catchment may start to contribute to the outlet load; iii) radical changes in lake biochemistry with increased concentrations of total phosphorus (+50%), total nitrogen (+20%), and planktonic algae such as cyanobacteria (+80%).

  • 31.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Modelling nitrogen transport and retention in the catchments of southern Sweden1998In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 471-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is suffering from eutrophication and attempts are being made to reduce nutrient loads. This article focuses on nitrogen transport from southern Sweden (145 000 km(2)), and presents a model approach (HBV-N) that has been used in the national decision-making process for best management practices. Calculations of nitrogen leaching, retention in the freshwater system, net transport to the sea, and source apportionment are presented for the period 1985-1994. Input data were handled in GIS, including results from SOIL-N and MATCH. Daily simulations were made in 3725 subbasins with calibration against measured time series at 722 sites. Diffuse source pollution was normally retained by 10-25% before entering the river network. Lakes normally reduced nitrogen transport by 30-40 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) of lake area. On average, 45% of the annual gross load was reduced during transport, but temporal and spatial variations were great. 75 000 tonnes N yr(-1) reached the sea.

  • 32.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Dahne, Joel
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Climate Change Impact on Riverine Nutrient Load and Land-Based Remedial Measures of the Baltic Sea Action Plan2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 600-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, all nine surrounding countries have agreed upon reduction targets in the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). Yet, monitoring sites and model concepts for decision support are few. To provide one more tool for analysis of water and nutrient fluxes in the Baltic Sea basin, the HYPE model has been applied to the region (called Balt-HYPE). It was used here for experimenting with land-based remedial measures and future climate projections to quantify the impacts of these on water and nutrient loads to the sea. The results suggest that there is a possibility to reach the BSAP nutrient reduction targets by 2100, and that climate change may both aggravate and help in some aspects. Uncertainties in the model results are large, mainly due to the spread of the climate model projections, but also due to the hydrological model.

  • 33.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahné, Joel
    SMHI.
    Donnelly, Chantal
    SMHI.
    Climate change impact on riverine nutrient load and land-based remedial measures of the Baltic sea action plan.2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 600-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, all nine surrounding countries have agreed upon reduction targets in the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). Yet, monitoring sites and model concepts for decision support are few. To provide one more tool for analysis of water and nutrient fluxes in the Baltic Sea basin, the HYPE model has been applied to the region (called Balt-HYPE). It was used here for experimenting with land-based remedial measures and future climate projections to quantify the impacts of these on water and nutrient loads to the sea. The results suggest that there is a possibility to reach the BSAP nutrient reduction targets by 2100, and that climate change may both aggravate and help in some aspects. Uncertainties in the model results are large, mainly due to the spread of the climate model projections, but also due to the hydrological model.

  • 34.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Lowgren, M
    Pers, Charlotta
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Rosberg, Jörgen
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Integrated catchment modeling for nutrient reduction: Scenarios showing impacts, potential, and cost of measures2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 513-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hydrological-based model (HBV-NP) was applied to a catchment (1900 km(2)) in the southern part of Sweden. Careful characterization of the present load situation and the potential for improved treatment or reduced soil leaching were analyzed. Several scenarios were modeled to find strategies to reach the Swedish environmental goals of reducing anthropogenic nitrogen load by 30% and phosphorus load by 20%. It was stated that the goals could be reached by different approaches that would affect different polluters and social sectors. However, no single measure was enough by itself. Instead, a combination of measures was necessary to achieve the goals. The nitrogen goal was the most difficult to attain. In order to be cost-effective, these measures should be applied to areas contributing the most to the net loading of the sea. This strategy could reduce the costs by 70%-80% when compared with implementing the measures in the entire catchment. Integrated catchment models may thus be helpful tools for reducing costs in environmental control programs.

