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  • 1. Agerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    Rudén, Christina
    Evaluation of the accuracy and consistency of the Swedish environmental classification and information system for pharmaceuticals.2010Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, nr 11, s. 2327-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish environmental and classification system for pharmaceuticals is a voluntary, industry-owned system with the purpose to provide environmental information about active pharmaceutical ingredients in the Swedish market. In this paper we report the results from a detailed evaluation of the accuracy and consistency of the risk assessments conducted within this system. The evaluation focused on the following three aspects: 1) comparison of the companies' risk assessments with the classification system's own guidance document, 2) how the risk assessments are affected if additional effect data is used, and 3) the consistency of different risk assessments for the same pharmaceutical substance. The analyses show that the system's guidance gives no criteria for when to consider a study "long-term" or "short-term", and that this confusion affected the outcome of the risk assessments in some cases. Furthermore, when the system's guidance document is followed and the risk assessment was supplemented with effect data from the open scientific literature, then the risk classification for a substantial number of the evaluated substances was altered. Our analyses also revealed that in some cases risk assessors disagree on the outcome of the assessment for the same active pharmaceutical ingredient. Finally we list some recommendations to improve the classification system. The recommendations include clarifying concepts and instructions in the guidance document, introduction of a standardized way of reporting data to the website, and promotion of use of non-standard test data when considered the most relevant.

  • 2. Aich, Valentin
    et al.
    Liersch, Stefan
    Vetter, Tobias
    Fournet, Samuel
    Andersson, Jafet
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Calmanti, Sandro
    van Weert, Frank H. A.
    Hattermann, Fred F.
    Paton, Eva N.
    Flood projections within the Niger River Basin under future land use and climate change2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 562, s. 666-677Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses future flood risk in the Niger River Basin (NRB), for the first time considering the simultaneous effects of both projected climate change and land use changes. For this purpose, an ecohydrological process-based model (SWIM) was set up and validated for past climate and land use dynamics of the entire NRB. Model runs for future flood risks were conducted with an ensemble of 18 climate models, 13 of them dynamically downscaled from the CORDEX Africa project and five statistically downscaled Earth System Models. Two climate and two land use change scenarios were used to cover a broad range of potential developments in the region. Two flood indicators (annual 90th percentile and the 20-year return flood) were used to assess the future flood risk for the Upper, Middle and Lower Niger as well as the Benue. The modeling results generally show increases of flood magnitudes when comparing a scenario period in the near future (2021-2050) with a base period (1976-2005). Land use effects are more uncertain, but trends and relative changes for the different catchments of the NRB seem robust. The dry areas of the Sahelian and Sudanian regions of the basin show a particularly high sensitivity to climatic and land use changes, with an alarming increase of flood magnitudes in parts. A scenario with continuing transformation of natural vegetation into agricultural land and urbanization intensifies the flood risk in all parts of the NRB, while a "regreening" scenario can reduce flood magnitudes to some extent. Yet, land use change effects were smaller when compared to the effects of climate change. In the face of an already existing adaptation deficit to catastrophic flooding in the region, the authors argue for a mix of adaptation and mitigation efforts in order to reduce the flood risk in the NRB. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Lundberg, Angela
    Estimation of temporal changes in oxidation rates of sulphides in copper mine tailings at Laver, Northern Sweden2010Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, nr 6, s. 1386-1302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tailings containing pyrrhotite were deposited in an impoundment at a copper mine at Laver, Northern Sweden, which operated between 1936 and 1946. Since then the oxidation of sulphides has acidified recipient water courses and contaminated them with metals. Measurements from surface water sampled in 1993, 2001 and 2004-05 from a brook into which the tailing impoundment drains indicate that the amounts of sulphide-associated elements such as Cu, S and Zn released into the brook have decreased over time, while pH has increased. The mass transport of S in the brook during 1993 and 2001 corresponded well with the amount of S estimated to be released from the tailings by oxidation. Secondary precipitates such as covellite and gypsum, which can trap sulphur, were shown in earlier studies to be present in only low amounts. The annual release of elements from the tailings was estimated from the volume of tailings assumed to oxidise each year, which depends on movement of the oxidation front with time. The results indicate that the oxidation rate in the tailings has decreased over time, which may be due to the increased distance over which oxygen needs to diffuse to reach unoxidised sulphide grains, or their cores, in the tailings.

  • 4. Almroth, Bethanie M. Carney
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Lina M.
    Cuklev, Filip
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Waterborne beclomethasone dipropionate affects the physiology of fish while its metabolite beclomethasone is not taken up2015Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 511, s. 37-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Asthma is commonly treated with inhalable glucocorticosteroids, including beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP). This is a synthetic prodrug which is metabolized to the more active monopropionate (BMP) and free beclomethasone in humans. To evaluate potential effects of residual drugs on fish, we conducted a 14 day flow-through exposure experiment with BDP and beclomethasone using rainbow trout, and analyzed effects on plasma glucose, hepatic glutathione and catalase activity together with water and body concentrations of the BDP, BMP and beclomethasone. We also analyzed hepatic gene expression in BDP-exposed fish by micro-array and quantitative PCR Beclomethasone (up to 0.65 mu g/L) was not taken up in the fish while BDP (0.65 and 0.07 mu g/L) resulted in accumulation of both beclomethasone, BMP and BDP in plasma, reaching levels up to those found in humans during therapy. Accordingly, exposure to 0.65 mu g/L of BDP significantly increased blood glucose as well as oxidized glutathione levels and catalase activity in the liver. Exposure to beclomethasone or the low concentration of BDP had no effect on these endpoints. Both exposure concentrations of BDP resulted in significantly higher transcript abundance of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase involved in gluconeogenesis, and of genes involved in immune responses. As only the rapidly metabolized prodrug was potent in fish, the environmental risks associated with the use of BDP are probably small. However, the observed physiological effects in fish of BDP at plasma concentrations known to affect human physiology provides valuable input to the development of read-across approaches in the identification of pharmaceuticals of environmental concern.

  • 5. Alonso, Carlos
    et al.
    Roman, Alfonso
    Bejarano, Maria Dolores
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Garcia de Jalon, Diego
    Carolli, Mauro
    A graphical approach to characterize sub-daily flow regimes and evaluate its alterations due to hydropeaking2017Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 574, s. 532-543Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most flow regime characterizations focus on long time scale flow patterns, which are not precise enough to capture key components of short-term flow fluctuations. Recent proposed methods describing sub-daily flow fluctuations are focused on limited components of the flow regime being unable to fully represent it, or on the identification of peaking events based on subjectively defined thresholds, being unsuitable for evaluations of short-term flow regime alterations through comparisons between regulated and free-flowing rivers. This study aims to launch an innovative approach based on the visual display of quantitative information to address the challenge of the short-term hydrologic characterization and evaluation of alteration resulting from hydropeaking. We propose a graphical method to represent a discrete set of ecologically relevant indices that characterize and evaluate the alteration of sub-daily flow regimes. The frequency of occurrence of classified values of a descriptive hydrological variable is represented in a map-like graph where longitude, latitude and altitude represent the Julian day, the value of the variable and the frequency of occurrence, respectively. Subsequently, we tested the method on several rivers, both free-flowing and subjected to hydropower production. The advantages of our approach compared to other analytical methods are: (i) it displays a great amount of information without oversimplification; (ii) it takes into account changes in the intensity, timing and frequency of the sub-daily flows, without needing a priori defined thresholds to identify hydropeaking events; and (iii) it supports the Water Framework Directive goal. Specifically, results from applications of our graphical method agree with Sauterleute and Charmasson (2014) analytical method.

