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  • 1. Adrian, Brent
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Grossman, Aryeh
    New Miocene Carnivora (Mammalia) from Moruorot and Kalodirr, Kenya2018In: Palaeontologia Electronica, ISSN 1935-3952, E-ISSN 1094-8074, Vol. 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     We describe new carnivoran fossils from Kalodirr and Moruorot, two late Early

    Miocene sites in the Lothidok Formation of West Turkana, Kenya. The fossils include a

    new species of viverrid, Kichechia savagei  sp. nov., a new genus and species of felid,

    Katifelis nightingalei  gen. et sp. nov., and an unidentified musteloid. We also report

    new records of the amphicyonid Cynelos macrodon. These new fossils increase the

    known diversity of African Early Miocene carnivorans and highlight regional differences

    in Africa.

  • 2.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Collins, Desmond
    Chancelloriids of the Cambrian Burgess Shale2015In: Palaeontologia Electronica, ISSN 1935-3952, E-ISSN 1094-8074, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cactus-like chancelloriids from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale are revised on the basis of Walcott’s (1920) original collections and new material containing several hundred specimens collected by Royal Ontario Museum field expeditions from 1975 to 2000. Walcott’s interpretation of chancelloriids as sponges was based on a misinterpretation of the dermal coelosclerites as embedded sponge-type spicules, an interpretation that further led to the lumping of three distinct taxa into one species, Chancelloria eros Walcott, 1920. The other two taxa are herein separated from C. eros and described as Allonnia tintinopsis n.sp. and Archiasterella coriacea n.sp., all belonging to the Family Chancelloriidae Walcott, 1920. Chancelloriids were sedentary animals, anchored to shells or lumps of debris in the muddy bottom, or to sponges, or to other chancelloriids. They had a radially symmetrical body and an apical orifice surrounded by a palisade of modified sclerites. Well-preserved integuments in Al. tintinopsis and Ar. coriacea do not show any ostium-like openings. Neither is there any evidence for internal organs, such as a gut. Partly narrowed specimens suggest that the body periodically contracted from the attached end to expel waste material from the body cavity. Chancelloriids were close in organization to cnidarians but shared the character of coelosclerites with the bilaterian halkieriids and siphogonuchitids. The taxon Coeloscleritophora is most likely paraphyletic.

  • 3.
    Chris, Mays
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology. Monash University.
    Bevitt, Joseph
    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Research Office, Lucas Heights, Australia.
    Stilwell, Jeffrey
    School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
    Pushing the limits of neutron tomography in palaeontology: Three-dimensional modelling of in situ resin within fossil plants2017In: Palaeontologia Electronica, ISSN 1935-3952, E-ISSN 1094-8074, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 1-12, article id 20.3.57AArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computed tomography is an increasingly popular technique for the non-destructivestudy of fossils. Whilst the science of X-ray computed tomography (CT) has greatlymatured since its first fossil applications in the early 1980s, the applications and limitationsof neutron tomography (NT) remain relatively unexplored in palaeontology. Thesehighest resolution neutron tomographic scans in palaeontology to date were conductedon a specimen of Austrosequoia novae-zeelandiae (Ettingshausen) Mays and Cantrillrecovered from mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian; ~100–94 Ma) strata of the ChathamIslands, eastern Zealandia. Previously, the species has been identified with in situ fossilresin (amber); the new neutron tomographic analyses demonstrated an anomalouslyhigh neutron attenuation signal for fossil resin. The resulting data provided astrong contrast between, and distinct three-dimensional representations of the: 1) fossilresin; 2) coalified plant matter; and 3) sedimentary matrix. These data facilitated ananatomical model of endogenous resin bodies within the cone axis and bract-scalecomplexes. The types and distributions of resin bodies support a close alliance withSequoia Endlicher (Cupressaceae), a group of conifers whose extant members areonly found in the Northern Hemisphere. This study demonstrates the feasibility of NTas a means to differentiate chemically distinct organic compounds within fossils.Herein, we make specific recommendations regarding: 1) the suitability of fossil preservationstyles for NT; 2) the conservation of organic specimens with hydrogenous consolidantsand adhesives; and 3) the application of emerging methods (e.g., neutronphase contrast) for further improvements when imaging fine-detailed anatomical structures.These findings demonstrate that we are still far from reaching the conceptuallimits of NT as a means of virtually extracting fossils, or imaging their internal anatomyeven when embedded within a rock matrix.

