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  • 1. Agerstrand, M
    et al.
    Wester, M
    Rudén, C
    The Swedish Environmental Classification and Information System for Pharmaceuticals--an empirical investigation of the motivations, intentions and expectations underlying its development and implementation.2009In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 778-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2005 the Swedish Association of the Pharmaceutical Industry (LIF) initiated a national environmental classification and information system for pharmaceuticals. This investigation reports the results from a survey, conducted among the persons involved in the start-up process. The aim of this study is to generate knowledge contributing to the clarification of the motivations, expectations, and intentions underlying the development and implementation of the system. The decision to implement a classification and information system for pharmaceuticals was the result of a combination of several driving forces, mainly political pressure and a possibility to increase the industries' goodwill, while at the same time keeping the process under the industries' control. The expected possible effects of the system, other than increased goodwill, are according to this survey assumed to be low. The system offers little guidance for end-users in the substitution of one pharmaceutical for another. One possible reason for this could be that LIF needs to observe the interests of all its members' and should not affect competition. The affiliation of the involved actors correlates to how these actors view and value the system, but this has not hampered the collaborative process to develop and implement it.

  • 2.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University and Research (WUR), Wageningen, Netherlands.
    van der Wens, Patrick
    Brabant Water NV Breda, Breda, Netherlands..
    Baken, Kirsten
    KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Groningenhaven 7, NL-3433 PE Nieuwegein, Netherlands..
    de Waal, Luuk
    KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Groningenhaven 7, NL-3433 PE Nieuwegein, Netherlands..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Stuyfzand, Pieter
    KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Groningenhaven 7, NL-3433 PE Nieuwegein, Netherlands.;Delft Univ Technol, Dept Geosci & Engn, Delft, Netherlands..
    Arsenic reduction to < 1 mu g/L in Dutch drinking water2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 134, article id 105253Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic element which naturally occurs in drinking water. In spite of substantial evidence on the association between many illnesses and chronic consumption of As, there is still a considerable uncertainty about the health risks due to low As concentrations in drinking water. In the Netherlands, drinking water companies aim to supply water with As concentration of < 1 mu g/L - a water quality goal which is tenfold more stringent than the current WHO guideline. This paper provides (i) an account on the assessed lung cancer risk for the Dutch population due to pertinent low-level As in drinking water and cost-comparison between health care provision and As removal from water, (ii) an overview of As occurrence and mobility in drinking water sources and water treatment systems in the Netherlands and (iii) insights into As removal methods that have been employed or under investigation to achieve As reduction to < 1 mu g/L at Dutch water treatment plants. Lowering of the average As concentration to < 1 mu g/L in the Netherlands is shown to result in an annual benefit of 7.2-14 M(sic). This study has a global significance for setting drinking water As limits and provision of safe drinking water.

  • 3. Amir-Heidari, Payam
    et al.
    Arneborg, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Lindgren, J. Fredrik
    Lindhe, Andreas
    Rosen, Lars
    Raie, Mohammad
    Axell, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Hassellov, Ida-Maja
    A state-of-the-art model for spatial and stochastic oil spill risk assessment: A case study of oil spill from a shipwreck2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 126, p. 309-320Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berger, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Assessing the risk of an excess fluoride intake among Swedish children in households with private wells: Expanding static single-source methods to a probabilistic multi-exposure-pathway approach2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 68, p. 192-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often assumed that water consumption is the major route of exposure for fluoride and analysis of water fluoride content is the most common approach for ensuring that the daily intake is not too high. In the present study, the risk of excess intake was characterized for children in households with private wells in Kalmar County, Sweden, where the natural geology shows local enrichments in fluorine. By comparing water concentrations with the WHO drinking water guideline (1.5 mg/L), it was found that 24% of the ca. 4800 sampled wells had a concentration above this limit, hence providing a figure for the number of children in the households concerned assessed to be at risk using this straightforward approach. The risk of an excess intake could, alternatively, also be characterized based on a tolerable daily intake (in this case the US EPA RfD of 0.06 mg/kg-day). The exposure to be evaluated was calculated using a probabilistic approach, where the variability in all exposure factors was considered, again for the same study population. The proportion of children assessed to be at risk after exposure from drinking water now increased to 48%, and when the probabilistic model was adjusted to also include other possible exposure pathways; beverages and food, ingestion of toothpaste, oral soil intake and dust inhalation, the number increased to 77%. Firstly, these results show how the risk characterization is affected by the basis of comparison. In this example, both of the reference values used are widely acknowledged. Secondly, it illustrates how much of the total exposure may be overlooked when only focusing on one exposure pathway, and thirdly, it shows the importance of considering the variability in all relevant pathways.

  • 5.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    Linköping University.
    Berglund, Marika
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University.
    Hogmalm, Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Challenges in assessing the health risks of consuming vegetables in metal-contaminated environments2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 113, p. 269-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A great deal of research has been devoted to the characterization of metal exposure due to the consumption of vegetables from urban or industrialized areas. It may seem comforting that concentrations in crops, as well as estimated exposure levels, are often found to be below permissible limits. However, we show that even a moderate increase in metal accumulation in crops may result in a significant increase in exposure. We also highlight the importance of assessing exposure levels in relation to a regional baseline. We have analyzed metal (Pb, Cd, As) concentrations in nearly 700 samples from 23 different vegetables, fruits, berries and mushrooms, collected near 21 highly contaminated industrial sites and from reference sites. Metal concentrations generally complied with permissible levels in commercial food and only Pb showed overall higher concentrations around the contaminated sites. Nevertheless, probabilistic exposure assessments revealed that the exposure to all three metals was significantly higher in the population residing around the contaminated sites, for both low-, medianand high consumers. The exposure was about twice as high for Pb and Cd, and four to six times as high for As. Since vegetable consumption alone did not result in exposure above tolerable intakes, it would have been easy to conclude that there is no risk associated with consuming vegetables grown near the contaminated sites. However, when the increase in exposure is quantified, its potential significance is harder to dismiss - especially when considering that exposure via other routes may be elevated in a similar way.

  • 6.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Uddh-Söderberg, Terese
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Berglund, Marika
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Hogmalm, Johan
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Challenges in assessing the health risks of consuming vegetables in metal-contaminated environments2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 113, p. 269-280, article id S0160-4120(17)31204-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A great deal of research has been devoted to the characterization of metal exposure due to the consumption of vegetables from urban or industrialized areas. It may seem comforting that concentrations in crops, as well as estimated exposure levels, are often found to be below permissible limits. However, we show that even a moderate increase in metal accumulation in crops may result in a significant increase in exposure. We also highlight the importance of assessing exposure levels in relation to a regional baseline. We have analyzed metal (Pb, Cd, As) concentrations in nearly 700 samples from 23 different vegetables, fruits, berries and mushrooms, collected near 21 highly contaminated industrial sites and from reference sites. Metal concentrations generally complied with permissible levels in commercial food and only Pb showed overall higher concentrations around the contaminated sites. Nevertheless, probabilistic exposure assessments revealed that the exposure to all three metals was significantly higher in the population residing around the contaminated sites, for both low-, median- and high consumers. The exposure was about twice as high for Pb and Cd, and four to six times as high for As. Since vegetable consumption alone did not result in exposure above tolerable intakes, it would have been easy to conclude that there is no risk associated with consuming vegetables grown near the contaminated sites. However, when the increase in exposure is quantified, its potential significance is harder to dismiss - especially when considering that exposure via other routes may be elevated in a similar way.

  • 7.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Uddh-Söderberg, Terese
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Berglund, Marika
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hogmalm, Johan
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Challenges in assessing the health risks of consuming vegetables in metal-contaminated environments2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 113, p. 269-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A great deal of research has been devoted to the characterization of metal exposure due to the consumption of vegetables from urban or industrialized areas. It may seem comforting that concentrations in crops, as well as estimated exposure levels, are often found to be below permissible limits. However, we show that even a moderate increase in metal accumulation in crops may result in a significant increase in exposure. We also highlight the importance of assessing exposure levels in relation to a regional baseline. We have analyzed metal (Pb, Cd, As) concentrations in nearly 700 samples from 23 different vegetables, fruits, berries and mushrooms, collected near 21 highly contaminated industrial sites and from reference sites. Metal concentrations generally complied with permissible levels in commercial food and only Pb showed overall higher concentrations around the contaminated sites. Nevertheless, probabilistic exposure assessments revealed that the exposure to all three metals was significantly higher in the population residing around the contaminated sites, for both low-, median- and high consumers. The exposure was about twice as high for Pb and Cd, and four to six times as high for As. Since vegetable consumption alone did not result in exposure above tolerable intakes, it would have been easy to conclude that there is no risk associated with consuming vegetables grown near the contaminated sites. However, when the increase in exposure is quantified, its potential significance is harder to dismiss – especially when considering that exposure via other routes may be elevated in a similar way.

  • 8.
    Ax, Erika
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lampa, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. MTM Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Per
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Circulating levels of environmental contaminants are associated with dietary patterns in older adults2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 75, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Food intake contributes substantially to our exposure to environmental contaminants. Still, little is known about our dietary habits' contribution to exposure variability.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of environmental contaminants in relation to predefined dietary patterns in an elderly Swedish population.

    Methods: Dietary data and serum concentrations of environmental contaminants were obtained from 844 70-year-old Swedish subjects (50% women) in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Dietary data from 7-day food records was used to assess adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, a low carbohydrate-high protein diet and the WHO dietary recommendations. Circulating levels of 6 polychlorinated biphenyl markers, 3 organochlorine pesticides, 1 dioxin and 1 polybrominated diphenyl ether, the metals cadmium, lead, mercury and aluminum and serum levels of bisphenol A and 4 phthalate metabolites were investigated in relation to dietary patterns in multivariate linear regression models.

    Results: A Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with levels of several polychlorinated biphenyls (118, 126, 153, and 209), trans-nonachlor and mercury. A low carbohydrate-high protein diet was positively associated with polychlorinated biphenyls 118 and 153, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mercury and lead. The WHO recommended diet was negatively related to levels of dioxin and lead, and borderline positively to polychlorinated biphenyl 118 and trans-nonachlor.

    Conclusion: Dietary patterns were associated in diverse manners with circulating levels of environmental contaminants in this elderly Swedish population. Following the WHO dietary recommendations seems to be associated with a lower burden of environmental contaminants.

  • 9.
    Ax, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lampa, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lind, P Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Circulating levels of environmental contaminants are associated with dietary patterns in older adults2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 75, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Food intake contributes substantially to our exposure to environmental contaminants. Still, little is known about our dietary habits' contribution to exposure variability.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of environmental contaminants in relation to predefined dietary patterns in an elderly Swedish population.

    METHODS: Dietary data and serum concentrations of environmental contaminants were obtained from 844 70-year-old Swedish subjects (50% women) in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Dietary data from 7-day food records was used to assess adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, a low carbohydrate-high protein diet and the WHO dietary recommendations. Circulating levels of 6 polychlorinated biphenyl markers, 3 organochlorine pesticides, 1 dioxin and 1 polybrominated diphenyl ether, the metals cadmium, lead, mercury and aluminum and serum levels of bisphenol A and 4 phthalate metabolites were investigated in relation to dietary patterns in multivariate linear regression models.

    RESULTS: A Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with levels of several polychlorinated biphenyls (118, 126, 153, and 209), trans-nonachlor and mercury. A low carbohydrate-high protein diet was positively associated with polychlorinated biphenyls 118 and 153, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mercury and lead. The WHO recommended diet was negatively related to levels of dioxin and lead, and borderline positively to polychlorinated biphenyl 118 and trans-nonachlor.