  • 35.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Löwgren, Marianne
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pers, Charlotta
    SMHI.
    Rosberg, Jörgen
    SMHI.
    Integrated catchment modeling for nutrient reduction: Scenarios showing impacts, potential, and cost of measures2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 513-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hydrological-based model (HBV-NP) was applied to a catchment (1900 km2) in the southern part of Sweden. Careful characterization of the present load situation and the potential for improved treatment or reduced soil leaching were analyzed. Several scenarios were modeled to find strategies to reach the Swedish environmental goals of reducing anthropogenic nitrogen load by 30% and phosphorus load by 20%. It was stated that the goals could be reached by different approaches that would affect different polluters and social sectors. However, no single measure was enough by itself. Instead, a combination of measures was necessary to achieve the goals. The nitrogen goal was the most difficult to attain. In order to be cost-effective, these measures should be applied to areas contributing the most to the net loading of the sea. This strategy could reduce the costs by 70%-80% when compared with implementing the measures in the entire catchment. Integrated catchment models may thus be helpful tools for reducing costs in environmental control programs. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2005.

  • 36.
    Arheimer, Berit
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Wittgren, Hans Bertil
    SMHI, Research Department.
    MODELING THE EFFECTS OF WETLANDS ON REGIONAL NITROGEN TRANSPORT1994In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 378-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Created wetlands have been suggested as a method to reduce nitrogen transport to the Baltic Sea. This paper presents a dynamic conceptual model for simulation of the hypothetical effect of wetlands on nitrogen export to the coastal zone. The study was performed in the Soder-kopingsan drainage basin (882 km(2)) in southeastern Sweden, discharging into the Baltic Sea. An empirically based routine for wetland retention was calibrated separately and incorporated in the model. Scenarios with different location and size of wetlands were analyzed. It was estimated that conversion of 1% (8.8 km(2)) of this basin into wetlands would reduce the nitrogen transport by 10-16% and that more than 5% (45 km(2)) conversion to wetlands is required to reduce the transport by 50%. It was concluded that creation of wetlands should be considered, primarily, downstream from major lakes, in coastal areas, and where the summer load is a significant portion of the annual load. Some further conclusions from the study were that: i) the net reduction of nitrogen transport per unit area of wetland decreases with increasing total area of wetlands in a drainage basin; ii) the wetland retention efficiency obtained in studies of individual wetlands can not be extrapolated in a linear fashion to estimate the net reduction of nitrogen transport at the mouth of a whole drainage basin; iii) the seasonal hydrological and hydrochemical dynamics are of fundamental importance for wetland retention efficiency, which complicates comparison and extrapolation of results from one region to another.

  • 37.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rowe, Owen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brugel, Sonia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Strömgren, Mårten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Importance of coastal primary production in the northern Baltic Sea2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 635-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we measured depth-dependent benthic microalgal primary production in a Bothnian Bay estuary to estimate the benthic contribution to total primary production. In addition, we compiled data on benthic microalgal primary production in the entire Baltic Sea. In the estuary, the benthic habitat contributed 17 % to the total annual primary production, and when upscaling our data to the entire Bothnian Bay, the corresponding value was 31 %. This estimated benthic share (31 %) is three times higher compared to past estimates of 10 %. The main reason for this discrepancy is the lack of data regarding benthic primary production in the northern Baltic Sea, but also that past studies overestimated the importance of pelagic primary production by not correcting for system-specific bathymetric variation. Our study thus highlights the importance of benthic communities for the northern Baltic Sea ecosystem in general and for future management strategies and ecosystem studies in particular.

  • 38.
    Atteridge, Aaron
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Shrivastava, Manish Kumar
    Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India.
    Pahuja, Neha
    Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India.
    Upadhyay, Himani
    Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India.
    Climate policy in India: what shapes international, national and state policy?2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 68-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the international level, India is emerging as a key actor in climate negotiations, while at the national and sub-national levels, the climate policy landscape is becoming more active and more ambitious. It is essential to unravel this complex landscape if we are to understandwhy policy looks the way it does, and the extent to which India might contribute to a future international framework for tackling climate change as well as how internationalparties might cooperate with and support India’s domestic efforts. Drawing on both primary and secondary data, this paper analyzes the material and ideational drivers that are most strongly influencing policy choices at different levels, from international negotiations down to individual states.  We argue that at each level of decision making in India,climate policy is embedded in wider policy concerns. In the international realm, it is being woven into broader foreign policy strategy, while domestically, it is being shaped to serve national and sub-national development interests.  While our analysis highlights some common drivers at all levels, it also finds that their influences over policy are not uniform across the different arenas, and in some cases, they work in different ways at different levels of policy. We also indicate what this may mean for the likely acceptability within India of various climate policies being pushed at the international level.