  • 6. Amato, F.
    et al.
    Querol, X.
    Johansson, C.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Nagl, C.
    Alastuey, A.
    A review on the effectiveness of street sweeping, washing and dust suppressants as urban PM control methods2010Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, nr 16, s. 3070-3084Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the absence of a definitive threshold for atmospheric particulate matter (PM)-induced adverse health effects and the evidence of road traffic as a main contributor to PM-urban levels, there is a general agreement in reducing PM-associated health risks by firstly focusing on vehicle traffic sector. Beside the reduction of primary exhaust emissions, recent potential measures are challenging to reduce emissions of particulate matter from abrasion and resuspension processes given the high potential health burden of heavy metals and metalloids sourced by vehicle-wear particles (brakes, tires, rotor, discs and catalysts) and of coarse particles (PM2.5-10). Some mitigating measures can be adopted in order to reduce road dust emissions from paved roads by removing or binding those particles already deposited and easy to be resuspended by traffic-generated turbulence. Sweeping, water flushing and use of chemical suppressants are usually more commonly employed to try to diminish emissions, but evaluating the effectiveness of preventive measures on improving air quality is a difficult task, consequently there is a general dearth of information about their effectiveness in reducing ambient PM concentrations. In particular, the scientific bibliography seems to be particularly scarce, whilst most of the information comes from local authorities committees. Consequently the existing reports are often aimed only to the municipalities and in the native language, with an objective difficulty for the international scientific community to access to them. For this review we have gathered contributions from some of major experts in this field, with the purpose of taking advantage of their background and personal awareness about any kind of related reports even not in English. Furthermore, the results we have gathered are often dissimilar, probably due to the different local conditions (weather, road pavement conditions etc.), therefore another objective of the review is to make a balance of actual knowledge and create a useful reference for future research studies and air quality management.

  • 7.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Kalmar högskola.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Accumulated environmental impact: The case of cadmium in Sweden1994Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 145, s. 13-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Andersson, August
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    A systematic examination of a random sampling strategy for source apportionment calculations2011Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 412, s. 232-238Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimating the relative contributions from multiple potential sources of a specific component in a mixed environmental matrix is a general challenge in diverse fields such as atmospheric, environmental and earth sciences. Perhaps the most common strategy for tackling such problems is by setting up a system of linear equations for the fractional influence of different sources. Even though an algebraic solution of this approach is possible for the common situation with N + 1 sources and N source markers, such methodology introduces a bias, since it is implicitly assumed that the calculated fractions and the corresponding uncertainties are independent of the variability of the source distributions. Here, a random sampling (RS) strategy for accounting for such statistical bias is examined by investigating rationally designed synthetic data sets. This random sampling methodology is found to be robust and accurate with respect to reproducibility and predictability. This method is also compared to a numerical integration solution for a two-source situation where source variability also is included. A general observation from this examination is that the variability of the source profiles not only affects the calculated precision but also the mean/median source contributions.

  • 9. Andren, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Rydin, Emil
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Toxicity of inorganic aluminium at spring snowmelt-In-stream bioassays with brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)2012Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 437, s. 422-432Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the acid load has decreased throughout Scandinavia, acidic soils still mobilise aluminium (Al) that is harmful to brown trout. We hypothesise that there are thresholds for Al toxicity and that the toxicity can be traced from the water content to gill accumulation and the consequential physiological effects. During snowmelt, yearlings were exposed to a gradient of pH and inorganic monomeric Al (Al-i) in humic streams to study the toxic effects and mortality. Gill Al and physiological blood analyses [haemoglobin (Hb), plasma chloride (P-Cl) and glucose (Glu)] were measured. As the water quality deteriorated, Al accumulated on the gills; Hb and Glu increased; P-Cl decreased, and mortality occurred. Moribund fish had significantly increased gill Al and Hb, suggesting that respiratory disturbances contributed to mortality. Decreased P-C and plasma availability indicated an ion regulatory disturbance and possibly circulatory collapse. Al-i should be less than 20 mu g/L, and pH higher than 5.0, to sustain healthy brown trout populations. These thresholds can be used to fine-tune lime dose, as both Al-i and pH levels have to be balanced to prevent harm in the recovering aquatic biota. Although Al is tightly linked to pH, local variation in Al availability in soil and bedrock affects the Al release and subsequent toxic Al-i episodes in some catchment areas.

  • 10.
    Andrén, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Response of Gammarus pulex and Baetis rhodani to springtime acid episodes in humic brooks2013Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 463, s. 690-699Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While chronic acidification of water bodies has been steadily decreasing, episodic acidification continues to affect stream biology by temporarily decreasing pH and mobilizing aluminum. These events are becoming more common as climate change renders more frequent and intense storms and flooding. Throughout Scandinavia, the effects of acidification have been mitigated by liming since the 1980s, but remediation efforts can now be reduced. While transient acidity may reduce fish populations, also other species in streams are affected. In this in-stream study, two macro-invertebrates (Gammarus pulex and Baetis rhodani), both known as salmonid prey organisms, were exposed to snowmelt in six humic brooks with a natural gradient of pH and inorganic monomeric Al (Al-i). We hypothesize that acid toxicity thresholds can be defined using lethal (mortality) and sublethal (changes in body elemental content) metrics. Periodic observations were made of mortality and whole body concentrations of base cations (BC: Ca, Mg, Na and K) and metals (Al, Fe, Zn and Mn). Mortality increased dramatically at pH < 6.0 and Al-i > 15 mu g/L for G. pulex and at pH < 5.7 and Al-i > 20 mu g/L for B. rhodani. No accumulation of Al was found. The invertebrate body Na concentration decreased when pH dropped, suggesting that osmoregulation in both species was affected. In contrast to general BC pattern, Ca concentration in G. pulex and Mg concentration in B. rhodani increased when pH decreased. Although Ali strongly correlates to pH, the Al composition of soil and bedrock also influences Al availability, potentially contributing to toxic Al; episodes. The estimated values calculated in this study can be used to improve water quality criteria and as thresholds to adjust doses of lime compared to old recommendations in ongoing liming programs. Such adjustments may be critical since both Ali and pH levels have to be balanced to mitigate damage to recovering stream ecosystems.

  • 11.
    Andrén, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Rydin, Emil
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik .
    Toxicity of inorganic aluminium at spring snowmelt—In-stream bioassays withbrown trout (Salmo trutta L.)2012Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 437, s. 422-432Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the acid load has decreased throughout Scandinavia, acidic soils still mobilise aluminium (Al) thatis harmful to brown trout. We hypothesise that there are thresholds for Al toxicity and that the toxicity can betraced from the water content to gill accumulation and the consequential physiological effects. During snowmelt,yearlings were exposed to a gradient of pH and inorganic monomeric Al (Ali) in humic streams to studythe toxic effects and mortality. Gill Al and physiological blood analyses [haemoglobin (Hb), plasma chloride(P-Cl) and glucose (Glu)] were measured. As the water quality deteriorated, Al accumulated on the gills; Hband Glu increased; P-Cl decreased, and mortality occurred. Moribund fish had significantly increased gill Aland Hb, suggesting that respiratory disturbances contributed to mortality. Decreased P-Cl and plasmaavailability indicated an ion regulatory disturbance and possibly circulatory collapse. Ali should be lessthan 20 μg/L, and pH higher than 5.0, to sustain healthy brown trout populations. These thresholds can beused to fine-tune lime dose, as both Ali and pH levels have to be balanced to prevent harm in the recoveringaquatic biota. Although Al is tightly linked to pH, local variation in Al availability in soil and bedrock affectsthe Al release and subsequent toxic Ali episodes in some catchment areas.

  • 12. Antoniou, Maria G.
    et al.
    Hey, Gerly
    Rodríguez Vega, Sergio
    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    la Cour Jansen, Jes
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Required ozone doses for removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents2013Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 456-457, s. 42-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the this study was to investigate the ozone dosage required to remove active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from biologically treated wastewater of varying quality, originated from different raw wastewater and wastewater treatment processes. Secondary effluents from six Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were spiked with 42 APIs (nominal concentration 1μg/L) and treated with different O3 doses (0.5-12.0mg/L ozone) in bench-scale experiments. In order to compare the sensitivity of APIs in each matrix, the specific dose of ozone required to achieve reduction by one decade of each investigated API (DDO3) was determined for each effluent by fitting a first order equation to the remaining concentration of API at each applied ozone dose. Ozone dose requirements were found to vary significantly between effluents depending on their matrix characteristics. The specific ozone dose was then normalized to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of each effluent. The DDO3/DOC ratios were comparable for each API between the effluents. 15 of the 42 investigated APIs could be classified as easily degradable (DDO3/DOC≤0.7), while 19 were moderately degradable (0.7<DDO3/DOC≤1.4), and 8 were recalcitrant towards O3-treatment (DDO3/DOC >1.4). Furthermore, we predict that a reasonable estimate of the ozone dose required to remove any of the investigated APIs may be attained by multiplying the experimental average DDO3/DOC obtained with the actual DOC of any effluent.