    CONCLUSION: Dietary patterns were associated in diverse manners with circulating levels of environmental contaminants in this elderly Swedish population. Following the WHO dietary recommendations seems to be associated with a lower burden of environmental contaminants.

  • 10. Balducci, Catia
    et al.
    Green, David C.
    Romagnoli, Paola
    Perilli, Mattia
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. City of Stockholm, Sweden.
    Panteliadis, Pavlos
    Cecinato, Angelo
    Cocaine and cannabinoids in the atmosphere of Northern Europe cities, comparison with Southern Europe and wastewater analysis2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 97, p. 187-194Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the first investigation of atmospheric illicit drug concentrations in Northern Europe usingmeasurements of cocaine and cannabinoids in Amsterdam, London and Stockholm. Further, these measurements were compared to those made in Rome to explore the geographical and inter-city variability. Co-located measurements of atmospheric particulate mass and PAHs were used to help describe and interpret the illicit drug measurements with respect to atmospheric dispersion. Cocaine concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 0.14 ng/m(3) in Amsterdam, from 0.02 to 0.33 ng/m(3) in London and were below quantification limit (3pg/m(3)) in Stockholm. Cannabinol was the only cannabinoidmolecule detected in the three cities. During this campaign, London reported the highest concentrations of cocaine and meaningful differences were detected between the urban background and city centre London sites. Mean cocaine concentrations measured in Amsterdam during March 2011 were also compared with those measured simultaneously in eight Italian cities. The cocaine concentration inAmsterdamwas comparable to that measured at an urban background inMilan and at a densely populated site in Florence. Although correlating atmospheric concentrations directlywith drug prevalence is not possible using current data, links between concentrations of cocaine and estimates of abuse prevalence assessed by the more routinely usedwastewater analysiswere also examined. A statistically significant correlationwas found between the two sets of data (R-2= 0.66; p= 0.00131). Results confirmed that meteorology, population rate and habits of consumption influence the atmospheric concentrations of drugs. If these confounding factors were better controlled for, the techniques described here could became an easy and cost effective tool to index the impact of cocaine abuse in the area; especially where local hot spots need to be identified.

  • 11.
    Banjop-Kharlygdoh, Joubert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Asnake, Solomon
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Walstad, Anders
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ivarsson, Per
    ALS Laboratory Group, Analytical Chemistry & Testing Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Identification of a group of brominated flame retardants as novel androgen receptor antagonists and potential neuronal and endocrine disrupters2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 74, p. 60-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) are used in industrial products to reduce the risk of fire. However, their continuous release into the environment is a concern as they are often persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic. Information on the impact these compounds have on human health and wildlife is limited and only a few of them have been identified to disrupt hormone receptor functions. In the present study we used in silico modeling to determine the interactions of selected BFRs with the human androgen receptor (AR). Three compounds were found to dock into the ligand-binding domain of the human AR and these were further tested using in vitro analysis. Allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE) and 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) were observed to act as AR antagonists. These BFRs have recently been detected in the environment, in house dust and in aquatic animals. The compounds have been detected at high concentrations in both blubber and brain of seals and we therefore also assessed their impact on the expression of L-type amino acid transporter system (LAT) genes, that are needed for amino acid uptake across the blood-brain barrier, as disruption of LAT gene function has been implicated in several brain disorders. The three BFRs down-regulated the expression of AR target genes that encode for prostate specific antigen (PSA), 5. α-reductases and β-microseminoprotein. The potency of PSA inhibition was of the same magnitude as the common prostate cancer drugs, demonstrating that these compounds are strong AR antagonists. Western blot analysis of AR protein showed that ATE, BATE and DPTE decreased the 5. α-dihydrotestosterone-induced AR protein levels, further confirming that these BFRs act as AR antagonists. The transcription of the LAT genes was altered by the three BFRs, indicating an effect on amino-acid uptake across cellular membranes and blood-brain barrier. This study demonstrated that ATE, BATE and DPTE are potent AR antagonists and the alterations in LAT gene transcription suggest that these compounds can affect neuronal functions and should be considered as potential neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting compounds.

  • 12.
    Bergman, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Rydén, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Law, Robin J.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Covaci, Adrian
    Alaee, Mehran
    Birnbaum, Linda
    Petreas, Myrto
    Rose, Martin
    Sakai, Shinichi
    Van den Eede, Nele
    van der Veen, Ike
    A novel abbreviation standard for organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphorus flame retardants and some characteristics of the chemicals2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 49, p. 57-82Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the interest in organic environmental contaminants first emerged 50 years ago, there has been a need to present discussion of such chemicals and their transformation products using simple abbreviations so as to avoid the repetitive use of long chemical names. As the number of chemicals of concern has increased, the number of abbreviations has also increased dramatically, sometimes resulting in the use of different abbreviations for the same chemical. In this article, we propose abbreviations for flame retardants (FRs) substituted with bromine or chlorine atoms or including a functional group containing phosphorus, i.e. BFRs, CFRs and PFRs, respectively. Due to the large number of halogenated and organophosphorus FRs, it has become increasingly important to develop a strategy for abbreviating the chemical names of FRs. In this paper, a two step procedure is proposed for deriving practical abbreviations (PRABs) for the chemicals discussed. In the first step, structural abbreviations (STABs) are developed using specific STAB criteria based on the FR structure. However, since several of the derived STABs are complicated and long, we propose instead the use of PRABs. These are, commonly, an extract of the most essential part of the STAB, while also considering abbreviations previously used in the literature. We indicate how these can be used to develop an abbreviation that can be generally accepted by scientists and other professionals involved in FR related work. Tables with PRABs and STABs for BFRs, CFRs and PERs are presented, including CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, notes of abbreviations that have been used previously, CA (Chemical Abstract) name, common names and trade names, as well as some fundamental physicochemical constants.

  • 13.
    Black, R. R.
    et al.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Meyer, C. P. (Mick)
    CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Australia.
    Touati, A.
    ARCADIS Geraghty and Miller Inc, Research Triangle Park NC, USA.
    Gullett, B. K.
    National Risk Management Research Laboratory, US Environment Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park NC, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Mueller, J. F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Emission factors for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB from open burning of biomass2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 62-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants includes in its aims the minimisation of unintentional releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin like PCB (dl-PCB) to the environment Development and implementation of policies to achieve this aim require accurate national inventories of releases of PCDD/PCDF/dl-PCB. To support this objective, the Conference of Parties established a process to review and update the UNEP Standardized Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases. An assessment of all emission inventories was that for many countries open burning of biomass and waste was identified as the major source of PCDD/PCDF releases. However, the experimental data underpinning the release estimates used were limited in number and, consequently, confidence in the accuracy of the emissions predictions was low. There has been significant progress in measurement technology since the last edition of the Toolkit in 2005. In this paper we reassess published emission factors for release of PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB to land and air.

    In total, four types of biomass and 111 emission factors were assessed. It was found that there are no systematic differences in emission factors apparent between biomass types or fire classes. The data set is best described by a lognormal distribution. The geometric mean emission factors (EFs) for releases of PCDD/PCDF to air for the four biomass classes used in the Toolkit (sugarcane, cereal crops, forest and savannah/grass) are 1.6 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), 0.49 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), 1.0 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1) and 0.4 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), respectively. Corresponding EFs for release of PCDD/PCDF to land are 3.0 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1), 1.1 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1), 1.1 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1) and 0.67 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1). There are now also sufficient published data available to evaluate EFs for dl-PCB release to air for sugarcane, forest and grass/savannah; these are 0.03 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1), 0.09 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1) and 0.01 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1), respectively. The average EF for dl-PCB release to land is 0.19 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1). Application of these EFs to national emissions of PCDD/PCDF for global estimates from open burning will lower previous estimates of PCDD/PCDF releases to air and to land by 85% and 90%, respectively. For some countries, the ranking of their major sources will be changed and open burning of biomass will become less significant than previously concluded.

  • 14.
    Bopp, Stephanie K.
    et al.
    European Commission, Directorate General Joint Research Centre, Directorate F – Health, Consumers and Reference Materials, Ispra, Italy.
    Barouki, Robert
    INSERM UMR-S 1124, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Brack, Werner
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.
    Dalla Costa, Silvia
    European Commission, Directorate General Joint Research Centre, Directorate B – Growth and Innovation, Ispra, Italy.
    Dorne, Jean-Lou C. M.
    Scientific Committee and Emerging Risks Unit, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy.
    Drakvik, Paula E.
    Swetox, Karolinska Institutet, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Faust, Michael
    Faust & Backhaus Environmental Consulting, Bremen, Germany.
    Karjalainen, Tuomo K.
    European Commission, Directorate General Research and Innovation, Directorate E – Health, Brussels, Belgium.
    Kephalopoulos, Stylianos
    European Commission, Directorate General Joint Research Centre, Directorate F – Health, Consumers and Reference Materials, Ispra, Italy.
    van Klaveren, Jacob
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherland.
    Kolossa-Gehring, Marike
    German Environment Agency, UBA, Berlin, Germany.
    Kortenkamp, Andreas
    Institute for Environment, Health and Societies, Brunel University, Uxbridge, United Kingdom.
    Lebret, Erik
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences – IRAS, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Lettieri, Teresa
    European Commission, Directorate General Joint Research Centre, Directorate D – Sustainable Resources, Ispra, Italy.
    Nørager, Sofie
    European Commission, Directorate General Research and Innovation, Directorate E – Health, Brussels, Belgium.
    Rüegg, Joelle
    Swetox, Karolinska Institutet, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Tarazona, Jose V.
    Pesticides Unit, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy.
    Trier, Xenia
    European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van de Water, Bob
    Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    van Gils, Jos
    Deltares, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Bergman, Åke
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Swetox, Karolinska Institutet, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Current EU research activities on combined exposure to multiple chemicals2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 120, p. 544-562Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans and wildlife are exposed to an intractably large number of different combinations of chemicals via food, water, air, consumer products, and other media and sources. This raises concerns about their impact on public and environmental health. The risk assessment of chemicals for regulatory purposes mainly relies on the assessment of individual chemicals. If exposure to multiple chemicals is considered in a legislative framework, it is usually limited to chemicals falling within this framework and co-exposure to chemicals that are covered by a different regulatory framework is often neglected. Methodologies and guidance for assessing risks from combined exposure to multiple chemicals have been developed for different regulatory sectors, however, a harmonised, consistent approach for performing mixture risk assessments and management across different regulatory sectors is lacking. At the time of this publication, several EU research projects are running, funded by the current European Research and Innovation Programme Horizon 2020 or the Seventh Framework Programme. They aim at addressing knowledge gaps and developing methodologies to better assess chemical mixtures, by generating and making available internal and external exposure data, developing models for exposure assessment, developing tools for in silico and in vitro effect assessment to be applied in a tiered framework and for grouping of chemicals, as well as developing joint epidemiological-toxicological approaches for mixture risk assessment and for prioritising mixtures of concern. The projects EDC-MixRisk, EuroMix, EUToxRisk, HBM4EU and SOLUTIONS have started an exchange between the consortia, European Commission Services and EU Agencies, in order to identify where new methodologies have become available and where remaining gaps need to be further addressed. This paper maps how the different projects contribute to the data needs and assessment methodologies and identifies remaining challenges to be further addressed for the assessment of chemical mixtures.