  • 4. JADWISZCZAK, Piotr
    et al.
    Mörs, Thomas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    First partial skeleton of Delphinornis larseni Wiman, 1905, a slender-footed penguin from the Eocene of Antarctic Peninsula2019In: Palaeontologia Electronica, ISSN 1935-3952, E-ISSN 1094-8074Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Jerve, Anna
    et al.
    Imperial Coll London, Biol Dept, Silwood Pk Campus,Buckhurst Rd, Ascot SL5 7PY, Berks, England.
    Bremer, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sanchez, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, 71 Ave Martyrs, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Morphology and histology of acanthodian fin spines from the late Silurian Ramsåsa E locality, Skåne, Sweden2017In: Palaeontologia Electronica, ISSN 1935-3952, E-ISSN 1094-8074, Vol. 20, no 3, article id 56AArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparisons of acanthodians to extant gnathostomes are often hampered by the paucity of mineralized structures in their endoskeleton, which limits the potential preservation of phylogenetically informative traits. Fin spines, mineralized dermal structures that sit anterior to fins, are found on both stem-and crown-group gnathostomes, and represent an additional potential source of comparative data for studying acanthodian relationships with the other groups of early gnathostomes. An assemblage of isolated acanthodian fin spines from the late Silurian Ramsasa site E locality (southern Sweden) has been reconstructed in 3D using propagation phase contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography (PPC-SR mu CT). The aim is to provide morphological and taxo-nomical affinities for the spines by combining morphology and histology with the taxo-nomical framework previously established for the site mainly based on isolated scales. The high-resolution scans also enable investigations of the composition and growth of acanthodian fin spines when compared to similar studies of extinct and extant gnathostomes. In total, seven fin spine morphotypes that have affinities to both Climatiidae Berg 1940 and Ischnacanthiformes Berg 1940 are described. The majority are interpreted as median fin spines, but three possible paired spines are also identified. The spines display differences in their compositions, but generally agree with that presented for climatiids and ischnacanthiforms in previous studies. Their inferred growth modes appear to be more similar to those of fossil and extant chondrichthyan fin spines than to those described from placoderms and stem-osteichthyans, which is congruent with the emerging view of acanthodians as stem-chondrichthyans.

  • 6.
    Mays, Chris
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Bevitt, Joseph
    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Research Office, B3, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234, Australia.
    Stilwell, Jeffrey
    School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University, 9 Rainforest Walk, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.
    Pushing the limits of neutron tomography in palaeontology: Three-dimensional modelling of in situ resin within fossil plants2017In: Palaeontologia Electronica, ISSN 1935-3952, E-ISSN 1094-8074, Vol. 20, no 3.57A, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computed tomography is an increasingly popular technique for the non-destructive

    study of fossils. Whilst the science of X-ray computed tomography (CT) has greatly

    matured since its first fossil applications in the early 1980s, the applications and limitations

    of neutron tomography (NT) remain relatively unexplored in palaeontology. These

    highest resolution neutron tomographic scans in palaeontology to date were conducted

    on a specimen of Austrosequoia novae-zeelandiae (Ettingshausen) Mays and Cantrill

    recovered from mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian; ~100–94 Ma) strata of the Chatham

    Islands, eastern Zealandia. Previously, the species has been identified with in situ fossil

    resin (amber); the new neutron tomographic analyses demonstrated an anomalously

    high neutron attenuation signal for fossil resin. The resulting data provided a

    strong contrast between, and distinct three-dimensional representations of the: 1) fossil

    resin; 2) coalified plant matter; and 3) sedimentary matrix. These data facilitated an

    anatomical model of endogenous resin bodies within the cone axis and bract-scale

    complexes. The types and distributions of resin bodies support a close alliance with

    Sequoia Endlicher (Cupressaceae), a group of conifers whose extant members are

    only found in the Northern Hemisphere. This study demonstrates the feasibility of NT

    as a means to differentiate chemically distinct organic compounds within fossils.

    Herein, we make specific recommendations regarding: 1) the suitability of fossil preservation

    styles for NT; 2) the conservation of organic specimens with hydrogenous consolidants

    and adhesives; and 3) the application of emerging methods (e.g., neutron

    phase contrast) for further improvements when imaging fine-detailed anatomical structures.

    These findings demonstrate that we are still far from reaching the conceptual

    limits of NT as a means of virtually extracting fossils, or imaging their internal anatomy

    even when embedded within a rock matrix.