  • 39.
    Auffret, Alistair G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    The spatial and temporal components of functional connectivity in fragmented landscapes2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. s51-S59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectivity is key for understanding how ecological systems respond to the challenges of land-use change and habitat fragmentation. Structural and functional connectivity are both established concepts in ecology, but the temporal component of connectivity deserves more attention. Whereas functional connectivity is often associated with spatial patterns (spatial functional connectivity), temporal functional connectivity relates to the persistence of organisms in time, in the same place. Both temporal and spatial processes determine biodiversity responses to changes in landscape structure, and it is therefore necessary that all aspects of connectivity are considered together. In this perspective, we use a case study to outline why we believe that both the spatial and temporal components of functional connectivity are important for understanding biodiversity patterns in the present-day landscape, and how they can also help us to make better-informed decisions about conserving and restoring landscapes and improving resilience to future change.

  • 40.
    Axelsson, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Angelstam, Per
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Myhrman, Lennart
    Foundation Säfsen Forests, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden .
    Sädbom, Stefan
    Bergskraft Bergslagen Economic Association, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Milis
    Avjord Corporation, Fjugesta, Sweden.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Kenneth
    Swedish Forest Agency, Dala-Järna, Sweden.
    Cupa, Petr
    Lower Morava Biosphere Reserve, Breclav, Czech Republic.
    Diry, Christian
    Biosphärenpark Wienerwald Management GmbH, Tullnerbach, Austria.
    Doyon, Frederic
    Université du Québec en Outaouais, Ripon, Canada.
    Drotz, Marcus K.
    The Lake Vänern Museum of Natural and Cultural History (Vänermuseet), Lidköping, Sweden .
    Hjorth, Arne
    Skinnskatteberg Municipality, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Jan Olof
    Ludvika Municipality, Sweden.
    Kullberg, Thomas
    Lekeberg Municipality, Fjugesta, Sweden.
    Lickers, F. Henry
    Akwesasne Task Force on the Environment, Hogansburg, NY, USA..
    McTaggart, Johanna
    Biosfärkontoret, Mariestad, Sweden.
    Olsson, Anders
    Teatermaskinen, Skräppbo Skola, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Pautov, Yurij
    Silver Taiga Foundation, Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, Russia.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Apel-FoU, Örebro, Sweden.
    Törnblom, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Evaluation of Multi-level Social Learning for Sustainable Landscapes: Perspective of a Development Initiative in Bergslagen, Sweden2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 241-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To implement policies about sustainable landscapes and rural development necessitates social learning about states and trends of sustainability indicators, norms that define sustainability, and adaptive multi-level governance. We evaluate the extent to which social learning at multiple governance levels for sustainable landscapes occur in 18 local development initiatives in the network of Sustainable Bergslagen in Sweden. We mapped activities over time, and interviewed key actors in the network about social learning. While activities resulted in exchange of experiences and some local solutions, a major challenge was to secure systematic social learning and make new knowledge explicit at multiple levels. None of the development initiatives used a systematic approach to secure social learning, and sustainability assessments were not made systematically. We discuss how social learning can be improved, and how a learning network of development initiatives could be realized.

  • 41. Beery, Thomas H.
    et al.
    Raymond, Christopher M.
    Kyttä, Marketta
    Stahl Olafsson, Anton
    Plieninger, Tobias
    Sandberg, Mattias
    Stenseke, Marie
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Fostering incidental experiences of nature through green infrastructure planning2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 717-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concern for a diminished human experience of nature and subsequent decreased human well-being is addressed via a consideration of green infrastructure's potential to facilitate unplanned or incidental nature experience. Incidental nature experience is conceptualized and illustrated in order to consider this seldom addressed aspect of human interaction with nature in green infrastructure planning. Special attention has been paid to the ability of incidental nature experience to redirect attention from a primary activity toward an unplanned focus (in this case, nature phenomena). The value of such experience for human well-being is considered. The role of green infrastructure to provide the opportunity for incidental nature experience may serve as a nudge or guide toward meaningful interaction. These ideas are explored using examples of green infrastructure design in two Nordic municipalities: Kristianstad, Sweden, and Copenhagen, Denmark. The outcome of the case study analysis coupled with the review of literature is a set of sample recommendations for how green infrastructure can be designed to support a range of incidental nature experiences with the potential to support human well-being.