  • 15. Breivik, Knut
    et al.
    Czub, Gertje
    McLachlan, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wanja, Frank
    Towards an understanding of the link between environmental emissions and human body burdens of PCBs using CoZMoMAN2010In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 85-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different factors affect how organic contaminants released into the environment over time distribute and accumulate, enter various food-chains, and potentially cause toxic effects in wildlife and humans. A sound chemical risk assessment thus requires the determination of the quantitative relationship between emissions and human exposure. This study aimed to assess the extent of the quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the link between environmental emissions and human body burdens for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the western part of the Baltic Sea drainage basin and to identify any remaining knowledge gaps. An integrated, non-steady state model calculating human body burden from environmental emissions (CoZMoMAN) was created by linking the multi-compartment environmental fate model CoZMo-POP 2 with the human food chain bioaccumulation model ACC-HUMAN. CoZMoMAN predicted concentrations of seven PCB congeners in 11 key model compartments to typically within a factor of 2 to 4 of measured values, although larger discrepancies are noted for soils and humans. We conclude that whereas the most important processes which link emissions of PCBs to human body burdens are quite well understood in this region, some critical knowledge gaps related to the time trend of historical emissions remain to be addressed.

  • 16. Bu, Qingwei
    et al.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wong, Fiona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Yu, Gang
    Historical intake and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides by the Australian population reconstructed from biomonitoring data2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 74, p. 82-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying the competing rates of intake and elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the human body is necessary to understand the levels and trends of POPs at a population level. In this paper we reconstruct the historical intake and elimination of ten polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and five organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from Australian biomonitoring data by fitting a population-level pharmacokinetic (PK) model. Our analysis exploits two sets of cross-sectional biomonitoring data for PCBs and OCPs in pooled blood serum samples from the Australian population that were collected in 2003 and 2009. The modeled adult reference intakes in 1975 for PCB congeners ranged from 0.89 to 24.5 ng/kg bw/day, lower than the daily intakes of OCPs ranging from 73 to 970 ng/kg bw/day. Modeled intake rates are declining with half-times from 1.1 to 1.3 years for PCB congeners and 0.83 to 0.97 years for OCPs. The shortest modeled intrinsic human elimination half-life among the compounds studied here is 6.4 years for hexachlorobenzene, and the longest is 30 years for PCB-74. Our results indicate that it is feasible to reconstruct intakes and to estimate intrinsic human elimination half-lives using the population-level PK model and biomonitoring data only. Our modeled intrinsic human elimination half-lives are in good agreement with values from a similar study carried out for the population of the United Kingdom, and are generally longer than reported values from other industrialized countries in the Northern Hemisphere.

  • 17.
    Bui, Thuy T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Alves, Andreia
    Palm-Cousins, Anna
    Voorspoels, Stefan
    Covaci, Adrian
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Estimating uptake of phthalate ester metabolites into the human nail plate using pharmacokinetic modelling2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 100, p. 148-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding uptake of phthalate esters (PEs) and other chemicals into the human nail plate and thus, clarity concerning the suitability of human nails as a valid alternative matrix for monitoring longterm exposure. In particular, the relative importance of internal uptake of phthalate metabolites (from e.g. blood) compared to external uptake pathways is unknown. This study provides first insights into the partitioning of phthalate-metabolites between blood and nail using pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling and biomonitoring data from a Norwegian cohort. A previously published PK model (Lorber PK model) was used in combination with measured urine data to predict serum concentrations of DEHP and DnBP/DiBP metabolites at steady state. Then, partitioning between blood and nail was assessed assuming equilibrium conditions and treating the nail plate as a tissue, assuming a fixed lipid and water content. Although calculated as a worst-case scenario at equilibrium, the predicted nail concentrations of metabolites were lower than the biomonitoring data by factors of 44 to 1300 depending on the metabolite. It is therefore concluded that internal uptake of phthalate metabolites from blood into nail is a negligible pathway and does not explain the observed nail concentrations. Ingtead, external uptake pathways are more likely to dominate, possibly through deposition of phthalates onto the skin/nail and subsequent metabolism. Modelling gaseous diffusive uptake of PEs from air to nail revealed that this pathway is unlikely to be important. Experimental quantification of internal and external uptake pathways of phthalates and their metabolites into the human nail plate is needed to verify these modelling results. However, based on this model, human nails are not a good indicator of internal human exposure for the phthalate esters studied.

  • 18. Burte, Emilie
    et al.
    Leynaert, Bénédicte
    Bono, Roberto
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Bousquet, Jean
    Carsin, Anne-Elie
    De Hoogh, Kees
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Gormand, Frédéric
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Just, Jocelyne
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Künzli, Nino
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Pin, Isabelle
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Villani, Simona
    Siroux, Valérie
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Nadif, Rachel
    Jacquemin, Bénédicte
    Association between air pollution and rhinitis incidence in two European cohorts2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 115, p. 257-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between air pollution and rhinitis is not well established.

    Aim: The aim of this longitudinal analysis was to study the association between modeled air pollution at the subjects' home addresses and self-reported incidence of rhinitis.

    Methods: We used data from 1533 adults from two multicentre cohorts' studies (EGEA and ECRHS). Rhinitis incidence was defined as reporting rhinitis at the second follow-up (2011 to 2013) but not at the first follow-up (2000 to 2007). Annual exposure to NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 at the participants' home addresses was estimated using land-use regression models developed by the ESCAPE project for the 2009-2010 period. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed using Poisson regression. Pooled analysis, analyses by city and meta-regression testing for heterogeneity were carried out.

    Results: No association between long-term air pollution exposure and incidence of rhinitis was found (adjusted IRR (aIRR) for an increase of 10 mu g center dot m(-3) of NO2: 1.00 [0.91-1.09], for an increase of 5 mu g center dot m(-3) of PM2.5: 0.88 [0.73-1.04]). Similar results were found in the two-pollutant model (aIRR for an increase of 10 mu g center dot m(-3) of NO2: 1.01 [0.87-1.17], for an increase of 5 mu g center dot m(-3) of PM2.5: 0.87 [0.68-1.08]). Results differed depending on the city, but no regional pattern emerged for any of the pollutants.

    Conclusions: This study did not find any consistent evidence of an association between long-term air pollution and incident rhinitis.

  • 19.
    Cai, Jiao
    et al.
    Chongqing Univ, Minist Educ, Joint Int Res Lab Green Bldg & Built Environm, Chongqing 400045, Peoples R China;Chongqing Univ, Natl Ctr Int Res Low Carbon & Green Bldg, Minist Sci & Technol, Chongqing, Peoples R China.
    Li, Baizhan
    Chongqing Univ, Minist Educ, Joint Int Res Lab Green Bldg & Built Environm, Chongqing 400045, Peoples R China;Chongqing Univ, Natl Ctr Int Res Low Carbon & Green Bldg, Minist Sci & Technol, Chongqing, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Wei
    Chongqing Univ, Minist Educ, Joint Int Res Lab Green Bldg & Built Environm, Chongqing 400045, Peoples R China;Chongqing Univ, Natl Ctr Int Res Low Carbon & Green Bldg, Minist Sci & Technol, Chongqing, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Han
    Chongqing Univ, Minist Educ, Joint Int Res Lab Green Bldg & Built Environm, Chongqing 400045, Peoples R China;Chongqing Univ, Natl Ctr Int Res Low Carbon & Green Bldg, Minist Sci & Technol, Chongqing, Peoples R China.
    Du, Chenqiu
    Chongqing Univ, Minist Educ, Joint Int Res Lab Green Bldg & Built Environm, Chongqing 400045, Peoples R China;Chongqing Univ, Natl Ctr Int Res Low Carbon & Green Bldg, Minist Sci & Technol, Chongqing, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Yinping
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Architecture, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Chen
    Univ Shanghai Sci & Technol, Sch Environm & Architecture, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Zhuohui
    Fudan Univ, Key Lab Hlth Technol Assessment, Natl Hlth & Family Planning Commiss Peoples Repub, Sch Publ Hlth,Key Lab Publ Hlth Safety,Minist Edu, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
    Deng, Qihong
    Cent S Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Xu
    Cent China Normal Univ, Coll Life Sci, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Xin
    Shanxi Univ, Res Ctr Environm Sci & Engn, Taiyuan, Shanxi, Peoples R China.
    Qian, Hua
    Southeast Univ, Sch Energy & Environm, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Yuexia
    Tianjin Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Tianjin, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Wei
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Architecture, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Juan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Chongqing Univ, Minist Educ, Joint Int Res Lab Green Bldg & Built Environm, Chongqing 400045, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Qin
    Chongqing Univ, Minist Educ, Joint Int Res Lab Green Bldg & Built Environm, Chongqing 400045, Peoples R China;Chongqing Univ, Natl Ctr Int Res Low Carbon & Green Bldg, Minist Sci & Technol, Chongqing, Peoples R China.
    Zeng, Fanbin
    Chongqing Univ, Minist Educ, Joint Int Res Lab Green Bldg & Built Environm, Chongqing 400045, Peoples R China;Chongqing Univ, Natl Ctr Int Res Low Carbon & Green Bldg, Minist Sci & Technol, Chongqing, Peoples R China.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sundell, Jan
    Tianjin Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Tianjin, Peoples R China.
    Household dampness-related exposures in relation to childhood asthma and rhinitis in China: A multicentre observational study2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 126, p. 735-746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During 2010-2012, we conducted an observational study on household environment and health outcomes among 40,010 preschool children from seven cities of China. Here we examined associations of six dampness-related indicators (visible mold spots, visible damp stains, damp clothing and/or bedding, water damage, condensation on windowpane, moldy odor) in the current residence and three dampness-related indicators (visible mold spots, condensation on windowpane, moldy odor) in the early residence with childhood asthma and rhinitis. In the multi-level logistic regression analyses, visible mold spots and visible damp stains in the current residence were significantly associated with the increased odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma and allergic rhinitis during lifetime-ever (adjusted odd ratios (AORs) range: 1.18-1.35). All dampness-related indicators were significantly associated with increased odds of wheeze and rhinitis during lifetime-ever and in the past 12 months (AORs range: 1.16-2.64). The cumulative numbers of damp indicators had positively dose-response relationships with the increased odds of the studied diseases. These associations for wheeze and rhinitis were similar between northern children and southern children. Similar results were found in the sensitive analyses among children without a family history of allergies and among children without asthma and allergic rhinitis. For 3-6 years-old children in mainland of China in 2011, we speculated that about 90,000 (2.02%) children with asthma and about 59,000 (1.09%) children with allergic rhinitis could be attributable to exposing to visible mold spots in the current residence. Our results suggested that early and lifetime exposures to household dampness indicators are risk factors for childhood asthma and rhinitis.

  • 20.
    Cao, Zhi-Guo
    et al.
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Gang
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Chen, Yong-Shan
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Cao, Qi-Ming
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chemicals Branch, UNEP/DTIE, United Nations Environment Programme, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Deng, Shu-Bo
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Huang, Jun
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Bin
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Particle size: A missing factor in risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 49, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For researches on toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust, selection of dust fraction is a critical influencing factor to the accuracy of human exposure risk assessment results. However, analysis of the selection of dust fraction in recent studies revealed that there is no consensus. This study classified and presented researches on distribution of toxic chemicals according to dust particle size and on relationship between dust particle size and human exposure possibility. According to the literature, beyond the fact that there were no consistent conclusions on particle size distribution of adherent fraction, dust with particle size less than 100 mu m should be paid more attention and that larger than 250 mu m is neither adherent nor proper for human exposure risk assessment. Calculation results based on literature data show that with different selections of dust fractions, analytical results of toxic chemicals would vary up to 10-fold, which means that selecting dust fractions arbitrarily will lead to large errors in risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled dust. Taking into account the influence of dust particle size on risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals, a new methodology for risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust is proposed and human exposure parameter systems to settled indoor dust are advised to be established at national and regional scales all over the world.