  • 13.
    Aparicio, Fran L.
    et al.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Nieto-Cid, Mar
    CSIC, Spain.
    Borrull, Encarna
    CSIC, Spain.
    Calvo, Eva
    CSIC, Spain.
    Pelejero, Carles
    CSIC, Spain;CREA, Spain.
    Montserrat Sala, Maria
    CSIC, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gasol, Josep M.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Marrase, Celia
    CSIC, Spain.
    Eutrophication and acidification: Do they induce changes in the dissolved organic matter dynamics in the coastal Mediterranean Sea?2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 563, s. 179-189Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two mesocosms experiments were conducted in winter 2010 and summer 2011 to examine how increased pCO(2) and/or nutrient concentrations potentially perturbate dissolved organic matter dynamics in natural microbial assemblages. The fluorescence signals of protein-and humic-like compounds were used as a proxy for labile and non-labile material, respectively, while the evolution of bacterial populations, chlorophyll a (Chl a) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used as a proxy for biological activity. For both seasons, the presence of elevated pCO(2) did not cause any significant change in the DOC dynamics (p-value < 0.05). The conditions that showed the greatest changes in prokaryote abundances and Chl a content were those amended with nutrients, regardless of the change in pH. The temporal evolution of fluorophores and optical indices revealed that the degree of humification of the organic molecules and their molecular weight changed significantly in the nutrient-amended treatment. The generation of protein-like compounds was paired to increases in the prokaryote abundance, being higher in the nutrient-amended tanks than in the control. Different patterns in the magnitude and direction of the generation of humic-like molecules suggested that these changes depended on initial microbial populations and the availability of extra nutrient inputs. Based on our results, it is expected that in the future projected coastal scenarios the eutrophication processes will favor the transformations of labile and recalcitrant carbon regardless of changes in pCO(2). (c) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 14.
    Armitage, James M
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Wiberg, Karin
    Jonsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    A model assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran sources and fate in the Baltic Sea.2009Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, nr 12, s. 3784-3792Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The contamination of the Baltic Sea with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has resulted in restrictions on the marketing and consumption of Baltic Sea fish, making this a priority environmental issue in the European Union. To date there is no consensus on the relative importance of different sources of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea, and hence no consensus on how to address this issue. In this work we synthesized the available information to create a PCDD/F budget for the Baltic Sea, focusing on the two largest basins, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper. The non-steady state multimedia fate and transport model POPCYCLING-Baltic was employed, using recent data for PCDD/F concentrations in air and sediment as boundary conditions. The PCDD/F concentrations in water predicted by the model were in good agreement with recent measurements. The budget demonstrated that atmospheric deposition was the dominant source of PCDD/Fs to the basins as a whole. This conclusion was supported by a statistical comparison of the PCDD/F congener patterns in surface sediments from accumulation bottoms with the patterns in ambient air, bulk atmospheric deposition, and a range of potential industrial sources. Prospective model simulations indicated that the PCDD/F concentrations in the water column will continue to decrease in the coming years due to the slow response of the Baltic Sea system to falling PCDD/F inputs in the last decades, but that the decrease would be more pronounced if ambient air concentrations were to drop further in the future, for instance as a result of reduced emissions. The study illustrates the usefulness of using monitoring data and multimedia models in an integrated fashion to address complex organic contaminant issues.

  • 15.
    Aronsson, K. Andreas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Effects on growth, photosynthesis and pigments of the freshwater moss Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. after exposure to wood ash solution2006Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 372, nr 1, s. 236-246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of wood ash from biofuel sources to the forest has been suggested as a source of nutrients for trees and for restoration of acidified soils and surface waters. Studies on the effects of wood ash on aquatic organisms and ecosystems are, however, few. This study investigated the effects of wood ash (0.1 - 10 g l-1) on the freshwater moss Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw., which has previously been shown to be a sensitive test organism for assessing environmental pollution. After nine weeks of treatment with wood ash, a significant effect of enhanced stem growth was observed at the higher concentrations (1 � 10 g l-1). The concentration of wood ash was also correlated to the growth of secondary branches. Photosynthesis (oxygen evolution after 4 h of exposure to wood ash) was significantly lower in the alkaline treatments (no pH adjustment) compared to the treatments with neutral wood ash solutions (pH adjusted to 7.5). Furthermore, photosynthesis in the alkaline wood ash treatments was significantly lower compared to the control. The ratio between the optical density value before and after acidification (OD665/665a) was higher for all wood ash concentrations compared to the control. The OD665/665a values ranged from 1.52 to 1.61 and there was a difference, however not significant, between the alkaline and the neutral treatment at 10 g l-1 wood ash. This study clearly demonstrated that wood ash may be beneficial for F. antipyretica at moderate concentrations (0.5 - 5 g l-1), particularly when sudden increase in pH is avoided.

  • 16. Augustsson, A.
    et al.
    Söderberg, Uddh T.
    Jarsjö, J.
    Åström, M.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Destouni, G.
    The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, s. 1420-1431Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640 m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption.

  • 17. Augustsson, A.
    et al.
    Söderberg, Uddh T.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Åström, M.
    Olofsson, B.
    Balfors, B.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, s. 1420-1431Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640 m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption.

  • 18.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Climate change - an uncertainty factor in risk analysis of contaminated land2011Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, nr 22, s. 4693-4700Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals frequently occur at contaminated sites, where their potential toxicity and persistence require risk assessments that consider possible long-term changes. Changes in climate are likely to affect the speciation, mobility, and risks associated with metals. This paper provides an example of how the climate effect can be inserted in a commonly used exposure model, and how the exposure then changes compared to present conditions. The comparison was made for cadmium (Cd) exposure to 4-year-old children at a highly contaminated iron and steel works site in southeastern Sweden. Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches (through probability bounds analysis, PBA) were used in the exposure assessment. Potential climate-sensitive variables were determined by a literature review. Although only six of the total 39 model variables were assumed to be sensitive to a change in climate (groundwater infiltration, hydraulic conductivity, soil moisture, soil:water distribution, and two bioconcentration factors), the total exposure was clearly affected. For example, by altering the climate-sensitive variables in the order of 15% to 20%, the deterministic estimate of exposure increased by 27%. Similarly, the PBA estimate of the reasonable maximum exposure (RME, defined as the upper bound of the 95th percentile) increased by almost 20%. This means that sites where the exposure in present conditions is determined to be slightly below guideline values may in the future exceed these guidelines, and risk management decisions could thus be affected. The PBA, however, showed that there is also a possibility of lower exposure levels, which means that the changes assumed for the climate-sensitive variables increase the total uncertainty in the probabilistic calculations. This highlights the importance of considering climate as a factor in the characterization of input data to exposure assessments at contaminated sites. The variable with the strongest influence on the result was the soil:water distribution coefficient (Kd).

  • 19.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Jarsjo, J.
    Stockholm University.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Olofsson, B.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Balfors, B.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Destouni, G.
    Stockholm University.
    The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, s. 1420-1431Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640 m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Danet, Andrei-Florin
    Enantioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) - A new concept to evaluate the environmental fate of chiral organic contaminants2015Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 514, s. 459-466Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, the enantiospecific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) has emerged as an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral emerging compounds by combining in one experimental technique both compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and enantioselective analysis. To date, the ESIA was applied for four classes of compounds: alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH), polar herbicides (phenoxy acids), synthetic polycyclic musk galaxolide (HHCB), and phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. From an analytical point of view there are factors that are hindering the application of ESIA methods for the field samples: (i.e. amounts of target analyte, matrix effects, GC resolution) and overcoming these factors is challenging. While ESIA was shown as a mature technique for the first three abovementioned class of compounds, no isotope analysis of individual enantiomers could be performed for phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. With respect to field studies, one study showed that ESIA might be a promising tool to distinguish between biotic and abiotic transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants and even to differentiate between their aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation pathways. The development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants in combination with development of multi-element isotope analysis will contribute to a better characterization of transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Mustafa, Majid
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Leachability and desorption of PCBs from soil and their dependency on pH and dissolved organic matter2014Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 499, s. 220-227Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    pH affects both soil–water partitioning coefficient (Kd) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), thereby influencing PCBs' leachability from contaminated soils. To explore these incompletely understood interactions, the leachability of 11 selected PCBs in a naturally aged soil was investigated in pH static leaching tests spanning a wide pH range (2 to 9). The Kd was calculated for each of the PCBs, based on their observed concentrations in the soil and leachates obtained from each test. The concentration and composition of DOM in each leachate were also determined, the latter using FTIR spectroscopy. Correlations between the DOM's FTIR spectra and Kd values were investigated by orthogonal projections to latent structures. The log Kd-values varied among the PCB congeners and were most variable at low pH, but the values for all studied congeners decreased with increasing pH, by up to 3 log units (for PCB 187). In the pH 5–7 interval, an abrupt decrease in log Kd values with increases in pH was observed, although the total organic carbon content remained relatively stable. The FTIR data indicate that fulvic and humic acids in DOM partially deprotonate as the pH rises from 5 to 7.