  • 42.
    Beery, Thomas
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Raymond, Christopher M
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kyttä, Marketta
    Finland.
    Olafsson, Anton Stahl
    Danmark.
    Plieninger, Tobias
    Danmark.
    Sandberg, Mattias
    Gothenburg University.
    Stenseke, Marie
    Gothenburg University.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm Resilience Center.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Fostering incidental experiences of nature through green infrastructure planning2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 717-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concern for a diminished human experience of nature and subsequent decreased human well-being is addressed via a consideration of green infrastructure's potential to facilitate unplanned or incidental nature experience. Incidental nature experience is conceptualized and illustrated in order to consider this seldom addressed aspect of human interaction with nature in green infrastructure planning. Special attention has been paid to the ability of incidental nature experience to redirect attention from a primary activity toward an unplanned focus (in this case, nature phenomena). The value of such experience for human well-being is considered. The role of green infrastructure to provide the opportunity for incidental nature experience may serve as a nudge or guide toward meaningful interaction. These ideas are explored using examples of green infrastructure design in two Nordic municipalities: Kristianstad, Sweden, and Copenhagen, Denmark. The outcome of the case study analysis coupled with the review of literature is a set of sample recommendations for how green infrastructure can be designed to support a range of incidental nature experiences with the potential to support human well-being.

  • 43. Bengtsson, Lennart
    et al.
    Rachlew (Källne), Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics.
    Wagner, Friedrich
    Sustainable energy supply and consumption by 2050 and outlook towards the end of the century: Possible scientific breakthroughs2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no Suppl. 1):, p. 1-4Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Bercht, Anna Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Wijermans, Nanda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mind the mind: How to effectively communicate about cognition in social-ecological systems research2019In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 590-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social-ecological systems (SES) research underlines the tremendous impact of human behaviour on planet Earth. To enable a sustainable course of humanity, the integration of human cognition in SES research is crucial for better understanding the processes leading to and involved in human behaviour.However, this integration is proving a challenge, not only in terms of diverging ontological and epistemological perspectives, but alsoand this has received little attention in SES researchin terms of (lacking) precision of communication regarding cognition. SES scholars often implicitly disagree on the meaning of this broad concept due to unexpressed underlying assumptions and perspectives. This paper raises awareness for the need to communicate clearly and mindfully about human cognition by exemplifying common communication pitfalls and ways of preventing them. We focus on the concept of cognition itself and provide aspects of cognition that need to be communicated explicitly, i.e. different objects of investigation and levels of description. Lastly, we illustrate means of overcoming communication pitfalls by the example of rationality.

  • 45. Berg, H
    et al.
    Francis, J
    Souter, Petra
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Support to marine research for sustainable management of marine and coastal resources in the Western Indian Ocean2002In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 31, no 7-8, p. 597-601Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Lunds universitet.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lead load: Historical pattern of lead use in Sweden1992In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 21, p. 159-165Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Bergström, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    RIVER RUNOFF TO THE BALTIC SEA - 1950-19901994In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 23, no 4-5, p. 280-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A database of monthly inflow of fresh water from rivers and land to the Baltic Sea and its subbasins is created. The database covers the period 1950-1990 and is based on observations from the national hydrological services of the surrounding countries. The main features of the database are presented including river flow of selected rivers and total inflow to the Baltic Sea and its subbasins. Long term, seasonal and short-term variabilities are analyzed and the effects of hydropower development are identified. An earlier database by Mikulski is used for comparison and extension of the record to cover the period 1921-1990. It is concluded that the variability of inflow is great and that the decade 1981-1990 was the wettest in 70 years. Wet years are also found in the 1920s. The increase in runoff is mainly due to increasing river flow during the cold seasons. The effects of hydropower development are noticeable in the records for the Bothnian Bay and the Bothnian Sea.