  • 21. Chen, Yiqin
    et al.
    Sjodin, Andreas
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    English, Karin
    Aylward, Lesa L.
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Varghese, Julie
    Sly, Peter D.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Persistent organic pollutants in infants and toddlers: Relationship between concentrations in matched plasma and faecal samples2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 107, p. 82-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early-childhood biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is challenging due to the logistic and ethical limitations associated with blood sampling. We investigated using faeces as a non-invasive matrix to estimate internal exposure to POPs. The concentrations of selected POPs were measured in matched plasma and faecal samples collected from 20 infants/toddlers (aged 13 +/- 4.8 months), including a repeat sample time point for 13 infants (similar to 5 months apart). We observed higher rates of POP quantification in faeces (2 g dry weight) than in plasma (0.5 mL). Among the five chemicals that had quantification frequencies over 50% in both matrices, except for HCB, log concentration in faeces (C-f) and blood (C-b) were correlated (r > 0.74, P < 0.05) for p.p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), 2,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB118), 2,2', 3,4,4', 5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB138) and 2,2', 4,4', 5,5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB153). We determined faeces: plasma concentration ratios (K-fb), which can be used to estimate C-b from measurements of C-f for infants/toddlers. For a given chemical, the variation in K-fb across individuals was considerable (CV from 0.46 to 0.70). Between 5% and 50% of this variation was attributed to short-term intra-individual variability between successive faecal samples. This variability could be reduced by pooling faeces samples over several days. Some of the remaining variability was attributed to longer-term intra-individual variability, which was consistent with previously reported observations of a decrease in K-fb over the first year of life. The strong correlations between C-f and C-b demonstrate the promise of using faeces for biomonitoring of these compounds. Future research on the sources of variability in K-fb could improve the precision and utility of this technique.

  • 22.
    Choi, Hyunok
    et al.
    University at Albany, USA.
    Schmidbauer, Norbert
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Bornehag, Carl Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Volatile organic compounds of possible microbial origin and their risks on childhood asthma and allergies within damp homes2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 98, p. 143-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Risk of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds of purported microbial origin on childhood symptoms of wheezing, rhinitis, and/or eczema, and doctor-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively, remain unclear. Objective To test hypotheses that total sum of 28 microbial volatile organic compounds (Σ26 MVOCs): 1) poses independent risk on doctor-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively, as well as multiple symptom presentation with a minimum of the two of the above conditions (i.e. case); 2) is associated with significant interaction with absolute humidity (AH) on additive scale. Methods In a case-control investigation, 198 cases and 202 controls were examined during November 2001 – March 2002 period through home indoor air sampling, air quality inspection, and health outcome ascertainment. Results Not only the Σ28 MVOCs but also the global MVOC index were significantly higher within the homes of the cases with a high AH, compared to the controls with a low AH (all Ps < 0.001). Only the cases, but not the controls, were associated with a dose-dependent increase in the exposure variables of interest (Σ28 MVOCs) per quartile increase in AH (P < 0.0001 for the cases; P = 0.780 for the controls). Only among the children who live in a high AH homes, a natural log (ln)-unit of Σ 28 MVOCs was associated with 2.5-times greater odds of the case status (95% CI, 1.0–6.2; P = 0.046), compared to 0.7-times the odds (95% CI, 0.4–1.0; P = 0.074) of the same outcome among the low AH homes. Specifically, joint exposure to a high MVOCs and high AH was associated with 2.6-times greater odds of the doctor-diagnosed asthma status (95% CI, 0.7–8.91; P = 0.137). Conclusion Joint occurrence of high Σ28 MVOCs and AH was associated with a significant increase in the case status and asthma risks in an additive scale.

  • 23.
    Choi, Hyunok
    et al.
    SUNY Albany, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth Sci, Albany, NY 12222 USA.
    Schmidbauer, Norbert
    Norwegian Inst Air Res, POB 100, N-2027 Kjeller, Norway.;Norwegian Inst Air Res, Inst Tveien 18, N-2007 Kjeller, Norway.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Tech Res Inst Sweden, Box 857, SE-50115 Boras, Sweden.
    Volatile organic compounds of possible microbial origin and their risks on childhood asthma and allergies within damp homes2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 98, p. 143-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Risk of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds of purported microbial origin on childhood symptoms of wheezing, rhinitis, and/or eczema, and doctor-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively, remain unclear. Objective: To test hypotheses that total sum of 28 microbial volatile organic compounds (Sigma 26 MVOCs): 1) poses independent risk on doctor-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively, as well as multiple symptom presentation with a minimum of the two of the above conditions (i.e. case); 2) is associated with significant interaction with absolute humidity (AH) on additive scale. Methods: In a case-control investigation, 198 cases and 202 controls were examined during November 2001 March 2002 period through homeindoor air sampling, air quality inspection, and health outcome ascertainment. Results: Not only the Sigma 28 MVOCs but also the global MVOC index were significantly higher within the homes of the cases with a high AH, compared to the controls with a low AH (all Ps < 0.001). Only the cases, but not the controls, were associated with a dose-dependent increase in the exposure variables of interest (Sigma 28 MVOCs) per quartile increase in AH (P < 0.0001 for the cases; P = 0.780 for the controls). Only among the children who live in a high AH homes, a natural log (ln)-unit of Sigma 28 MVOCs was associated with 2.5-times greater odds of the case status (95% CI, 1.0-6.2; P = 0.046), compared to 0.7-times the odds (95% CI, 0.4-1.0; P = 0.074) of the same outcome among the low AH homes. Specifically, joint exposure to a high MVOCs and high AH was associated with 2.6-times greater odds of the doctor-diagnosed asthma status (95% CI, 0.7-8.91; P = 0.137). Conclusion: Joint occurrence of high Sigma 28 MVOCs and AH was associatedwith a significant increase in the case status and asthma risks in an additive scale.

  • 24. Cooper, Glinda S.
    et al.
    Lunn, Ruth M.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Glenn, Barbara S.
    Kraft, Andrew D.
    Luke, April M.
    Ratcliffe, Jennifer M.
    Study sensitivity: Evaluating the ability to detect effects in systematic reviews of chemical exposures2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 92-93, p. 605-610Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical step in systematic reviews of potential health hazards is the structured evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the included studies; risk of bias is a term often used to represent this process, specifically with respect to the evaluation of systematic errors that can lead to inaccurate (biased) results (i.e. focusing on internal validity). Systematic review methods developed in the clinical medicine arena have been adapted for use in evaluating environmental health hazards; this expansion raises questions about the scope of risk of bias tools and the extent to which they capture the elements that can affect the interpretation of results from environmental and occupational epidemiology studies and in vivo animal toxicology studies, (the studies typically available for assessment of risk of chemicals). One such element, described here as sensitivity, is a measure of the ability of a study to detect a true effect or hazard. This concept is similar to the concept of the sensitivity of an assay; an insensitive study may fail to show a difference that truly exists, leading to a false conclusion of no effect Factors relating to study sensitivity should be evaluated in a systematic manner with the same rigor as the evaluation of other elements within a risk of bias framework. We discuss the importance of this component for the interpretation of individual studies, examine approaches proposed or in use to address it, and describe how it relates to other evaluation components. The evaluation domains contained within a risk of bias tool can include, or can be modified to include, some features relating to study sensitivity; the explicit inclusion of these sensitivity criteria with the same rigor and at the same stage of study evaluation as other bias-related criteria can improve the evaluation process. In some cases, these and other features may be better addressed through a separate sensitivity domain. The combined evaluation of risk of bias and sensitivity can be used to identify the most informative studies, to evaluate the confidence of the findings from individual studies and to identify those study elements that may help to explain heterogeneity across the body of literature.

  • 25.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Vestergren, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Wang, Zhanyun
    Scheringer, Martin
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    The precautionary principle and chemicals management: The example of perfluoroalkyl acids in groundwater2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 94, p. 331-340Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Already in the late 1990s microgram-per-liter levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were measured in water samples from areas where fire-fighting foams were used or spilled. Despite these early warnings, the problems of groundwater, and thus drinking water, contaminated with perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including PFOS are only beginning to be addressed. It is clear that this PFAS contamination is poorly reversible and that the societal costs of clean-up will be high. This inability to reverse exposure in a reasonable timeframe is a major motivation for application of the precautionary principle in chemicals management. We conclude that exposure can be poorly reversible; 1) due to slow elimination kinetics in organisms, or 2) due to poorly reversible environmental contamination that leads to continuous exposure. In the second case, which is relevant for contaminated groundwater, the reversibility of exposure is not related to the magnitude of a chemical's bioaccumulation potential. We argue therefore that all PFASs entering groundwater, irrespective of their perfluoroalkyl chain length and bioaccumulation potential, will result in poorly reversible exposures and risks as well as further clean-up costs for society. To protect groundwater resources for future generations, society should consider a precautionary approach to chemicals management and prevent the use and release of highly persistent and mobile chemicals such as PFASs. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 26. Covaci, Adrian
    et al.
    Harrad, Stuart
    Abdallah, Mohamed A. -E.
    Ali, Nadeem
    Law, Robin J.
    Herzke, Dorte
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Novel brominated flame retardants: A review of their analysis, environmental fate and behaviour2011In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 532-556Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review summarises current knowledge about production volumes, physico-chemical properties, analysis, environmental occurrence, fate and behaviour and human exposure to the novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs). We define the term NBFRs as relating to BFRs which are new to the market or newly/recently observed in the environment. Restrictions and bans on the use of some polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) formulations, in many jurisdictions, have created a market for the use of NBFRs. To date, most data on NBFRs have arisen as additional information generated by research designed principally to study more traditional BFRs, such as PBDEs. This has led to a wide variety of analytical approaches for sample extraction, extract purification and instrumental analysis of NBFRs. An overview of environmental occurrence in abiotic matrices, aquatic biota, terrestrial biota and birds is presented. Evidence concerning the metabolism and absorption of different NBFRs is reviewed. Human exposure to NBFRs via different exposure pathways is discussed, and research gaps related to analysis, environmental sources, fate, and behaviour and human exposure are identified.

  • 27. Darnerud, P. O.
    et al.
    Lignell, S.
    Glynn, A.
    Aune, M.
    Törnkvist, A.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    POP levels in breast milk and maternal serum and thyroid hormone levels in mother-child pairs from Uppsala, Sweden2010In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 180-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In experimental studies, it has frequently been observed that the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs) is affected by exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as dioxins and PCBs. In man, similar effects have been indicated in several epidemiological studies. In order to investigate the possible effect on THs at low background exposures found among the Swedish population the following study was performed. Primiparous women (n=395) in the Uppsala region were recruited between 1996 and 1999. Of these, 325 mothers agreed to donate a serum sample in late pregnancy and breast milk was obtained from 211 women 3 weeks after delivery. Babies were sampled for blood at 3 weeks (n=150) and 3 months (n=115) after birth. In connection to the sampling, questions on personal characteristics were asked. Levels of low (tri- to penta-) chlorinated PCB, di-ortho PCB, p,p'-DDE, (mono-ortho) PCB TEQ and PCDD/DF TEQ were monitored in breast milk and in mother's blood (not PCDD/DF). The results showed that the measured TH levels (thyroid-stimulating hormone - TSH, total tri-iodothyronine - TT3, free thyroxine - FT4) in mothers and children were within the reference range. Some significant associations were seen between POP exposures and TH levels in mother or child after simple regression analysis. Following adjustment for important confounding factors, the significant associations mostly disappeared. However, significantly decreasing TT3 levels with increasing prenatal low-chlorinated PCB exposure were still seen in 3 week old children, and on TT3 in mothers exposed to PCDD/DF. In conclusion, the study clearly shows the importance of adjustment for important confounding factors in the analysis of possible associations between POP exposure and hormonal effects. The remaining associations are weak in both children and mothers and the clinical consequences of these alterations are uncertain. When comparing studies that investigate associations between TH levels and POP levels during the perinatal stage, no obvious between-study concordance was seen regarding the critical dose for hormonal effects to occur.

