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  • 1.
    Arndt, D. S.
    et al.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Blunden, J.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Dunn, R. J. H.
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Aaron-Morrison, Arlene P.
    Trinidad & Tobago Meteorol Serv, Piarco, Trinid & Tobago.
    Abdallah, A.
    Agence Natl Aviat Civile & Meteorol, Moroni, Comoros.
    Ackerman, Steven A.
    Univ Wisconsin, CIMSS, Madison, WI USA.
    Adler, Robert
    Univ Maryland, College Pk, MD USA.
    Alfaro, Eric J.
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Allan, Richard P.
    Univ Reading, Reading, Berks, England.
    Allan, Rob
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Alvarez, Luis A.
    Inst Hidrol Meteorol & Estudios Ambientales Colom, Bogota, Colombia.
    Alves, Lincoln M.
    Inst Nacl Pesquisas Espaciais, Ctr Ciencias Sistema Terrestre, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Amador, Jorge A.
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Andreassen, L. M.
    Norwegian Water Resources & Energy Directorate, Sect Glaciers Ice & Snow, Oslo, Norway.
    Arce, Dayana
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Argueez, Anthony
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Arndt, Derek S.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Arzhanova, N. M.
    Russian Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
    Augustine, John
    NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
    Awatif, E. M.
    Egyptian Meteorol Author, Cairo Numer Weather Predict, Dept Seasonal Forecast & Climate Res, Cairo, Egypt.
    Azorin-Molina, Cesar
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, Reg Climate Grp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Baez, Julian
    Direcc Meteorol & Hidrol DINAC, Asuncion, Paraguay.
    Bardin, M. U.
    Islamic Republ Iran Meteorol Org, Tehran, Iran.
    Barichivich, Jonathan
    Ctr Climate & Resilience Res, Santiago, Chile;Pontificia Univ Catolica Valparaiso, Inst Geog, Valparaiso, Chile;Univ Austral Chile, Inst Conservac Biodiversidad & Terr, Valdivia, Chile.
    Baringer, Molly O.
    NOAA OAR Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
    Barreira, Sandra
    Argentine Naval Hydrog Serv, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Baxter, Stephen
    NOAA NWS Climate Predict Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
    Beck, H. E.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Princeton, NJ 08536 USA.
    Becker, Andreas
    Deutsch Wetterdienst, Global Precipitat Climatol Ctr, Offenbach, Germany.
    Bedka, Kristopher M.
    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
    Behrenfeld, Michael J.
    Oregon State Univ, Corvallis, OR USA.
    Bell, Gerald D.
    NOAA NWS Climate Predict Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
    Belmont, M.
    Seychelles Natl Meteorol Serv, Pointe Larue, Mahe, Seychelles.
    Benedetti, Angela
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
    Bernhard, G. H.
    Biospher Instruments, San Diego, CA USA.
    Berrisford, Paul
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
    Berry, David I.
    Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Bettolli, Maria L.
    Univ Buenos Aires, Fac Ciencias Exactas & Nat, Dept Ciencias Atmosfera & Oceanos, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Bhatt, U. S.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Bidegain, Mario
    Inst Uruguayo Meteorol, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Biskaborn, B.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Potsdam, Germany.
    Bissolli, Peter
    Deutscher Wetterdienst, WMO RA VI Reg Climate Ctr Network, Offenbach, Germany.
    Bjerke, J.
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res, Tromso, Norway.
    Blake, Eric S.
    NOAA NWS Natl Hurricane Ctr, Miami, FL USA.
    Blunden, Jessica
    Bosilovich, Michael G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Global Modeling & Assimilat Off, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Boucher, Olivier
    CNRS UPMC, Inst Pierre Simon Laplace, Paris, France.
    Boudet, Dagne
    Inst Meteorol Cuba, Climate Ctr, Havana, Cuba.
    Box, J. E.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Boyer, Tim
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Braathen, Geir O.
    WMO Atmospher Environm Res Div, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Brimelow, Julian
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Bromwich, David H.
    Ohio State Univ, Byrd Polar & Climate Res Ctr, Columbus, OH USA.
    Brown, R.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Climate Res Div, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Buehler, S.
    Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Bulygina, Olga N.
    Russian Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
    Burgess, D.
    Geol Survey Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Calderon, Blanca
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Camargo, Suzana J.
    Columbia Univ, Lamont Doherty Earth Observ, Palisades, NY USA.
    Campbell, Jayaka D.
    Univ West Indies, Dept Phys, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Cappelen, J.
    Danish Meteorol Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Caroff, P.
    RSMC La Reunion, Meteo France, La Reunion, France.
    Carrea, Laura
    Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading, England.
    Carter, Brendan R.
    NOAA OAR Pacific Marine Environm Lab, Seattle, WA USA;Univ Washington, Joint Inst Study Atmosphere & Ocean, Seattle, WA USA.
    Chambers, Don P.
    Univ S Florida, Coll Marine Sci, St Petersburg, FL USA.
    Chandler, Elise
    Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Cheng, Ming-Dean
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan;Cent Weather Bur, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Christiansen, Hanne H.
    Univ Ctr Svalbard, Dept Geol, Longyearbyen, Norway.
    Christy, John R.
    Univ Alabama Huntsville, Huntsville, AL USA.
    Chung, Daniel
    Vienna Univ Technol, Dept Geodesy & Geoinformat, Vienna, Austria.
    Chung, E. -S
    Clem, Kyle R.
    Victoria Univ Wellington, Sch Geography Environm & Earth Sci, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Coelho, Caio A. S.
    CPTEC INPE, Ctr Weather Forecasts & Climate Studies, Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil.
    Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie
    German Aerosp Ctr DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany.
    Colwell, Steve
    British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, England.
    Cooper, Owen R.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA;NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
    Copland, L.
    Univ Ottawa, Dept Geography, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Cross, J. N.
    NOAA OAR Pacific Marine Environm Lab, Seattle, WA USA.
    Crouch, Jake
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Cutie, Virgen
    Inst Meteorol Cuba, Climate Ctr, Havana, Cuba.
    Davis, Sean M.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA.
    de Eyto, Elvira
    Marine Inst, Newport, Ireland.
    de Jeu, Richard A. M.
    VanderSat BV, Haarlem, Netherlands.
    de Laat, Jos
    Royal Netherlands Meteorol Inst KNMI, De Bilt, Netherlands.
    DeGasperi, Curtis L.
    King Cty Water & Land Resources Div, Seattle, WA USA.
    Degenstein, Doug
    Univ Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Demircan, M.
    Turkish State Meteorol Serv, Ankara, Turkey.
    Derksen, C.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Climate Res Div, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Di Girolamo, Larry
    Univ Illinois, Urbana, IL USA.
    Diamond, Howard J.
    NOAA OAR Air Resources Lab, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    Dindyal, S.
    Mauritius Meteorological Serv, Vacoas, Mauritius.
    Dlugokencky, Ed J.
    NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
    Dohan, Kathleen
    Earth & Space Res, Seattle, WA USA.
    Dokulil, Martin T.
    Univ Innsbruck, Res Inst Limnology, Mondsee, Austria.
    Dolman, A. Johannes
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Earth Sci Earth & Climate Cluster, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Domingues, Catia M.
    Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, Hobart, Tas, Australia;Antarctic Climate & Ecosyst Cooperat Res Ctr, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
    Donat, Markus G.
    Univ New S Wales, Climate Change Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Dong, Shenfu
    Cooperat Inst Marine & Atmospher Sci, Miami, FL USA.
    Dorigo, Wouter A.
    Vienna Univ Technol, Dept Geodesy & Geoinformat, Vienna, Austria.
    Drozdov, D. S.
    Earth Cryosphere Inst, Tumen, Russia;Tyumen State Oil & Gas Univ, Tyumen, Russia.
    Dunn, Robert J. H.
    Duran-Quesada, Ana M.
    Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Dutton, Geoff S.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA.
    ElKharrim, M.
    Direction Meteorol Natl Maroc, Rabat, Morocco.
    Elkins, James W.
    Epstein, H. E.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Environm Sci, Charlottesville, VIRGINIA.
    Espinoza, Jhan C.
    Inst Geofisico Peru, Lima, Peru.
    Etienne-LeBlanc, Sheryl
    Meteorol Dept St Maarten, St Maarten, Netherlands.
    Famiglietti, James S.
    CALTECH, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
    Farrell, S.
    Univ Maryland, Earth Syst Sci Interdiscipl Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
    Fateh, S.
    Islamic Republic Iranian Meteorol, Tehran, Iran.
    Fausto, R. S.
    Geolog Survey Denmark & Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Feely, Richard A.
    Feng, Z.
    FCSD ASGC Pacific Northwest Natl Lab, Richland, WA USA.
    Fenimore, Chris
    Fettweis, X.
    Univ Liege, Liege, Belgium.
    Fioletov, Vitali E.
    Flannigan, Mike
    Univ Alberta, Dept Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Flemming, Johannes
    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
    Fogt, Ryan L.
    Ohio Univ, Dept Geography, Athens, Ohio.
    Folland, Chris
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England;Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia;Univ East Anglia, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, England.
    Fonseca, C.
    Inst Meteorol Cuba, Climate Ctr, Havana, Cuba.
    Forbes, B. C.
    Univ Lapland, Arctic Ctr, Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Foster, Michael J.
    Univ Wisconsin, CIMSS, Madison, WI USA.
    Francis, S. D.
    Nigerian Meteorol Agcy, Natl Weather Forecast & Climate Res Ctr, Abuja, Nigeria.
    Franz, Bryan A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Frey, Richard A.
    Univ Wisconsin, CIMSS, Madison, WI USA.
    Frith, Stacey M.
    Sci Syst & Appl Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA;NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Froidevaux, Lucien
    CALTECH, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
    Ganter, Catherine
    Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Gerland, S.
    Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Fram Ctr, Tromso, Norway.
    Gilson, John
    Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
    Gobron, Nadine
    European Commiss, Joint Res Ctr, Ispra, Italy.
    Goldenberg, Stanley B.
    Goni, Gustavo
    Gonzalez, Idelmis T.
    Inst Meteorol Cuba, Climate Ctr, Havana, Cuba.
    Goto, A.
    Japan Meteorol Agcy, Tokyo, Japan.
    Greenhough, Marianna D.
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Grooss, J. -U
    Gruber, Alexander
    Guard, Charles
    NOAA NWS Weather Forecast Off, Mangilao, GU USA.
    Gupta, S. K.
    Sci Syst & Applicat Inc, Hampton, VA USA.
    Gutierrez, J. M.
    CSIC Univ Cantabria, Inst Fis Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
    Haas, C.
    York Univ, Earth & Space Sci & Engn, Toronto, ON, Canada;Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Hagos, S.
    Pacific Northwest Natl Lab, FCSD ASGC Climate Phys Grp, Richland, WA USA.
    Hahn, Sebastian
    Haimberger, Leo
    Univ Vienna, Dept Meteorol & Geophys, Vienna, Austria.
    Hall, Brad D.
    Halpert, Michael S.
    Hamlington, Benjamin D.
    Old Dominion Univ, Ctr Coastal Phys Oceanography, Norfolk, VA USA.
    Hanna, E.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Geography, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
    Hanssen-Bauer, I
    Norwegian Meteorol Inst, Blindern, Oslo, Norway.
    Hare, Jon
    NOAA NMFS Northeast Fisheries Sci Ctr, Woods Hole, MA USA.
    Harris, Ian
    Univ East Anglia, Natl Ctr Atmospheric Sci, Norwich, NY USA;Univ East Anglia, Climatic Res Unit, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, NY USA.
    Heidinger, Andrew K.
    NOAA NESDIS STAR Univ Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI USA.
    Heim, Richard R., Jr.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr, Asheville, NC USA.
    Hendricks, S.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Hernandez, Marieta
    Climate Ctr, Inst Meteorol, Havana, Cuba.
    Hernandez, Rafael
    Inst Nacl Meteorol & Hidrolog Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.
    Hidalgo, Hugo G.
    Ho, Shu-peng
    Univ Corp Atmospheric Res, COSMIC Project Off, Boulder, CO USA.
    Hobbs, William R.
    Univ Tasmania, Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems, Hobart, Australia.
    Huang, Boyin
    Huelsing, Hannah K.
    SUNY Albany, Albany, NY USA.
    Hurst, Dale F.
    Ialongo, I.
    Finnish Meteorolog Inst, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ijampy, J. A.
    Nigerian Meteorol Agcy, Abuja, Nigeria.
    Inness, Antje
    European Ctr Medium Range, Reading, Berks, England.
    Isaksen, K.
    Norwegian Meteorolog Inst, Oslo, Norway.
    Ishii, Masayoshi
    Japan Meteorolog Agcy, Climat Res Dept, Meteorolog Res Inst, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Jevrejeva, Svetlana
    Jimenez, C.
    Estellus, Paris, France;PSL Res Univ, LERMA, Observatoire Paris, Paris, France.
    Xiangze, Jin
    John, Viju
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England;EUMETSAT, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Johns, William E.
    Rosenstiel Sch Marine & Atmospher Sci, Miami, FL USA.
    Johnsen, B.
    Norwegian Radiat Protect Authority, Osteras, Norway.
    Johnson, Bryan
    NOAA OAR Earth System Res Lab, Global Monitoring Div, Boulder, CO USA;Univ Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO USA.
    Johnson, Gregory C.
    Johnson, Kenneth S.
    Monterey Bay Aquarium Res Inst, Moss Landing, CA USA.
    Jones, Philip D.
    Univ East Anglia, Climat Res Unit, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, England.
    Jumaux, Guillaume
    Meteo France, Direct Interreg Ocean Indien, St Denis, Reunion, France.
    Kabidi, Khadija
    Direct Meteorolog Natl Maroc, Rabat, Morocco.
    Kaiser, J. W.
    Max Planck Inst Chem, Mainz, Germany.
    Kass, David
    California Inst Technol, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
    Kato, Seiji
    Kazemi, A.
    Islamic Republic Iran Meteorolog Org, Tehran, Iran.
    Kelem, G.
    Ethiopian Meteorolog Agcy, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Keller, Linda M.
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, Dept Atmospheric & Oceanic Sci, Madison, WI USA.
    Kelly, B. P.
    Ctr Blue Economy, Middlebury Inst Int Studies, Monterey, CA USA;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Int Arctic Res Ctr, Fairbanks, AK USA;Study Environm Arctic Change SEARCH, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Kendon, Mike
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Kennedy, John
    Kerr, Kenneth
    Trinidad & Tobago Meteorol Serv, Piarco, Trinid & Tobago.
    Kholodov, A. L.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Khoshkam, Mahbobeh
    Islamic Republ Iran Meteorol Org, Tehran, Iran.
    Killick, Rachel
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Kim, Hyungjun
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Ind Sci, Tokyo 1138654, Japan.
    Kim, S. -J
    Kimberlain, Todd B.
    NOAA NWS Natl Hurricane Ctr, Miami, FL USA.
    Klotzbach, Philip J.
    Colorado State Univ, Dept Atmospher Sci, Ft Collins, CO USA.
    Knaff, John A.
    NOAA NESDIS Ctr Satellite Applicat & Res, Ft Collins, CO USA.
    Kochtubajda, Bob
    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Kohler, J.
    Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Tromso, Norway.
    Korhonen, Johanna
    Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Freshwater Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.
    Korshunova, Natalia N.
    World Data Ctr, All Russian Res Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
    Kramarova, Natalya
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Sci Syst & Applicat Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Kratz, D. P.
    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
    Kruger, Andries
    South African Weather Serv, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Kruk, Michael C.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Environm Informat, ERT Inc, Asheville, NC USA.
    Krumpen, T.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Lakatos, M.
    Hungarian Meteorol Serv, Climatol Div, Budapest, Hungary.
    Lakkala, K.
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Arctic Res Ctr, Sodankyla, Finland.
    Lanckmann, J. -P
    Lander, Mark A.
    Univ Guam, Mangilao, GU USA.
    Landschuetzer, Peter
    Max Planck Inst Meteorol, Hamburg, Germany.
    Landsea, Chris W.
    NOAA NWS Natl Hurricane Ctr, Miami, FL USA.
    Lankhorst, Matthias
    Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
    Lantz, Kathleen
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA;NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
    Lazzara, Matthew A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Space Sci & Engn Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Madison Area Tech Coll, Dept Phys Sci, Sch Arts & Sci, Madison, WI USA.
    Leuliette, Eric
    NOAA, NWS NCWCP Lab Satellite Altimetry, College Pk, MD USA.
    Lewis, Stephen R.
    Open Univ, Sch Phys Sci, Fac Sci Technol Engn & Math, Milton Keynes, Bucks, England.
    L'Heureux, Michelle
    NOAA NWS Climate Predict Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
    Lieser, Jan L.
    Univ Tasmania, Antarctic Climate & Ecosyst Cooperat Res Ctr, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
    Lin, I-I
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Liu, Hongxing
    Univ Cincinnati, Dept Geog, Cincinnati, OH 45221 USA.
    Liu, Yinghui
    Univ Wisconsin, CIMSS, Madison, WI USA.
    Locarnini, Ricardo
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    Loeb, Norman G.
    NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
    Long, Craig S.
    NOAA NWS Natl Ctr Environm Predict, College Pk, MD USA.
    Loranty, M.
    Colgate Univ, Dept Geog, Hamilton, NY USA.
    Lorrey, Andrew M.
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Loyola, Diego
    German Aerosp Ctr DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany.
    Lu, Mong-Ming
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan;Cent Weather Bur, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Lumpkin, Rick
    NOAA OAR Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
    Luo, Jing-Jia
    Australian Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Luojus, K.
    Finnish Meteorolog Inst, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lyman, John M.
    NOAA OAR Pacific Marine Environm Lab, Seattle, WA USA;Univ Hawaii, Joint Inst Marine & Atmospher Res, Honolulu, HI USA.
    Macara, Gregor
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Macdonald, Alison M.
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA USA.
    Macias-Fauria, M.
    Univ Oxford, Sch Geog & Environm, Oxford, England.
    Malkova, G. V.
    Earth Cryosphere Inst, Tumen, Russia;Tyumen State Oil & Gas Univ, Tyumen, Russia.
    Manney, G.
    New Mexico Inst Mining & Technol, Socorro, NM USA;NorthWest Res Ass, Socorro, NM USA.
    Marchenko, S. S.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Marengo, Jose A.
    Ctr Nacl Monitoramento Alertas Desastres Nat, Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil.
    Marra, John J.
    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
    Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Dept Hydrol & Water Management, Torun, Poland.
    Martens, B.
    Univ Ghent, Lab Hydrol & Water Management, Ghent, Belgium.
    Martinez-Gueingla, Rodney
    Ctr Int Invest Fenomeno El Nino, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
    Massom, Robert A.
    Univ Tasmania, Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems Cooperat Res Ctr, Hobart, Tas, Australia;Univ Tasmania, Australian Antarctic Div, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
    Mathis, Jeremy T.
    NOAA, OAR Arctic Res Program, Silver Spring, MD USA.
    May, Linda
    Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mayer, Michael
    Univ Vienna, Dept Meteorol & Geophys, Vienna, Austria.
    Mazloff, Matthew
    Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
    McBride, Charlotte
    South African Weather Serv, Pretoria, South Africa.
    McCabe, M. F.
    King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol, Div Biol & Environm Sci & Engn, Water Desalinat & Reuse Ctr, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.
    McCarthy, Gerard
    Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
    McCarthy, M.
    Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
    McDonagh, Elaine L.
    McGree, Simon
    Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    McVicar, Tim R.
    CSIRO Land & Water Flagship, Canberra, ACT, Australia;Australian Res Council, Ctr Excellence Climate Syst Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia;Australian Capital Territory, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Mears, Carl A.
    Remote Sensing Syst, Santa Rosa, CA USA.
    Meier, W.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.
    Mekonnen, A.
    North Carolina A&T State Univ, Dept Energy & Environm Syst, Greensboro, NC USA.
    Menezes, V. V.
    Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA USA.
    Mengistu Tsidu, G.
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    Univ Wisconsin Madison, Dept Atmospheric & Oceanic Sci, Madison, WI USA.
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    Environm & Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
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    Minist Earth Sci, Earth System Sci Org, New Delhi, India.
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    All Russian Res Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
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    Vienna Univ Technol, Dept Geodesy & Geoinformat, Vienna, Austria;EODC, Vienna, Austria.
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    CNRS UPMC, Inst Pierre Simon Laplace, Paris, France.
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    Victoria Univ Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.
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    Sorbonne Univ, LOCEAN IPSL, CNRS IRD MNHN, Paris, France;British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, England.
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    NASA Jet Propuls Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
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    Princeton Univ, Atmospher & Ocean Sci Program, Princeton, NJ USA.
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    Direct Meteorolog Natl Maroc, Rabat, Morocco.
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    Univ Colorado Boulder, Natl Snow & Ice Data Ctr, Boulder, CO USA.
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    NOAA NWS Climate Predict Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
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    Univ Calif Davis, Tahoe Environm Res Ctr, Davis, CA USA.
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    NOAA OAR Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
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    Swiss Federal Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Eawag, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Inst Geog Alpine, Grenoble, France.
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    N Carolina State Univ, Cooperat Inst Climate & Satellites, Asheville, NC USA.
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    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Univ Space Res Assoc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
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    Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
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    Turkish State Meteorol Serv, Ankara, Turkey.
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    Univ Alberta, Dept Earth & Atmospher Sci, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
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    NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Silver Spring, MD USA.
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    George Washington Univ, Dept Geog, Washington, DC 20052 USA.
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    Irkutsk State Univ, Inst Biol, Irkutsk 664003, Russia.
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    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA USA.
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    Irkutsk State Univ, Inst Biol, Irkutsk 664003, Russia.
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    Dept Water Resources, Div Meteorol, Banjul, Gambia.
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    European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
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    Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
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    Univ Miami, Rosenstiel Sch Marine & Atmospher Sci, Miami, FL USA.
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    Abstract [en]