  • 48. Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Agosta, Kathleen
    Andersson, Agneta
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Haglund, Peter
    Hansson, Katarina
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Newton, Seth
    Nygren, Olle
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Tysklind, Mats
    Wiberg, Karin
    Atmospheric pathways of chlorinated pesticides and natural bromoanisoles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 472-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-range atmospheric transport is a major pathway for delivering persistent organic pollutants to the oceans. Atmospheric deposition and volatilization of chlorinated pesticides and algae-produced bromoanisoles (BAs) were estimated for Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea, based on air and water concentrations measured in 2011–2012. Pesticide fluxes were estimated using monthly air and water temperatures and assuming 4 months ice cover when no exchange occurs. Fluxes were predicted to increase by about 50 % under a 2069–2099 prediction scenario of higher temperatures and no ice. Total atmospheric loadings to Bothnian Bay and its catchment were derived from air–sea gas exchange and “bulk” (precipitation + dry particle) deposition, resulting in net gains of 53 and 46 kg year−1 for endosulfans and hexachlorocyclohexanes, respectively, and net loss of 10 kg year−1 for chlordanes. Volatilization of BAs releases bromine to the atmosphere and may limit their residence time in Bothnian Bay. This initial study provides baseline information for future investigations of climate change on biogeochemical cycles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment.

  • 49. Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Agosta, Kathleen
    Andersson, Agneta
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Haglund, Peter
    Hansson, Katarina
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Newton, Seth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Nygren, Olle
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Tysklind, Mats
    Wiberg, Karin
    Atmospheric pathways of chlorinated pesticides and natural bromoanisoles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. 472-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-range atmospheric transport is a major pathway for delivering persistent organic pollutants to the oceans. Atmospheric deposition and volatilization of chlorinated pesticides and algae-produced bromoanisoles (BAs) were estimated for Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea, based on air and water concentrations measured in 2011-2012. Pesticide fluxes were estimated using monthly air and water temperatures and assuming 4 months ice cover when no exchange occurs. Fluxes were predicted to increase by about 50 % under a 2069-2099 prediction scenario of higher temperatures and no ice. Total atmospheric loadings to Bothnian Bay and its catchment were derived from air-sea gas exchange and bulk'' (precipitation ? dry particle) deposition, resulting in net gains of 53 and 46 kg year(-1) for endosulfans and hexachlorocyclohexanes, respectively, and net loss of 10 kg year(-1) for chlordanes. Volatilization of BAs releases bromine to the atmosphere and may limit their residence time in Bothnian Bay. This initial study provides baseline information for future investigations of climate change on biogeochemical cycles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment.

  • 50.
    Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Agosta, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hansson, Katarina
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Newton, Seth
    Nygren, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Atmospheric pathways of chlorinated pesticides and natural bromoanisoles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. Suppl 3, no 44, p. 472-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-range atmospheric transport is a major pathway for delivering persistent organic pollutants to the oceans. Atmospheric deposition and volatilization of chlorinated pesticides and algae-produced bromoanisoles (BAs) were estimated for Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea, based on air and water concentrations measured in 2011-2012. Pesticide fluxes were estimated using monthly air and water temperatures and assuming 4 months ice cover when no exchange occurs. Fluxes were predicted to increase by about 50 % under a 2069-2099 prediction scenario of higher temperatures and no ice. Total atmospheric loadings to Bothnian Bay and its catchment were derived from air-sea gas exchange and "bulk'' (precipitation ? dry particle) deposition, resulting in net gains of 53 and 46 kg year(-1) for endosulfans and hexachlorocyclohexanes, respectively, and net loss of 10 kg year(-1) for chlordanes. Volatilization of BAs releases bromine to the atmosphere and may limit their residence time in Bothnian Bay. This initial study provides baseline information for future investigations of climate change on biogeochemical cycles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment.

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