  • 22.
    Bakker, Roel H.
    et al.
    Department of Applied Research in Care, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    van den Berg, Godefridus Petrus
    GGD Amsterdam Public Health Service, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Stewart, R.E.
    Department of Community & Occupational Health, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Lok, W.
    Department of Applied Research in Care, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Bouma, J.
    Department of Health Care, Science shop, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Impact of wind turbine sound on annoyance, self-reported sleep disturbance and psychological distress2012Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 425, s. 42-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of the research: The present government in the Netherlands intends to realize a substantial growth ofwind energy before 2020, both onshore and offshore. Wind turbines, when positioned in the neighborhood ofresidents may cause visual annoyance and noise annoyance. Studies on other environmental sound sources,such as railway, road traffic, industry and aircraft noise show that (long-term) exposure to sound can havenegative effects other than annoyance from noise. This study aims to elucidate the relation between exposureto the sound of wind turbines and annoyance, self-reported sleep disturbance and psychological distress ofpeople that live in their vicinity. Data were gathered by questionnaire that was sent by mail to a representativesample of residents of the Netherlands living in the vicinity of wind turbinesPrincipal results: A dose–response relationship was found between immission levels of wind turbine soundand selfreported noise annoyance. Sound exposure was also related to sleep disturbance and psychologicaldistress among those who reported that they could hear the sound, however not directly but with noiseannoyance acting as a mediator. Respondents living in areas with other background sounds were less affectedthan respondents in quiet areas.Major conclusions: People living in the vicinity of wind turbines are at risk of being annoyed by the noise, anadverse effect in itself. Noise annoyance in turn could lead to sleep disturbance and psychological distress. Nodirect effects of wind turbine noise on sleep disturbance or psychological stress has been demonstrated,which means that residents, who do not hear the sound, or do not feel disturbed, are not adversely affected.

  • 23.
    Baun, Anders
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    A methodology for ranking and hazard identification of xenobiotic organic compounds in urban stormwater2006Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 370, nr 1, s. 29-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a novel methodology (RICH, Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards) for ranking and identification ofxenobiotic organic compounds of environmental concern in stormwater discharged to surface water. The RICHmethod is illustrated as afunnel fitted with different filters that sort out problematic and hazardous compounds based on inherent physico-chemical and biologicalproperties. The outcomes of the RICH procedure are separate lists for both water phase and solid phase associated compounds. Theselists comprise: a justified list of compounds which can be disregarded in hazard/risk assessments, a justified list of stormwater prioritypollutants which must be included in hazard/risk assessments, and a list of compounds which may be present in discharged stormwater,but cannot be evaluated due to lack of data. The procedure was applied to 233 xenobiotic organic chemicals (XOCs) of relevance forstormwater. Of these 233 compounds, 121 compounds were found to be priority pollutants with regard to solids phases (i.e. suspendedsolids, soil, or sediments) when stormwater is discharged to surface water and 56 compounds were found to be priority pollutants withregard to the water phase. For 11% of the potential stormwater priority pollutants the screening procedure could not be carried out due tolack of data on basic physico-chemical properties and/or data on bioaccumulation, resistance to biodegradation, and ecotoxicity. Thetiered approach applied in the RICH procedure and the focus on the phases relevant for monitoring or risk assessment in the aquaticenvironment refines the list of “compounds of concern” when compared to the outcome of existing classification schemes. In this paperthe RICH procedure is focused on effects in the aquatic environment exemplified with xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) found inurban stormwater, but it may be transferred to other environmental compartments and problems. Thus, the RICH procedure can be usedas a stand-alone tool for selection of potential priority pollutants or it can be integrated in larger priority setting frameworks.

  • 24. Bazzanti, Marcello
    et al.
    Mastrantuono, Luciana
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Depth-related response of macroinvertebrates to the reversal of eutrophication in a Mediterranean lake: Implications for ecological assessment2017Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 579, s. 456-465Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A better management of nutrient inflows into lakes has led to an improvement in their conditions (i.e. reversal of eutrophication) and the effects of this on macroinvertebrate communities that inhabit different lake-depth zones is largely unknown. This paper reports a comparison of macroinvertebrate communities living in the eulittoral, infralittoral and sublittoral/profundal zones of Lake Nemi (Central Italy) before and after its natural recovery from eutrophication following the deviation of domestic Wastewater. The infralittoral zone responded more rapidly than the other two depth-zones to the improved ecological conditions, as shown by larger differences in community composition between the two periods. In the eulittoral sand, the combined effects of hydromorphological pressures and reversal of eutrophication hindered the biotic response. In the eulittoral and infralittoral zones, typical taxa of mesotrophic waters appeared or increased their abundances after the eutrophication reversal. Benthic invertebrate response was slower in the sublittoral/profundal zone due to deoxygenation that continued to prevail in the deepest area of the lake during summer. However, both tolerant and more sensitive taxa were collected there for the first time. After the reversal of eutrophication, the percentage of molluscan + large crustaceans increased in the infralittoral zone, whereas the oligochaete/chironomid ratio decreased in both sublittoral/profundal and infralittoral zones. Functional feeding metrics (percentages of filter-feeders, collector-gatherers, miners and scrapers/grazers) differently tracked the reversal of eutrophication in the three depth-zones probably according to the effects of the-reduction of nutrients on food-web structure influencing macroinvertebrates. Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) and the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT) seemed to respond to eutrophication reversal only in the sublittoral/profundal zone, where deoxygenation plays a major role as a structuring agent of the community. Our results suggest that the effects of re-. versal of eutrophication can be better assessed by examining the response of the communities belonging to each zone individually. 

  • 25. Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    et al.
    Hammaren, Rickard
    Pal, Chandan
    Ostman, Marcus
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Fick, Jerker
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Tysklind, Mats
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Elucidating selection processes for antibiotic resisitance in sewage treatment plants using metagenomics2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 572, s. 697-712Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage treatment plants (STPs) have repeatedly been suggested as hotspots for the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A critical question still unanswered is if selection pressures within STPs, caused by residual antibiotics or other co-selective agents, are sufficient to specifically promote resistance. To address this, we employed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of samples from different steps of the treatment process in three Swedish STPs. In parallel, concentrations of selected antibiotics, biocides and metals were analyzed. We found that concentrations of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin in the influent were above predicted concentrations for resistance selection, however, there was no consistent enrichment of resistance genes to any particular class of antibiotics in the STPs, neither for biocide and metal resistance genes. The most substantial change of the bacterial communities compared to human feces occurred already in the sewage pipes, manifested by a strong shift from obligate to facultative anaerobes. Through the treatment process, resistance genes against antibiotics, biocides and metals were not reduced to the same extent as fecal bacteria. The OXA-48 gene was consistently enriched in surplus and digested sludge. We find this worrying as OXA-48, still rare in Swedish clinical isolates, provides resistance to carbapenems, one of our most critically important classes of antibiotics. Taken together, metagenomics analyses did not provide clear support for specific antibiotic resistance selection. However, stronger selective forces affecting gross taxonomic composition, and with that resistance gene abundances, limit interpretability. Comprehensive analyses of resistant/non-resistant strains within relevant species are therefore warranted. 

  • 26. Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    et al.
    Hammarén, Rickard
    Pal, Chandan
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Larsson, D.G. Joakim
    Elucidating selection processes for antibiotic resistance in sewage treatment plants using metagenomics2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 572, s. 697-712Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage treatment plants (STPs) have repeatedly been suggested as “hotspots” for the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A critical question still unanswered is if selection pressures within STPs, caused by residual antibiotics or other co-selective agents, are sufficient to specifically promote resistance. To address this, we employed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of samples from different steps of the treatment process in three Swedish STPs. In parallel, concentrations of selected antibiotics, biocides and metals were analyzed. We found that concentrations of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin in the influent were above predicted concentrations for resistance selection, however, there was no consistent enrichment of resistance genes to any particular class of antibiotics in the STPs, neither for biocide and metal resistance genes. The most substantial change of the bacterial communities compared to human feces occurred already in the sewage pipes, manifested by a strong shift from obligate to facultative anaerobes. Through the treatment process, resistance genes against antibiotics, biocides and metals were not reduced to the same extent as fecal bacteria. The OXA-48 gene was consistently enriched in surplus and digested sludge. We find this worrying as OXA-48, still rare in Swedish clinical isolates, provides resistance to carbapenems, one of our most critically important classes of antibiotics. Taken together, metagenomics analyses did not provide clear support for specific antibiotic resistance selection. However, stronger selective forces affecting gross taxonomic composition, and with that resistance gene abundances, limit interpretability. Comprehensive analyses of resistant/non-resistant strains within relevant species are therefore warranted.