  • 28. de Hoogh, Kees
    et al.
    Korek, Michal
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Keuken, Menno
    Kukkonen, Jaakko
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Beelen, Rob
    Bolignano, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Pradas, Marta Cirach
    Cyrys, Josef
    Douros, John
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Fuks, Kateryna
    Gehring, Ulrike
    Gryparis, Alexandros
    Gulliver, John
    Hansell, Anna L.
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Jonkers, Sander
    Kangas, Leena
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Kuenzli, Nino
    Lanki, Timo
    Memmesheimer, Michael
    Moussiopoulos, Nicolas
    Modig, Lars
    Pershagen, Goran
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Schindler, Christian
    Schikowski, Tamara
    Sugiri, Dorothee
    Teixido, Oriol
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Bellander, Tom
    Comparing land use regression and dispersion modelling to assess residential exposure to ambient air pollution for epidemiological studies2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 73, p. 382-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Land-use regression (LUR) and dispersion models (DM) are commonly used for estimating individual air pollution exposure in population studies. Few comparisons have however been made of the performance of these methods. Objectives: Within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) we explored the differences between LUR and DM estimates for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. Methods: The ESCAPE study developed LUR models for outdoor air pollution levels based on a harmonised monitoring campaign. In thirteen ESCAPE study areas we further applied dispersion models. We compared LUR and DM estimates at the residential addresses of participants in 13 cohorts for NO2; 7 for PM10 and 4 for PM2.5. Additionally, we compared the DM estimates with measured concentrations at the 20-40 ESCAPE monitoring sites in each area. Results: The median Pearson R (range) correlation coefficients between LUR and DM estimates for the annual average concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.75 (0.19-0.89), 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.29 (0.22-0.81) for 112,971 (13 study areas), 69,591 (7) and 28,519(4) addresses respectively. The median Pearson R correlation coefficients (range) between DM estimates and ESCAPE measurements were of 0.74(0.09-0.86) for NO2; 0.58 (0.36-0.88) for PM10 and 0.58 (0.39-0.66) for PM2.5. Conclusions: LUR and dispersion model estimates correlated on average well for NO2 but only moderately for PM10 and PM2.5, with large variability across areas. DM predicted a moderate to large proportion of the measured variation for NO2 but less for PM10 and PM2.5.

  • 29. de Hoogh, Kees
    et al.
    Korek, Michal
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Keuken, Menno
    Kukkonen, Jaakko
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Beelen, Rob
    Bolignano, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Pradas, Marta Cirach
    Cyrys, Josef
    Douros, John
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Fuks, Kateryna
    Gehring, Ulrike
    Gryparis, Alexandros
    Gulliver, John
    Hansell, Anna L
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Johansson, Christer
    Jonkers, Sander
    Kangas, Leena
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Künzli, Nino
    Lanki, Timo
    Memmesheimer, Michael
    Moussiopoulos, Nicolas
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Pershagen, Göran
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Schindler, Christian
    Schikowski, Tamara
    Sugiri, Dorothee
    Teixidó, Oriol
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Bellander, Tom
    Comparing land use regression and dispersion modelling to assess residential exposure to ambient air pollution for epidemiological studies2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 73, p. 382-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Land-use regression (LUR) and dispersion models (DM) are commonly used for estimating individual air pollution exposure in population studies. Few comparisons have however been made of the performance of these methods.

    OBJECTIVES: Within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) we explored the differences between LUR and DM estimates for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5.

    METHODS: The ESCAPE study developed LUR models for outdoor air pollution levels based on a harmonised monitoring campaign. In thirteen ESCAPE study areas we further applied dispersion models. We compared LUR and DM estimates at the residential addresses of participants in 13 cohorts for NO2; 7 for PM10 and 4 for PM2.5. Additionally, we compared the DM estimates with measured concentrations at the 20-40 ESCAPE monitoring sites in each area.

    RESULTS: The median Pearson R (range) correlation coefficients between LUR and DM estimates for the annual average concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.75 (0.19-0.89), 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.29 (0.22-0.81) for 112,971 (13 study areas), 69,591 (7) and 28,519 (4) addresses respectively. The median Pearson R correlation coefficients (range) between DM estimates and ESCAPE measurements were of 0.74 (0.09-0.86) for NO2; 0.58 (0.36-0.88) for PM10 and 0.58 (0.39-0.66) for PM2.5.

    CONCLUSIONS: LUR and dispersion model estimates correlated on average well for NO2 but only moderately for PM10 and PM2.5, with large variability across areas. DM predicted a moderate to large proportion of the measured variation for NO2 but less for PM10 and PM2.5.

  • 30.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Björklund, Justina Awasum
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thuresson, Kaj
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Tri-decabrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in indoor air and dust from Stockholm microenvironments 2: Indoor sources and human exposure2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 141-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) concentrations from Stockholm, Sweden, indoor microenvironments were combined with information from detailed questionnaires regarding the sampling location characteristics, including furnishing and equipment present. These were used to elucidate relationships between possible flame-retarded sources and the contaminant concentrations found in air and dust. Median concentration ranges of Sigma Penta-, Sigma Octa-, Sigma DecaBDE and HBCD from all microenvironments were 19-570, 1.7-280, 29-3200 and <1.6-2 pg/m(3) in air and 22-240, 6.1-80, 330-1400 and 45-340 ng/g in dust, respectively. Significant correlations were found between concentrations of some PBDEs and HBCD in air and/or dust and the presence of electronic/electrical devices, foam furniture, PUF mattresses and synthetic bed pillows in, as well as floor area and construction year of the microenvironment. Car interiors were a source to indoor air in dealership halls. Using median and maximum concentrations of Sigma Penta-, Sigma Octa-, Sigma DecaBDE and HBCD in air and dust, adult and toddler (12-24 months) intakes from inhalation and dust ingestion were estimated. Toddlers had higher estimated intakes of Sigma Penta-, Sigma DecaBDE and HBCD (7.8, 43, 7.6 ng/d, respectively) from dust ingestion than adults (5.8, 38, 6.0 ng/d, respectively). Air inhalation in offices was also an important exposure pathway for Sigma Penta-, Sigma Octa- and Sigma DecaBDE in adults. For Sigma PentaBDE and HBCD, air inhalation and dust ingestion play minor roles when compared to previously published Swedish dietary intakes (median exposures). However, in worst case scenarios using maximum concentrations, dust ingestion may represent 77 and 95% of toddler intake for Sigma PentaBDE and HBCD, respectively.

  • 31.
    de Wit, Cynthia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Björklund, Justina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thuresson, Kaj
    Tri- to decabrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in indoor air and dust from Stockholm microenvironments 2: Indoor sources and human exposureIn: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Derakhshan, A.
    et al.
    Academic Center for Thyroid Diseases, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 15, Rotterdam.
    Shu, H.
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Peeters, R. P.
    Academic Center for Thyroid Diseases, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 15, Rotterdam, 3051 GE, Netherlands.
    Kortenkamp, A.
    Institute of Environment, Health and Societies, Brunel University, London, Uxbridge, United Kingdom.
    Lindh, C. H.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, 22363, Sweden.
    Demeneix, B.
    Laboratoire d'Evolution des Régulations Endocriniennes, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 57 Rue Cuvier, Paris,.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY, United States.
    Korevaar, T. I. M.
    Academic Center for Thyroid Diseases, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 15, Rotterdam, 3051 GE, Netherlands.
    Association of urinary bisphenols and triclosan with thyroid function during early pregnancy2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 133, article id 105123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bisphenols and triclosan are considered as potential thyroid disruptors. While mild alterations in maternal thyroid function can result in adverse pregnancy and child developmental outcomes, there is still uncertainty whether bisphenols or triclosan can interfere with thyroid function during pregnancy. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association of urinary bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and triclosan with early pregnancy thyroid function. Methods: This study was embedded in the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy study (SELMA), a population-based prospective pregnancy cohort. In total, 1996 participants were included in the current study. Maternal urinary concentrations of three bisphenols and triclosan, collected at median (95% range) 10 (6–14) weeks of pregnancy as well as serum concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyroxine (TT4), and total triiodothyronine (TT3) were measured. Results: Higher BPA levels were associated with lower TT4 concentrations (non-monotonic, P = 0.03), a lower FT4/FT3 ratio (β [SE] -0.02 [0.01], P = 0.03) and a lower TT4/TT3 ratio (β [SE] -0.73 [0.27], P = 0.008). Higher BPF levels were associated with a higher FT3 (β [SE] 0.01 [0.007], P = 0.04). There were no associations between other bisphenols or triclosan and absolute TSH, (F)T4 or (F)T3 concentrations. The association of BPA with thyroid function differed with gestational age. The negative association of BPA with FT4/FT3 and TT4/TT3 ratios was only apparent in early but not late gestation (P for interaction: 0.003, 0.008, respectively). Conclusion: These human data during pregnancy substantiate experimental findings suggesting that BPA could potentially affect thyroid function and deiodinase activities in early gestation.

  • 33. Derakhshan, Arash
    et al.
    Shu, Huan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Peeters, Robin P.
    Kortenkamp, Andreas
    Lindh, Christian H.
    Demeneix, Barbara
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Korevaar, Tim I. M.
    Association of urinary bisphenols and triclosan with thyroid function during early pregnancy2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 133, article id 105123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bisphenols and triclosan are considered as potential thyroid disruptors. While mild alterations in maternal thyroid function can result in adverse pregnancy and child developmental outcomes, there is still uncertainty whether bisphenols or triclosan can interfere with thyroid function during pregnancy. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association of urinary bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and triclosan with early pregnancy thyroid function. Methods: This study was embedded in the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy study (SELMA), a population-based prospective pregnancy cohort. In total, 1996 participants were included in the current study. Maternal urinary concentrations of three bisphenols and triclosan, collected at median (95% range) 10 (6-14) weeks of pregnancy as well as serum concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyroxine (TT4), and total triiodothyronine (TT3) were measured. Results: Higher BPA levels were associated with lower TT4 concentrations (non-monotonic, P=0.03), a lower FT4/FT3 ratio (beta [SE] -0.02 [0.01], P=0.03) and a lower TT4/TT3 ratio (beta [SE] -0.73 [0.27], P=0.008). Higher BPF levels were associated with a higher FT3 (beta [SE] 0.01 [0.007], P=0.04). There were no associations between other bisphenols or triclosan and absolute TSH, (F)T4 or (F)T3 concentrations. The association of BPA with thyroid function differed with gestational age. The negative association of BPA with FT4/FT3 and TT4/TT3 ratios was only apparent in early but not late gestation (P for interaction: 0.003, 0.008, respectively). Conclusion: These human data during pregnancy substantiate experimental findings suggesting that BPA could potentially affect thyroid function and deiodinase activities in early gestation.