    In 2016, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-continued to increase and reach new record highs. The 3.5 +/- 0.1 ppm rise in global annual mean carbon dioxide from 2015 to 2016 was the largest annual increase observed in the 58-year measurement record. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface surpassed 400 ppm (402.9 +/- 0.1 ppm) for the first time in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800000 years. One of the strongest El Nino events since at least 1950 dissipated in spring, and a weak La Nina evolved later in the year. Owing at least in part to the combination of El Nino conditions early in the year and a long-term upward trend, Earth's surface observed record warmth for a third consecutive year, albeit by a much slimmer margin than by which that record was set in 2015. Above Earth's surface, the annual lower troposphere temperature was record high according to all datasets analyzed, while the lower stratospheric temperature was record low according to most of the in situ and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Mexico and India, reported record high annual temperatures while many others observed near-record highs. A week-long heat wave at the end of April over the northern and eastern Indian peninsula, with temperatures surpassing 44 degrees C, contributed to a water crisis for 330 million people and to 300 fatalities. In the Arctic the 2016 land surface temperature was 2.0 degrees C above the 1981-2010 average, breaking the previous record of 2007, 2011, and 2015 by 0.8 degrees C, representing a 3.5 degrees C increase since the record began in 1900. The increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 24 March, the sea ice extent at the end of the growth season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, tying with 2015 at 7.2% below the 1981-2010 average. The September 2016 Arctic sea ice minimum extent tied with 2007 for the second lowest value on record, 33% lower than the 1981-2010 average. Arctic sea ice cover remains relatively young and thin, making it vulnerable to continued extensive melt. The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet, which has the capacity to contribute similar to 7 m to sea level rise, reached a record low value. The onset of its surface melt was the second earliest, after 2012, in the 37-year satellite record. Sea surface temperature was record high at the global scale, surpassing the previous record of 2015 by about 0.01 degrees C. The global sea surface temperature trend for the 21st century-to-date of +0.162 degrees C decade(-1) is much higher than the longer term 1950-2016 trend of +0.100 degrees C decade(-1). Global annual mean sea level also reached a new record high, marking the sixth consecutive year of increase. Global annual ocean heat content saw a slight drop compared to the record high in 2015. Alpine glacier retreat continued around the globe, and preliminary data indicate that 2016 is the 37th consecutive year of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, snow cover for each month from February to June was among its four least extensive in the 47-year satellite record. Continuing a pattern below the surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska and at the Canadian observatory on northernmost Ellesmere Island. In the Antarctic, record low monthly surface pressures were broken at many stations, with the southern annular mode setting record high index values in March and June. Monthly high surface pressure records for August and November were set at several stations. During this period, record low daily and monthly sea ice extents were observed, with the November mean sea ice extent more than 5 standard deviations below the 1981-2010 average. These record low sea ice values contrast sharply with the record high values observed during 2012-14. Over the region, springtime Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletion was less severe relative to the 1991-2006 average, but ozone levels were still low compared to pre-1990 levels. Closer to the equator, 93 named tropical storms were observed during 2016, above the 1981-2010 average of 82, but fewer than the 101 storms recorded in 2015. Three basins-the North Atlantic, and eastern and western North Pacific-experienced above-normal activity in 2016. The Australian basin recorded its least active season since the beginning of the satellite era in 1970. Overall, four tropical cyclones reached the Saffir-Simpson category 5 intensity level. The strong El Nino at the beginning of the year that transitioned to a weak La Nina contributed to enhanced precipitation variability around the world. Wet conditions were observed throughout the year across southern South America, causing repeated heavy flooding in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Wetter-than-usual conditions were also observed for eastern Europe and central Asia, alleviating the drought conditions of 2014 and 2015 in southern Russia. In the United States, California had its first wetter-than-average year since 2012, after being plagued by drought for several years. Even so, the area covered by drought in 2016 at the global scale was among the largest in the post-1950 record. For each month, at least 12% of land surfaces experienced severe drought conditions or worse, the longest such stretch in the record. In northeastern Brazil, drought conditions were observed for the fifth consecutive year, making this the longest drought on record in the region. Dry conditions were also observed in western Bolivia and Peru; it was Bolivia's worst drought in the past 25 years. In May, with abnormally warm and dry conditions already prevailing over western Canada for about a year, the human-induced Fort McMurray wildfire burned nearly 590000 hectares and became the costliest disaster in Canadian history, with $3 billion (U.S. dollars) in insured losses.

