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  • 1.
    Balthasar, Uwe
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Butterfield, Nicholas J.
    Early Cambrian "soft-shelled" brachiopods as possible stem-group phoronids2009In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 307-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brachiopods and phoronids are widely recognised as closely related lophophorate phyla. but the lack of morphological intermediates linking the bivalved bodyplan of brachiopods with tubular phoronids has frustrated precise phylogenetic placement. Here we describe Lingulosacculus nuda gen. et sp. nov., a new "soft-shelled" brachiopod from the Early Cambrian Mural Formation of western Alberta which provides a plausible candidate for a phoronid stem-group within (paraphyletic) Brachiopoda. In addition to its non-biomineralised shell, L. nuda had a ventral valve with an exceptionally long, pocket-like extension (pseudointerarea) that Would have allowed the transformation of criss-crossing brachiopod-type musculature to the longitudinal arrangement typical of phoronids. "Soft-shelled" linguliform brachiopods have previously been reported from both the Chengjiang and Burgess Shale Lagerstatten which, together with L. nuda. probably represent two independent losses of shell mineralisation in brachiopods.

  • 2.
    Betts, Marissa J.
    et al.
    Univ New England, Sch Environm & Rural Sci, Palaeosci Res Ctr, Armidale, NSW, Australia; Northwest Univ, Early Life Inst, Xian, Shaanxi, Peoples R China; Northwest Univ, Dept Geol, State Key Lab Continental Dynam, Xian, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.
    Claybourn, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology. Macquarie Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Brock, Glenn A.
    Macquarie Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Jago, James B.
    Univ South Australia, Sch Nat & Built Environm, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Skovsted, Christian B.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Palaeobiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paterson, John R.
    Univ New England, Sch Environm & Rural Sci, Palaeosci Res Ctr, Armidale, NSW, Australia.
    Shelly fossils from the lower Cambrian White Point Conglomerate, Kangaroo Island, South Australia2019In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 489-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lower Cambrian (Series 2) White Point Conglomerate (WPC) on Kangaroo Island, South Australia contains exotic clasts representing a diverse array of lithologies, including metamorphics, chert, sandstone, and abundant carbonates, notably archaeocyath-rich bioclastic limestone. Acetic acid digestion of the WPC bioclastic limestone clasts reveals a diverse shelly fauna. This assemblage includes abundant organophosphatic brachiopods such as Cordatia erinae Brock and Claybourn gen. et sp. nov., Curdus pararaensis, Eodicellomus elkaniformiis, Eohadrotreta sp. cf. E. zhenbaensis, Eoobolus sp., Kyrshabaktella davidii, and Schizopholis yorkensis. Additional shelly taxa include the solenopleurid trilobite Trachoparia? sp., the tommotiids Dailyatia odyssei, Dailyatia decobruta Betts sp. nov., Kelanella sp., and Lapworthella fasciculata, spines of the bradoriid arthropod Mongolitubulus squamifer, and several problematica, such as Stoibostrombus crenulatus and a variety of tubular forms. The upper age limit for the WPC is constrained by biostratigraphic data from the overlying Marsden Sandstone and Emu Bay Shale, which are no younger than the Pararaia janeae Trilobite Zone (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4). The shelly fossil assemblage from the WPC limestone clasts indicates an upper Dailyatia odyssei Zone (= Pararaia tatei to lower P. janeae trilobite zones), equivalent to the Atdabanian–early Botoman of the Siberian scheme. This contrasts with the previously suggested late Botoman age for the limestone clasts, based on the diverse archaeocyath assemblage. The minor age difference between the WPC and its fossiliferous limestone clasts suggests relatively rapid reworking of biohermal buildups during tectonically-active phases of deposition in the Stansbury Basin.