  • 34. Descatha, Alexis
    et al.
    Sembajwe, Grace
    Baer, Michael
    Boccuni, Fabio
    Di Tecco, Cristina
    Duret, Clement
    Evanoff, Bradley A.
    Gagliardi, Diana
    Ivanov, Ivan D.
    Leppink, Nancy
    Marinaccio, Alessandro
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Ozguler, Anna
    Pega, Frank
    Pell, John
    Pico, Fernando
    Pruss-Ustun, Annette
    Ronchetti, Matteo
    Roquelaure, Yves
    Sabbath, Erika
    Stevens, Gretchen A.
    Tsutsumi, Akizumi
    Ujita, Yuka
    Iavicoli, Sergio
    WHO/ILO work-related burden of disease and injury: Protocol for systematic reviews of exposure to long working hours and of the effect of exposure to long working hours on stroke2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 119, p. 366-378Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from stroke attributable to exposure to long working hours, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology. Objectives: We aim to systematically review studies on occupational exposure to long working hours (called Systematic Review 1 in the protocol) and systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of long working hours on stroke (called Systematic Review 2), applying the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology as an organizing framework, conducting both systematic reviews in tandem and in a harmonized way. Data sources: Separately for Systematic Reviews 1 and 2, we will search electronic academic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, CISDOC and PsychINFO. We will also search electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand-search reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consult additional experts. Study eligibility and criteria: We will include working-age (>= 15 years) workers in the formal and informal economy in any WHO and/or ILO Member State, but exclude children (< 15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. For Systematic Review 1, we will include quantitative prevalence studies of relevant levels of occupational exposure to long working hours (i.e. 35-40, 41-48, 49-54 and >= 55 h/week) stratified by country, sex, age and industrial sector or occupation, in the years 2005-2018. For Systematic Review 2, we will include randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other non-randomized intervention studies with an estimate of the relative effect of a relevant level of long working hours on the incidence of or mortality due to stroke, compared with the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (i.e. 35-40 h/week). Study appraisal and synthesis methods: At least two review authors will independently screen titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from qualifying studies. At least two review authors will assess risk of bias and the quality of evidence, using the most suited tools currently available. For Systematic Review 2, if feasible, we will combine relative risks using meta-analysis. We will report results using the guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting (GATHER) for Systematic Review 1 and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines (PRISMA) for Systematic Review 2.

  • 35. Diamond, Miriam L.
    et al.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Molander, Sverker
    Scheringer, Martin
    Backhaus, Thomas
    Lohmann, Rainer
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    Bergman, Åke
    Hauschild, Michael
    Holoubek, Ivan
    Persson, Linn
    Suzuki, Noriyuki
    Vighi, Marco
    Zetzsch, Cornelius
    Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 78, p. 8-15Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rockstrom et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if unacceptable global change is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient evidence shows stresses on ecosystem and human health at local to global scales, suggesting that conditions are transgressing the safe operating space delimited by a PBCP. As such, current local to global pollution control measures are insufficient. However, while the PBCP is an important conceptual step forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control and response variables, that will aid in quantifying a PBCP(s) and gauging progress towards reducing chemical pollution; develop new technologies and technical and social approaches to mitigate global chemical pollution that emphasize a preventative approach; coordinate pollution control and sustainability efforts; and facilitate implementation of multiple (and potentially decentralized) control efforts involving scientists, civil society, government, non-governmental organizations and international bodies.

  • 36. Dickerson, Aisha S.
    et al.
    Ransome, Yusuf
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Human prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and risk behaviors in adolescence2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 129, p. 247-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are chemicals used in a variety of products before they were widely banned due to toxic effects in humans and wildlife. Because of continued persistence and ubiquity of these contaminants, risk of exposure to people living in industrialized countries is still high. Experimental research show that developmental exposure to PCB may alter function of brain pleasure centers and potentially influence disinhibitory behaviors, including tobacco and alcohol use. Yet, the potential effects of developmental PCB exposure on adolescent substance use have not been studied in humans. We used the Child Health and Development Studies (CHDS), a prospective birth cohort study in the Oakland and East Bay areas of California, to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to PCB congeners (66, 74, 99, 118, 138, 153, 170, 180, 187, and 203) and later disinhibitory behaviors in adolescents, specifically alcohol consumption and smoking, in a randomly selected sample (n = 554). Total prenatal PCB exposure was not associated with disinhibitory behaviors, among adolescents. However, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for being a current smoker, was higher in subjects within the third quartile of maternal PCB 66 exposure compared to those below the median (aOR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05, 3.55). The aOR for drinking > 2 alcoholic beverages per week, were also higher for adolescents within the third (aOR = 1.46; 95% CI 0.86, 2.47) and fourth quartile of PCB 66 exposure (aOR = 1.39; 95% CI 0.83, 2.35), but the differences did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that this specific PCB congener may play a role inducing neurodevelopmental alterations that could potentially increase the risk of becoming a long-term user of tobacco and possibly alcohol. There were no notable differences between magnitude or direction of effect between boys and girls. Future replicate analyses with larger longitudinal samples and animal experimental studies of potential underlying mechanisms are warranted.

  • 37. Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Koponen, Jani
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Associations between repeated measure of plasma perfluoroalkyl substances and cardiometabolic risk factors2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 124, p. 58-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent synthetic chemicals that may affect components of metabolic risk through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor but epidemiological data remain scarce and inconsistent.

    Objective: To estimate associations between repeated measurements of the main PFAS in plasma and total cholesterol, triglycerides and hypertension among the control subjects from a population-based nested case-control study on diabetes type 2 in middle-aged women and men.

    Methods: Participants (n = 187) were free of diabetes at both baseline and follow-up visits to the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, 10 years apart: during 1990 to 2003 (baseline) and 2001 to 2013 (follow-up). Participants left blood samples, completed questionnaires on diet and lifestyle factors, and underwent medical examinations, including measurement of blood pressure. PFAS and lipids were later determined in stored plasma samples. Associations for the repeated measurements were assessed using generalized estimating equations.

    Results: Six PFAS exceeded the limit of quantitation. Repeated measures of PFAS in plasma, cardiometabolic risk factors and confounders, showed an average decrease of triglycerides from −0.16 mmol/l (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.33, 0.02 for PFOA) to −0.26 mmol/l (95% CI: −0.50, −0.08 for PFOS), when comparing the highest tertile of PFAS plasma levels with the lowest. Associations based on average PFAS measurements and follow-up triglycerides revealed similar inverse associations, although attenuated. The estimates for cholesterol and hypertension were inconsistent and with few exception non-significant.

    Conclusions: This study found inverse associations between PFAS and triglycerides, but did not support any clear link with either cholesterol or hypertension.

  • 38. Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Koponen, Jani
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Akesson, Agneta
    Perfluoroalkyl substances and risk of type II diabetes: A prospective nested case-control study2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 123, p. 390-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have drawn much attention due to bioaccumulation potential and their current omnipresence in human blood. We assessed whether plasma PFAS, suspected to induce endocrine-disrupting effects, were prospectively associated with clinical type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk.

    Methods: We established a nested case-control study within the Swedish prospective population-based Västerbotten Intervention Programme cohort. Several PFAS were measured in plasma from a subset of 124 case-control pairs at baseline (during 1990–2003) and at 10-year follow-up. T2D cases were matched (1:1) according to gender, age and sample date with participants without T2D (controls).

    Conditional logistic regressions were used to prospectively assess risk of T2D by baseline PFAS plasma concentrations. Associations between long-term PFAS plasma levels (mean of baseline and follow-up) and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA2-B%) at follow-up were prospectively explored among 178 and 181 controls, respectively, by multivariable linear regressions.

    Results: After adjusting for gender, age, sample year, diet and body mass index, the odds ratio of T2D for the sum of PFAS (Σ z-score PFAS) was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.20, 1.36), comparing third with first tertile; and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.00) per one standard deviation increment of sum of log-transformed PFAS. Among the controls, the adjusted β of HOMA2-IR and HOMA-B% for the sum of PFAS were −0.26 (95% CI: −0.52, −0.01) and −9.61 (95% CI: −22.60, 3.39) respectively comparing third with first tertile.

    Conclusions: This prospective nested case-control study yielded overall inverse associations between individual PFAS and risk of T2D, although mostly non-significant. Among participants without T2D, long-term PFAS exposure was prospectively associated with lower insulin resistance.

  • 39.
    Drakvik, Elina
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Nobels Vag 13, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Altenburger, Rolf
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Permoserstr 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany.
    Aoki, Yasunobu
    Natl Inst Environm Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3058506, Japan.
    Backhaus, Thomas
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bahadori, Tina
    US EPA, 1200 Penn Ave NW,MC 8201R, Washington, DC 20460 USA.
    Barouki, Robert
    Univ Paris, Inserm Unit 1124, 45 Rue St Peres, F-75006 Paris, France.
    Brack, Werner
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Permoserstr 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany;Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Environm Res, ABBt Aachen Biol, Worringerweg 1, D-52074 Aachen, Germany.
    Cronin, Mark T. D.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Sch Pharm & Biomol Sci, Byrom St, Liverpool L3 3AF, Merseyside, England.
    Demeneix, Barbara
    CNRS, MNHN, UMR 7221, 7 Rue Cuvier, F-75005 Paris, France.
    Bennekou, Susanne Hougaard
    Danish Tech Univ, FOOD, Kemitorvet 201, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
    van Klaveren, Jacob
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm RIVM, POB 1, NL-3720 BA Bilthoven, Netherlands.
    Kneuer, Carsten
    German Fed Inst Risk Assessment, Pesticide Safety, Max Dohrn Str 8-10, D-10589 Berlin, Germany.
    Kolossa-Gehring, Marike
    German Environm Agcy UBA, Correnspl 1, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.
    Lebret, Erik
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm RIVM, POB 1, NL-3720 BA Bilthoven, Netherlands;Univ Utrecht, IRAS, Yalelaan 2, NL-3584 CM Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Posthuma, Leo
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm RIVM, POB 1, NL-3720 BA Bilthoven, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Environm Sci, Inst Water & Wetland Res, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Reiber, Lena
    German Environm Agcy UBA, Correnspl 1, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.
    Rider, Cynthia
    NIEHS, Natl Toxicol Program, 111 TW Alexander Dr,POB 12233,MD K2-12, Res Triangle Pk, NC 27709 USA.
    Ruegg, Joëlle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Nobels Vag 13, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Testa, Giuseppe
    Univ Milan, Dept Oncol, Via S Sofia 9-1, I-20122 Milan, Italy;IEO, Via Adamello 16, I-20139 Milan, Italy.
    van der Burg, Bart
    BioDetect Syst, Sci Pk 406, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    van der Voet, Hilko
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, NL-6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Warhurst, A. Michael
    CHEM Trust, 34b York Way, London N1 9AB, England.
    van de Water, Bob
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Acad Ctr Drug Res, POB 9502, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Yamazaki, Kunihiko
    Minist Environm Japan, Chiyoda Ku, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Tokyo 1008975, Japan.
    Oberg, Mattias
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Nobels Vag 13, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergman, Ake
    Stockholm Univ, ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Orebro Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden;Tongji Univ, Coll Environm Sci & Engn, State Key Lab Pollut Control & Resource Reuse, Shanghai 200092, Peoples R China.
    Statement on advancing the assessment of chemical mixtures and their risks for human health and the environment2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 134, article id UNSP 105267Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of anthropogenic chemicals, manufactured, by-products, metabolites and abiotically formed transformation products, counts to hundreds of thousands, at present. Thus, humans and wildlife are exposed to complex mixtures, never one chemical at a time and rarely with only one dominating effect. Hence there is an urgent need to develop strategies on how exposure to multiple hazardous chemicals and the combination of their effects can be assessed. A workshop, "Advancing the Assessment of Chemical Mixtures and their Risks for Human Health and the Environment" was organized in May 2018 together with Joint Research Center in Ispra, EUfunded research projects and Commission Services and relevant EU agencies. This forum for researchers and policy-makers was created to discuss and identify gaps in risk assessment and governance of chemical mixtures as well as to discuss state of the art science and future research needs. Based on the presentations and discussions at this workshop we want to bring forward the following Key Messages: We are at a turning point: multiple exposures and their combined effects require better management to protect public health and the environment from hazardous chemical mixtures. Regulatory initiatives should be launched to investigate the opportunities for all relevant regulatory frameworks to include prospective mixture risk assessment and consider combined exposures to (real-life) chemical mixtures to humans and wildlife, across sectors. Precautionary approaches and intermediate measures (e.g. Mixture Assessment Factor) can already be applied, although, definitive mixture risk assessments cannot be routinely conducted due to significant knowledge and data gaps. A European strategy needs to be set, through stakeholder engagement, for the governance of combined exposure to multiple chemicals and mixtures. The strategy would include research aimed at scientific advancement in mechanistic understanding and modelling techniques, as well as research to address regulatory and policy needs. Without such a clear strategy, specific objectives and common priorities, research, and policies to address mixtures will likely remain scattered and insufficient.