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    Cunningham, Stuart A.
    Dacic, Milan
    De Jeu, Richard A. M.
    Dekaa, Francis S.
    Demircan, Mesut
    Derksen, C.
    Diamond, Howard J.
    Dlugokencky, Ed J.
    Dohan, Kathleen
    Dolman, A. Johannes
    Domingues, Catia M.
    Shenfu, Dong
    Dorigo, Wouter A.
    Drozdov, D. S.
    Duguay, Claude R.
    Dunn, Robert J. H.
    Duran-Quesada, Ana M.
    Dutton, Geoff S.
    Ehmann, Christian
    Elkins, James W.
    Euscategui, Christian
    Famiglietti, James S.
    Fan, Fang
    Fauchereau, Nicolas
    Feely, Richard A.
    Fekete, Balazs M.
    Fenimore, Chris
    Fioletov, Vitali E.
    Fogarty, Chris T.
    Fogt, Ryan L.
    Folland, Chris K.
    Foster, Michael J.
    Frajka-Williams, Eleanor
    Franz, Bryan A.
    Frith, Stacey H.
    Frolov, I.
    Ganter, Catherine
    Garzoli, Silvia
    Geai, M. -L
    Gerland, S.
    Gitau, Wilson
    Gleason, Karin L.
    Gobron, Nadine
    Goldenberg, Stanley B.
    Goni, Gustavo
    Good, Simon A.
    Gottschalck, Jonathan
    Gregg, Margarita C.
    Griffiths, Georgina
    Grooss, Jens-Uwe
    Guard, Charles 'Chip'
    Gupta, Shashi K.
    Hall, Bradley D.
    Halpert, Michael S.
    Harada, Yayoi
    Hauri, C.
    Heidinger, Andrew K.
    Heikkila, Anu
    Heim, Richard R., Jr.
    Heimbach, Patrick
    Hidalgo, Hugo G.
    Hilburn, Kyle
    Ho, Shu-peng (Ben)
    Hobbs, Will R.
    Holgate, Simon
    Hovsepyan, Anahit
    Zeng-Zhen, Hu
    Hughes, P.
    Hurst, Dale F.
    Ingvaldsen, R.
    Inness, Antje
    Jaimes, Ena
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    James, Adamu I.
    Jeffries, Martin O.
    Johns, William E.
    Johnsen, Bjorn
    Johnson, Gregory C.
    Johnson, Bryan
    Jones, Luke T.
    Jumaux, Guillaume
    Kabidi, Khadija
    Kaiser, Johannes W.
    Kamga, Andre
    Kang, Kyun-Kuk
    Kanzow, Torsten O.
    Kao, Hsun-Ying
    Keller, Linda M.
    Kennedy, John J.
    Key, J.
    Khatiwala, Samar
    Pour, H. Kheyrollah
    Kholodov, A. L.
    Khoshkam, Mahbobeh
    Kijazi, Agnes
    Kikuchi, T.
    Kim, B. -M
    Kim, S. -J
    Kimberlain, Todd B.
    Knaff, John A.
    Korshunova, Natalia N.
    Koskela, T.
    Kousky, Vernon E.
    Kramarova, Natalya
    Kratz, David P.
    Krishfield, R.
    Kruger, Andries
    Kruk, Michael C.
    Kumar, Arun
    Lagerloef, Gary S. E.
    Lakkala, K.
    Lander, Mark A.
    Landsea, Chris W.
    Lankhorst, Matthias
    Laurila, T.
    Lazzara, Matthew A.
    Lee, Craig
    Leuliette, Eric
    Levitus, Sydney
    L'Heureux, Michelle
    Lieser, Jan
    Lin, I-I
    Liu, Y. Y.
    Liu, Y.
    Hongxing, Liu
    Yanju, Liu
    Lobato-Sanchez, Rene
    Locarnini, Ricardo
    Loeb, Norman G.
    Loeng, H.
    Long, Craig S.
    Lorrey, Andrew M.
    Luhunga, P.
    Lumpkin, Rick
    Jing-Jia, Luo
    Lyman, John M.
    Macdonald, Alison M.
    Maddux, Brent C.
    Malekela, C.
    Manney, Gloria
    Marchenko, S. S.
    Marengo, Jose A.
    Marotzke, Jochem
    Marra, John J.
    Martinez-Gueingla, Rodney
    Massom, Robert A.
    Mathis, Jeremy T.
    McBride, Charlotte
    McCarthy, Gerard
    McVicar, Tim R.
    Mears, Carl
    Meier, W.
    Meinen, Christopher S.
    Menendez, Melisa
    Merrifield, Mark A.
    Mitchard, Edward
    Mitchum, Gary T.
    Montzka, Stephen A.
    Morcrette, Jean-Jacques
    Mote, Thomas
    Muehle, Jens
    Muehr, Bernhard
    Mullan, A. Brett
    Mueller, Rolf
    Nash, Eric R.
    Nerem, R. Steven
    Newlin, Michele L.
    Newman, Paul A.
    Ng'ongolo, H.
    Nieto, Juan Jose
    Nishino, S.
    Nitsche, Helga
    Noetzli, Jeannette
    Oberman, N. G.
    Obregon, Andre'
    Ogallo, Laban A.
    Oludhe, Christopher S.
    Omar, Mohamed I
    Overland, James
    Oyunjargal, Lamjav
    Parinussa, Robert M.
    Park, Geun-Ha
    Park, E-Hyung
    Parker, David
    Pasch, Richard J.
    Pascual-Ramirez, Reynaldo
    Pelto, Mauri S.
    Penalba, Olga
    Peng, L.
    Perovich, Don K.
    Pezza, Alexandre B.
    Phillips, David
    Pickart, R.
    Pinty, Bernard
    Pitts, Michael C.
    Purkey, Sarah G.
    Quegan, Shaun
    Quintana, Juan
    Rabe, B.
    Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh
    Raholijao, Nirivololona
    Raiva, I.
    Rajeevan, Madhavan
    Ramiandrisoa, Voahanginirina
    Ramos, Alexandre
    Ranivoarissoa, Sahondra
    Rayner, Nick A.
    Rayner, Darren
    Razuveav, Vyacheslav N.
    Reagan, James
    Reid, Phillip
    Renwick, James
    Revedekar, Jayashree
    Richter-Menge, Jacqueline
    Rivera, Ingrid L.
    Robinson, David A.
    Rodell, Matthew
    Romanovsky, Vladimir E.
    Ronchail, Josyane
    Rosenlof, Karen H.
    Sabine, Christopher L.
    Salvador, Mozar A.
    Sanchez-Lugo, Ahira
    Santee, Michelle L.
    Sasgen, I.
    Sawaengphokhai, P.
    Sayouri, Amal
    Scambos, Ted A.
    Schauer, U.
    Schemm, Jae
    Schlosser, P.
    Schmid, Claudia
    Schreck, Carl
    Semiletov, Igor
    Send, Uwe
    Sensoy, Serhat
    Setzer, Alberto
    Severinghaus, Jeffrey
    Shakhova, Natalia
    Sharp, M.
    Shiklomanov, Nicolai I.
    Siegel, David A.
    Silva, Viviane B. S.
    Silva, Frabricio D. S.
    Sima, Fatou
    Simeonov, Petio
    Simmonds, I.
    Simmons, Adrian
    Skansi, Maria
    Smeed, David A.
    Smethie, W. M.
    Smith, Adam B.
    Smith, Cathy
    Smith, Sharon L.
    Smith, Thomas M.
    Sokolov, V.
    Srivastava, A. K.
    Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.
    Stammerjohn, Sharon
    Steele, M.
    Steffen, Konrad
    Steinbrecht, Wolfgang
    Stephenson, Tannecia
    Su, J.
    Svendby, T.
    Sweet, William
    Takahashi, Taro
    Tanabe, Raymond M.
    Taylor, Michael A.
    Tedesco, Marco
    Teng, William L.
    Thepaut, Jean-Noel
    Thiaw, Wassila M.
    Thoman, R.
    Thompson, Philip
    Thorne, Peter W.
    Timmermans, M. -L
    Tobin, Skie
    Toole, J.
    Trewin, Blair C.
    Trigo, Ricardo M.
    Trotman, Adrian
    Tschudi, M.
    van de Wal, Roderik S. W.
    Van der Werf, Guido R.
    Vautard, Robert
    Vazquez, J. L.
    Vieira, Goncalo
    Vincent, Lucie
    Vose, Russ S.
    Wagner, Wolfgang W.
    Wahr, John
    Walsh, J.
    Junhong, Wang
    Chunzai, Wang
    Wang, M.
    Sheng-Hung, Wang
    Lei, Wang
    Wanninkhof, Rik
    Weaver, Scott
    Weber, Mark
    Werdell, P. Jeremy
    Whitewood, Robert
    Wijffels, Susan
    Wilber, Anne C.
    Wild, J. D.
    Willett, Kate M.
    Williams, W.
    Willis, Joshua K.
    Wolken, G.
    Wong, Takmeng
    Woodgate, R.
    Worthy, D.
    Wouters, B.
    Wovrosh, Alex J.
    Yan, Xue
    Yamada, Ryuji
    Zungang, Yin
    Lisan, Yu
    Liangying, Zhang
    Peiqun, Zhang
    Lin, Zhao
    Zhao, J.
    Zhong, W.
    Ziemke, Jerry
    Zimmermann, S.
    State of the Climate in 20122013In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 94, no 8, p. S1-S258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time in serveral years, the El Nino-Southern Oscillation did not dominate regional climate conditions around the globe. A weak La Ni a dissipated to ENSOneutral conditions by spring, and while El Nino appeared to be emerging during summer, this phase never fully developed as sea surface temperatures in the eastern conditions. Nevertheless, other large-scale climate patterns and extreme weather events impacted various regions during the year. A negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation from mid-January to early February contributed to frigid conditions in parts of northern Africa, eastern Europe, and western Asia. A lack of rain during the 2012 wet season led to the worst drought in at least the past three decades for northeastern Brazil. Central North America also experienced one of its most severe droughts on record. The Caribbean observed a very wet dry season and it was the Sahel's wettest rainy season in 50 years. Overall, the 2012 average temperature across global land and ocean surfaces ranked among the 10 warmest years on record. The global land surface temperature alone was also among the 10 warmest on record. In the upper atmosphere, the average stratospheric temperature was record or near-record cold, depending on the dataset. After a 30-year warming trend from 1970 to 1999 for global sea surface temperatures, the period 2000-12 had little further trend. This may be linked to the prevalence of La Ni a-like conditions during the 21st century. Heat content in the upper 700 m of the ocean remained near record high levels in 2012. Net increases from 2011 to 2012 were observed at 700-m to 2000-m depth and even in the abyssal ocean below. Following sharp decreases in to the effects of La Ni a, sea levels rebounded to reach records highs in 2012. The increased hydrological cycle seen in recent years continued, with more evaporation in drier locations and more precipitation in rainy areas. In a pattern that has held since 2004, salty areas of the ocean surfaces and subsurfaces were anomalously salty on average, while fresher areas were anomalously fresh. Global tropical cyclone activity during 2012 was near average, with a total of 84 storms compared with the 1981-2010 average of 89. Similar to 2010 and 2011, the North Atlantic was the only hurricane basin that experienced above-normal activity. In this basin, Sandy brought devastation to Cuba and parts of the eastern North American seaboard. All other basins experienced either near-or below-normal tropical cyclone activity. Only three tropical cyclones reached Category 5 intensity-all in Bopha became the only storm in the historical record to produce winds greater than 130 kt south of 7 N. It was also the costliest storm to affect the Philippines and killed more than 1000 residents. Minimum Arctic sea ice extent in September and Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent in June both reached new record lows. June snow cover extent is now declining at a faster rate (-17.6% per decade) than September sea ice extent (-13.0% per decade). Permafrost temperatures reached record high values in northernmost Alaska. A new melt extent record occurred on 11-12 July on the Greenland ice sheet; 97% of the ice sheet showed some form of melt, four times greater than the average melt for this time of year. The climate in Antarctica was relatively stable overall. The largest maximum sea ice extent since records begain in 1978 was observed in September 2012. In the stratosphere, warm air led to the second smallest ozone hole in the past two decades. Even so, the springtime ozone layer above Antarctica likely will not return to its early 1980s state until about 2060. Following a slight decline associated with the global 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production reached a record 9.5 +/- 0.5 Pg C in 2011 and a new record of 9.7 +/- 0.5 Pg C is estimated for 2012. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased by 2.1 ppm in 2012, to 392.6 ppm. In spring 2012, 2 concentration exceeded 400 ppm at 7 of the 13 Arctic observation sites. Globally, other greenhouse gases including methane and nitrous oxide also continued to rise in concentration and the combined effect now represents a 32% increase in radiative forcing over a 1990 baseline. Concentrations of most ozone depleting substances continued to fall.