  • 3. Betts, Marissa, J.
    et al.
    Claybourn, Thomas M.
    Brock, Glenn, A.
    Jago, James, B.
    Skovsted, Christian
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Paterson, John, R.
    Shelly fossils from the lower Cambrian White Point Conglomerate, Kangaroo Island, South Australia2019In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 489-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lower Cambrian (Series 2) White Point Conglomerate (WPC) on Kangaroo Island, South Australia contains exoticclasts representing a diverse array of lithologies, including metamorphics, chert, sandstone, and abundant carbonates,notably archaeocyath-rich bioclastic limestone. Acetic acid digestion of the WPC bioclastic limestone clasts reveals adiverse shelly fauna. This assemblage includes abundant organophosphatic brachiopods such as Cordatia erinae Brockand Claybourn gen. et sp. nov., Curdus pararaensis, Eodicellomus elkaniformiis, Eohadrotreta sp. cf. E. zhenbaensis,Eoobolus sp., Kyrshabaktella davidii, and Schizopholis yorkensis. Additional shelly taxa include the solenopleurid trilobiteTrachoparia? sp., the tommotiids Dailyatia odyssei, Dailyatia decobruta Betts sp. nov., Kelanella sp., and Lapworthellafasciculata, spines of the bradoriid arthropod Mongolitubulus squamifer, and several problematica, such as Stoibostrombuscrenulatus and a variety of tubular forms. The upper age limit for the WPC is constrained by biostratigraphic data fromthe overlying Marsden Sandstone and Emu Bay Shale, which are no younger than the Pararaia janeae Trilobite Zone(Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4). The shelly fossil assemblage from the WPC limestone clasts indicates an upper Dailyatiaodyssei Zone (= Pararaia tatei to lower P. janeae trilobite zones), equivalent to the Atdabanian–early Botoman of theSiberian scheme. This contrasts with the previously suggested late Botoman age for the limestone clasts, based on the diversearchaeocyath assemblage. The minor age difference between the WPC and its fossiliferous limestone clasts suggestsrelatively rapid reworking of biohermal buildups during tectonically-active phases of deposition in the Stansbury Basin.

  • 4.
    Campione, Nicolas E.
    et al.
    University of Toronto, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Toronto, Canada.
    Reisz, Robert R.
    University of Toronto Mississauga.
    Morphology and evolutionary significance of the atlas-axis complex in varanopid synapsids2011In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 739-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The atlas−axis complex has been described in few Palaeozoic taxa, with little effort being placed on examining variation of this structure within a small clade. Most varanopids, members of a clade of gracile synapsid predators, have well preserved atlas−axes permitting detailed descriptions and examination of morphological variation. This study indicates that the size of the transverse processes on the axis and the shape of the axial neural spine vary among members of this clade. In particular, the small mycterosaurine varanopids possess small transverse processes that point posteroventrally, and the axial spine is dorsoventrally short, with a flattened dorsal margin in lateral view. The larger varanodontine varanopids have large transverse processes with a broad base, and a much taller axial spine with a rounded dorsal margin in lateral view. Based on outgroup comparisons, the morphology exhibited by the transverse processes is interpreted as derived in varanodontines, whereas the morphology of the axial spine is derived in mycterosaurines. The axial spine anatomy of Middle Permian South African varanopids is reviewed and our interpretation is consistent with the hypothesis that at least two varanopid taxa are present in South Africa, a region overwhelmingly dominated by therapsid synapsids and parareptiles.

  • 5.
    Conway Morris, Simon
    et al.
    Cambridge, Earth Sciences.
    Peel, John S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    New palaeoscolecidan worms from the Lower Cambrian: Sirius Passet, Latham Shale and Kinzers Shale2010In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 141-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Palaeoscolecidan worms are an important component of many Lower Palaeozoic marine assemblages, with notable occurrences in a number of Burgess Shale-type Fossil-Lagerstatten. In addition to material from the lower Cambrian Kinzers Formation and Latham Shale, we also describe two new palaeoscolecidan taxa from the lower Cambrian Sirius Passet Fossil-Lagerstatte of North Greenland: Chalazoscolex pharkus gen. et sp. nov and Xystoscolex boreogyrus gen. et sp. nov. These palaeoscolecidans appear to be the oldest known (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 3) soft-bodied examples, being somewhat older than the diverse assemblages from the Chengjiang Fossil-Lagerstatte of China. In the Sirius Passet taxa the body is composed of a spinose introvert (or proboscis), trunk with ornamentation that includes regions bearing cuticular ridges and sclerites, and a caudal zone with prominent circles of sclerites. The taxa are evidently quite closely related; generic differentiation is based on degree of trunk ornamentation, details of introvert structure and nature of the caudal region. The worms were probably infaunal or semi-epifaunal; gut contents suggest that at least X. boreogyrus may have preyed on the arthropod Isoxys. Comparison with other palaeoscolecidans is relatively straightforward in terms of comparable examples in other Burgess Shale-type occurrences, but is much more tenuous with respect to the important record of isolated sclerites. These finds from Greenland provide further evidence that palaeoscolecidans possessed a complex anterior introvert directly comparable to a number of priapulid-like taxa from other Burgess Shale-type assemblages. Although these palaeoscolecidans have been allied with the nematomorphs, molecular data in conjunction with our observations suggest that this hypothesis is untenable. Palaeoscolecidans and similar priapulid-like taxa are probably primitive cycloneuralians and as such may indicate the original bodyplan of this important group of ecdysozoans. In addition, we describe another sclerite-bearing fossil from the Sirius Passet Fossil-Lagerstatte that may be related to the cambroclaves.