  • 27.
    Berg, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Tam, Nguyen Thanh
    Decreased use of pesticides for increased yields of rice and fish-options for sustainable food production in the Mekong Delta2018Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 619-620, s. 319-327Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the use of pesticides and the attitude to pest management strategies among rice and rice-fish farmers in the Can Tho and Tien Giang provinces in Vietnam. Interviews were made with 80 farmers. The farmers were divided in to farmers cultivating only rice with a high use (RHP) and low use (RLP) of pesticides, and farmers cultivating rice and fish with a high use (RFHP) and low use (RFLP) of pesticides. 80% of the HP farmers relied mainly on pesticides to control pests, while >80% of the LP farmers also applied IPM strategies. Insecticides were the most commonly used pesticides. 85% of all farmers experienced health effects from using pesticides. 80% of the farmers felt that the yield of fish had decreased over the last three years, and that this mainly was caused by pesticides. The RFHP farmers had lower fish survival and fish yields as compared to the RFLP farmers. The RFHP farmers also had significant lower rice yields than the RFLP farmers, and there were significant correlations between both decreased fish yields and rice yields with increased use of pesticides among rice-fish farmers. Increased rice yields were positively correlated with increased fish survival, indicating the synergistic effects between rice and fish production. Overall, the RFLP farmers had the highest income of the four farmers´ groups, while RFHP farmers had the lowest income. This shows that rice-fish farming provides a competitive and sustainable alternative to intensive rice-farming, but only if the farmer restricts the use of pesticides. This would not only help to reduce the production costs, but also to decrease environmental and health effects, and it is proposed that rice-fish farming with a low use of pesticides provides an attractive alternative to rice-monocropping for a sustainable and diversified food production in the Mekong Delta.

  • 28.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Mathurin, Frédéric A.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fluoride abundance and controls in fresh groundwater in Quaternary deposits and bedrock fractures in an area with fluorine-rich granitoid rocks2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 569, s. 948-960Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on fluoride (F-) concentrations in groundwater in an area in northern Europe (Laxemar, southeast Sweden) where high F- concentrations have previously been found in surface waters such as streams and quarries. Fluoride concentrations were determined over time in groundwater in the Quaternary deposits ("regolith groundwater"), and with different sampling techniques from just beneath the ground surface to nearly -700 min the bedrock (fracture) groundwater. A number of potential controls of dissolved F- were studied, including geological variables, mineralogy, mineral chemistry and hydrology. In the regolith groundwater the F- concentrations (0.3-4.2 mg/L) were relatively stable over time at each sampling site but varied widely among the sampling sites. In these groundwaters, the F- concentrations were uncorrelated with sample (filter) depth and the water table in meters above sea level (masl), with the thicknesses of the groundwater column and the regolith, and with the distribution of soil types at the sampling sites. Fluoride concentrations were, however, correlated with the anticipated spatial distribution of erosional material (till) derived from a F-rich circular granite intrusion. Abundant release of F-from such material is thus suggested, primarily via dissolution of fluorite and weathering of biotite. In the fresh fracture groundwater, the F- concentrations (1.2-7.4 mg/L) were generally higher than in the regolith groundwater, and were uncorrelated with depth and with location relative to the granite intrusion. Two mechanisms explaining the overall high F- levels in the fracture groundwater were addressed. First, weathering/dissolution of fluorite, bastnasite and apophyllite, which are secondary minerals formed in the fractures during past hydrothermal events, and biotite which is a primary mineral exposed on fracture walls. Second, long water-residence times, favoring water-rock interaction and build-up of high dissolved F- concentrations. The findings are relevant in contexts of extraction of groundwater for drinking-water purposes. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 29.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Dienus, Olaf
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Sokolova, Ekaterina
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Berglind, Emma
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Matussek, Andreas
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden; Karolinska University of Lab, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Occurrence and removal efficiency of parasitic protozoa in Swedish wastewater treatment plants2017Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 598, s. 821-827Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica and Dientamoeba fragilis are parasitic protozoa and causative agents of gastroenteritis in humans. G. intestinalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in particular are the most common protozoa associated with waterborne outbreaks in high-income countries. Surveillance of protozoan prevalence in wastewater and evaluation of wastewater treatment removal efficiencies of protozoan pathogens is therefore imperative for assessment of human health risk. In this study, influent and effluent wastewater samples from three wastewater treatment plants in Sweden were collected over nearly one year and assessed for prevalence of parasitic protozoa. Quantitative real-time PCR using primers specific for the selected protozoa Cryptosporidium spp., G, intestinalis, E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and D. fragilis was used for protozoan DNA detection and assessment of wastewater treatment removal efficiencies. Occurrence of G. intestinalis, E. dispar and D. fragilis DNA was assessed in both influent (44, 30 and 39 out of 51 samples respectively) and effluent wastewater (14, 9 and 33 out of 51 samples respectively) in all three wastewater treatment plants. Mean removal efficiencies of G. intestinalis, E. dispar and D. fragilis DNA quantities, based on all three wastewater treatment plants studied varied between 67 and 87%, 37-75% and 20-34% respectively. Neither E. histolytica nor Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in any samples. Overall, higher quantities of protozoan DNA were observed from February to June 2012. The high prevalence of protozoa in influent wastewater indicates the need for continued monitoring of these pathogens in wastewater-associated aquatic environments to minimise the potential risk for human infection. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E B
    Wetland Research Centre, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Wetland Research Centre, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes.2014Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 476-477, s. 29-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng×l(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes.

  • 31. Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    Weisner, Stefan E. B.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes2014Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 476-477, s. 29-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng x 1(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes. (c) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 32.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Våtmarkscentrum.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Våtmarkscentrum.
    Fick, Jerker
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes2014Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 476-477, s. 29-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng x 1(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes. (c) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Berglund, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nyholm, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions2011Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, nr 20, s. 4326-4334Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition.

  • 34.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Berggren, Kleja D.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Occurrence and fate of corrosion-induced zinc in runoff water from external structures2006Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, nr 2-3, s. 908-923Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper comprises data from an extensive cross-disciplinary research project aiming to elucidate the environmental fate of corrosion-induced zinc release from external structures. It includes an exposure assessment that provide long-term runoff rates, concentrations and chemical speciation of zinc, from 14 zinc-based materials exposed during 5 years in Stockholm, Sweden, and an effect assessment including bioavailability and ecotoxicity measurements, both at the immediate release situation and after soil interaction.Runoff rates of total zinc ranged from 0.07 to 2.5g Znm(-2) yr(-1) with zinc primarily released as the free ion for all materials investigated. The average effect concentration, causing a 50% growth reduction after 72h to the green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, was at the immediate release situation 69 mu g ZnL-1. Upon interaction of runoff water with soil, which simulated 18 to 34years of exposure, the total zinc concentration was significantly reduced, from milligram per litre to microgram per litre levels. Simultaneously, the most bioavailable fraction of zinc in runoff, the hydrated zinc(II)-ion, decreased from more than 95% to about 30%. The major fraction, 98-99%, of the introduced total zinc concentration in the runoff water was retained within the soil. As long as the soil retention capacity was not reached, this resulted in zinc concentrations in the percolate water transported through the soil layer, close to background values and below growth inhibition concentrations for the green algae investigated. Zinc retained in soil was to a large extent (85-99.9%) extractable with EDTA, and available for plant uptake after 5 to 7months of ageing.

