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  • 1.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andersson, Elin
    Vectura Consulting AB.
    Mueller, Seth
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Neutralization/prevention of acid rock drainage using mixtures of alkaline by-products and sulfidic mine wastes2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 7907-7916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Backfilling of open pit with sulfidic waste rock followed by inundation is a common method for reducing sulfide oxidation after mine closure. This approach can be complemented by mixing the waste rock with alkaline materials from pulp and steel mills to increase the system’s neutralization potential. Leachates from 1 m3 tanks containing sulfide-rich (ca.30 wt %) waste rock formed under dry and water saturated conditions under laboratory conditions were characterized and compared to those formed from mixtures. The waste rock leachate produced an acidic leachate (pH < 2) with high concentrations of As (65 mg/L), Cu (6 mg/L), and Zn (150 mg/L) after 258 days. The leachate from water-saturated waste rock had lower concentrations of As and Cu (<2 μg/L), Pb and Zn (20 μg/L and 5 mg/L), respectively, and its pH was around 6. Crushed (<6 mm) waste rock mixed with different fractions (1–5 wt %) of green liquid dregs, fly ash, mesa lime, and argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) slag was leached on a small scale for 65 day, and showed near-neutral pH values, except for mixtures of waste rock with AOD slag and fly ash (5 % w/w) which were more basic (pH > 9). The decrease of elemental concentration in the leachate was most pronounced for Pb and Zn, while Al and S were relatively high. Overall, the results obtained were promising and suggest that alkaline by-products could be useful additives for minimizing ARD formation

  • 2.
    Allard, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping Universitet.
    Takman, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping Universitet.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping Universitet.
    The N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve: an empirical evaluation using a panel quantile regression approach2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) using panel quantile regression analysis. We investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions and GDP per capita for 74 countries over the period of 1994–2012. We include additional explanatory variables, such as renewable energy consumption, technological development, trade, and institutional quality. We find evidence for the N-shaped EKC in all income groups, except for the upper-middle-income countries. Heterogeneous characteristics are, however, observed over the N-shaped EKC. Finally, we find a negative relationship between renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions, which highlights the importance of promoting greener energy in order to combat global warming.

  • 3.
    Allard, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Takman, Johanna
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst, Sweden.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve: an empirical evaluation using a panel quantile regression approach2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 5848-5861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) using panel quantile regression analysis. We investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions and GDP per capita for 74 countries over the period of 1994-2012. We include additional explanatory variables, such as renewable energy consumption, technological development, trade, and institutional quality. We find evidence for the N-shaped EKC in all income groups, except for the upper-middle-income countries. Heterogeneous characteristics are, however, observed over the N-shaped EKC. Finally, we find a negative relationship between renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions, which highlights the importance of promoting greener energy in order to combat global warming.

  • 4.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Grawunder, Anja
    Institute of Geoscience, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany .
    Neutralisation of an acidic pit lake by alkaline waste products2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 6930-6938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A former open pit where black shale (alum shale) was excavated during 1942-1965 has been water filled since 1966. The water chemistry was dominated by calcium and sulphate and had a pH of 3.2-3.4 until 1997-1998, when pH was gradually increasing. This was due to the intrusion of leachates from alkaline cement waste deposited close to the lake. A stable pH of around 7.5 was obtained after 6-7 years. The chemistry of the pit lake has changed due to the neutralisation. Concentrations of some dissolved metals, notably zinc and nickel, have gone down, as a result of adsorption/co-precipitation on solid phases (most likely iron and aluminium hydroxides), while other metals, notably uranium and molybdenum, are present at elevated levels. Uranium concentration is reaching a minimum of around pH 6.5 and is increasing at higher pH, which may indicate a formation of neutral and anionic uranyl carbonate species at high pH (and total carbonate levels around 1 mM). Weathering of the water-exposed shale is still in progress.

  • 5. Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Conjoint analysis: a useful tool for assessing preferences for environmental issues.2008In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 119-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Conjoint analysis for environmental evaluation: a review of methods and applications.2008In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 244-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM AND SCOPE: Conjoint analysis and the related choice-modelling methods have been used for many years in marketing research to evaluate consumer behaviour and preferences for different kinds of product attributes. Recently, the number of applications in environmental science and management has started to grow. Conjoint analysis is found in many different forms, and the environmental studies evaluated in this review display the same range of methods as in other fields. The key characteristic of all these methods is that trade-offs are evaluated by jointly considering a number of important attributes. MAIN FEATURES: This paper is a review of the literature on environmental applications of conjoint analysis and assesses in which environmental area conjoint analysis has been most successful. The method and the design of the studies are reviewed as well. RESULTS: A total of 84 studies were found, dealing with environmental issues that were evaluated by conjoint analysis. The studies concern agriculture, ecosystem management, energy, environmental evaluation, forestry, land management, pollution, products, recreation, environmental risk analysis and waste management. DISCUSSION: Choice experiments seem to have a comparatively stronger position in environmental studies than elsewhere. Most of the environmental applications are related to natural resource management. This is somewhat surprising, but a number of reports have appeared also on product evaluation, which could be a key application area in the future. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to marketing and transportation, the number of environmental conjoint studies is rather small but increasing, and the method has proven to work effectively in eliciting preferences on environmental issues. In environmental issues, experimenters often use choice experiments, especially concerning ecosystem management and environmental evaluations. When it comes to evaluating preferences concerning agriculture, forestry, energy and products, a more traditional approach of conjoint analysis is favoured. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Two new areas of application are identified in this review--environmental communication and expert elicitation. Conjoint analysis can thus be developed into a useful instrument for environmental risk analysis and communication, both of which are necessary for an efficient approach to risk governance.

  • 7.
    Amid, C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Olstedt, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Le Lan, H.
    Tran Thi Minh, H.
    Van den Brink, P. J.
    Hellström, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Additive effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature on the branched coral Acropora formosa in Nha Trang, Vietnam2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 14, p. 13360-13372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combined effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature were studied on the tropical staghorn coral Acropora formosa, in Nha Trang bay, Vietnam. The corals were collected from two different reefs, one close to a polluted fish farm and one in a marine-protected area (MPA). In the laboratory, branches of the corals were exposed to the herbicide glyphosate at ambient (28 degrees C) and at 3 degrees C elevated water temperatures (31 degrees C). Effects of herbicide and elevated temperature were studied on coral bleaching using photography and digital image analysis (new colorimetric method developed here based on grayscale), chlorophyll a analysis, and symbiotic dinoflagellate (Symbiodinium, referred to as zooxanthellae) counts. All corals from the MPA started to bleach in the laboratory before they were exposed to the treatments, indicating that they were very sensitive, as opposed to the corals collected from the more polluted site, which were more tolerant and showed no bleaching response to temperature increase or herbicide alone. However, the combined exposure to the stressors resulted in significant loss of color, proportional to loss in chlorophyll a and zooxanthellae. The difference in sensitivity of the corals collected from the polluted site versus the MPA site could be explained by different symbiont types: the resilient type C3u and the stress-sensitive types C21 and C23, respectively. The additive effect of elevated temperatures and herbicides adds further weight to the notion that the bleaching of coral reefs is accelerated in the presence of multiple stressors. These results suggest that the corals in Nha Trang bay have adapted to the ongoing pollution to become more tolerant to anthropogenic stressors, and that multiple stressors hamper this resilience. The loss of color and decrease of chlorophyll a suggest that bleaching is related to concentration of chloro-pigments. The colorimetric method could be further fine-tuned and used as a precise, non-intrusive tool for monitoring coral bleaching in situ.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ashiq, Muhammad Jamshaid
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Shoeb, Mohammad
    Department of Chemistry, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Karlsson, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Research Unit: Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Evaluating gas chromatography with a halogen-specific detectorfor the determination of disinfection by-products in drinking water2019In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, p. 7305-7314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has become an issue of concern during the past decades. The DBPs pose health risks and are suspected to cause various cancer forms, be genotoxic and have negative developmental effects. The vast chemical diversity of DBPs makes comprehensive monitoring challenging. Only few of the DBPs are regulated and included in analytical protocols. In this study, a method for simultaneous measurement of 20 DBPs from five different structural classes (both regulated and non-regulated) was investigated and further developed for 11 DBPs using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled with a halogen specific detector (XSD). The XSD was highly selective towards halogenated DBPs, providing chromatograms with little noise. The method allowed detection down to 0.05 µg/L and showed promising results for the simultaneous determination of a range of neutral DBP classes. Compounds from two classes of emerging DBPs, more cytotoxic than the “traditional” regulated DBPs, were successfully determined using this method. However, haloacetic acids (HAAs) should be analyzed separately as some HAA methyl esters may degrade giving false positives of trihalomethanes (THMs). The method was tested on real water samples from two municipal waterworks where the target DBP concentrations were found below the regulatory limits of Sweden.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Erika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    SAKAB.
    Berggren, Anna
    Analycen AB.
    Ivarsson, Per
    Analycen AB.
    Hollert, Henner
    RWTH Aachen university.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    AhR agonist and genotoxicant bioavailability in a PAH-contaminated soil undergoing biological treatment2009In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 521-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation of the 16 US EPA priority PAHs in soil subjected to bioremediation is often achieved. However, the PAH loss is not always followed by a reduction in soil toxicity. For instance, bioanalytical testing of such soil using the chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) assay, measuring the combined effect of all Ah receptor (AhR) activating compounds, occasionally indicates that the loss of PAHs does not correlate with the loss of Ah receptor-active compounds in the soil. In addition, standard PAH analysis does not address the issue of total toxicant bioavailability in bioremediated soil.