  • 6.
    Conway Morris, Simon
    et al.
    Cambridge, Earth Sciences.
    Peel, John Stuart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology. Uppsala University, Museums etc., Museum of Evolution.
    The earliest annelids: Lower Cambrian polychaetes from the Sirius Passet Lagerstätte, Peary Land, North Greenland2008In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 137-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apart from the Phyllopod Bed of the Burgess Shale (Middle Cambrian) polychaete annelids are practically unknown from any of the Cambrian Lagerstdtten. This is surprising both because their diversity in the Burgess Shale is considerable, while to date the Chengjiang Lagerstatte which is equally impressive in terms of faunal diversity has no reliable records of any annelids. Here we describe, on the basis of about 40 specimens, Phragmochaeta canicularis gen. et sp. nov. from the Lower Cambrian Sirius Passet Lagerstatte of Peary Land, North Greenland. This makes it by far the oldest known polychaete, with a likely age of lower to middle Atdabanian, The body consists of approximately 20 segments, each bearing notochaetae and neurochaetae. The former appeared to have formed a felt-like covering on the dorsum, whilst the neurochaetae projected obliquely to the longitudinal axis. Apart from minor differences in chaetal size at either end there is no other tagmosis. Details of the head are obscure, and presence of palps, tentacles and eyes are conjectural. Jaws appear to have been absent. The gut was straight, and flanked by massive longitudinal musculature. P. canicularis was evidently benthic, propelling itself on the neurochaetae, with the dorsal neurochaetae conferring protection. Its stratigraphic position and generalized appearance are consistent with P. canicularis being primitive, but the phylogenetic relationships within the polychaetes remain problematic, principally because of paucity of relevant morphological information.

  • 7. Devaere, Lea
    et al.
    Holmer, Lars Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Clausen, Sebastien
    Vachard, Daniel
    Oldest mickwitziid brachiopod from the Terreneuvian of southern France2015In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 755-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kerberellus marcouensis Devaere, Holmer, and Clausen gen. et sp. nov., originally described as Dictyonina? sp., from the Terreneuvian of northern Montagne Noire (France) is reinterpreted as the oldest relative to or member of mickwitziid-like stem-group brachiopods. Were extracted 170 partial to complete phosphatic internal moulds of two types of adult and one type of juvenile disarticulated valves, rarely externally coated with phosphates, from the calcareous Heraultia Member of the Marcou Formation. They correspond to microbially infested, ventribiconvex, inequivalved, bivalved shells. The ventral interarea is bisected by a triangular sinus. The shell, most probably dominantly organic in origin, is orthogonally pierced throughout its entire thickness by radially-aligned, smooth-walled, cylindrical to hourglass shaped canals except for the sub-apical planar field (interarea). The through-going canals of K. marcouensis are compared with brachiopods endopunctae and with canals of mickwitziid brachiopods. The absence of striations on K. marcouensis canal walls, typical of mickwitziids, implies that (i) the tubes could have been depleted of setae or; (ii) traces of the microvilli were not preserved on the tube wall (taphonomic bias) or, (iii) the tubes could have been associated with an outer epithelial follicle.