  • 6. Brooks, Ian
    et al.
    Yelland, Margaret
    Uppstil-Goddard, Robert
    Nightinggale, Philip
    Archer, Steve
    D'Asaro, Eric
    Beale, Rachael
    Beatty, Cory
    Blomqvist, Byron
    Bloom, Anthony
    Brooks, Barbara
    Cluderay, John
    Coles, David
    Dacey, hn
    DeGrandpre, Michael
    Dixon, Jo
    Drennan, William
    Gabriele, Joseph
    Goldson, Laura
    Hardman-Mountford, Nick
    Hill, Martin
    Horn, Matt
    Hsueh, Ping-Chang
    Huebert, Barry
    de Leeuw, Gerrit
    Leighton, Timothy
    Liddicoat, Malcolm
    Lingard, Justin
    McNeil, Craig
    McQuaid, James
    Moat, Ben
    Moore, Gerald
    Neill, Craig
    Norris, Sarah
    O'Doherty, Simon
    Pascal, Robin
    Prytherch, John
    Rebozo, Mike
    Sahlee, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Salter, Matt
    Schuster, Ute
    Skjelvan, Ingunn
    Slagter, Hans
    Smith, Michael
    Smith, Paul
    Srokosz, Meric
    Stephens, John
    Taylor, Peter
    Telszewski, Maciej
    Walsh, Roisin
    Ward, Brian
    Woolf, David
    Young, Dickon
    Zemmelink, Henk
    Physical exchange at the air sea interface, UK-SOLAS field measurements2009In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 629-644Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Buizza, Roberto
    et al.
    Poli, Paul
    Rixen, Michel
    Alonso-Balmaseda, Magdalena
    Bosilovich, Michael G.
    Bronnimann, Stefan
    Compo, Gilbert P.
    Dee, Dick P.
    Desiato, Franco
    Doutriaux-Boucher, Marie
    Fujiwara, Masatomo
    Kaiser-Weiss, Andrea K.
    Kobayashi, Shinya
    Liu, Zhiquan
    Masina, Simona
    Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe
    Rayner, Nick
    Richter, Carolin
    Seneviratne, Sonia I.
    Simmons, Adrian J.
    Thepaut, Jean-Noel
    Auger, Jeffrey D.
    Bechtold, Michel
    Berntell, Ellen
    Dong, Bo
    Kozubek, Michal
    Sharif, Khaled
    Thomas, Christopher
    Schimanke, Semjon
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Storto, Andrea
    Tuma, Matthias
    Valisuo, Ilona
    Vaselali, Alireza
    ADVANCING GLOBAL AND REGIONAL REANALYSES2018In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 99, no 8, p. ES139-ES144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Crewell, S
    et al.
    Bloemink, H
    Feijt, A
    Garcia, S G
    Jolivet, D
    Krasnov, O A
    van Lammeren, A
    Lohnert, J
    van Meijgaard, E
    Meywerk, J
    Quante, M
    Pfeilsticker, K
    Schmidt, S
    Scholl, T
    Simmer, C
    Schroder, M
    Trautmann, T
    Venema, V
    Wendisch, M
    Willén, Ulrika
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    The BALTEX Bridge Campaign - An integrated approach for a better understanding of clouds2004In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 85, no 10, p. 1565-+Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Day, Jonathan J.
    et al.
    Svensson, Gunilla
    Brooks, Ian M.
    Bitz, Cecilia
    Broman, Lina
    Carver, Glenn
    Chevallier, Matthieu
    Goessling, Helge
    Hartung, Kerstin
    Jung, Thomas
    Kay, Jennifer E.
    Kolstad, Erik W.
    Perovich, Don
    Screen, James
    Siemen, Stephan
    Vana, Filip
    THE ABISKO POLAR PREDICTION SCHOOL2017In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 445-447Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Devasthale, Abhay
    et al.
    Sedlar, Joseph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Kahn, Brian H.
    Tjernström, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Fetzer, Eric J.
    Tian, Baijun
    Teixeira, Joao
    Pagano, Thomas S.
    A DECADE OF SPACEBORNE OBSERVATIONS OF THE ARCTIC ATMOSPHERE: Novel Insights from NASA's AIRS Instrument2016In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 97, no 11, p. 2163-2176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic sea ice is declining rapidly and its annual ice extent minima reached record lows twice during the last decade. Large environmental and socioeconomic implications related to sea ice reduction in a warming world necessitate realistic simulations of the Arctic climate system, not least to formulate relevant environmental policies on an international scale. However, despite considerable progress in the last few decades, future climate projections from numerical models still exhibit the largest uncertainties over the polar regions. The lack of sufficient observations of essential climate variables is partly to blame for the poor representation of key atmospheric processes, and their coupling to the surface, in climate models. Observations from the hyper spectral Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on board National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Aqua satellite are contributing toward improved understanding of the vertical structure of the atmosphere over the poles since 2002, including the lower troposphere. This part of the atmosphere is especially important in the Arctic, as it directly impacts sea ice and its short-term variability. Although in situ measurements provide invaluable ground truth, they are spatially and temporally inhomogeneous and sporadic over the Arctic. A growing number of studies are exploiting AIRS data to investigate the thermodynamic structure of the Arctic atmosphere, with applications ranging from understanding processes to deriving climatologies; all of which are also useful to test and improve parameterizations in climate models. As the AIRS data record now extends more than a decade, a select few of many such noteworthy applications of AIRS data over this challenging and rapidly changing landscape are highlighted here.