    To address these questions, we have used the CALUX AhR agonist bioassay and the Comet genotoxicity bioassay with RTL-W1 cells to evaluate the toxic potential of different extracts from a PAH-contaminated soil undergoing large-scale bioremediation. The extracts were also chemically analyzed for PAH16 and PCDD/PCDF. Soil sampled on five occasions between day 0 and day 274 of biological treatment was shaken with n-butanol with vortex mixing at room temperature to determine the bioavailable fraction of contaminants. To establish total concentrations, parts of the same samples were extracted using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) with toluene at 100A degrees C. The extracts were tested as inducers of AhR-dependent luciferase activity in the CALUX assay and for DNA breakage potential in the Comet bioassay.

    The chemical analysis of the toluene extracts indicated slow degradation rates and the CALUX assay indicated high levels of AhR agonists in the same extracts. Compared to day 0, the bioavailable fractions showed no decrease in AhR agonist activity during the treatment but rather an up-going trend, which was supported by increasing levels of PAHs and an increased effect in the Comet bioassay after 274 days. The bio-TEQs calculated using the CALUX assay were higher than the TEQs calculated from chemical analysis in both extracts, indicating that there are additional toxic PAHs in both extracts that are not included in the chemically derived TEQ.

    The response in the CALUX and the Comet bioassays as well as the chemical analysis indicate that the soil might be more toxic to organisms living in soil after 274 days of treatment than in the untreated soil, due to the release of previously sorbed PAHs and possibly also metabolic formation of novel toxicants.

    Our results put focus on the issue of slow degradation rates and bioavailability of PAHs during large-scale bioremediation treatments. The release of sorbed PAHs at the investigated PAH-contaminated site seemed to be faster than the degradation rate, which demonstrates the importance of considering the bioavailable fraction of contaminants during a bioremediation process.

    It has to be ensured that soft remediation methods like biodegradation or the natural remediation approach do not result in the mobilization of toxic compounds including more mobile degradation products. For PAH-contaminated sites this cannot be assured merely by monitoring the 16 target PAHs. The combined use of a battery of biotests for different types of PAH effects such as the CALUX and the Comet assay together with bioavailability extraction methods may be a useful screening tool of bioremediation processes of PAH-contaminated soil and contribute to a more accurate risk assessment. If the bioremediation causes a release of bound PAHs that are left undegraded in an easily extracted fraction, the soil may be more toxic to organisms living in the soil as a result of the treatment. A prolonged treatment time may be one way to reduce the risk of remaining mobile PAHs. In critical cases, the remediation concept might have to be changed to ex situ remediation methods.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Tysklind, Mats
    The internal barriers of rotation for the 209 polychlorinated biphenyls1997In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 75-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The internal barrier of rotation (Erot) was calculated for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by using a semi-empirical method, viz. the Austin Model 1 (AM1) Hamiltonian. The difference in total energy between a forced planar state and an optimised twisted structure was defined as Erot. The Erot values were in the range of 8.33 to 483 kJ/mol, and were significantly influenced by the number of chlorine atoms in ortho position. An additional structural characteristic of the PCBs influencing Erot of ortho substituted congeners was substitution by chlorine atoms in vicinal meta positions, which is assumed to prevent outward bending of ortho substituents. This so-called buttressing effect contributed with 4 to 31 kJ/mol per added chlorine atom. In conclusion, the internal barrier of rotation, calculated for all 209 PCBs, provides an important structure dependent physico-chemical parameter for multivariate modelling of future quantitative structure-activity and structure-property relationships (QSARs/QSPRs).

  • 11. Arias-Andrés, M.
    et al.
    Rämö, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Torres, F. Mena
    Ugalde, R.
    Grandas, L.
    Ruepert, C.
    Castillo, L. E.
    Van den Brink, P. J.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lower tier toxicity risk assessment of agriculture pesticides detected on the Rio Madre de Dios watershed, Costa Rica2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 14, p. 13312-13321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Costa Rica is a tropical country with one of the highest biodiversity on Earth. It also has an intensive agriculture, and pesticide runoff from banana and pineapple plantations may cause a high toxicity risk to non-target species in rivers downstream the plantations. We performed a first tier risk assessment of the maximum measured concentrations of 32 pesticides detected over 4 years in the River Madre de Dios (RMD) and its coastal lagoon on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were plotted in order to derive HC5 values for each pesticide, i.e., hazard concentrations for 5 % of the species, often used as environmental criteria values in other countries. We also carried out toxicity tests for selected pesticides with native Costa Rican species in order to calculate risk coefficients according to national guidelines in Costa Rica. The concentrations of herbicides diuron and ametryn and insecticides carbofuran, diazinon, and ethoprophos exceeded either the HC5 value or the lower limit of its 90 % confidence interval suggesting toxic risks above accepted levels. Risk coefficients of diuron and carbofuran derived using local guidelines indicate toxicity risks as well. The assessed fungicides did not present acute toxic risks according to our analysis. Overall, these results show a possible toxicity of detected pesticides to aquatic organisms and provide a comparison of Costa Rican national guidelines with more refined methods for risk assessment based on SSDs. Further higher tier risk assessments of pesticides in this watershed are also necessary in order to consider pesticide water concentrations over time, toxicity from pesticide mixtures, and eventual effects on ecosystem functions.

  • 12.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Thorsén, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Benzothiazole, benzotriazole, and their derivates in clothing textiles - a potential source of environmental pollutants and human exposure2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 5842-5849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textiles play an important role in our daily life, and textile production is one of the oldest industries. In the manufacturing chain from natural and/or synthetic fibers to the final clothing products, the use of many different chemicals is ubiquitous. A lot of research has focused on chemicals in textile wastewater, but the knowledge of the actual content of harmful chemicals in clothes sold on the retail market is limited. In this paper, we have focused on eight benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivatives, compounds rated as high production volume chemicals. Twenty-six clothing samples of various textile materials and colors manufactured in 14 different countries were analyzed in textile clothing using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the investigated textile products, 11 clothes were for babies, toddlers, and children. Eight of the 11 compounds included in the investigation were detected in the textiles. Benzothiazole was present in 23 of 26 investigated garments in concentrations ranging from 0.45 to 51 μg/g textile. The garment with the highest concentration of benzothiazole contained a total amount of 8.3 mg of the chemical. The third highest concentration of benzothiazole (22 μg/g) was detected in a baby body made from “organic cotton” equipped with the “Nordic Ecolabel” (“Svanenmärkt”). It was also found that concentrations of benzothiazoles in general were much higher than those for benzotriazoles. This study implicates that clothing textiles can be a possible route for human exposure to harmful chemicals by skin contact, as well as being a potential source of environmental pollutants via laundering and release to household wastewater.

  • 13.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Sadiktsis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergvall, Christoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Tire tread wear particles in ambient air—a previously unknown source of human exposure to the biocide 2-mercaptobenzothiazole2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 19, p. 11580-11586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban particulate matter (PM), asphalt, and tire samples were investigated for their content of benzothiazole and benzothiazole derivates. The purpose of this study was to examine whether wear particles, i.e., tire tread wear or road surface wear, could contribute to atmospheric concentrations of benzothiazole derivatives. Airborne particulate matter (PM10) sampled at a busy street in Stockholm, Sweden, contained on average 17 pg/m3 benzothiazole and 64 pg/m3 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, and the total suspended particulate-associated benzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole concentrations were 199 and 591 pg/m3, respectively. This indicates that tire tread wear may be a major source of these benzothiazoles to urban air PM in Stockholm. Furthermore, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was determined in urban air particulates for the first time in this study, and its presence in inhalable PM10 implies that the human exposure to this biocide is underestimated. This calls for a revision of the risk assessments of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole exposure to humans which currently is limited to occupational exposure.

  • 14.
    Babakhani, Peyman
    et al.
    Islamic Azad University, Tehran Science and Research Branch, Department of Hydrology Engineering, Tehran, Iran.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Colorado School of Mines, Center for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes, Golden, CO, USA.
    Shamsai, Abolfazl
    Islamic Azad University, Tehran Science and Research Branch, Department of Hydrology Engineering, Tehran, Iran; Sharif University of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Tehran, Iran.
    Lowry, Gregory Victor
    Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEINT), Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Phenrat, Tanapon
    Naresuan University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Research Unit for Integrated Natural Resources Remediation and Reclamation (IN3R), Phitsanulok, Thailand; Naresuan University, Faculty of Engineering, Center of Excellence for Sustainability of Health, Environment and Industry (SHE&I), Phitsanulok, Thailand.
    Modified MODFLOW-based model for simulating the agglomeration and transport of polymer-modified Fe0 nanoparticles in saturated porous media2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 7180-7199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solute transport model MODFLOW has become a standard tool in risk assessment and remediation design. However, particle transport models that take into account both particle agglomeration and deposition phenomena are far less developed. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of adapting the standard code MODFLOW/MT3D to simulate the agglomeration and transport of three different types of polymer-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) in one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) saturated porous media. A first-order decay of the particle population was used to account for the agglomeration of particles. An iterative technique was used to optimize the model parameters. The model provided good matches to 1-D NZVI-breakthrough data sets, with R 2 values ranging from 0.96 to 0.99, and mass recovery differences between the experimental results and simulations ranged from 0.1 to 1.8 %. Similarly, simulations of NZVI transport in the heterogeneous 2-D model demonstrated that the model can be applied to more complicated heterogeneous domains. However, the fits were less good, with the R 2 values in the 2-D modeling cases ranging from 0.75 to 0.95, while the mass recovery differences ranged from 0.7 to 6.5 %. Nevertheless, the predicted NZVI concentration contours during transport were in good agreement with the 2-D experimental observations. The model provides insights into NZVI transport in porous media by mathematically decoupling agglomeration, attachment, and detachment, and it illustrates the importance of each phenomenon in various situations.