  • 8.
    Doguzhaeva, Larisa A.
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Weaver, Patricia G.
    North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences.
    Ciampaglio, Charles N.
    Wright State University.
    A unique late Eocene coleoid cephalopod Mississaepia from Mississippi, USA: New data on cuttlebone structure, and their phylogenetic implications.2014In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 147-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new family, Mississaepiidae, from the Sepia–Spirula branch of decabrachian coleoids (Cephalopoda), is erected on the basis of the following, recently revealed, morphological, ultrastructural and chemical traits of the cuttlebone in the late Eocene Mississaepia, formerly referred to Belosaepiidae: (i) septa are semi−transparent, largely chitinous (as opposed to all other recorded cephalopods having non−transparent aragonitic septa); (ii) septa have a thin lamello−fibrillar nacreous covering (Sepia lacks nacre altogether, Spirula has fully lamello−fibrillar nacreous septa, ectochochleate cephalopods have columnar nacre in septa); (iii) a siphonal tube is present in early ontogeny (similar to siphonal tube development of the Danian Ceratisepia, and as opposed to complete lack of siphonal tube in Sepiaand siphonal tube development through its entire ontogeny in Spirula); (iv) the lamello−fibrillar nacreous ultrastructure of septal necks (similar to septal necks in Spirula); (v) a sub−hemispherical protoconch (as opposed to the spherical protoconchs of the Danian Ceratisepia and Recent Spirula); (vi) conotheca has ventro−lateral extension in early ontogenetic stages (as opposed to Sepia that has no ventro−lateral extention of the conotheca and to Spirula that retains fully−developed phragmocone throughout its entire ontogeny). Chitinous composition of septa in Mississaepia is deduced from (i) their visual similarity to the chitinous semi−transparent flange of Sepia, (ii) angular and rounded outlines and straight compressive failures of the partial septa and mural parts of septa similar to mechanically−damaged dry rigid chitinous flange of Sepia or a gladius of squid, and (iii) organics consistent with −chitin preserved in the shell. The family Mississaepiidae may represent a unknown lineage of the Sepia–Spirulabranch of coleoids, a conotheca lacking a nacreous layer being a common trait of the shell of this branch. However, Mississaepiidae is placed with reservation in Sepiida because of similarities between their gross shell morphology (a cuttlebone type of shell) and inorganic−organic composition. In Mississaepia, as in Sepia, the shell contains up to 6% of nitrogen by weight; phosphatised sheets within the dorsal shield may have been originally organic, like similar structures in Sepia; accumulations of pyrite in peripheral zones of aragonitic spherulites and in−between the spherulites of the dorsal shield may also indicate additional locations of organics in the shell of living animal.

  • 9.
    Doguzhaeva, Larisa
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Weaver, Patricia
    North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences; U.S.A..
    Ciampaglio, Charles
    Department of Geology, Wright State University−Lake Campus.
    A unique late Eocene coleoid cephalopod Mississaepia from Mississippi, USA: New data on cuttlebone structure, and their phylogenetic implications.2014In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 147-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new family, Mississaepiidae, from the Sepia–Spirula branch of decabrachian coleoids (Cephalopoda), is erected on the basis of the following, recently revealed, morphological, ultrastructural and chemical traits of the cuttlebone in the late Eocene Mississaepia, formerly referred to Belosaepiidae: (i) septa are semi−transparent, largely chitinous (as opposed to all other recorded cephalopods having non−transparent aragonitic septa); (ii) septa have a thin lamello−fibrillar nacreous covering (Sepia lacks nacre altogether, Spirula has fully lamello−fibrillar nacreous septa, ectochochleate cephalopods have columnar nacre in septa); (iii) a siphonal tube is present in early ontogeny (similar to siphonal tube development of the Danian Ceratisepia, and as opposed to complete lack of siphonal tube in Sepia and siphonal tube development through its entire ontogeny in Spirula); (iv) the lamello−fibrillar nacreous ultrastructure of septal necks (similar to septal necks in Spirula); (v) a sub−hemispherical protoconch (as opposed to the spherical protoconchs of the Danian Ceratisepia and Recent Spirula); (vi) conotheca has ventro−lateral extension in early ontogenetic stages (as opposed to Sepia that has no ventro−lateral extention of the conotheca and to Spirula that retains fully−developed phragmocone throughout its entire ontogeny). Chitinous composition of septa in Mississaepia is deduced from (i) their visual similarity to the chitinous semi−transparent flange of Sepia, (ii) angular and rounded outlines and straight compressive failures of the partial septa and mural parts of septa similar to mechanically−damaged dry rigid chitinous flange of Sepia or a gladius of squid, and (iii) organics consistent with [1]−chitin preserved in the shell. The family Mississaepiidae may represent a unknown lineage of the Sepia–Spirula branch of coleoids, a conotheca lacking a nacreous layer being a common trait of the shell of this branch. However, Mississaepiidae is placed with reservation in Sepiida because of similarities between their gross shell morphology (a cuttlebone type of shell) and inorganic−organic composition. In Mississaepia, as in Sepia, the shell contains up to 6% of nitrogen by weight; phosphatised sheets within the dorsal shield may have been originally organic, like similar structures in Sepia; accumulations of pyrite in peripheral zones of aragonitic spherulites and in−between the spherulites of the dorsal shield may also indicate additional locations of organics in the shell of living animal.