  • 11. Essery, Richard
    et al.
    Rutter, Nick
    Pomeroy, John
    Baxter, Robert
    Stahli, Manfred
    Gustafsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Barr, Alan
    Bartlett, Paul
    Elder, Kelly
    An Evaluation of Forest Snow Process Simulations2009In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 90, no 8, p. 1120-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Northern Hemisphere has large areas that are forested and seasonally snow covered. Compared with open areas, forest canopies strongly influence interactions between the atmosphere and snow on the ground by sheltering the snow from wind and solar radiation and by intercepting falling snow; these influences have important consequences for the meteorology, hydrology, and ecology of forests. Many of the land surface models used in meteorological and hydrological forecasting now include representations of canopy snow processes, but these have not been widely tested in comparison with observations. Phase 2 of the Snow Model Intercomparison Project (SnowMIP2) was therefore designed as an intercomparison of surface mass and energy balance simulations for snow in forested areas. Model forcing and calibration data for sites with paired forested and open plots were supplied to modeling groups. Participants in 11 countries contributed output from 33 models, and the results are published here for sites in Canada, the United States, and Switzerland. On average, the models perform fairly well in simulating snow accumulation and ablation, although there is a wide intermodal spread and a tendency to underestimate differences in snow mass between open and forested areas. Most models capture the large differences in surface albedos and temperatures between forest canopies and open snow well. There is, however, a strong tendency for models to underestimate soil temperature under snow, particularly for forest sites, and this would have large consequences for simulations of runoff and biological processes in the soil.