  • 35.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Claesson, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bundschuh, J.
    Sracek, O.
    Fagerberg, Jens
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Martin, R. A.
    Storniolo, A. D.
    Thir, J. M.
    Distribution and mobility of arsenic in the Rio Dulce alluvial aquifers in Santiago del Estero Province, Argentina2006Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 358, nr 1-3, s. 97-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors controlling arsenic (As) mobilization in the aquifers of the Rio Dulce alluvial cone were investigated. Groundwater analyses show severe As contamination (average concentration of 743 mu g/L) from geogenic sources, but spatial variability of As concentration is considerable. Sequential leaching of sediment samples from unsaturated zone using de-ionised water, bicarbonate, acetate, and oxalate extracted As to different extents. Sediment oxalate extraction showed that Al and Mn oxide and hydroxides are more abundant than Fe oxides and hydroxides, in spite of similar total Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations in the sediment. Speciation calculations performed for saturated zone samples indicated that Fe and Al oxides and hydroxides are stable in groundwater, suggesting that As adsorption processes may be to some extent controlled by the presence of Fe and Al mineral phases. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that As is related to F, V, Mo, B, Si, most likely due to their common origin in volcanic ash. This suggests the volcanic ash as the probable source of groundwater As. Locally, elevated pH values linked to carbonate dissolution, cation exchange, and dissolution of silicates promote release of adsorbed As. Another factor contributing to the release of As locally may be the input of organic matter from excessive irrigation. The conceptual model of As release includes: i) As influx from dissolution of volcanic glass in volcanic ash, ii) adsorption of As on the surface of Fe and Al mineral phases in relatively low pH zones, and iii) high mobility of As in high pH zones. Future work should be focused on the determination of mineralogical forms of As in volcanic ash and on detailed investigation on factors controlling As mobility.

  • 36.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mukherjee, A. B.
    Jacks, G.
    Nordqvist, S.
    Metal contamination at a wood preservation site: characterisation and experimental studies on remediation2002Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 290, nr 03-jan, s. 165-180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the occurrence of As, Cu, Cr and Zn in the soil at an abandoned wood preservation unit and to examine some possible extractants for the contaminants in the soil. The mean As content of the contaminated surface soils (0-10 cm) was 186 mg kg(-1), where as the mean concentrations of Cu, Cr and Zn in soils from the contaminated area were 26, 29 and 91 mg kg(-1), respectively. The elevated As content in the mineral soils is related to adsorption of inorganic As phases in the fine grained fractions, which are characterised by large surface area and high positive surface charge under the current acidic conditions. Cu and Cr were found to be rather mobile, which is reflected in their lower abundance in soils and significant accumulation in sediments in the drainage leaving the area. The fine fraction of the soil (<0.125 mm) has an average metal content increased by nearly 34% as compared to the <2-mm fraction conventionally used for the analysis and assessment of soil contamination. The <2-mm fraction constitutes approximately 65% of the total weight while the fine fraction (< 0.125 mm) constitutes approximately 10%. These facts, taken together, are essential for the choice of remediation measures. Oxalate solutions have been tested as extractants for soil remediation. Dark acid oxalate extraction dissolves the amorphous Al- and Fe-oxides and hydroxides and mobilises the adsorbed inorganic As species. Oxalate also acts as a ligand for the cationic heavy metals, releasing them from exchangeable sites. With a three-step sequential leaching, up to 98-99% of the metals could be removed. At lower concentrations and higher pH, the leaching decreased to approximately 70%.

  • 37.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Welch, Alan H.
    Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.
    McLaughlin, Mike J.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    Panaullah, G.
    Arsenic in the environment: Biology and Chemistry2007Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 379, nr 03-feb, s. 109-120Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) distribution and toxicology in the environment is a serious issue, with millions of individuals worldwide being affected by As toxicosis. Sources of As contamination are both natural and anthropogenic and the scale of contamination ranges from local to regional. There are many areas of research that are being actively pursued to address the As contamination problem. These include new methods of screening for As in the field, determining the epidemiology of As in humans, and identifying the risk of As uptake in agriculture. Remediation of As-affected water supplies is important and research includes assessing natural remediation potential as well as phytoremediation. Another area of active research is on the microbially mediated biogeochemical interactions of As in the environment. In 2005, a conference was convened to bring together scientists involved in many of the different areas of As research. In this paper, we present a synthesis of the As issues in the light of long-standing research and with regards to the new findings presented at this conference. This contribution provides a backdrop to the issues raised at the conference together with an overview of contemporary and historical issues of As contamination and health impacts. Crown

  • 38. Bisht, D. S.
    et al.
    Tiwari, S.
    Dumka, U. C.
    Srivastava, A. K.
    Safai, P. D.
    Ghude, S. D.
    Chate, D. M.
    Rao, P. S. P.
    Ali, K.
    Prabhakaran, T.
    Panickar, A. S.
    Soni, V. K.
    Attri, S. D.
    Tunved, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Chakrabarty, R. K.
    Hopke, P. K.
    Tethered balloon-born and ground-based measurements. of black carbon and particulate profiles within the lower troposphere during the foggy period in Delhi, India2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 573, s. 894-905Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ground and vertical profiles of particulate matter (PM) were mapped as part of a pilot study using a Tethered balloon within the lower troposphere (1000 m) during the foggy episodes in the winter season of 2015-16 in New Delhi, India. Measurements of black carbon (BC) aerosol and PM <2.5 and 10 mu m (PM2.5 &PM-10 respectively) concentrations and their associated particulate optical properties along with meteorological parameters were made. The mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, BC370 (nm), and BC880 nm were observed to be 146.8 +/- 42.1, 245.4 +/- 65.4, 30.3 +/- 122, and 24.1 +/- 103 mu g m(-3), respectively. The mean value of PM2.5 was similar to 12 times higher than the annual US-EPA air quality standard. The fraction of BC in PM2.5 that contributed to absorption in the shorter visible wavelengths (BC370 nm) was-21%. Compared to clear days, the ground level mass concentrations of PM2.5 and BC370 nm particles were substantially increased (59% and 24%, respectively) during the foggy episode. The aerosol light extinction coefficient (sigma(ext)) value was much higher (mean: 610 Mm(-1)) during the lower visibility (foggy) condition. Higher concentrations of PM2.5 (89 mu g m(-3)) and longer visible wavelength absorbing BC880 am (25.7 mu g m(-3)) particles were observed up to 200 m. The BC880 nm and PM2.5 aerosol concentrations near boundary layer (1 km) were significantly higher (similar to 1.9 and 12 mu g m(-3)), respectively. The BC (i.e BCtot) aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) values were estimated at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), surface (SFC), and atmosphere (ATM) and its resultant forcing were- 75.5 Wm(-2) at SFC indicating the cooling effect at the surface. A positive value (20.9 Wm(-2)) of BC aerosol DRF at TOA indicated the warming effect at the top of the atmosphere over the study region. The net DRF value due to BC aerosol was positive (96.4 Wm(-2)) indicating a net warming effect in the atmosphere. The contribution of fossil and biomass fuels to the observed BC aerosol DRF values was -78% and-22%, respectively. The higher mean atmospheric heating rate (2.71 K clay(-1)) by BC aerosol in the winter season would probably strengthen the temperature inversion leading to poor dispersion and affecting the formation of clouds. Serious detrimental impacts on regional climate due to the high concentrations of BC and PM (especially PM2.5) aerosol are likely based on this study and suggest the need for immediate, stringent measures to improve the regional air quality in the northern India.

  • 39.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Nath, Bibhash
    Alexanderson, Helena
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Shallow hydrostratigraphy in an arsenic affected region of Bengal Basin: Implication for targeting safe aquifers for drinking water supply2014Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 485, s. 12-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To delineate arsenic (As) safe aquifer(s) within shallow depth, the present study has investigated the shallow hydrostratigraphic framework over an area of 100 km(2) at Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal. Drilling of 29 boreholes and subsequent hydrostratigraphic modeling has identified three types of aquifer within 50 m below ground level (bgl). Aquifer-1 represents a thick paleochannel sequence, deposited parallel to the River Hooghly and Ichamati. Aquifer-2 is formed locally within the overbank deposits in the central floodplain area and its vertical extension is strictly limited to 25 m bgl. Aquifer-3 is distributed underneath the overbank deposits and represents an interfluvial aquifer of the area. Aquifer-3 is of Pleistocene age (similar to 70 ka), while aquifer-1 and 2 represent the Holocene deposits (age <951 ka), indicating that there was a major hiatus in the sediment deposition after depositing the aquifer-3. Over the area, aquifer-3 is markedly separated from the overlying Holocene deposits by successive upward sequences of brown and olive to pale blue impervious clay layers. The groundwater quality is very much similar in aquifer-1 and 2, where the concentration of As and Fe very commonly exceeds 10 mu g/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. Based on similar sediment color, these two aquifers have jointly been designated as the gray sand aquifer (GSA), which constitutes 40% (1.84 x 10(9) m(3)) of the total drilled volume (4.65 x 10(9) m(3)). In aquifer-3, the concentration of As and Fe is very low, mostly <2 mu g/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. This aquifer has been designated as the brown sand aquifer (BSA) according to color of the aquifer materials and represents 10% (4.8 x 10(8) m(3)) of the total drilled volume. This study further documents that though the concentration of As is very low at BSA, the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines.