  • 10.
    Greenwalt, Dale E.
    et al.
    Smithsonian Institution, US.
    Rose, Tim R.
    Smithsonian Institution, US.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. Smithsonian Institution, US.
    Goreva, Yulia S.
    Smithsonian Institution, US.
    Constenius, Kurt N.
    Carnegie Museum of Natural History, US.
    Wingerath, Jonathan G.
    Smithsonian Institution, US.
    Taphonomic studies of the fossil insects of the Middle Eocene Kishenehn Formation2015In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 931-947Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lacustrine oil shales of the Coal Creek Member of the Kishenehn Formation in northwestern Montana comprise a relatively unstudied Middle Eocene fossil insect locality. Herein, we detail the stratigraphic position of the fossiliferous unit, describe the insect fauna of the Coal Creek locality and document its bias towards very small but remarkably preserved insects. In addition, the depositional environment is examined and the mineral constituents of the laminations that comprise the varves of the Kishenehn oil shale are defined. Fifteen orders of insects have been recorded with the majority of all insects identified as aquatic with the families Chironomidae (Diptera) and Corixidae (Hemiptera) dominant. The presence of small aquatic insects, many of which are immature, the intact nature of >90% of the fossil insects and the presence of Daphnia ephippia, all indicate that the depositional environment was the shallow margin of a large freshwater lake. The fossil insects occur within fossilized microbial mat layers that comprise the bedding planes of the oil shale. Unlike the fossiliferous shales of the Florissant and Okanagan Highlands, the mats are not a product of diatomaceous algae nor are diatom frustules a component of the sediments or the varve structure. Instead, the varves are composed of very fine eolian siliciclastic silt grains overlaid with non-diatomaceous, possibly cyanobacteria-derived microbial mats which contain distinct traces of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. A distinct third layer composed of essentially pure calcite is present in the shale of some exposures and is presumably derived from the seasonal warming-induced precipitation of carbonate from the lake’s waters. The Coal Creek locality presents a unique opportunity to study both very small Middle Eocene insects not often preserved as compression fossils in most Konservat-Lagerstätte and the processes that led to their preservation.

  • 11. Hairapetian, Vachik
    et al.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Evolutionary Organism Biology.
    Miller, C. Giles
    Silurian thelodonts from the Niur Formation, central Iran2008In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thelodont scales are described from the Silurian Niur Formation in the Derenjal Mountains, east central Iran. The material studied herein comes from four stratigraphic levels, composed of rocks formed in a shallow water, carbonate ramp environment. The fauna includes a new phlebolepidiform, Niurolepis susanae gen. et sp. nov. of late Wenlock/?early Ludlow age and a late Ludlow loganelliiform, Loganellia sp. cf. L. grossi, which constitute the first record of these thelodont groups from Gondwana. The phlebolepidiform Niurolepis susanae gen. et sp. nov. is diagnosed by having trident trunk scales with a raised medial crown area separated by two narrow spiny wings from the lateral crown areas; a katoporodid-type histological structure distinguished by a network of branched wide dentine canals. Other scales with a notch on a smooth rhomboidal crown and postero-laterally down-stepped lateral rims have many characters in common with Loganellia grossi. Associated with the thelodonts are indeterminable acanthodian scales and a possible dentigerous jaw bone fragment. This finding also provides evidence of a hitherto unknown southward dispersal of Loganellia to the shelves of peri-Gondwana.