  • 15. Benelli, Giovanni
    et al.
    Maggi, Filippo
    Pavela, Roman
    Murugan, Kadarkarai
    Govindarajan, Marimuthu
    Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam
    Petrelli, Riccardo
    Cappellacci, Loredana
    Kumar, Suresh
    Hofer, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza
    Alarfaj, Abdullah A.
    Hwang, Jiang-Shiou
    Higuchi, Akon
    Mosquito control with green nanopesticides: towards the One Health approach? A review of non-target effects2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 11, p. 10184-10206Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid spread of highly aggressive arboviruses, parasites, and bacteria along with the development of resistance in the pathogens and parasites, as well as in their arthropod vectors, represents a huge challenge in modern parasitology and tropical medicine. Eco-friendly vector control programs are crucial to fight, besides malaria, the spread of dengue, West Nile, chikungunya, and Zika virus, as well as other arboviruses such as St. Louis encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. However, research efforts on the control of mosquito vectors are experiencing a serious lack of eco-friendly and highly effective pesticides, as well as the limited success of most biocontrol tools currently applied. Most importantly, a cooperative interface between the two disciplines is still lacking. To face this challenge, we have reviewed a wide number of promising results in the field of green-fabricated pesticides tested against mosquito vectors, outlining several examples of synergy with classic biological control tools. The non-target effects of green-fabricated nanopesticides, including acute toxicity, genotoxicity, and impact on behavioral traits of mosquito predators, have been critically discussed. In the final section, we have identified several key challenges at the interface between "green" nanotechnology and classic biological control, which deserve further research attention.

  • 16.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Dept Sanit & Environm Engn, UERJ, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Paraskeva, Christakis A.
    Papadakis, Vagelis G.
    Sillanpaa, Mika
    Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control-a review2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 268-298Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5 % of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78 % between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  • 17.
    Bighiu, Maria Alexandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eriksson-Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Biofouling of leisure boats as a source of metal pollution2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 997-1006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of harmful metals from antifouling paints to water bodies is a well-known problem. In this study, we measured both the amount of biofouling growth on leisure boats during one season as well as the concentration of metals accumulated by the biofouling matrix. Furthermore, the efficiency of antifouling paints and mechanical boat cleaning as well as the effect of hull colour on biofouling were evaluated. Unlike paint residues, biofouling waste has never been regarded as a source of metal contamination and has previously been neglected in the scientific literature. Our results revealed that the biofouling waste contained very high concentrations of metals, up to 28,000 mg copper/kg dw and 171,000 mg zinc/kg dw, which exceeds the guidance values for least sensitive land use in Sweden by factors of 140 and 340, respectively. This observation is important because the contaminated biofouling waste is commonly disposed of in boatyard soils at the end of each season, thus increasing the levels of metal pollution. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the amount of biofouling if the boats were coated with copper or zinc containing paints or no paint at all, indicating that biocide paints might not be necessary in low-salinity areas such as the Stockholm archipelago. For boats that were not painted at all during the season, those washed on boat washers (mechanically) had on average half of the amount of biofouling compared to boats that were not cleaned mechanically. The results of the study indicate the importance of proper management of biofouling waste as well as the use of more environmentally friendly removal methods for biofouling such as boat washers.

  • 18.
    Bravo, Andrea G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Loizeau, Jean-Luc
    Univ Geneva, Inst FA Forel, Earth & Environm Sci, 10 Route Suisse, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Dranguet, Perrine
    Univ Geneva, Inst FA Forel, Earth & Environm Sci, 10 Route Suisse, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Makri, Stamatina
    Univ Geneva, Inst FA Forel, Earth & Environm Sci, 10 Route Suisse, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Bjorn, Erik
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Ungureanu, Viorel Gh.
    Univ Bucharest, Fac Geol & Geophys, Bucharest, Romania.;GeoEcoMar, Natl Res & Dev Inst Marine Geol & Geoecol, Bucharest, Romania..
    Slaveykova, Vera I.
    Univ Geneva, Inst FA Forel, Earth & Environm Sci, 10 Route Suisse, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Cosio, Claudia
    Univ Geneva, Inst FA Forel, Earth & Environm Sci, 10 Route Suisse, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Persistent Hg contamination and occurrence of Hg-methylating transcript (hgcA) downstream of a chlor-alkali plant in the Olt River (Romania)2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 10529-10541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlor-alkali plants using mercury (Hg) cell technology are acute point sources of Hg pollution in the aquatic environment. While there have been recent efforts to reduce the use of Hg cells, some of the emitted Hg can be transformed to neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg). Here, we aimed (i) to study the dispersion of Hg in four reservoirs located downstream of a chlor-alkali plant along the Olt River (Romania) and (ii) to track the activity of bacterial functional genes involved in Hg methylation. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in water and sediments decreased successively from the initial reservoir to downstream reservoirs. Suspended fine size particles and seston appeared to be responsible for the transport of THg into downstream reservoirs, while macrophytes reflected the local bioavailability of Hg. The concentration and proportion of MeHg were correlated with THg, but were not correlated with bacterial activity in sediments, while the abundance of hgcA transcript correlated with organic matter and Cl- concentration, indicating the importance of Hg bioavailability in sediments for Hg methylation. Our data clearly highlights the importance of considering Hg contamination as a legacy pollutant since there is a high risk of continued Hg accumulation in food webs long after Hg-cell phase out.

  • 19. Bravo, Andrea G.
    et al.
    Loizeau, Jean-Luc
    Dranguet, Perrine
    Makri, Stamatina
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ungureanu, Viorel Gh.
    Slaveykova, Vera I.
    Cosio, Claudia
    Persistent Hg contamination and occurrence of Hg-methylating transcript (hgcA) downstream of a chlor-alkali plant in the Olt River (Romania)2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 10529-10541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlor-alkali plants using mercury (Hg) cell technology are acute point sources of Hg pollution in the aquatic environment. While there have been recent efforts to reduce the use of Hg cells, some of the emitted Hg can be transformed to neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg). Here, we aimed (i) to study the dispersion of Hg in four reservoirs located downstream of a chlor-alkali plant along the Olt River (Romania) and (ii) to track the activity of bacterial functional genes involved in Hg methylation. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in water and sediments decreased successively from the initial reservoir to downstream reservoirs. Suspended fine size particles and seston appeared to be responsible for the transport of THg into downstream reservoirs, while macrophytes reflected the local bioavailability of Hg. The concentration and proportion of MeHg were correlated with THg, but were not correlated with bacterial activity in sediments, while the abundance of hgcA transcript correlated with organic matter and Cl- concentration, indicating the importance of Hg bioavailability in sediments for Hg methylation. Our data clearly highlights the importance of considering Hg contamination as a legacy pollutant since there is a high risk of continued Hg accumulation in food webs long after Hg-cell phase out.

  • 20.
    Brenerová, Petra
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry and Toxicology, Veterinary Research Institute.
    Hamers, Timo
    Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam.
    Kamstra, Jorke H.
    Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam.
    Vondracek, Jan
    Department of Cytokinetics, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.
    Strapacova, Simona
    Department of Chemistry and Toxicology, Veterinary Research Institute.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Machala, Miroslav
    Department of Chemistry and Toxicology, Veterinary Research Institute.
    Pure non-dioxin-like PCB congeners suppress induction of AhR-dependent endpoints in rat liver cells2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 2099-2107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative potencies of non-ortho-substituted coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and to cause the AhR-dependent toxic events are essential for their risk assessment. Since some studies suggested that abundant non-dioxin-like PCB congeners (NDL-PCBs) may alter the AhR activation by PCB mixtures and possibly cause non-additive effects, we evaluated potential suppressive effects of NDL-PCBs on AhR activation, using a series of 24 highly purified NDL-PCBs. We investigated their impact on the model AhR agonist-induced luciferase reporter gene expression in rat hepatoma cells and on induction of CYP1A1/1B1 mRNAs and deregulation of AhR-dependent cell proliferation in rat liver epithelial cells. PCBs 128, 138, and 170 significantly suppressed AhR activation (with IC50 values from 1.4 to 5.6 mu M), followed by PCBs 28, 47, 52, and 180; additionally, PCBs 122, 153, and 168 showed low but still significant potency to reduce luciferase activity. Detection of CYP1A1 mRNA levels in liver epithelial cells largely confirmed these results for the most abundant NDL-PCBs, whereas the other AhR-dependent events (CYP1B1 mRNA expression, induction of cell proliferation in confluent cells) were less sensitive to NDL-PCBs, thus indicating a more complex regulation of these endpoints. The present data suggest that some NDL-PCBs could modulate overall dioxin-like effects in complex mixtures.