  • 40.
    Drakvik, Elina
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nobels väg 13, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm University, ACES, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Altenburger, Rolf
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.
    Aoki, Yasunobu
    National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Backhaus, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bahadori, Tina
    US Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave, NW, MC 8201R, Washington, DC, USA.
    Barouki, Robert
    Université de Paris, Inserm Unit 1124, Paris, France.
    Brack, Werner
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Leipzig, Germany; RWTH Aachen University Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt-aachen Biology, Aachen, Germany.
    Cronin, Mark T. D.
    Liverpool John Moores University, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Byrom Street, Liverpool, UK.
    Demeneix, Barbara
    Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (MNHN) UMR 7221 (CNRS/MNHN), Paris, France.
    Hougaard Bennekou, Susanne
    Danish Technical University, FOOD, Kemitorvet 201. Lyngby, Denmark.
    van Klaveren, Jacob
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
    Kneuer, Carsten
    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Pesticide Safety, German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Berlin, Germany.
    Kolossa-Gehring, Marike
    German Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin, Germany.
    Lebret, Erik
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences - IRAS, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Posthuma, Leo
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Radboud University, Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Reiber, Lena
    German Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin, Germany.
    Rider, Cynthia
    National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 TW Alexander Drive, PO Box 12233, MD:K2-12, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Rüegg, Joëlle
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden; Uppsala University, Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Testa, Giuseppe
    University of Milan, Department of Oncology, Via S. Sofia, 9/1, 20122 Milan, Italy; IEO European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.
    van der Burg, Bart
    BioDetection Systems, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    van der Voet, Hilko
    Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Warhurst, A. Michael
    CHEM Trust, London, UK.
    van de Water, Bob
    Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Yamazaki, Kunihiko
    Ministry of the Environment, Japan, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Öberg, Mattias
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergman, Åke
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Stockholm University, ACES, Stockholm, Sweden; State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Statement on advancing the assessment of chemical mixtures and their risks for human health and the environment2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 134, article id 105267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of anthropogenic chemicals, manufactured, by-products, metabolites and abiotically formed transformation products, counts to hundreds of thousands, at present. Thus, humans and wildlife are exposed to complex mixtures, never one chemical at a time and rarely with only one dominating effect. Hence there is an urgent need to develop strategies on how exposure to multiple hazardous chemicals and the combination of their effects can be assessed. A workshop, "Advancing the Assessment of Chemical Mixtures and their Risks for Human Health and the Environment" was organized in May 2018 together with Joint Research Center in Ispra, EU-funded research projects and Commission Services and relevant EU agencies. This forum for researchers and policy-makers was created to discuss and identify gaps in risk assessment and governance of chemical mixtures as well as to discuss state of the art science and future research needs. Based on the presentations and discussions at this workshop we want to bring forward the following Key Messages:

    We are at a turning point: multiple exposures and their combined effects require better management to protect public health and the environment from hazardous chemical mixtures.

    Regulatory initiatives should be launched to investigate the opportunities for all relevant regulatory frameworks to include prospective mixture risk assessment and consider combined exposures to (real-life) chemical mixtures to humans and wildlife, across sectors.

    Precautionary approaches and intermediate measures (e.g. Mixture Assessment Factor) can already be applied, although, definitive mixture risk assessments cannot be routinely conducted due to significant knowledge and data gaps.

    A European strategy needs to be set, through stakeholder engagement, for the governance of combined exposure to multiple chemicals and mixtures. The strategy would include research aimed at scientific advancement in mechanistic understanding and modelling techniques, as well as research to address regulatory and policy needs. Without such a clear strategy, specific objectives and common priorities, research, and policies to address mixtures will likely remain scattered and insufficient.

  • 41.
    Entwistle, Jane A.
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK.
    Amaibi, Patrick M.
    Department of Applied Sciences, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK.
    Dean, John R.
    Department of Applied Sciences, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK.
    Deary, Michael E.
    Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK.
    Medock, Daniel
    Toxicology Department, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ, UK.
    Morton, Jackie
    Health and Safety Executive, Harpur Hill, Buxton SK17 9JN, UK.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Global Scandinavia, Aurorum 10, 977 75 Luleå, Sweden.
    Bramwell, Lindsay
    Institute of Health and Society, Medical Faculty, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK.
    An apple a day? Assessing gardeners' lead exposure in urban agriculture sites to improve the derivation of soil assessment criteria2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 122, p. 130-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, many of our urban agriculture sites (UAS) contain high levels of lead (Pb), a contaminant of toxicological concern to humans. To improve the derivation of soil assessment criteria at UAS, and avoid inappropriate closure of these valuable community spaces, we sampled nearly 280 paired soil and crop samples across 31 UAS gardens. This sampling was coupled with an exposure and food frequency questionnaire and participants blood Pb levels (BLL), (43 gardeners and 29 non-gardening neighbours). In 98% of the sampled soils, Pb concentrations were above the current UK soil guideline for UAS (80 mg/kg), however despite the high soil Pb (geometric mean: 324 mg/kg), and high soil bioaccessible Pb (geometric mean: 58.7%), all participants BLL were <4.1 μg/dL (range: 0.6–4.1 μg/dL). Indeed, there was no statistically significant difference between the BLL of the UAS gardeners and those of their non-gardening neighbours (p = 0.569).

    Pb uptake, however, varied with crop type and our study highlights the suitability of certain crops for growing at UAS with elevated Pb (e.g. tubers, shrub and tree fruit), whilst limiting the consumption of others (selected root vegetables, such as rhubarb, beetroot, parsnips and carrots, with observed Pb concentrations > 0.1 mg/kg FW).

    The importance of defining the exposure scenario of a specific sub-population (i.e. UAS gardeners) is highlighted. Our preferred models predict site specific assessment criteria (SSAC) of 722–1634 mg/kg. We found fruit and vegetable consumption rates by all participants, and not just the UAS gardeners, to be considerably higher than those currently used to derive the UK's category 4 screening levels (C4SLs). Furthermore, the soil to plant concentration factors (SPCFs) used to derive the UAS C4SL significantly over predict Pb uptake. Our study indicates it may be appropriate to develop a distinct exposure dataset for UAS. In particular we recommend the derivation of SPCFs that are reflective of urban soils, both in terms of the range of soil Pb concentrations typically observed, but also the sources (and hence human oral bioaccessibility and plant-availability) of this Pb.

  • 42.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gómez, Mercedes
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Domingo, José L.
    Perfluorinated chemicals in blood of residents in Catalonia (Spain) in relation to age and gender: a pilot study2007In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 616-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) are a group of chemicals widely used as surfactants, lubricants, polymers, and fire-fighting foams. Recent studies have shown the ubiquitous distribution of FOCs in the environment, wildlife, and humans. We here report the results of a pilot study conducted to provide preliminary data on the levels of 13 FOCs in the blood of 48 residents in Catalonia, Spain, in relation to gender and age (25+/-5 and 55+/-5 years). The highest mean concentration was obtained for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 7.64 ng/ml), followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 3.56 ng/ml) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.80 ng/ml). Four other FOCs showed mean levels between 0.30 and 0.44 ng/ml, whereas those of the remaining 6 compounds were below the detection limit. Regarding gender, the blood levels of PFHxS and PFOA were significantly higher (p<0.05) in men than in women, while differences according to age were only noted for PFHxS (p<0.05) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) (p<0.001), for which the levels were higher in the younger (25+/-5 years) group of subjects. A significant correlation between PFOS levels and those of the remaining detected FOCs (except PFDA) was found. In general terms, the current FOC concentrations were lower than those found in recent studies concerning levels of these chemicals in human blood and serum of subjects from different countries.

  • 43.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, Martí
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Rovira i Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, José L.
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Rovira i Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in house dust and indoor air in Catalonia, Spain: implications for human exposure2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 27 per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined in both house dust (n=10) and indoor air (n=10) from selected homes in Catalonia, Spain. Concentrations were found to be similar or lower than those previously reported for household microenvironments in other countries. Ten PFCs were detected in all house dust samples. The highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 10.7 ng/g (median: 1.5 ng/g) and 10.4 ng/g (median: 5.4 ng/g), respectively, while the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the dominating neutral PFC at a concentration of 0.41 ng/g (median: 0.35 ng/g). The indoor air was dominated by the FTOHs, especially the 8:2 FTOH at a mean (median) concentration of 51 pg/m(3) (median: 42 pg/m(3)). A limited number of ionic PFCs were also detected in the indoor air samples. Daily intakes of PFCs were estimated for average and worst case scenarios of human exposure from indoor sources. For toddlers, this resulted in average intakes of ∑ionic PFCs of 4.9ng/day (0.33 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 15 kg toddlers) and ∑neutral PFCs of 0.072 ng/day (0.005 ng/kg(bw)/day) from house dust. For adults, the average daily intakes of dust were 3.6 and 0.053 ng/day (0.05 and 0.001 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 70 kg adult) for ∑ionic and ∑neutral PFCs, respectively. The average daily inhalation of ∑neutral PFCs was estimated to be 0.9 and 1.3 ng/day (0.06 and 0.02 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. For PFOS, the main ionic PFC detected in indoor air samples, the median intakes (based on those samples where PFOS was detected), resulted in indoor exposures of 0.06 and 0.11 ng/day (0.004 and 0.002 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. Based on previous studies on dietary intake and drinking water consumption, both house dust and indoor air contribute significantly less to PFC exposure within this population.

  • 44. Farkas, Julia
    et al.
    Peter, Hannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Christian, Paul
    Urrea, Julian Alberto Gallego
    Hassellov, Martin
    Tuoriniemi, Jani
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Olsson, Eva
    Hylland, Ketil
    Thomas, Kevin Victor
    Characterization of the effluent from a nanosilver producing washing machine2011In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 1057-1062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing number of nanomaterial based consumer products raises concerns about their possible impact on the environment. This study provides an assessment of the effluent from a commercially available silver nanowashing machine. The washing machine released silver in its effluent at an average concentration of 11 mu g L(-1), as determined by inductive coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed by single particle ICP-MS as well as ion selective electrode measurements and filtration techniques. Size measurements showed particles to be in the defined nanosize range, with an average size of 10 nm measured with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 60-100 nm determined with nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). The effluent was shown to have negative effects on a natural bacterial community as its abundance was clearly reduced when exposed to the nanowash water. If washing machines capable of producing AgNPs become a common feature of households in the future, wastewater will contain significant loadings of AgNPs which might be released into the environment.