  • 12.
    Gultepe, Ismail
    et al.
    Cloud Physics and Severe Weather Research Section, Environment Canada.
    Kuhn, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Pavolonis, Michael J.
    NOAA, NESDIS, Madison, WI.
    Calvert, C.
    CIMSS, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.
    Gurka, James J.
    NOAA, NESDIS, Greenbelt, MD.
    Heymsfield, Andrew J.
    NCAR, Boulder, Colorado.
    Liu, P.S.K.
    Cloud Physics and Severe Weather Research Section, Environment Canada.
    Zhou, B.
    I.M. Systems Group, NOAA/NWS/NCEP, Camp Springs, MD.
    Ware, Randolph H.
    Radiometrics Corporation, CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
    Ferrier, Brad Schoenberg
    I.M. Systems Group, NOAA/NWS/NCEP, Camp Springs, MD.
    Milbrandt, Jason A.
    RPN, CMC, Environment Canada.
    Bernstein, Ben C.
    Leading Edge Atmospherics, Boulder, CO.
    Ice fog in arctic during fram-ice fog project aviation and nowcasting applications2014In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 211-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased understanding of ice fog microphysics can improve frost and ice fog prediction using forecast models and remote-sensing retrievals, thereby reducing potential hazards to aviation

  • 13. Hazeleger, Wilco
    et al.
    Severijns, Camiel
    Semmler, Tido
    Stefanescu, Simona
    Yang, Shuting
    Wang, Xueli
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Dutra, Emanuel
    Baldasano, Jose M.
    Bintanja, Richard
    Bougeault, Philippe
    Caballero, Rodrigo
    Ekman, Annica M. L.
    Christensen, Jens H.
    van den Hurk, Bart
    Jimenez, Pedro
    Jones, Colin
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Kållberg, Per
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Koenigk, Torben
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    McGrath, Ray
    Miranda, Pedro
    Van Noije, Twan
    Palmer, Tim
    Parodi, Jose A.
    Schmith, Torben
    Selten, Frank
    Storelvmo, Trude
    Sterl, Andreas
    Tapamo, Honore
    Vancoppenolle, Martin
    Viterbo, Pedro
    Willén, Ulrika
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    EC-Earth A Seamless Earth-System Prediction Approach in Action2010In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 91, no 10, p. 1357-1363Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14. Heistermann, M.
    et al.
    Collis, S.
    Dixon, M. J.
    Giangrande, S.
    Helmus, J. J.
    Kelley, B.
    Koistinen, J.
    Michelson, Daniel
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Peura, M.
    Pfaff, T.
    Wolff, D. B.
    THE EMERGENCE OF OPEN-SOURCE SOFTWARE FOR THE WEATHER RADAR COMMUNITY2015In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 117-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weather radar analysis has become increasingly sophisticated over the past 50 years, and efforts to keep software up to date have generally lagged behind the needs of the users. We argue that progress has been impeded by the fact that software has not been developed and shared as a community. Recently, the situation has been changing. In this paper, the developers of a number of open-source software (OSS) projects highlight the potential of OSS to advance radar-related research. We argue that the community-based development of OSS holds the potential to reduce duplication of efforts and to create transparency in implemented algorithms while improving the quality and scope of the software. We also conclude that there is sufficiently mature technology to support collaboration across different software projects. This could allow for consolidation toward a set of interoperable software platforms, each designed to accommodate very specific user requirements.

  • 15. Heistermann, M.
    et al.
    Collis, S.
    Dixon, M. J.
    Helmus, J. J.
    Henja, A.
    Michelson, Daniel
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Pfaff, Thomas
    An Open Virtual Machine for Cross-Platform Weather Radar Science2015In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 96, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent BAMS article, it is argued that community-based Open Source Software (OSS) could foster scientific progress in weather radar research, and make weather radar software more affordable, flexible, transparent, sustainable, and interoperable.Nevertheless, it can be challenging for potential developers and users to realize these benefits: tools are often cumbersome to install; different operating systems may have particular issues, or may not be supported at all; and many tools have steep learning curves.To overcome some of these barriers, we present an open, community-based virtual machine (VM). This VM can be run on any operating system, and guarantees reproducibility of results across platforms. It contains a suite of independent OSS weather radar tools (BALTRAD, Py-ART, wradlib, RSL, and Radx), and a scientific Python stack. Furthermore, it features a suite of recipes that work out of the box and provide guidance on how to use the different OSS tools alone and together. The code to build the VM from source is hosted on GitHub, which allows the VM to grow with its community.We argue that the VM presents another step toward Open (Weather Radar) Science. It can be used as a quick way to get started, for teaching, or for benchmarking and combining different tools. It can foster the idea of reproducible research in scientific publishing. Being scalable and extendable, it might even allow for real-time data processing.We expect the VM to catalyze progress toward interoperability, and to lower the barrier for new users and developers, thus extending the weather radar community and user base.

  • 16. Heygster, Georg
    et al.
    Melsheimer, Christian
    Mathew, Nizy
    Toudal, Leif
    Saldo, Roberto
    Andersen, Soren
    Tonboe, Rasmus
    Schyberg, Harald
    Tveter, Frank Thomas
    Thyness, Vibeke
    Gustafsson, Nils
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Landelius, Tomas
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Dahlgren, Per
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Integrated Observation and Modeling of the Arctic Sea Ice and Atmosphere2009In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 293-297Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Holtslag, A. A. M.
    et al.
    Svensson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Baas, P.
    Basu, S.
    Beare, B.
    Beljaars, A. C. M.
    Bosveld, F. C.
    Cuxart, J.
    Lindvall, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Steeneveld, G. J.
    Tjernström, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Van de Wiel, B. J. H.
    STABLE ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYERS AND DIURNAL CYCLES: Challenges for Weather and Climate Models2013In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 94, no 11, p. 1691-1706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The representation of the atmospheric boundary layer is an important part of weather and climate models and impacts many applications such as air quality and wind energy. Over the years, the performance in modeling 2-m temperature and 10-m wind speed has improved but errors are still significant. This is in particular the case under clear skies and low wind speed conditions at night as well as during winter in stably stratified conditions over land and ice. In this paper, the authors review these issues and provide an overview of the current understanding and model performance. Results from weather forecast and climate models are used to illustrate the state of the art as well as findings and recommendations from three intercomparison studies held within the Global Energy and Water Exchanges (GEWEX) Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS). Within GABLS, the focus has been on the examination of the representation of the stable boundary layer and the diurnal cycle over land in clear-sky conditions. For this purpose, single-column versions of weather and climate models have been compared with observations, research models, and large-eddy simulations. The intercomparison cases are based on observations taken in the Arctic, Kansas, and Cabauw in the Netherlands. From these studies, we find that even for the noncloudy boundary layer important parameterization challenges remain.

  • 18. Jung, Thomas
    et al.
    Doblas-Reyes, Francisco
    Goessling, Helge
    Guemas, Virginie
    Bitz, Cecilia
    Buontempo, Carlo
    Caballero, Rodrigo
    Jakobson, Erko
    Jungclaus, Johann
    Karcher, Michael
    Koenigk, Torben
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Matei, Daniela
    Overland, James
    Spengler, Thomas
    Yang, Shuting
    POLAR LOWER-LATITUDE LINKAGES AND THEIR ROLE IN WEATHER AND CLIMATE PREDICTION2015In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 96, no 11, p. ES197-ES200Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Jung, Thomas
    et al.
    Doblas-Reyes, Francisco
    Goessling, Helge
    Guemas, Virginie
    Bitz, Cecilia
    Buontempo, Carlo
    Caballero, Rodrigo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Jakobson, Erko
    Jungclaus, Johann
    Karcher, Michael
    Koenigk, Torben
    Matei, Daniela
    Overland, James
    Spengler, Thomas
    Yang, Shuting
    POLAR LOWER-LATITUDE LINKAGES AND THEIR ROLE IN WEATHER AND CLIMATE PREDICTION2015In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 96, no 11, p. es197-ES200Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. Jung, Thomas
    et al.
    Gordon, Neil D.
    Bauer, Peter
    Bromwich, David H.
    Chevallier, Matthieu
    Day, Jonathan J.
    Dawson, Jackie
    Doblas-Reyes, Francisco
    Fairall, Christopher
    Goessling, Helge F.
    Holland, Marika
    Inoue, Jun
    Iversen, Trond
    Klebe, Stefanie
    Lemke, Peter
    Losch, Martin
    Makshtas, Alexander
    Mills, Brian
    Nurmi, Pertti
    Perovich, Donald
    Reid, Philip
    Renfrew, Ian A.
    Smith, Gregory
    Svensson, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Tolstykh, Mikhail
    Yang, Qinghua
    ADVANCING POLAR PREDICTION CAPABILITIES ON DAILY TO SEASONAL TIME SCALES2016In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 97, no 9, p. 1631-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The polar regions have been attracting more and more attention in recent years, fueled by the perceptible impacts of anthropogenic climate change. Polar climate change provides new opportunities, such as shorter shipping routes between Europe and East Asia, but also new risks such as the potential for industrial accidents or emergencies in ice-covered seas. Here, it is argued that environmental prediction systems for the polar regions are less developed than elsewhere. There are many reasons for this situation, including the polar regions being (historically) lower priority, with fewer in situ observations, and with numerous local physical processes that are less well represented by models. By contrasting the relative importance of different physical processes in polar and lower latitudes, the need for a dedicated polar prediction effort is illustrated. Research priorities are identified that will help to advance environmental polar prediction capabilities. Examples include an improvement of the polar observing system; the use of coupled atmosphere-sea ice-ocean models, even for short-term prediction; and insight into polar-lower latitude linkages and their role for forecasting. Given the enormity of some of the challenges ahead, in a harsh and remote environment such as the polar regions, it is argued that rapid progress will only be possible with a coordinated international effort. More specifically, it is proposed to hold a Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP) from mid-2017 to mid-2019 in which the international research and operational forecasting communites will work together with stakeholders in a period of intensive observing: modeling, prediction, verification, user engagement, and educational activities.