  • 7. McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Bomfleur, Benjamin
    Mörs, Thomas
    Reguero, Marcelo
    Fossil clitellate annelid cocoons and their microbiological inclusions from the Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica2016In: Palaeontologia Electronica, ISSN 1935-3952, E-ISSN 1094-8074, Vol. 19, no 1.11A, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clitellate annelids have a meagre body fossil record but they secrete proteinaceous cocoons for the protection of eggs that, after hardening, are readily fossilized and offer a largely untapped resource for assessing the evolutionary history of this group. We describe three species of clitellate cocoons (viz., Burejospermum seymourense sp. nov., B. punctatum sp. nov. and Pegmatothylakos manumii gen. et sp. nov.) from the lower Eocene La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctica. The cocoons probably derive from continental settings and were transported to, and preserved within, nearshore marine to estuarine environments. The cocoons provide the first evidence of commensal or parasitic relationships in the Eocene continental ecosystems of Antarctica. Moreover, numerous micro-organisms and the oldest fossilized examples of animal spermatozoa are preserved as moulds within the consolidated walls of the cocoons. Fossil annelid cocoons offer potential for enhanced palaeoenvironmental interpretation of sediments, correlation between continental and shallowmarine strata, and improved understanding of the development of clitellate annelid reproductive traits and the evolutionary history of soft-bodied micro-organisms in general.

  • 8.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Bomfleur, Benjamin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Mörs, Thomas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Reguero, Marcelo
    División Paleontología de Vertebrados, Museo de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, B1900FWA La Plata, Argentina.
    Fossil clitellate annelid cocoons and their microbiological inclusions from the Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica2016In: Palaeontologia Electronica, ISSN 1935-3952, E-ISSN 1094-8074, Vol. 19, no 1.11A, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clitellate annelids have a meagre body fossil record but they secrete proteinaceous

    cocoons for the protection of eggs that, after hardening, are readily fossilized

    and offer a largely untapped resource for assessing the evolutionary history of this

    group. We describe three species of clitellate cocoons (viz., Burejospermum seymourense

    sp. nov., B. punctatum sp. nov. and Pegmatothylakos manumii gen. et sp. nov.)

    from the lower Eocene La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctica. The

    cocoons probably derive from continental settings and were transported to, and preserved

    within, nearshore marine to estuarine environments. The cocoons provide the

    first evidence of commensal or parasitic relationships in the Eocene continental ecosystems

    of Antarctica. Moreover, numerous micro-organisms and the oldest fossilized

    examples of animal spermatozoa are preserved as moulds within the consolidated

    walls of the cocoons. Fossil annelid cocoons offer potential for enhanced palaeoenvironmental

    interpretation of sediments, correlation between continental and shallowmarine

    strata, and improved understanding of the development of clitellate annelid

    reproductive traits and the evolutionary history of soft-bodied micro-organisms in general.

  • 9.
    Skovsted, Christian
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Knight, Ian
    Balthasar, Uwe
    Boyce, W. Douglas
    Depth related brachiopod faunas from the lower Cambrian Forteau Formation of southern Labrador and western Newfoundland, Canada2017In: Palaeontologia Electronica, ISSN 1935-3952, E-ISSN 1094-8074, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 1-52, article id 54AArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diverse fauna of organophosphatic brachiopods is described from the late early Cambrian (Series 2, Stage 3-4) Forteau Formation of southern Labrador and western Newfoundland. The total fauna includes 11 species representing a wide selection of Cambrian brachiopod groups. Three distinct assemblages are recognized: Assemblages1 and 2 are found in shallow water carbonates in association with archaeocyathans in southern Labrador and the western side of the Great Northern Peninsula of western Newfoundland. Assemblage 3 is found in a distal shelf setting of Gros Morne National Park. Assemblages 1 and 2 are found in stratigraphic continuity and definetwo brachiopod biozones, a lower Hadrotreta taconica zone and a higher Paterina zone, respectively. The presence of H. taconica in brachiopod Assemblage 3 possibly indicates time equivalence of Assemblage 1 but in a deep water setting. The identification of distinct time equivalent brachiopod Assemblages (1 and 3) in shallow and deep water environments of the Forteau Formation allow for the first time an analysis of environmental constraints determining the distribution of individual brachiopod taxa in the lower Cambrian succession of eastern Laurentia. Comparison to faunas from other areas indicates that the identified distributional patterns can be extended to other brachiopod faunas found along the Cambrian palaeocoast/margin of eastern Laurentia. The study indicates that specific brachiopod taxa can be used as indicators of palaeodepth; Botsfordia caelata in shallow environments and Eoobolus priscus and Eothele tubulus in deeper water. The following new taxa are described: Kyrshabaktella diabolan. sp., Pustulobolus triangulus n. gen et n. sp., Acrothyra bonnia n. sp.

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