  • 45.
    Fridén, Ulrika E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Chlorinated paraffins in indoor air and dust: Concentrations, congener patterns, and human exposure2011In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 1169-1174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are large production volume chemicals used in a wide variety of commercial applications. They are ubiquitous in the environment and humans. Human exposure via the indoor environment has, however, been barely investigated. In the present study 44 indoor air and six dust samples from apartments in Stockholm, Sweden, were analyzed for CPs. and indoor air concentrations are reported for the first time. The sumCP concentration (short chain CPs (SCCPs) and medium chain CPs (MCCPs)) in air ranged from <5-210 ng m(-3) as quantified by gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS/MS). Congener group patterns were studied using GC with electron capture negative ionization MS (GC/ECNI-MS). The air samples were dominated by the more volatile SCCPs compared to MCCPs. SumCPs were quantified by GC/EI-MS/MS in the dust samples at low mu g g(-1) levels, with a chromatographic pattern suggesting the prevalence of longer chain CPs compared to air. The median exposure to sumCPs via the indoor environment was estimated to be similar to 1 mu g day(-1) for both adults and toddlers. Adult exposure was dominated by inhalation, while dust ingestion was suggested to be more important for toddlers. Comparing these results to literature data on dietary intake indicates that human exposure to CPs from the indoor environment is not negligible.

  • 46. Fuertes, Elaine
    et al.
    Markevych, Iana
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Vienneau, Danielle
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Antó, Josep Maria
    Bowatte, Gayan
    Bono, Roberto
    Corsico, Angelo G
    Emtner, Margareta
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Gullón, José Antonio
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Henderson, John
    Holm, Mathias
    Johannessen, Ane
    Leynaert, Bénédicte
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Marchetti, Pierpaolo
    Moratalla, Jesús Martínez
    Pascual, Silvia
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Sánchez-Ramos, José Luis
    Siroux, Valerie
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Weyler, Joost
    Kuenzli, Nino
    Jacquemin, Bénédicte
    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith
    Residential air pollution does not modify the positive association between physical activity and lung function in current smokers in the ECRHS study2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 120, p. 364-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Very few studies have examined whether a long-term beneficial effect of physical activity on lung function can be influenced by living in polluted urban areas.

    OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether annual average residential concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and <10 μm (PM10) modify the effect of physical activity on lung function among never- (N = 2801) and current (N = 1719) smokers in the multi-center European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    METHODS: Associations between repeated assessments (at 27-57 and 39-67 years) of being physically active (physical activity: ≥2 times and ≥1 h per week) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were evaluated using adjusted mixed linear regression models. Models were conducted separately for never- and current smokers and stratified by residential long-term NO2, PM2.5 mass and PM10 mass concentrations (≤75th percentile (low/medium) versus >75th percentile (high)).

    RESULTS: Among current smokers, physical activity and lung function were positively associated regardless of air pollution levels. Among never-smokers, physical activity was associated with lung function in areas with low/medium NO2, PM2.5 mass and PM10 mass concentrations (e.g. mean difference in FVC between active and non-active subjects was 43.0 mL (13.6, 72.5), 49.5 mL (20.1, 78.8) and 49.7 mL (18.6, 80.7), respectively), but these associations were attenuated in high air pollution areas. Only the interaction term of physical activity and PM10 mass for FEV1 among never-smokers was significant (p-value = 0.03).

    CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity has beneficial effects on adult lung function in current smokers, irrespective of residential air pollution levels in Western Europe. Trends among never-smokers living in high air pollution areas are less clear.

  • 47.
    Fuertes, Elaine
    et al.
    ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain;Univ Pompeu Fabra UPF, Barcelona, Spain;CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ CIBERESP, Barcelona, Spain;Imperial Coll London, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, Populat Hlth & Occupat Dis, London, England.
    Markevych, Iana
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Univ Hosp, Inst & Clin Occupat Social & Environm Med, Munich, Germany;German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 1, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Imperial Coll London, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, Populat Hlth & Occupat Dis, London, England;Imperial Coll London, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, London, England.
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Basel, Switzerland;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Basel, Switzerland;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Maria Anto, Josep
    ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain;Univ Pompeu Fabra UPF, Barcelona, Spain;CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ CIBERESP, Barcelona, Spain.
    Bowatte, Gayan
    Univ Melbourne, Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Ctr Epidemiol & Biostat, Allergy & Lung Hlth Unit, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Bono, Roberto
    Univ Turin, Dept Publ Hlth & Pediat, Turin, Italy.
    Corsico, Angelo G.
    IRCCS Policlin San Matteo Fdn, Div Resp Dis, Pavia, Italy;Univ Pavia, Dept Internal Med & Therapeut, Pavia, Italy.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Landspitali Univ Hosp Reykjavik, Dept Resp Med & Sleep, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Antonio Gullon, Jose
    Hosp San Agustin, Dept Pneumol, Aviles, Asturias, Spain.
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Imperial Coll London, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, Populat Hlth & Occupat Dis, London, England;Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Univ Hosp, Inst & Clin Occupat Social & Environm Med, Munich, Germany.
    Henderson, John
    Univ Bristol, Britsol Med Sch, Populat Hlth Sci, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Holm, Mathias
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johannessen, Ane
    Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway;Haukeland Hosp, Dept Occupat Med, Bergen, Norway.
    Leynaert, Benedicte
    INSERM, UMR 1152, Pathophysiol & Epidemiol Resp Dis, Paris, France;Univ Paris Diderot Paris, UMR 1152, Paris, France.
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Univ Verona, Dept Diagnost & Publ Hlth, Unit Epidemiol & Med Stat, Verona, Italy.
    Marchetti, Pierpaolo
    Univ Verona, Dept Diagnost & Publ Hlth, Unit Epidemiol & Med Stat, Verona, Italy.
    Martinez Moratalla, Jesus
    Complejo Hosp Univ Albacete CHUA, Serv Neumol, Albacete, Spain;Serv Salud Castilla La Mancha SESCAM, Castilla La Mancha, Spain;Univ Castilla La Mancha, Fac Med Albacete, Albacete, Spain.
    Pascual, Silvia
    OSI Barrualde Galdakao, Galdakao Hosp, Resp Dept, Biscay, Spain.
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Basel, Switzerland;Univ Basel, Dept Publ Hlth, Basel, Switzerland.
    Luis Sanchez-Ramos, Jose
    Univ Huelva, Dept Nursing, Huelva, Spain.
    Siroux, Valerie
    UGA, Inst Adv Biosci, Team Environm Epidemiol Appl Reprod & Resp Hlth, Inserm,U1209,CNRS,UMR 5309, Grenoble, France.
    Sommar, Johan
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Occupat & Environm Med, Umea, Sweden.
    Weyler, Joost
    Univ Antwerp, Epidemiol & Social Med, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Kuenzli, Nino
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Basel, Switzerland;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Jacquemin, Benedicte
    ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain;Univ Pompeu Fabra UPF, Barcelona, Spain;CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ CIBERESP, Barcelona, Spain;Inst Med Sante & Rech Med, U1168, VIMA Aging & Chron Dis Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Appr, Villejuif, France;Univ Versailles St Quentin En Yvelines, UMR S1168, Versailles, France.
    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith
    ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain;Univ Pompeu Fabra UPF, Barcelona, Spain;CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ CIBERESP, Barcelona, Spain.
    Residential air pollution does not modify the positive association between physical activity and lung function in current smokers in the ECRHS study2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 120, p. 364-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Very few studies have examined whether a long-term beneficial effect of physical activity on lung function can be influenced by living in polluted urban areas.

    Objective: We assessed whether annual average residential concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 mu m (PM2.5) and < 10 mu m (PM10) modify the effect of physical activity on lung function among never- (N = 2801) and current (N = 1719) smokers in the multi-center European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Methods: Associations between repeated assessments (at 27-57 and 39-67 years) of being physically active (physical activity: >= 2 times and >= 1 h per week) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were evaluated using adjusted mixed linear regression models. Models were conducted separately for never-and current smokers and stratified by residential long-term NO2, PM2.5 mass and PM10 mass concentrations (<= 75th percentile (low/medium) versus > 75th percentile (high)).

    Results: Among current smokers, physical activity and lung function were positively associated regardless of air pollution levels. Among never-smokers, physical activity was associated with lung function in areas with low/medium NO2, PM2.5 mass and PM10 mass concentrations (e.g. mean difference in FVC between active and non-active subjects was 43.0 mL (13.6, 72.5), 49.5 mL (20.1, 78.8) and 49.7 mL (18.6, 80.7), respectively), but these associations were attenuated in high air pollution areas. Only the interaction term of physical activity and PM10 mass for FEV1 among never-smokers was significant (p-value = 0.03).

    Conclusions: Physical activity has beneficial effects on adult lung function in current smokers, irrespective of residential air pollution levels in Western Europe. Trends among never-smokers living in high air pollution areas are less clear.

  • 48.
    Fång, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm university.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of.
    Bignert, Anders
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm university.
    Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in mothers' milk from Sweden, 1972–20112013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, no 60, p. 224-231Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Fång, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bignert, Anders
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in mothers' milk from Sweden, 1972-20112013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 60, p. 224-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in mothers' milk are still quite rare. Data are particularly scarce when it comes to concentrations from the last decade, 2000 and onwards. The aims of the present study were to assess temporal trends of PCDD, PCDF and DL-PCB in mothers' milk from Stockholm, 1972-2011 and to compare the results with previous analysis of some of the older samples. The samples were analyzed by high resolution GC/MS and results were statistically evaluated for the periods, 1972-2011 and 2002-2011. The rate of which Sigma PCDDs, Sigma DL-PCBs and the Sigma TEQ are decreasing (on pg/g fat WHO-TEQ2005) is higher in the last decade compared to the 40 year period, 1972-2011. A similar trend is indicated, but not confirmed, for Sigma TEQ of PCDFs, probably due to too many PCDF congeners below LOQ in the period 2002-2011. Concentrations of Sigma PCDDs, PCDFs, Sigma DLPCBs and Sigma TEQ all expressed as pg/g fat on TEQ-WH02005-basis, show a statistically significant decline over time, 5.8-6.8% per year, 1972-2011. The last ten years the annual declines for Sigma PCDDs, Sigma DL-PCBs and Sigma TEQ are 92-11% and for Sigma PCDF, 5.4%. Congener specific trend analysis, 2002-2001, of PCDDs and DL-PCBs showed the same pattern, while the PCDF congeners showed no such general trend. The results from the re-analysis showed good agreement with slightly lower Sigma TEQ1998 pg/g fat concentrations in six out of seven samples and mean difference of 13% in Sigma TEQ1998. The study shows that time series can be elongated from previous studies, as long as the sample population remains the same.

  • 50. Gari, Merce
    et al.
    Bosch, Carme
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Grimalt, Joan O.
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Impacts of atmospheric chlor-alkali factory emissions in surrounding populations2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 65, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental exposures need to be assessed for the understanding of the health risks of general population. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) from chlor-alkali plants (CAPs) are significant for the exposomes of individuals living in locations receiving their emissions and have to be determined. The aims of the study are to identify the area of influence of past and present OC emissions from CAPs and to set quantitative body burden estimates. A CAP situated in a rural area was selected for study. The geographic distribution of the atmospheric emissions was monitored using olive tree leaves. Human biomonitoring was assessed by serum analysis from general population (n = 1340). DC concentrations followed exponential decay functions with maxima in the immediate vicinity of the factory. The individuals living within 1 km exhibited hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDT-DDE (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) concentrations that were 12, 1.3-1.9 and 3.9 times higher than in sites not influenced by the emissions from this factory. Individuals from municipalities situated 15-25 km away from the CAP showed 1.5, 12-1.4 and 1.3 times higher serum HCB. PCB and DDT concentrations than in distant sites. The high serum concentrations of DDT and PCBs were observed even 23-31 years and 9-17 years after manufacture completion of these compounds, respectively. Our methodology provides a way for assessment of the influence of past and present atmospheric OCs emissions from CAPs into the exposome of individuals living in nearby areas.

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