  • 21.
    Bräunig, Jennifer
    et al.
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Schiwy, Sabrina
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Broedel, Oliver
    Molecular Biotechnology and Functional Genomics, Technical University of Applied Sciences Wildau, Wildau, Germany.
    Müller, Yvonne
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Frohme, Marcus
    Molecular Biotechnology and Functional Genomics, Technical University of Applied Sciences Wildau, Wildau, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Time-dependent expression and activity of cytochrome P450 1s in early life-stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio)2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 21, p. 16319-15328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zebrafish embryos are being increasingly used as model organisms for the assessment of single substances and complex environmental samples for regulatory purposes.Thus, it is essential to fully understand the xenobiotic metabolism during the different life-stages of early development.The aim of the present study was to determine arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity during selected times of early development using qPCR, enzymatic activity through measurement of 7-ethoxyresorufin-Odeethylase(EROD) activity, and protein expression analysis. In the present study, gene expression of cyp1a, cyp1b1, cyp1c1, cyp1c2, and ahr2 as well as EROD activity were investigated up to 120 h postfertilization (hpf) after exposure to either β-naphthoflavone (BNF) or a polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons (PAH)-contaminated sediment extract from Vering Kanal in Hamburg (VK). Protein expression was measured at 72 hpf after exposure to 20 μg/L BNF. Altered proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) peptide mass fingerprinting. Distinct patterns of basal messenger RNA (mRNA) expressionwere found for each of the cyp1 genes, suggesting specific roles during embryonic development. All transcripts were induced by BNF and VK. ahr2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated after exposure toVK. All cyp1 genes investigated showed a temporal decline in expression at 72 hpf. The significant decline of Hsp 90β protein at 72 hpf after exposure to BNF may suggest an explanation for the decline of cyp1 genes at this time point as Hsp 90β is of major importance for the functioning of the Ah-receptor. EROD activity measured in embryos was significantly induced after 96 hpf of exposure to BNF or VK. Together, these results demonstrate distinct temporal patterns of cyp1 genes and protein activities in zebrafish embryos as well as show a need to investigate further the xenobiotic biotransformation system during early development of zebrafish.

  • 22.
    Büchert, A.
    et al.
    Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Institute of Food Research and Nutrition, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Cederberg, T.
    Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Institute of Food Research and Nutrition, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Dyke, P.
    PD Consulting, Round House Cottage, Lechlade, United Kingdom .
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (GE), Switzerland .
    Fürst, P.
    Chemisches Landes- und Staatliches Veteriniiruntersuchungsamt, Münster, Germany .
    Hanberg, A.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Hosseinpour, J.
    Ökometric GmbH, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Hutzinger, O.
    University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Kuenen, J. G.
    TU Delft, Department of Biotechnology, Kluyver Laboratory, Delft, The Netherlands .
    Malisch, R.
    Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany .
    Needham, L. L.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Toxicology Branch (F-17), Chamblee, GA, USA .
    Olie, K.
    University of Amsterdam, Dept. of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands .
    Päpke, O.
    ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg, Germany .
    Aranda, J. Rivera
    CID-CSIC, Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Barcelona, Spain .
    Thanner, G.
    Umweltbundesamt, Wien, Austria .
    Umlauf, G.
    European Commission-JRC Ispra, Environment Institute, Soil and Waste Unit, Ispra (Varese), Italy .
    Vartiainen, T.
    National Public Health Institute, Division of Environmental Health, Kuopio, Finland .
    van Holst, C.
    European Commission - DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Ispra, Italy .
    Dioxin contamination in food: Bayreuth, Germany, from September 28 to October 1, 20002001In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 84-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dioxin and PCB monitoring programs for food and feeding stuff in most countries of the world, including many European Countries are currently inadequate. Better control of food production lines and food processing procedures is needed to minimize entry of dioxin to the food chain and will help to avoid dioxin contamination accidents. This would also improve the ability to trace back a possible contamination to its source. European guidelines for monitoring programs should be established to ensure comparable and meaningful results. These guidelines should define the minimum requirements for the design of monitoring programs, analytical methods, and quality assurance.

    Though data from Northern Europe shows that the general population exposure to dioxin and PCB has decreased during the last ten years these compounds continue to be a risk of accidental contamination of the food chain. The most prominent recent example is the Belgian dioxin contamination of feeding stuff in 1999. The Belgian dioxin contamination was not detected due to dioxin monitoring programs but by their direct biological effects seen in animals. Four other cases of dioxin contamination have been detected in Europe since 1997 due to local monitoring programs. One of them (citrus pulp pellets 1998) was in a much larger scale than the Belgian dioxin contamination.

    The general population's exposure to dioxins and PCBs is still in the same range (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and day) as the recently revised WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI). There is concern that short-term high level exposure to dioxins, furans, and PCB may cause biological effects on the human fetal development and further research is required.

    Further actions to control sources building on considerable advances already made in many countries may need to be supplemented by measures to prevent direct contamination of feeding stuff or food to reduce general population exposure further.

  • 23. Carlsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Breivik, Knut
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Christensen, Jesper
    Grimalt, Joan O.
    Halsall, Crispin
    Kallenborn, Roland
    Abass, Khaled
    Lammel, Gerhard
    Munthe, John
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Øyvind Odland, Jon
    Pawlak, Janet
    Rautio, Arja
    Reiersen, Lars-Otto
    Schlabach, Martin
    Stemmler, Irene
    Wilson, Simon
    Wöhrnschimmel, Henry
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as sentinels for the elucidation of Arctic environmental change processes: a comprehensive review combined with ArcRisk project results2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 23, p. 22499-22528Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be used as chemical sentinels for the assessment of anthropogenic influences on Arctic environmental change. We present an overview of studies on PCBs in the Arctic and combine these with the findings from ArcRisk-a major European Union-funded project aimed at examining the effects of climate change on the transport of contaminants to and their behaviour of in the Arctic-to provide a case study on the behaviour and impact of PCBs over time in the Arctic. PCBs in the Arctic have shown declining trends in the environment over the last few decades. Atmospheric long-range transport from secondary and primary sources is the major input of PCBs to the Arctic region. Modelling of the atmospheric PCB composition and behaviour showed some increases in environmental concentrations in a warmer Arctic, but the general decline in PCB levels is still the most prominent feature. 'Within-Arctic' processing of PCBs will be affected by climate change-related processes such as changing wet deposition. These in turn will influence biological exposure and uptake of PCBs. The pan-Arctic rivers draining large Arctic/sub-Arctic catchments provide a significant source of PCBs to the Arctic Ocean, although changes in hydrology/sediment transport combined with a changing marine environment remain areas of uncertainty with regard to PCB fate. Indirect effects of climate change on human exposure, such as a changing diet will influence and possibly reduce PCB exposure for indigenous peoples. Body burdens of PCBs have declined since the 1980s and are predicted to decline further.

  • 24.
    Carney Almroth, Bethanie M.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Åström, Linn
    University of Gothenburg.
    Roslund, Sofia
    Petersson, Hanna
    Johansson, Mats
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Quantifying shedding of synthetic fibers from textiles; a source ofmicroplastics released into the environment2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, article id 10.1007/s11356-017-0528-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastics in the environment are a subject of intense research as they pose a potential threat to marine organisms. Plastic fibers from textiles have been indicated as a major source of this type of contaminant, entering the oceans via wastewater and diverse non-point sources. Their presence is also documented in terrestrial samples. In this study, the amount of microfibers shedding from synthetic textiles was measured for three materials (acrylic, nylon, polyester), knit using different gauges and techniques. All textiles were found to shed, but polyester fleece fabrics shed the greatest amounts, averaging 7360 fibers/m−2/L−1 in one wash, compared with polyester fabrics which shed 87 fibers/m−2/L−1. We found that loose textile constructions shed more, as did worn fabrics, and high twist yarns are to be preferred for shed reduction. Since fiber from clothing is a potentially important source of microplastics, we suggest that smarter textile construction, prewashing and vacuum exhaustion at production sites, and use of more efficient filters in household washing machines could help mitigate this problem.

  • 25.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Environment Engineering, college of Engineering, U niversity of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq. .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hazim, Anwer
    Koya university, Koya, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of Change Detection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq2019In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, no 35, p. 35325-35339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill site`s selection represents a complicated process due to the large number of variables to be adopted. In this study, an arid area (Babylon Governorate as a case study) was selected. It is located in the middle region of Iraq. In this area, the  landfills do not satisfy the required  international criteria.  Fifteen  of the  most significant criterion were selected for this purpose. For suitable weight for each criterion, the multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were applied. These methods are AHP and RSW. In the GIS software 10.5, the raster maps of the chosen criterion were arranged and analysed. The method of change detection was implemented to determine the matching pixels and non-matching pixels. The final results showed that there are two candidate locations for landfills for each district in the governorate (ten sites). The areas of the selected sites were sufficient to contain the cumulative quantity of solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

  • 26.
    Chaudhary, Ramjee
    et al.
    Indian Inst Technol, Ctr Environm Sci & Engn, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra, India.;Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Chem & Biomol Engn, Singapore 117576, Singapore..
    Dikshit, Anil Kumar
    Mälardalen University. Indian Inst Technol, Ctr Environm Sci & Engn, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra, India.;Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Environm & Soc, Vasteras, Sweden.;Asian Inst Technol, Sch Environm Resources & Dev, Urban Environm Management, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand..
    Tong, Yen Wah
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Chem & Biomol Engn, Singapore 117576, Singapore.;Natl Univ Singapore, Environm Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore..
    Carbon-dioxide biofixation and phycoremediation of municipal wastewater using Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 21, p. 20399-20406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pure cultures of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris ATCC 13482 and Scenedesmus obliquus FACHB 417 were grown in municipal wastewater in 7-L airlift bubble column photobioreactor supplied with 5% CO2/air (v/v). Batch experiments were conducted at 25 A degrees C with 14-h light/10-h dark cycle for a period of 10 days. The CO2 capture efficiencies for both the microalgae were monitored in terms of their respective biomass productivities, carbon contents, and CO2 consumption rates. In the present study, the initial concentration of ammonia (43.7 mg L-1) was decreased to 2.9 and 3.7 mg L-1 by C. vulgaris and S. obliquus, respectively. And, the initial concentration of phosphate (18.5 mg L-1) was decreased to 1.1 and 1.6 mg L-1 by C. vulgaris and S. obliquus, respectively. CO2 biofixation rates by C. vulgaris and S. obliquus, cultivated in municipal wastewater, were calculated to be 140.91 and 129.82 mg L-1 day(-1), respectively. The findings from the present study highlight the use of microalgae for wastewater treatment along with CO2 uptake and biomass utilization for pilot scale production of biodiesel, biogas, feed supplements for animals, etc., thus minimizing the production costs.