  • 40. Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    Nath, Bibhash
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Haider, Dipti
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Mandal, Ujjal
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Morth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    Hydrogeochemical contrast between brown and grey sand aquifers in shallow depth of Bengal Basin: consequences for sustainable drinking water supply2012Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 431, s. 402-412Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Delineation of safe aquifer(s) that can be targeted by cheap drilling technology for tubewell (TW) installation becomes highly imperative to ensure access to safe and sustainable drinking water sources for the arsenic (As) affected population in Bengal Basin. This study investigates the potentiality of brown sand aquifers (BSA) as a safe drinking water source by characterizing its hydrogeochemical contrast to grey sand aquifers (GSA) within shallow depth (<70 m) over an area of 100 km(2) in Chakdaha Block of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. The results indicate that despite close similarity in major ion composition, the redox condition is markedly different in groundwater of the two studied aquifers. The redox condition in the BSA is delineated to be Mn oxy-hydroxide reducing, not sufficiently lowered for As mobilization into groundwater. In contrast, the enrichments of NH4+, PO43-, Fe and As along with lower Eh in groundwater of GSA reflect reductive dis-solution of Fe oxy-hydroxide coupled to microbially mediated oxidation of organic matter as the prevailing redox process causing As mobilization into groundwater of this aquifer type. In some portions of GSA the redox status even has reached to the stage of SO42- reduction, which to some extent might sequester dissolved As from groundwater by co-precipitation with authigenic pyrite. Despite having low concentration of As in groundwater of the BSA the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines, which warrants rigorous assessment of attendant health risk for Mn prior to considering mass scale exploitation of the BSA for possible sustainable drinking water supply.

  • 41.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Nath, Bibhash
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Mandal, Ujjal
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hydrogeochemical contrast between brown and grey sand aquifers in shallow depth of Bengal Basin: Consequences for sustainable drinking water supply2012Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 431, s. 402-412Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Delineation of safe aquifer(s) that can be targeted by cheap drilling technology for tubewell (TW) installation becomes highly imperative to ensure access to safe and sustainable drinking water sources for the arsenic (As) affected population in Bengal Basin. This study investigates the potentiality of brown sand aquifers (BSA) as a safe drinking water source by characterizing its hydrogeochemical contrast to grey sand aquifers (GSA) within shallow depth (<70 m) over an area of 100 km(2) in Chakdaha Block of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. The results indicate that despite close similarity in major ion composition, the redox condition is markedly different in groundwater of the two studied aquifers. The redox condition in the BSA is delineated to be Mn oxy-hydroxide reducing, not sufficiently lowered for As mobilization into groundwater. In contrast, the enrichments of NH4+, PO43-, Fe and As along with lower Eh in groundwater of GSA reflect reductive dis-solution of Fe oxy-hydroxide coupled to microbially mediated oxidation of organic matter as the prevailing redox process causing As mobilization into groundwater of this aquifer type. In some portions of GSA the redox status even has reached to the stage of SO42- reduction, which to some extent might sequester dissolved As from groundwater by co-precipitation with authigenic pyrite. Despite having low concentration of As in groundwater of the BSA the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines, which warrants rigorous assessment of attendant health risk for Mn prior to considering mass scale exploitation of the BSA for possible sustainable drinking water supply.

  • 42.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ricklund, Niklas
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Occurrence of brominated dioxins in a study using various firefighting methods2017Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 599-600, s. 1213-1221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of different firefighting methods influences how fast a fire is extinguished and how fast the temperature drops in the area affected by the fire. These differences may also influence the formation of harmful pollutants during firefighting of an accidental fire. The aim was to study occurrence of brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) in gas and soot during five fire scenarios resembling a small apartment fire and where different firefighting methods were used. Samples of gas and soot were taken both during the buildup of the fire and during the subsequent extinguishing of the fire while using different firefighting methods (nozzle, compressed air foam system, cutting extinguisher) and an extinguishing additive. New containers equipped with identical sets of combustible material were used for the five tests. The use of different firefighting methods and extinguishing additive induced variations in concentration and congener profiles of detected PBDD/Fs. The concentration range of Sigma PBDD/Fs in gas was 4020-18,700 pg/m(3), and in soot 76-4092 pg/m(2). PBDFs were the predominant congeners and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF was the most abundant congener. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) were also monitored. The PBDD/Fs contributed with in average 97% to the total (PCDD/Fs plus PBDD/Fs) toxic equivalents, in soot and gas. During extinguishing, the shorter time the temperature was around 300 degrees C, the lower occurrence of PBDD/Fs. In the study the firefighting methods showed a difference in how effectively they induced a temperature decrease below 300 degrees C in the fire zone during quenching, where cutting extinguishing using additive and the compressed air foam system showed the fastest drop in temperature.

  • 43.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Roos, Anna
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Hagberg, J
    Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 20152018Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 616-617, s. 1374-1383Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 44.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Roos, Anna
    Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 20152018Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 616-617, s. 1374-1383Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal trends in exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assessed in 22 pooled samples gathered from 69 individuals of Baltic ringed seal (Pusa hispida botnica) from 1974 to 2015. Samples were analysed for polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). No previous study has reported on the occurrence of PBDD/Fs in marine mammals in the Baltic Sea. Concentrations of pollutants in Baltic ringed seal, a marine mammal and top predator, can be used as an indicator of pollutants concentrations in the Baltic region.

    Visual inspection of data did not show any temporal trends for PBDD/Fs, while the PCDD/Fs and PCBs showed decreasing concentrations between 1974 and 2015. PBDEs increased until the end of the 1990s and then decreased until the end of the period. ∑ PBDD/Fs ranged from 0.5–52.3 pg/g lipid weight (l.w.) (0.08–4.8 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF contributing on average 61% to ∑ PBDD/Fs. ∑ PCDD/Fs ranged from 103 to 1480 pg/g l.w. (39–784 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF showing the highest average concentrations. PBDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQ) contributed on average 1.1% to the total (PBDD/F + PCDD/F) TEQ. The ∑ PBDEs concentration range was 18.7–503 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the predominant congener. The concentration range for ∑ PCBs was 2.8–40.1 μg/g l.w., with #138 and #153 the most abundant congeners. Visual inspection of the data showed decreasing concentrations for all compound groups except PBDD/Fs. A slight increase in the PBDD/Fs concentrations was observed from 2004 onwards. This observation needs to be investigated further.

  • 45.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Ripszám, M.
    Haglund, P.
    Lindberg, R. H.
    Tysklind, M.
    Fick, J.
    Pharmaceutical residues are widespread in Baltic Sea coastal and offshore waters – Screening for pharmaceuticals and modelling of environmental concentrations of carbamazepine2018Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 633, s. 1496-1509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of pharmaceuticals worldwide coupled with modest removal efficiencies of sewage treatment plants have resulted in the presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems globally. In this study, we investigated the environmental concentrations of a selection of 93 pharmaceuticals in 43 locations in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. The Baltic Sea is vulnerable to anthropogenic activities due to a long turnover time and a sensitive ecosystem in the brackish water. Thirty-nine of 93 pharmaceuticals were detected in at least one sample, with concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 80 ng/L. One of the pharmaceuticals investigated, the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine, was widespread in coastal and offshore seawaters (present in 37 of 43 samples). In order to predict concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, a mass balance-based grey box model was set up and the persistent, widely used carbamazepine was selected as the model substance. The model was based on hydrological and meteorological sub-basin characteristics, removal data from smaller watersheds and wastewater treatment plants, and statistics relating to population, consumption and excretion rate of carbamazepine in humans. The grey box model predicted average environmental concentrations of carbamazepine in sub-basins with no significant difference from the measured concentrations, amounting to 0.57-3.2 ng/L depending on sub-basin location. In the Baltic Sea, the removal rate of carbamazepine in seawater was estimated to be 6.2 10(-9) s(-1) based on a calculated half-life time of 3.5 years at 10 degrees C, which demonstrates the long response time of the environment to measures phasing out persistent or slowly degradable substances such as carbamazepine. Sampling, analysis and grey box modelling were all valuable in describing the presence and removal of carbamazepine in the Baltic Sea.