  • 21.
    Lake, Irene
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Gutowski, William
    Giorgi, Filipo
    Lee, Boram
    CORDEX Climate Research and Information for Regions2017In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 98, no 8, p. ES189-ES192Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Liljas, Erik
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    MURPHY, AH
    ANGSTROM,ANDERS AND HIS EARLY PAPERS ON PROBABILITY FORECASTING AND THE USE VALUE OF WEATHER FORECASTS1994In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 75, no 7, p. 1227-1236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anders K. Angstrom was known primarily for his contributions to the field of atmospheric radiation. However, his scientific interests encompassed many diverse topics. This paper describes the contents of two early, remarkable, and, until recently, largely unknown papers by Angstrom on probability forecasting and the use/value of weather forecasts. These papers, entitled ''Sannolikhet och Praktisk Vaderleksprognos'' (''Probability and Practical Weather Forecasting'') and ''On the Effectivity of Weather Warnings, ''were published in 1919 and 1922, respectively. Noteworthy features of these two papers include 1) a discussion of the sources of uncertainty in weather forecasting, 2) discourses on the problems of estimating probabilities by means of empirical relative frequencies and forecasters' subjective judgments, 3) the use of a Gaussian model to describe the accuracy of minimum temperature forecasts, 4) the identification of the ratio of the protection costa to the ''risked value'' if protective action is not taken b as a characteristic of users of forecasts, 5) analytical expressions for the economic value of weather warnings, 6) quantitative analysis of the problems faced by forecasters in deciding whether or not to issue weather warnings when they are uncertain about future weather conditions, and 7) arguments concerning the need to obtain estimates of the costs and losses that may be incurred by potential users in order to assess economic effectiveness. The contents of Angstrom's two papers are reviewed and summarized, making extensive use of quotations from the texts. An effort is made to place the papers and their contents in proper historical context. Two topics of current interest, namely, ensemble forecasting and the provision of specialized weather services, are discussed briefly in light of the results presented and issues raised in these papers.

  • 23. McLinden, C. A.
    et al.
    Bourassa, A. E.
    Brohede, S.
    Cooper, M.
    Degenstein, D. A.
    Evans, W. J. F.
    Gattinger, R. L.
    Haley, C. S.
    Llewellyn, E. J.
    Lloyd, N. D.
    Loewen, P.
    Martin, R. V.
    McConnell, J. C.
    McDade, I. C.
    Murtagh, D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Rieger, L.
    von Savigny, C.
    Sheese, P. E.
    Sioris, C. E.
    Solheim, B.
    Strong, K.
    OSIRIS A Decade of Scattered Light2012In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 93, no 12, p. 1845-1863Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Neu, Urs
    et al.
    Akperov, Mirseid G.
    Bellenbaum, Nina
    Benestad, Rasmu S.
    Blender, Richard
    Caballero, Rodrigo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Cocozza, Angela
    Dacre, Helen F.
    Feng, Yang
    Fraedrich, Klaus
    Grieger, Jens
    Gulev, Sergey
    Hanley, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Hewson, Tim
    Inatsu, Masaru
    Keay, Kevin
    Kew, Sarah F.
    Kindem, Ina
    Leckebusch, Gregor C.
    Liberato, Margarida L. R.
    Lionello, Piero
    Mokhov, Igor I.
    Pinto, Joaquim G.
    Raible, Christoph C.
    Reale, Marco
    Rudeva, Irina
    Schuster, Mareike
    Simmonds, Ian
    Sinclair, Mark
    Sprenger, Michael
    Tilinina, Natalia D.
    Trigo, Isabel F.
    Ulbrich, Sven
    Ulbrich, Uwe
    Wang, Xiaolan L.
    Wernli, Heini
    IMILAST A Community Effort to Intercompare Extratropical Cyclone Detection and Tracking Algorithms2013In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 94, no 4, p. 529-547Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Nobre, Carlos
    et al.
    Brasseur, Guy P.
    Shapiro, Melvyn A.
    Lahsen, Myanna
    Brunet, Gilbert
    Busalacchi, Antonio J.
    Hibbard, Kathy
    Seitzinger, Sybil
    Noone, Kevin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Ometto, Jean P.
    ADDRESSING THE COMPLEXITY OF THE EARTH SYSTEM2010In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 91, no 10, p. 1389-1396Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    The Story of the Hovmöller Diagram: An (Almost) Eyewitness Account2017In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 98, no 5, p. 949-957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hovmöller diagram or the trough–ridge diagram, a simple longitude–time diagram, was designed in 1948 by Ernest Hovmöller (1912–2008) to help understand certain features in the dynamics of the atmosphere, in particular the “downstream development” phenomenon. Originally depicting the 500-hPa geopotential, today many other parameters are used, and Hovmöller diagrams have during the last 25 years found a rapidly increasing use in a wide range of atmospheric research.

  • 27. Raschke, E
    et al.
    Meywerk, J
    Warrach, K
    Andrae, Ulf
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Bergström, Sten
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Beyrich, F
    Bosveld, F
    Bumke, K
    Fortelius, C
    Graham, Phil
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Gryning, S E
    Halldin, S
    Hasse, L
    Heikinheimo, M
    Isemer, H J
    Jacob, D
    SMHI.
    Jauja, I
    Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Keevallik, S
    Koistinen, J
    van Lammeren, A
    Lass, U
    Launianen, J
    Lehmann, A
    Liljebladh, B
    Lobmeyr, M
    Matthaus, W
    Mengelkamp, T
    Michelson, Daniel
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Napiorkowski, J
    Omstedt, Anders
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Piechura, J
    Rockel, B
    Rubel, F
    Ruprecht, E
    Smedman, A S
    Stigebrandt, A
    The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX): A European contribution to the investigation of the energy and water cycle over a large drainage basin2001In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 82, no 11, p. 2389-2413Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) is one of the five continental-scale experiments of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). More than 50 research groups from 14 European countries are participating in this project to measure and model the energy and water cycle over the large drainage basin of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. BALTEX aims to provide a better understanding of the processes of the climate system and to improve and to validate the water cycle in regional numerical models for weather forecasting and climate studies. A major effort is undertaken to couple interactively the atmosphere with the vegetated continental surfaces and the Baltic Sea including its sea ice. The intensive observational and modeling phase BRIDGE, which is a contribution to the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period of GEWEX, will provide enhanced datasets for the period October 1999-February 2002 to validate numerical models and satellite products. Major achievements have been obtained in an improved understanding of related exchange processes. For the first time an interactive atmosphere-ocean-land surface model for the Baltic Sea was tested. This paper reports on major activities and some results.

  • 28.
    Raspaud, Martin
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Hoese, David
    Dybbroe, Adam
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lahtinen, Panu
    Devasthale, Abhay
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Itkin, Mikhail
    Hamann, Ulrich
    Rasmussen, Lars Orum
    Nielsen, Esben Stigard
    Leppelt, Thomas
    Maul, Alexander
    Kliche, Christian
    Thorsteinsson, Hrobjartur
    PyTroll: An Open-Source, Community-Driven Python Framework to Process Earth Observation Satellite Data2018In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 99, no 7, p. 1329-1336Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Reddington, C. L.
    et al.
    Carslaw, K. S.
    Stier, P.
    Schutgens, N.
    Coe, H.
    Liu, D.
    Allan, J.
    Browse, J.
    Pringle, K. J.
    Lee, L. A.
    Yoshioka, M.
    Johnson, J. S.
    Regayre, L. A.
    Spracklen, D. V.
    Mann, G. W.
    Clarke, A.
    Hermann, M.
    Henning, S.
    Wex, H.
    Kristensen, T. B.
    Leaitch, W. R.
    Poeschl, U.
    Rose, D.
    Andreae, M. O.
    Schmale, J.
    Kondo, Y.
    Oshima, N.
    Schwarz, J. P.
    Nenes, A.
    Andersrson, B.
    Roberts, G. C.
    Snider, J. R.
    Leck, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Quinn, P. K.
    Chi, X.
    Ding, A.
    Jimenez, J. L.
    Zhang, Q.
    THE GLOBAL AEROSOL SYNTHESIS AND SCIENCE PROJECT (GASSP): Measurements and Modeling to Reduce Uncertainty2017In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 98, no 9, p. 1857-1877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The largest uncertainty in the historical radiative forcing of climate is caused by changes in aerosol particles due to anthropogenic activity. Sophisticated aerosol microphysics processes have been included in many climate models in an effort to reduce the uncertainty. However, the models are very challenging to evaluate and constrain because they require extensive in situ measurements of the particle size distribution, number concentration, and chemical composition that are not available from global satellite observations. The Global Aerosol Synthesis and Science Project (GASSP) aims to improve the robustness of global aerosol models by combining new methodologies for quantifying model uncertainty, to create an extensive global dataset of aerosol in situ microphysical and chemical measurements, and to develop new ways to assess the uncertainty associated with comparing sparse point measurements with low-resolution models. GASSP has assembled over 45,000 hours of measurements from ships and aircraft as well as data from over 350 ground stations. The measurements have been harmonized into a standardized format that is easily used by modelers and nonspecialist users. Available measurements are extensive, but they are biased to polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere, leaving large pristine regions and many continental areas poorly sampled. The aerosol radiative forcing uncertainty can be reduced using a rigorous model-data synthesis approach. Nevertheless, our research highlights significant remaining challenges because of the difficulty of constraining many interwoven model uncertainties simultaneously. Although the physical realism of global aerosol models still needs to be improved, the uncertainty in aerosol radiative forcing will be reduced most effectively by systematically and rigorously constraining the models using extensive syntheses of measurements.