  • 27.
    Chlot, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Interaction between nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in mining-affected aquatic systems-experiences from field and laboratory measurements2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 5722-5736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objectives of this study were to (a) study the interaction between N and P cycles in mining-affected aquatic systems and (b) to quantify release rates of sedimentary soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) that may be related to this interaction. Sediment cores and water from Lake Bruträsket (Boliden, northern Sweden) were collected and a time series of water sampling and flow measurements was conducted in the Brubäcken stream connected to the lake. Factors affecting SRP release were studied in a sediment incubation experiment and water column experiments. Field and laboratory measurements indicated that pH and dissolved oxygen are two important factors for SRP release. At the end of the low-oxygen incubation, an SRP concentration of 56 μg L-1 resulted in a sedimentary flux of 1.1 mg SRP m-2 day-1. This is ∼10 times higher than the flux of 0.12 mg SRP m-2 day-1 obtained from depth integration of vertical SRP profiles measured in the lake, and ∼100 times higher than the external flux of 0.014 mg SRP m-2 d-1 into the lake (based on catchment area). Field measurements indicated that oxidation of organic matter and mining-related chemicals (ammonium and thiosulphates) may result in increased internal SRP flux from the sediment. Increased P loading in the lake as a result of low-oxygen conditions could change water column total nitrogen/total phosphorus ratios from 27 to 17, consequently changing the lake from being P-limited to be co-limited by N and P. The obtained findings point to possible interaction between the cycles of nitrogen (oxygen consumption) and P (flux from sediment) that may be important for nutrient regulation in mine water recipients.

  • 28.
    Christiansson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Teclechiel, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Identification and quantification of products formed via photolysis of decabromodiphenyl ether2009In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 312-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: Decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) is used as an additive flame retardant in polymers. It has become a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, particularly abundant in abiotic media, such as sediments, air, and dust, and also present in wildlife and in humans. The main DecaBDE constituent, perbrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209), is susceptible to transformations as observed in experimental work. This work is aimed at identifying and assessing the relative amounts of products formed after UV irradiation of BDE-209. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BDE-209, dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF), methanol, or combinations of methanol/water, was exposed to UV light for 100 or 200 min. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (electron ionization) for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), methoxylated PBDEs, and phenolic PBDE products. RESULTS: The products formed were hexaBDEs to nonaBDEs, monoBDFs to pentaBDFs, and methoxylated tetraBDFs to pentaBDFs. The products found in the fraction containing halogenated phenols were assigned to be pentabromophenol, dihydroxytetrabromobenzene, dihydroxydibromodibenzofuran, dihydroxytribromodibenzofuran, and dihydroxytetrabromodibenzofuran. The PBDEs accounted for approximately 90% of the total amount of substances in each sample and the PBDFs for about 10%. DISCUSSION: BDE-209 is a source of PBDEs primarily present in OctaBDEs but also to some extent in PentaBDEs, both being commercial products now banned within the EU and in several states within the USA. It is notable that OH-PBDFs have not been identified or indicated in any of the photolysis studies performed to date. Formation of OH-PBDFs, however, may occur as pure radical reactions in the atmosphere. CONCLUSIONS: Photolysis of decaBDE yields a wide span of products, from nonaBDEs to hydroxylated bromobenzenes. It is evident that irradiation of decaBDE in water and methanol yields OH-PBDFs and MeO-PBDFs, respectively. BDE-202 (2,2',3,3',5,5',6,6'-octabromodiphenyl ether) is identified as a marker of BDE-209 photolysis. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: BDE-209, the main constituent of DecaBDE, is primarily forming debrominated diphenyl ethers with higher persistence which are more bioaccumulative than the starting material when subjected to UV light. Hence, DecaBDE should be considered as a source of these PBDE congeners in the environment

  • 29. Collins, Chris
    et al.
    Laturnus, Frank
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Nepovim, Ales
    Remediation of BTEX and trichloroethylene - a review of current knowledge with special emphasis on phytoremediation2002In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 9, p. 86-94Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Dahlgren, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Enhus, Carolina
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Induced production of brominated aromatic compounds in the alga Ceramium tenuicorne2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 22, p. 18107-18114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Baltic Sea, high concentrations of toxic brominated aromatic compounds have been detected in all compartments of the marine food web. A growing body of evidence points towards filamentous algae as a natural producer of these chemicals. However, little is known about the effects of environmental factors and life history on algal production of brominated compounds. In this study, several congeners of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and brominated phenols (BPs) were identified in a naturally growing filamentous red algal species (Ceramium tenuicorne) in the Baltic Sea. The identified substances displayed large seasonal variations in the alga with a concentration peak in July. Production of MeO-/OH-PBDEs and BPs by C. tenuicorne was also established in isolated clonal material grown in a controlled laboratory setting. Based on three replicates, herbivory, as well as elevated levels of light and salinity in the culture medium, significantly increased the production of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP). Investigation of differences in production between the isomorphic female, male and diploid clonal life stages of the alga grown in the laboratory revealed a significantly higher production of 2,4,6-TBP in the brackish water female gametophytes, compared to the corresponding marine gametophytes. Even higher concentrations of 2,4,6-TBP were produced by marine male gametophytes and sporophytes.

  • 31. Daneshvar, Atlasi
    et al.
    Svanfelt, Jesper
    Kronberg, Leif
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Winter accumulation of acidic pharmaceuticals in a Swedish river2010In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 908-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, seasonal variations in the concentration profile of four analgesics and one lipid regulator were monitored on their way from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, along a river, and into a lake. From December 2007 to December 2008, water samples were collected monthly (n = 12) from an upstream point, the effluent, four downstream points of the WWTP, and at the point where the river merges with the lake, and the concentrations of ibuprofen, naproxen, bezafibrate, diclofenac, and ketoprofen were determined. The analytical methodology involved solid-phase extraction of the target compounds from water samples followed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for compound separation and detection. The studied pharmaceuticals were found in the effluent at concentrations ranging from 31 to 1,852 ng l(-1) depending on the season. In the river and lake, the concentrations were much lower (6-400 ng l(-1)) mainly due to dilution but also to a season-dependent contribution from natural transformation processes. The mean mass flow of all analgesics was highest during winter while the highest mean mass flow of the lipid regulator bezafibrate was observed in spring. The WWTP is the main source of the target compounds in the aquatic environment. The observed winter accumulation signifies the importance of natural transformation processes, which can only be estimated based on mass flow data, on the fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment.

  • 32.
    Danish, Muhammad
    et al.
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, State Environm Protect Key Lab Environm Risk Asse, Shanghai 200237, Peoples R China..
    Gu, Xiaogang
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, State Environm Protect Key Lab Environm Risk Asse, Shanghai 200237, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Shuguang
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, State Environm Protect Key Lab Environm Risk Asse, Shanghai 200237, Peoples R China..
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Degradation of chlorinated organic solvents in aqueous percarbonate system using zeolite supported nano zero valent iron (Z-nZVI) composite2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 13, p. 13298-13307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated organic solvents (COSs) are extensively detected in contaminated soil and groundwater that pose long-term threats to human life and environment. In order to degrade COSs effectively, a novel catalytic composite of natural zeolite-supported nano zero valent iron (Z-nZVI) was synthesized in this study. The performance of Z-nZVI-catalyzed sodium percarbonate (SPC) in a heterogeneous Fenton-like system was investigated for the degradation of COSs such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and trichloroethylene (TCE). The surface characteristics and morphology of the Z-nZVI composite were tested using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total pore volume, specific surface area, and pore size of the natural zeolite and the Z-nZVI composite were measured using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. SEM and TEM analysis showed significant elimination of aggregation and well dispersion of iron nano particles on the framework of natural zeolite. The BET N-2 measurement analysis indicated that the surface area of the Z-nZVI composite was 72.3 m(2)/g, much larger than that of the natural zeolite (0.61 m(2)/g). For the contaminant analysis, the samples were extracted with n-hexane and analyzed through gas chromatograph. The degradation of 1,1,1-TCA and TCE in the Z-nZVI-catalyzed percarbonate system were 48 and 39 % respectively, while strong augmentation was observed up to 83 and 99 %, respectively, by adding the reducing agent (RA), hydroxyl amine (NH2OH center dot HCl). Probe tests validated the presence of OH center dot and O-2(center dot-) which were responsible for 1,1,1-TCA and TCE degradation, whereas both free radicals were strengthened with the addition of RA. In conclusion, the Z-nZVI/SPC oxidation with reducing agent shows potential technique for degradation of groundwater contaminated by 1,1,1-TCA and TCE.