  • 46. Björlenius, Berndt
    et al.
    Ripszám, Mátyás
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Pharmaceutical residues are widespread in Baltic Sea coastal and offshore waters: Screening for pharmaceuticals and modelling of environmental concentrations of carbamazepine2018Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 633, s. 1496-1509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of pharmaceuticals worldwide coupled with modest removal efficiencies of sewage treatment plants have resulted in the presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems globally. In this study, we investigated the environmental concentrations of a selection of 93 pharmaceuticals in 43 locations in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. The Baltic Sea is vulnerable to anthropogenic activities due to a long turnover time and a sensitive ecosystem in the brackish water. Thirty-nine of 93 pharmaceuticals were detected in at least one sample, with concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 80 ng/L. One of the pharmaceuticals investigated, the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine, was widespread in coastal and offshore seawaters (present in 37 of 43 samples). In order to predict concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, a mass balance-based grey box model was set up and the persistent, widely used carbamazepine was selected as the model substance. The model was based on hydrological and meteorological sub-basin characteristics, removal data from smaller watersheds and wastewater treatment plants, and statistics relating to population, consumption and excretion rate of carbamazepine in humans. The grey box model predicted average environmental concentrations of carbamazepine in sub-basins with no significant difference from the measured concentrations, amounting to 0.57–3.2 ng/L depending on sub-basin location. In the Baltic Sea, the removal rate of carbamazepine in seawater was estimated to be 6.2 10−9 s−1 based on a calculated half-life time of 3.5 years at 10 °C, which demonstrates the long response time of the environment to measures phasing out persistent or slowly degradable substances such as carbamazepine. Sampling, analysis and grey box modelling were all valuable in describing the presence and removal of carbamazepine in the Baltic Sea.

  • 47.
    Blanc, Mélanie
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kukučka, Petr
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Scherbak, Nikolai
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Mixture-specific gene expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126)2017Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 590-591, s. 249-257Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) are persistent organic pollutants of high concern because of their environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic properties. Besides, the amphiphilic properties of fluorinated compounds such as PFOS and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) suggest a role in increasing cell membrane permeability and solubilizing chemicals. The present study aimed at investigating whether PFOS and PFHxA are capable of modifying the activation of PCB126 toxicity-related pathways. For this purpose, zebrafish embryos were exposed in semi-static conditions to 7.5 μg/L of PCB126 alone, in the presence of 25 mg/L of PFOS, 15.7 mg/L of PFHxA or in the presence of both PFOS and PFHxA. Quantitative PCR was performed on embryos aged from 24 h post fertilization (hpf) to 96 hpf to investigate expression changes of genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics (ahr2, cyp1a), oxidative stress (gpx1a, tp53), lipids metabolism (acaa2, osbpl1a), and epigenetic mechanisms (dnmt1, dnmt3ba). Cyp1a and ahr2 expression were significantly induced by the presence of PCB126. However, after 72 and 78 h of exposure, induction of cyp1a expression was significantly lower when embryos were co-exposed to PCB126 + PFOS + PFHxA when compared to PCB126-exposed embryos. Significant upregulation of gpx1a occurred after exposure to PCB126 + PFHxA and to PCB126 + PFOS + PFHxA at 30 and 48 hpf. Besides, embryos appeared more sensitive to PCB126 + PFOS + PFHxA at 78 hpf: acaa2 and osbpl1a were significantly downregulated; dnmt1 was significantly upregulated. While presented as environmentally safe, PFHxA demonstrated that it could affect gene expression patterns in zebrafish embryos when combined to PFOS and PCB126, suggesting that such mixture may increase PCB126 toxicity. This is of particular relevance since PFHxA is persistent and still being ejected into the environment. Moreover, it provides additional information as to the importance to integrate mixture effects of chemicals in risk assessment and biomonitoring frameworks.

  • 48.
    Blum, Kristin M.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Wiberg, Karin
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Persistence, mobility and bioavailability of emerging organic contaminants discharged from sewage treatment plants2018Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 612, s. 1532-1542Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the impact of emissions of micropollutants from small and large-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs) on drinking water source areas. We investigated a populated catchment that drains into Lake Malaren, which is the drinking water source for around 2 million people including the inhabitants of Stockholm, Sweden. To assess the persistence, mobility, bioavailability and bioaccumulation of 32 structurally diverse emerging organic contaminants, sediment, integrated passive and grab water samples were collected along the catchment of the River Fyris, Sweden. The samples were complemented with STP effluent and fish samples from one sampling event. Contaminants identified as persistent, mobile, and bioavailable were 4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-1,3,4,7-tetrahydrocyclopenta[g] isochromene (galaxolide), 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate. Galaxolide and 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol were additionally found to be bioaccumulative, whereas n-butylbenzenesulfonamide was found to be only persistent and mobile. The total median mass flux of the persistent and mobile target analytes from Lake Ekoln into the drinking water source area of Lake Malaren was estimated to be 27 kg per year. Additionally, 10 contaminants were tentatively identified by non-target screening using NIST library searches and manual review. Two of those were confirmed by reference standards and further two contaminants, propylene glycol and rose acetate, were discharged from STPs and travelled far from the source. Attenuation of mass fluxes was highest in the summer and autumn seasons, suggesting the importance of biological degradation and photodegradation for the persistence of the studied compounds.

  • 49. Blum, Kristin M.
    et al.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Gros, Meritxell
    Wiberg, Karin
    Haglund, Peter
    Non-target screening and prioritization of potentially persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic domestic wastewater contaminants and their removal in on-site and large-scale sewage treatment plants2017Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 575, s. 265-275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs), which are used to reduce nutrient emissions in rural areas, were screened for anthropogenic compounds with two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS). The detected compounds were prioritized based on their persistence, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity, removal efficiency, and concentrations. This comprehensive prioritization strategy, which was used for the first time on OSSF samples, ranked galaxolide, a-tocopheryl acetate, octocrylene, 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol, several chlorinated organophosphorus flame retardants and linear alkyl benzenes as the most relevant compounds being emitted from OSSFs. Twenty-six target analytes were then selected for further removal efficiency analysis, including compounds from the priority list along with substances from the same chemical classes, and a few reference compounds. We found significantly better removal of two polar contaminants 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (p = 0.0003) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (p = 0.005) in soil beds, a common type of OSSF in Sweden, compared with conventional sewage treatment plants. We also report median removal efficiencies in OSSFs for compounds not studied in this context before, viz. a-tocopheryl acetate (96%), benzophenone (83%), 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole (64%), 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (33%), and a range of organophosphorus flame retardants (19% to 98%). The environmental load of the top prioritized compounds in soil bed effluents were in the thousands of nanogram per liter range, viz. 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (3000 ng L-1), galaxolide (1400 ng L-1), octocrylene (1200 ng L-1), and alpha-tocopheryl acetate (660 ng L-1).

  • 50.
    Blum, Kristin M.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Renman, Gunno
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Gros, Meritxell
    Wiberg, Karin
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Non-target screening and prioritization of potentially persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic domestic wastewater contaminants and their removal in on-site and large-scale sewage treatment plants2017Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 575, s. 265-275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs), which are used to reduce nutrient emissions in rural areas, were screened for anthropogenic compounds with two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC × GC–MS). The detected compounds were prioritized based on their persistence, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity, removal efficiency, and concentrations. This comprehensive prioritization strategy, which was used for the first time on OSSF samples, ranked galaxolide, α-tocopheryl acetate, octocrylene, 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol, several chlorinated organophosphorus flame retardants and linear alkyl benzenes as the most relevant compounds being emitted from OSSFs. Twenty-six target analytes were then selected for further removal efficiency analysis, including compounds from the priority list along with substances from the same chemical classes, and a few reference compounds. We found significantly better removal of two polar contaminants 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (p = 0.0003) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (p = 0.005) in soil beds, a common type of OSSF in Sweden, compared with conventional sewage treatment plants. We also report median removal efficiencies in OSSFs for compounds not studied in this context before, viz. α-tocopheryl acetate (96%), benzophenone (83%), 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole (64%), 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (33%), and a range of organophosphorus flame retardants (19% to 98%). The environmental load of the top prioritized compounds in soil bed effluents were in the thousands of nanogram per liter range, viz. 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (3000 ng L− 1), galaxolide (1400 ng L− 1), octocrylene (1200 ng L− 1), and α-tocopheryl acetate (660 ng L− 1).

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