  • 30. Roebeling, Rob
    et al.
    Baum, Bryan
    Bennartz, Ralf
    Hamann, Ulrich
    Heidinger, Andrew
    Meirink, Jan Fokke
    Stengel, Martin
    Thoss, Anke
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Walther, Andi
    Watts, Phil
    Summary of the Fourth Cloud Retrieval Evaluation Workshop2015In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 96, no 4, p. ES71-ES74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Roebeling, Rob
    et al.
    Baum, Bryan
    Bennartz, Ralf
    Hamann, Ulrich
    Heidinger, Andy
    Thoss, Anke
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Walther, Andi
    EVALUATING AND IMPROVING CLOUD PARAMETER RETRIEVALS2013In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 94, no 4, p. ES41-ES44Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32. Rogers, David
    et al.
    Dorman, Clive
    Edwards, Kate
    Brooks, Ian
    Melville, W.K.
    Burk, Steven
    Thompson, William
    Holt, Teddy
    Ström, Linda
    Tjernström, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Grisogono, Branko
    Bane, John
    Nuss, Wendell
    Morley, B.M.
    Schanot, A.J.
    Highlights of Coastal Waves 19961998In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 79, p. 1307-1326Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Rummukainen, Markku
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Rockel, Burkhardt
    Bärring, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg
    Reckermann, Marcus
    Twenty-First-Century Challenges in Regional Climate Modeling2015In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 96, no 8, p. ES135-ES138Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Tjernstrom, M
    et al.
    Leck, C
    Persson, P O G
    Jensen, M L
    Oncley, S P
    Targino, A
    The summertime Arctic atmosphere - Meteorological measurements during the Arctic Ocean experiment 20012004In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 85, no 9, p. 1305-1321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An atmospheric boundary layer experiment into the high Arctic was carried out on the Swedish icebreaker Oden during the summer of 2001, with the primary boundary layer observations obtained while the icebreaker drifted with the ice near 89degreesN during 3 weeks in August. The purposes of the experiment were to gain an understanding of atmospheric boundary layer structure and transient mixing mechanisms, in addition to their relationships to boundary layer clouds and aerosol production. Using a combination of in situ and remote sensing instruments, with temporal and spatial resolutions previously not deployed in the Arctic, continuous measurements of the lower-troposphere structure and boundary layer turbulence were taken concurrently with atmospheric gas and particulate chemistry, and marine biology measurements. The boundary layer was strongly controlled by ice thermodynamics and local turbulent mixing. Near-surface temperatures mostly remained between near the melting points of the sea- and freshwater, and near-surface relative humidity was high. Low clouds prevailed and fog appeared frequently. Visibility outside of fog was surprisingly good even with very low clouds, probably due to a lack of aerosol particles preventing the formation of haze. The boundary layer was shallow but remained well mixed, capped by an occasionally very strong inversion. Specific humidity often increased with height across the capping inversion. In contrast to the boundary layer, the free troposphere often retained its characteristics from well beyond the Arctic. Elevated intrusions of warm, moist air from open seas to the south were frequent. The picture that the Arctic atmosphere is less affected by transport from lower latitudes in summer than the winter may, thus, be an artifact of analyzing only surface measurements. The transport of air from lower latitudes at heights above the boundary layer has a major impact on the Arctic boundary layer, even very close to the North Pole. During a few week-long periods synoptic-scale weather systems appeared, while weaker and shallower mesoscale fronts were frequent. While frontal passages changed the properties of the free troposphere, changes in the boundary layer were more determined by local effects that often led to changes contrary to those aloft. For example, increasing winds associated with a cold front often led to a warming of the near-surface air by mixing and entrainment.

  • 35.
    Tjernström, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    STATE OF THE CLIMATE IN 20142015In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 96, no 7, p. S1-S267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the dozens of essential climate variables monitored each year in this report continued to follow their long-term trends in 2014, with several setting new records. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-the major greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-once again all reached record high average atmospheric concentrations for the year. Carbon dioxide increased by 1.9 ppm to reach a globally averaged value of 397.2 ppm for 2014. Altogether, 5 major and 15 minor greenhouse gases contributed 2.94 W m(-2) of direct radiative forcing, which is 36% greater than their contributions just a quarter century ago. Accompanying the record-high greenhouse gas concentrations was nominally the highest annual global surface temperature in at least 135 years of modern record keeping, according to four independent observational analyses. The warmth was distributed widely around the globe's land areas, Europe observed its warmest year on record by a large margin, with close to two dozen countries breaking their previous national temperature records; many countries in Asia had annual temperatures among their 10 warmest on record; Africa reported above-average temperatures across most of the continent throughout 2014; Australia saw its third warmest year on record, following record heat there in 2013; Mexico had its warmest year on record; and Argentina and Uruguay each had their second warmest year on record. Eastern North America was the only major region to observe a below-average annual temperature. But it was the oceans that drove the record global surface temperature in 2014. Although 2014 was largely ENSO-neutral, the globally averaged sea surface temperature (SST) was the highest on record. The warmth was particularly notable in the North Pacific Ocean where SST anomalies signaled a transition from a negative to positive phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation. In the winter of 2013/14, unusually warm water in the northeast Pacific was associated with elevated ocean heat content anomalies and elevated sea level in the region. Globally, upper ocean heat content was record high for the year, reflecting the continued increase of thermal energy in the oceans, which absorb over 90% of Earth's excess heat from greenhouse gas forcing. Owing to both ocean warming and land ice melt contributions, global mean sea level in 2014 was also record high and 67 mm greater than the 1993 annual mean, when satellite altimetry measurements began. Sea surface salinity trends over the past decade indicate that salty regions grew saltier while fresh regions became fresher, suggestive of an increased hydrological cycle over the ocean expected with global warming. As in previous years, these patterns are reflected in 2014 subsurface salinity anomalies as well. With a now decade-long trans-basin instrument array along 26 degrees N, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation shows a decrease in transport of -4.2 +/- 2.5 Sv decade(-1). Precipitation was quite variable across the globe. On balance, precipitation over the world's oceans was above average, while below average across land surfaces. Drought continued in southeastern Brazil and the western United States. Heavy rain during April-June led to devastating floods in Canada's Eastern Prairies. Above-normal summer monsoon rainfall was observed over the southern coast of West Africa, while drier conditions prevailed over the eastern Sahel. Generally, summer monsoon rainfall over eastern Africa was above normal, except in parts of western South Sudan and Ethiopia. The south Asian summer monsoon in India was below normal, with June record dry. Across the major tropical cyclone basins, 91 named storms were observed during 2014, above the 1981-2010 global average of 82. The Eastern/Central Pacific and South Indian Ocean basins experienced significantly above-normal activity in 2014; all other basins were either at or below normal. The 22 named storms in the Eastern/Central Pacific was the basin's most since 1992. Similar to 2013, the North Atlantic season was quieter than most years of the last two decades with respect to the number of storms, despite the absence of El Nino conditions during both years. In higher latitudes and at higher elevations, increased warming continued to be visible in the decline of glacier mass balance, increasing permafrost temperatures, and a deeper thawing layer in seasonally frozen soil. In the Arctic, the 2014 temperature over land areas was the fourth highest in the 115-year period of record and snow melt occurred 20-30 days earlier than the 1998-2010 average. The Greenland Ice Sheet experienced extensive melting in summer 2014. The extent of melting was above the 1981-2010 average for 90% of the melt season, contributing to the second lowest average summer albedo over Greenland since observations began in 2000 and a record-low albedo across the ice sheet for August. On the North Slope of Alaska, new record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at four of five permafrost observatories. In September, Arctic minimum sea ice extent was the sixth lowest since satellite records began in 1979. The eight lowest sea ice extents during this period have occurred in the last eight years. Conversely, in the Antarctic, sea ice extent countered its declining trend and set several new records in 2014, including record high monthly mean sea ice extent each month from April to November. On 20 September, a record large daily Antarctic sea ice extent of 20.14 x 106 km(2) occurred. The 2014 Antarctic stratospheric ozone hole was 20.9 million km2 when averaged from 7 September to 13 October, the sixth smallest on record and continuing a decrease, albeit statistically insignificant, in area since 1998.

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