  • 33.
    Danish, Muhammad
    et al.
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, State Environm Protect Key Lab Environm Risk Asse, Shanghai 200237, Peoples R China..
    Gu, Xiaogang
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, State Environm Protect Key Lab Environm Risk Asse, Shanghai 200237, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Shuguang
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, State Environm Protect Key Lab Environm Risk Asse, Shanghai 200237, Peoples R China..
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Degradation of chlorinated organic solvents in aqueous percarbonate system using zeolite supported nano zero valent iron (Z-nZVI) composite2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 13, p. 13298-13307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated organic solvents (COSs) are extensively detected in contaminated soil and groundwater that pose long-term threats to human life and environment. In order to degrade COSs effectively, a novel catalytic composite of natural zeolite-supported nano zero valent iron (Z-nZVI) was synthesized in this study. The performance of Z-nZVI-catalyzed sodium percarbonate (SPC) in a heterogeneous Fenton-like system was investigated for the degradation of COSs such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and trichloroethylene (TCE). The surface characteristics and morphology of the Z-nZVI composite were tested using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total pore volume, specific surface area, and pore size of the natural zeolite and the Z-nZVI composite were measured using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. SEM and TEM analysis showed significant elimination of aggregation and well dispersion of iron nano particles on the framework of natural zeolite. The BET N-2 measurement analysis indicated that the surface area of the Z-nZVI composite was 72.3 m(2)/g, much larger than that of the natural zeolite (0.61 m(2)/g). For the contaminant analysis, the samples were extracted with n-hexane and analyzed through gas chromatograph. The degradation of 1,1,1-TCA and TCE in the Z-nZVI-catalyzed percarbonate system were 48 and 39 % respectively, while strong augmentation was observed up to 83 and 99 %, respectively, by adding the reducing agent (RA), hydroxyl amine (NH2OH center dot HCl). Probe tests validated the presence of OH center dot and O-2(center dot-) which were responsible for 1,1,1-TCA and TCE degradation, whereas both free radicals were strengthened with the addition of RA. In conclusion, the Z-nZVI/SPC oxidation with reducing agent shows potential technique for degradation of groundwater contaminated by 1,1,1-TCA and TCE.

  • 34. Echeverría-Sáenz, Silvia
    et al.
    Mena, Freylan
    Arias-Andrés, María
    Vargas, Seiling
    Ruepert, Clemens
    Van den Brink, Paul J.
    Castillo, Luisa E.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    In situ toxicity and ecological risk assessment of agro-pesticide runoff in the Madre de Dios River in Costa Rica2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 14, p. 13270-13282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The River Madre de Dios (RMD) and its lagoon is a biodiversity rich watershed formed by a system of streams, rivers, channels, and a coastal lagoon communicating with the Caribbean Sea. This basin sustains a large area of agricultural activity (mostly banana, rice, and pineapple) with intensive use of pesticides, continually detected in water samples. We investigated in situ the toxicological effects caused by pesticide runoff from agriculture and the relation of pesticide concentrations with different biological organization levels: early responses in fish biomarkers (sub-organismal), acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (organismal), and aquatic macroinvertebrate community structure. The evaluation was carried out between October 2011 and November 2012 at five sites along the RMD influenced by agricultural discharges and a reference site in a stream outside the RMD that receives less pesticides. Acute toxicity to D. magna was observed only once in a sample from the RMD (Cano Azul); the index of biomaiker responses in fish exposed in situ was higher than controls at the same site and at the RMD-Freeman. However, only macroinvertebrates were statistically related to the presence of pesticides, combined with both physical-chemical parameters and habitat degradation. All three groups of variables determined the distribution of macroinvertebrate taxa through the study sites.

  • 35.
    Ekelund Ugge, Gustaf Magnus Oskar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment. Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Annie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Sjöback, Robert
    TATAA Biocenter, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglund, Olof
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Transcriptional and biochemical biomarker responses in a freshwater mussel (Anodonta anatina) under environmentally relevant Cu exposure2020In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 27, p. 9999-10010Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Eklund, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Watermann, Burkard
    Persistence of TBT and copper in excess on leisure boat hulls around the Baltic Sea2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 15, p. 14595-14605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A handheld XRF-analyzer specially calibrated for measurements of metals on plastic boat hulls has been used on leisure boats in Denmark (DK), Finland (FI), and Germany (DE). The results on tin and copper are presented as mu g metal/cm(2). Tin is a proxy for the occurrence of organotin compounds on the boat. Two or three sites were visited in each country and between 25 and 90 boats were measured at each site. Every boat was measured at six to eight places, and the results are presented both as mean and median values. Linear regression of mean to median values of the 377 data pairs shows high relationship with R-2 = 0.9566 for tin and R-2 of 0.9724 for copper and thus both ways of calculation may be used. However, for regulative use, it is suggested that all individual measurements on each boat should be presented and used for decisions of removal or sealing of boat hulls. The results are compared with published data from different parts of Sweden, i.e., boats in fresh water, brackish water, and salt water. The results show that tin with mean values > 50 mu g Sn/cm(2) is still found on 42, 24, and 23% of the boats in DK, FI, and DE, respectively. The corresponding percentages based on median values are 38, 22, and 18% for DK, FI, and DE, respectively. The variation among boats is high with a maximum mean value of 2000 mu g Sn/cm(2). As comparison, one layer of an old TBT antifouling paint Hempels Hard racing superior, corresponds to 300 mu g Sn/cm(2). The percentage of boats with tin >400 mu g Sn/cm(2) content based on mean values was 10% in DK, 5% in FI, and 1% in DE. The corresponding median values were 9, 6, and 1% for DK, FI, and DE. Copper, >100 mu g Cu/cm(2), was detected on all measured boats in DK and in DE and on all but 3% of the FI boats. One layer of Hempels MilleXtra corresponds to I' 4000 mu g Cu/cm(2). The recommendation on the can is to apply two layers. The proportion of boats with higher mean copper values than 8000 mu g Cu/cm(2) was 51, 56, and 61 for boats in DK, FI, and DE, respectively. The proportion based on median values > 8000 mu g Cu/cm(2) was 50, 54, and 61% for DK, FI, and DE. The conclusion is that many leisure boats around the Baltic Sea still display or possess antifouling paints containing organotin compounds and that more than half of the boats have more copper than needed for one boat season according to the paint producers. Much of these known toxic compounds will probably be released into the environment and harm the biota. The calibrated XRF-method, intended for area measurements on boat hulls, is an easy and cheap way to detect boats with organotin compounds and high copper content. We recommend environmental authorities to use this method for identification of such boats and to use the results for requesting measures to minimize further leakage to the environment.

  • 37.
    Engelmann, Pamela de Medeiros
    et al.
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    dos Santos, Victor Hugo Jacks Mendes
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Moser, Letícia Isabela
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    do Canto Bruzza, Eduardo
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Barbieri, Cristina Barazzetti
    General Institute of Forensics, Brazil.
    Barela, Pâmela Susin
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Pompéu de Moraes, Diogo
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Augustin, Adolpho Herbert
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Goudinho, Flávio Soares
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Melo, Clarissa Lovato
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Ketzer, João Marcelo
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Rodrigues, Luiz Frederico
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Environmental monitoring of water resources around a municipal landfill of the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 26, p. 21398-21411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Brazil, landfills are commonly used as a method for the final disposal of waste that is compliant with the legislation. This technique, however, presents a risk to surface water and groundwater resources, owing to the leakage of metals, anions, and organic compounds. The geochemical monitoring of water resources is therefore extremely important, since the leachate can compromise the quality and use of surface water and groundwater close to landfills. In this paper, the results of analyses of metals, anions, ammonia, and physicochemical parameters were used to identify possible contamination of surface water and groundwater in a landfill area. A statistical multivariate approach was used. The values found for alkali metals, nitrate, and chloride indicate contamination in the regional groundwater and, moreover, surface waters also show variation when compared to the other background points, mainly for ammonia. Thus, the results of this study evidence the landfill leachate influence on the quality of groundwater and surface water in the study area.

  • 38.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Venizelos, Nikolaos
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Westman, Ola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nordén, Marcus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hollert, Henner
    Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen, Germany.
    Johansson, Jessica
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) reduce hepatic beta-oxidation of fatty acids in chick embryos2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 1881-1888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread fused-ring contaminants formed during incomplete combustion of almost all kind of organic materials from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Some PAHs have been shown to be carcinogenic to humans, and a wide range of PAHs are found in wildlife all around the globe including avian species. The purpose of this project was to assess the effects of a standard mixture of 16 PAHs (United States Environmental Protection Agency) on the hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus domesticus) exposed in ovo. The hepatic beta-oxidation was measured using a tritium release assay with [9,10-H-3]-palmitic acid (16:0) as substrate. Treated groups were divided into groups of 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8 mg PAHs/kg egg weight. The hepatic beta-oxidation was reduced after exposure in ovo to the 16 PAHs mixture compared to control. The mechanisms causing reduced fatty acid oxidation in the present study are unclear, however may be due to deficient membrane structure, the functionality of enzymes controlling the rate of fatty acid entering into the mitochondria, or complex pathways connected to endocrine disruption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a PAH-caused reduction of hepatic beta-oxidation of fatty acids in avian embryos has been observed. The implication of this finding on risk assessment of PAH exposure in avian wildlife remains to be determined.

  • 39.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, Marti
    Rovira il Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jose Luis, Domingo
    Rovira il virgili university, Reus, Spain.
    Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?2008In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, p. 614-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aim, and scope: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain).

    Materials and methods: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%.

    Results: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively.

    Discussion: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78–1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants.

    Conclusions: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries.

    Recommendations and perspectives: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.

  • 40.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, José L.
    Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?2008In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 614-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%. RESULTS: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively. DISCUSSION: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78-1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.

  • 41.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mikkelsen, Bjorg
    Faroese Food & Vet Agcy, Torshavn, Faroe Islands, Denmark.
    Dam, Maria
    Environm Agcy, Argir, Faroe Islands, Denmark.
    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in food and water from Faroe Islands2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 7940-7948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diet and drinking water are suggested to be major exposure pathways for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). In this study, food items and water from Faroe Islands sampled in 2011/2012 were analyzed for 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs). The food samples included milk, yoghurt, crSme fraiche, potatoes, fish, and fish feed, and the water samples included surface water and purified drinking water. In total, nine PFCAs and four PFSAs were detected. Generally, the levels of PFAS were in the lower picogram per gram range. Perfluorobutanoic acid was a major contributor to the total PFASs concentration in water samples and had a mean concentration of 750 pg/L. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was predominating in milk and wild fish with mean concentrations of 170 pg/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was most frequently detected in food items followed by PFUnDA, perfluorononanoic acid, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Levels of PFUnDA and PFOA exceeded those of PFOS in milk and fish samples. Prevalence of long-chain PFCAs in Faroese food items and water is confirming earlier observations of their increase in Arctic biota. Predominance of short-chain and long-chain homologues indicates exposure from PFOS and PFOA replacement compounds.

  • 42.
    Fathollahzadeh, Homayoun
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Speciation of metals in contaminated sediments from Oskarshamn Harbor, Oskarshamn, Sweden2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 2455-2464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom sediments in coastal regions have been considered the ultimate sink for a number of contaminants, e. g., toxic metals. In this current study, speciation of metals in contaminated sediments of Oskarshamn harbor in the southeast of Sweden was performed in order to evaluate metal contents and their potential mobility and bioavailability. Sediment speciation was carried out by the sequential extraction BCR procedure for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn and the exchangeable (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3), and residual (R) fractions were determined. The results have shown that Zn and Cd were highly associated with the exchangeable fraction (F1) with 42-58 % and 43-46 %, respectively, of their total concentrations in the mobile phase. The assessment of sediment contamination on the basis of quality guidelines established by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) and the Italian Ministry of Environment (Venice protocol for dredged sediments) has shown that sediments from Oskarshamn harbor are highly contaminated with toxic metals, especially Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, As, and Zn posing potential ecological risks. Therefore, it is of crucial importance the implementation of adequate strategies to tackle contaminated sediments in coastal regions all over the world.

  • 43.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    BIfA GmbH, Bavarian Institute of Waste Research, Augsburg, Germany.
    Van den Berg, Martin
    RITOX, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and related compounds: Update and recent developments1996In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 122-128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44. Fång, Johan
    et al.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Winnberg, Ulrika
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Åke
    Spatial and temporal trends of the Stockholm Convention POPs in mothers' milk -- a global review.2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of environmental and health concern for more than half a century and have their own intergovernmental regulation through the Stockholm Convention, from 2001. One major concern is the nursing child's exposure to POPs, a concern that has led to a very large number of scientific studies on POPs in mothers' milk. The present review is a report on the assessment on worldwide spatial distributions of POPs and of their temporal trends. The data presented herein is a compilation based on scientific publications between 1995 and 2011. It is evident that the concentrations in mothers' milk depend on the use of pesticides and industrial chemicals defined as POPs. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and "dioxins" are higher in the more industrialized areas, Europe and Northern America, whereas pesticides are higher in Africa and Asia and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are reported in higher concentrations in the USA. POPs are consequently distributed to women in all parts of the world and are thus delivered to the nursing child. The review points out several major problems in the reporting of data, which are crucial to enable high quality comparisons. Even though the data set is large, the comparability is hampered by differences in reporting. In conclusion, much more detailed instructions are needed for reporting POPs in mothers' milk. Temporal trend data for POPs in mothers' milk is scarce and is of interest when studying longer time series. The only two countries with long temporal trend studies are Japan and Sweden. In most cases, the trends show decreasing concentrations of POPs in mothers' milk. However, hexabromocyclododecane is showing increasing temporal concentration trends in both Japan and Sweden.

  • 45.
    Fång, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Winnberg, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center (Swetox), Sweden.
    Spatial and temporal trends of the Stockholm Convention POPs in mothers' milk - a global review2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 8989-9041Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of environmental and health concern for more than half a century and have their own intergovernmental regulation through the Stockholm Convention, from 2001. One major concern is the nursing child's exposure to POPs, a concern that has led to a very large number of scientific studies on POPs in mothers' milk. The present review is a report on the assessment on worldwide spatial distributions of POPs and of their temporal trends. The data presented herein is a compilation based on scientific publications between 1995 and 2011. It is evident that the concentrations in mothers' milk depend on the use of pesticides and industrial chemicals defined as POPs. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are higher in the more industrialized areas, Europe and Northern America, whereas pesticides are higher in Africa and Asia and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are reported in higher concentrations in the USA. POPs are consequently distributed to women in all parts of the world and are thus delivered to the nursing child. The review points out several major problems in the reporting of data, which are crucial to enable high quality comparisons. Even though the data set is large, the comparability is hampered by differences in reporting. In conclusion, much more detailed instructions are needed for reporting POPs in mothers' milk. Temporal trend data for POPs in mothers' milk is scarce and is of interest when studying longer time series. The only two countries with long temporal trend studies are Japan and Sweden. In most cases, the trends show decreasing concentrations of POPs in mothers' milk. However, hexabromocyclododecane is showing increasing temporal concentration trends in both Japan and Sweden.

  • 46.
    Garcia-Käufer, Manuel
    et al.
    Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg, Germany; Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBT–Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; Center for Complementary Medicine, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University Medical Centre Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Gartiser, Stefan
    Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg, Germany.
    Hafner, Christoph
    Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg, Germany.
    Schiwy, Sabrina
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBT–Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBT–Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Gruendemann, Christian
    Center for Complementary Medicine, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University Medical Centre Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBT–Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China; Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Environment of Education Ministry of China, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Genotoxic and teratogenic effect of freshwater sediment samples from the Rhine and Elbe River (Germany) in zebrafish embryo using a multi-endpoint testing strategy2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 21, p. 16341-16357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The embryotoxic potential of three model sediment samples with a distinct and well-characterized pollutant burden from the main German river basins Rhine and Elbe was investigated. The Fish Embryo Contact Test (FECT) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) was applied and submitted to further development to allow for a comprehensive risk assessment of such complex environmental samples. As particulate pollutants are constructive constituents of sediments, they underlay episodic source-sink dynamics, becoming available to benthic organisms. As bioavailability of xenobiotics is a crucial factor for ecotoxicological hazard, we focused on the direct particle-exposure pathway, evaluating through put-capable endpoints and considering toxicokinetics. Fish embryo and larvae were exposed toward reconstituted (freeze-dried) sediment samples on a microcosm-scale experimental approach. A range of different developmental embryonic stages were considered to gain knowledge of potential correlations with metabolic competence during the early embryogenesis. Morphological, physiological, and molecular endpoints were investigated to elucidate induced adverse effects, placing particular emphasis on genomic instability, assessed by the in vivo comet assay. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the extent of induced cell death, since cytotoxicity can lead to confounding effects. The implementation of relative toxicity indices further provides inter-comparability between samples and related studies. All of the investigated sediments represent a significant ecotoxicological hazard by disrupting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Beside the induction of acute toxicity, morphological and physiological embryotoxic effects could be identified in a concentration-response manner. Increased DNA strand break frequency was detected after sediment contact in characteristic non-monotonic dose–response behavior due to overlapping cytotoxic effects. The embryonic zebrafish toxicity model along with the in vivo comet assay and molecular biomarker analysis should prospectively be considered to assess the ecotoxicological potential of sediments allowing for a comprehensive hazard ranking. In order to elucidate mode of action, novel techniques such as flow cytometry have been adopted and proved to be valuable tools for advanced risk assessment and management.

  • 47. Ge, Linke
    et al.
    Dong, Qianqian
    Halsall, Crispin
    Chen, Chang-Er L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Li, Jun
    Wang, Degao
    Zhang, Peng
    Yao, Ziwei
    Aqueous multivariate phototransformation kinetics of dissociated tetracycline: implications for the photochemical fate in surface waters2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 16, p. 15726-15732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotics are ubiquitous pollutants in aquatic systems and can exist as different dissociated species depending on the water pH. New knowledge of their multivariate photochemical behavior (i.e., the photobehavior of different ionized forms) is needed to improve our understanding on the fate and possible remediation of these pharmaceuticals in surface and waste waters. In this study, the photochemical degradation of aqueous tetracycline (TC) and its dissociated forms (TCH20, TCH-, and TC2-) was investigated. Simulated sunlight experiments and matrix calculations indicated that the three dissociated species had dissimilar photolytic kinetics and photo-oxidation reactivities. TC2- photo-degraded the fastest due to apparent photolysis with a kinetic constant of 0.938 +/- 0.021 min(-1), followed by TCH- (0.020 +/- 0.005 min(-1)) and TCH20 (0.012 +/- 0.001 min(-1)), whereas Tar was found to be the most highly reactive toward center dot OH (105.78 +/- 3.40 M(-1 )s(-1)), and TC2- reacted the fastest with O-1(2) (344.96 +/- 45.07 M-1 s(-1)). Water with relatively high pH (e.g., similar to 8-9) favors the dissociated forms of TCH- and TC2- which are most susceptible to photochemical loss processes compared to neutral TC. The calculated corresponding environmental half-lives (t(1/2,E) ) in sunlit surface waters ranged from 0.05 h for pH = 9 in midsummer to 3.68 h for pH = 6 in midwinter at 45 degrees N latitude. The moms was dominated by apparent photolysis (especially in summer, 62-91%), followed by O-1(2) and center dot OH oxidation. Adjusting the pH to slightly alkaline conditions prior to UV or solar UV light treatment may be an effective way of enhancing the photochemical removal of TC from contaminated water.

  • 48.
    Gustavsson, Lillemor
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hollert, Henner
    Jönsson, Sofie
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Reed beds receiving industrial sludge containing nitroaromatic compounds: Effects of outgoing water and bed material extracts in the umu-c genotoxicity assay, DR-CALUX assay and on early life stage development in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)2007In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 202-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal, Scope and Background:  Sweden has prohibited the deposition of organic waste since January, 2005. Since 1 million tons of sludge is produced every year in Sweden and the capacity for incineration does not fill the demands, other methods of sludge management have to be introduced to a larger degree. One common method in the USA and parts of Europe is the use of wetlands to treat wastewater and sewage sludge. The capacity of reed beds to affect the toxicity of a complex mixture of nitroaromatics in sludge, however, is not fully elucidated. In this study, an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues was therefore treated in artificial reed beds and the change in toxicity was studied. Nitroaromatic compounds, which are the main ingredients of many pharmaceuticals and explosives, are well known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Recently performed studies have also showed that embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) are sensitive to nitroaromatic compounds. Therefore, we tested the sludge passing through constructed wetlands in order to detect any changes in levels of embryotoxicity, genotoxicity and dioxin-like activity (AhR-agonists). We also compared unplanted and planted systems in order to examine the impact of the root system on the fate of the toxicants. Methods:  An industrial sludge containing a complex mixture of nitroaromatics was added daily to small-scale constructed wetlands (vertical flow), both unplanted and planted with Phragmites australis. Sludge with an average dry weight of 1.25%, was added with an average hydraulic loading rate of 1.2 L/day. Outgoing water was collected daily and stored at −20°C. The artificial wetland sediment was Soxhlet extracted, followed by clean-up with multi-layer silica, or extracted by ultrasonic treatment, yielding one organic extract and one water extract of the same sample. Genotoxicity of the extracts was measured according to the ISO protocol for the umu-C genotoxicity assay (ISO/TC 147/SC 5/WG9 N8), using Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 as test organism. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity were studied using the fish egg assay with zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the dioxin-like activity was measured using the DR-CALUX assay. Chemical analyses of nitroaromatic compounds were performed using Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) and GC-MS. Results:  Organic extracts of the bed material showed toxic potential in all three toxicity tests after two years of sludge loading. There was a difference between the planted and the unplanted beds, where the toxicity of organic extracts overall was higher in the bed material from the planted beds. The higher toxicity of the planted beds could have been caused by the higher levels of total carbon in the planted beds, which binds organic toxicants, and by enrichment caused by lower volumes of outgoing water from the planted beds. Discussion:  Developmental disorders were observed in zebrafish exposed directly in contact to bed material from unplanted beds, but not in fish exposed to bed material from planted beds. Hatching rates were slightly lower in zebrafish exposed to outgoing water from unplanted beds than in embryos exposed to outgoing water from planted beds. Genotoxicity in the outgoing water was below detection limit for both planted and unplanted beds. Most of the added toxicants via the sludge were unaccounted for in the outgoing water, suggesting that the beds had toxicant removal potential, although the mechanisms behind this remain unknown. Conclusions:  During the experimental period, the beds received a sludge volume (dry weight) of around three times their own volume. In spite of this, the toxicity in the bed material was lower than in the sludge. Thus, the beds were probably able to actually decrease the toxicity of the added, sludge-associated toxicants. When testing the acetone extracts of the bed material, the planted bed showed a higher toxicity than the unplanted beds in all three toxicity tests. The toxicity of water extracts from the unplanted beds, detected by the fish egg assay, were higher than the water extracts from the planted beds. No genotoxicity was detected in outgoing water from either planted or unplanted beds. All this together indicates that the planted reed beds retained semi-lipophilic acetone-soluble toxic compounds from the sludge better than the unplanted beds, which tended to leak out more of the water soluble toxic compounds in the outgoing water. The compounds identified by SPME/GC in the outgoing water were not in sufficient concentrations to have caused induction in the genotoxicity test. Recommendations and Perspectives:  This study has pointed out the benefits of using constructed wetlands receiving an industrial sludge containing a complex mixture of nitroaromatics to reduce toxicity in the outgoing water. The water from planted, constructed wetlands could therefore be directed to a recipient without further cleaning. The bed material should be investigated over a longer period of time in order to evaluate potential accumulation and leakage prior to proper usage or storage. The plants should be investigated in order to examine uptake and possible release when the plant biomass is degraded.

  • 49.
    Gustavsson, Lillemor
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Klee, Nina
    Olsman, Helena
    Hollert, Henner
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Fate of Ah receptor agonists during biological treatment of an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues2004In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 379-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GOAL, SCOPE AND BACKGROUND:

    Sweden is meeting prohibition for deposition of organic waste from 2005. Since 1 million tons of sludge is produced every year in Sweden and the capacity for incineration does not fill the demands, other methods of sludge management have to be introduced to a higher degree. Two biological treatment alternatives are anaerobic digestion and composting. Different oxygen concentrations result in different microbial degradation pathways and, consequently, in a different quality of the digestion or composting residue, It is therefore necessary to study sludge treatment during different oxygen regimes in order to follow both degradation of compounds and change in toxicity. In this study, an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues was treated with anaerobic digestion or composting, and the change in toxicity was studied. Nitroaromatic compounds, which are the main ingredients of both pharmaceutical and explosives, are well known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. However, little data are available concerning sludge with nitroaromatics and any associated dioxin-like activity. Therefore, we studied the sludge before and after the treatments in order to detect any changes in levels of Ah receptor (AhR) agonists using two bioassays for dioxin-like compounds.

    METHODS:

    An industrial sludge was treated with anaerobic digestion or composting in small reactors in a semi-continuous manner. The same volume as the feeding volume was taken out daily and stored at -20 degrees C. Sample preparation for the bioassays was done by extraction using organic solvents, followed by clean up with silica gel or sulphuric acid, yielding two fractions. The fractions were dissolved in DMSO and tested in the bioassays. The dioxin-like activity was measured using the DR-CALUX assay with transfected H4IIE rat hepatoma pGudluc cells and an EROD induction assay with RTL-W1 rainbow trout liver cells.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

    The bioassays showed that the sludge contained AhR agonists at levels of TCDD equivalents (TEQs) higher than other sludge types in Sweden. In addition, the TEQ values for the acid resistant fractions increased considerably after anaerobic digestion, resulting in an apparent formation of acid resistant TEQs in the anaerobic reactors. Similar results have been reported from studies of fermented household waste. There was a large difference in effects between the two bioassays, with higher TEQ levels in the RTL-W1 EROD assay than in the DR-CALUX assay. This is possibly due to a more rapid metabolism in rat hepatocytes than in trout hepatocytes or to differences in sensitivities for the AhR agonists in the sludge. It was also demonstrated by GC/FID analysis that the sludge contained high concentrations of nitroaromatics. It is suggested that nitroaromatic metabolites, such as aromatic amines and nitroanilines, are possible candidates for the observed bioassay effects. It was also found that the AhR agonists in the sludge samples were volatile.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The sludge contained fairly high concentrations of volatile AhR agonists. The increase of acid resistant AhR agonist after anaerobic digestion warrants further investigations of the chemical and toxic properties of these compounds and of the mechanisms behind this observation.

    RECOMMENDATION AND OUTLOOK:

    This study has pointed out the benefits of using different types of mechanism-specific bioassays when evaluating the change in toxicity by sludge treatment, in which measurement of dioxin-like activity can be a valuable tool. In order to study the recalcitrant properties of the compounds in the sludge using the DR-CALUX assay, the exposure time can be varied between 6 and 24 hours. The properties of the acid-resistant AhR agonists formed in the anaerobic treatment have to be investigated in order to choose the most appropriate method for sludge management.

  • 50.
    Gómara, Belén
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). CSIC, Spain.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Quintanilla-López, Jesús Eduardo
    José González, María
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites in placenta from Madrid mothers2012In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 139-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Concentrations and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in placenta samples from a Madrid population (Spain) are reported. Structure dependent retentions of OH-PCBs are known to occur in both humans and wildlife, making it of interest to assess placental transfer of both parent compounds and their metabolites to the developing foetus.

    Results The Sigma PCB concentrations found in placenta samples were in the range 943-4,331 pg/g fresh weight (f.w.), and their hydroxylated metabolites showed a 20-time lower concentration level (53-261 pg/g f.w.). The PCB profiles were surprisingly dominated by CB-52 and CB-101 accounting for more than 44% of the total PCB concentration. This is indicating a source of exposure that is not yet identified. The OH-PCB profiles were dominated by 4-OH-CB187 and 4-OH-CB146, representing >50% of the Sigma OH-PCB concentration of the placenta samples. Statistical analysis of the data revealed strong correlations between the PCB congeners, among some OH-PCBs, and between OH-PCB metabolites with a meta- and para- substitution pattern. Both PCB and OH-PCB concentrations presented homogeneous distribution, what allowed the establishment of a partial least squares model that correlated the concentrations of OH-PCB with those of PCBs in placenta samples. In addition, causal correlations were observed between the concentrations of OH-PCBs and those of their corresponding PCB precursors.

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