  • 12. Hryniewicz, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Amano, Kazutaka
    Bitner, Maria Aleksandra
    Institute of Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warszawa, Poland.
    Hagström, Jonas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Kiel, Steffen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Klompmaker, Adiël A.
    Mörs, Thomas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Robins, Cristina
    Kaim, Andrzej
    A late Paleocene fauna from shallow-water chemosynthesis-based ecosystems in Spitsbergen, Svalbard2019In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 101-141Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Hryniewicz, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Institute of Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa.
    Amano, Kazutaka
    Department of Geoscience, Joetsu University of Education, Niigata.
    Jenkins, Robert
    School of Natural System, College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa City, Ishikawa .
    Kiel, Steffen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Thyasirid bivalves from Cretaceous and Paleogene cold seeps2017In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 705-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a systematic study of thyasirid bivalves from Cretaceous to Oligocene seep carbonates worldwide. Eleven species of thyasirid bivalves are identified belonging to three genera: Conchocele, Maorithyas, and Thyasira. Two species are new: Maorithyas humptulipsensis sp. nov. from middle Eocene seep carbonates in the Humptulips Formation, Washington State, USA, and Conchocele kiritachiensis sp. nov. from the late Eocene seep deposit at Kiritachi, Hokkaido, Japan. Two new combinations are provided: Conchocele townsendi (White, 1890) from Maastrichtian strata of the James Ross Basin, Antarctica, and Maorithyas folgeri (Wagner and Schilling, 1923) from Oligocene rocks from California, USA. Three species are left in open nomenclature. We show that thyasirids have Mesozoic origins and appear at seeps before appearing in “normal” marine environments. These data are interpreted as a record of seep origination of thyasirids, and their subsequent dispersal to non-seep environments. We discuss the age of origination of thyasirids in the context of the origin of the modern deep sea fauna and conclude that thyasirids could have deep sea origins. This hypothesis is supported by the observed lack of influence of the Cretaceous and Paleogene Oceanic Anoxic Events on the main evolutionary lineages of the thyasirids, as seen in several other members of the deep sea fauna.

  • 14. Hu, Shixue
    et al.
    Zhang, Zhifei
    Holmer, Lars E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Skovsted, Christian B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Soft-part preservation in a linguliform brachiopod from the lower Cambrian Wulongqing Formation (Guanshan Fauna) of Yunnan, South China2010In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 495-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linguliform brachiopods were important components of early Cambrian benthic communities. However, exceptionally preserved soft parts in Cambrian linguliform brachiopods are extremely sparse, and the most important findings are from the early Cambrian Chengjiang Konservat Lagerstatte of Kunming, southern China. Here we describe the first record of preserved soft-part anatomy in a linguli form brachiopod from the early Cambrian Guanshan fauna (Wu longging Formation, Palaeolenus Zone); a unit which is considerably younger than the Chengjiang fauna. The well preserved soft anatomy include linguliform pedicles, marginal setae and, in a few cases, an intact lophophore imprint. The pedicle has pronounced surface annulations, with its proximal-most part enclosing the apex of the ventral pseudointerarea; the pedicle is up to 51 mm long, corresponding to more than 4 times the sagittal length of the shell, and 12% of the maximum valve width. In details of their preservation, these new fossils exhibit striking similarities with the linguliforms from the older Chengjiang fauna, and all specimens are preserved in a compressed state as flattened impressions. The new linguliform has an elongate oval to subtriangular shell and an elongate triangular ventral pseudointerarea; the pedicle emerged from an apical foramen through a poorly preserved internal pedicle tube. The new linguliform is most similar to the mostly organic-shelled siphonotretoid-like brachiopod Acanthotretella spinosa, recently described from the classic middle Cambrian Burgess Shale Konservat Lagerstatte, British Columbia, Canada. The new species Acanthotretella decaius sp. nov. is described; it differs from A. spinosa in having a slightly thicker pedicle, and a larger and more rigid, probably partly mineralised shell, indicating that the mostly organic shell of A. spinosa may represent a secondary reduction of shell mineralisation. However, the spine-like setae of the new species are unfortunately poorly preserved only at the margin of the shell, but the new species is referred tentatively to the Superfamily Siphonotretoidea. The occurrence of A. decaius in the Guanshan fauna is the first lower Cambrian (Series 2, early Stage 4) record of both Acanthotretella and siphonotretoids, and it represents the first description of a lophophore and digestive tract from the siphonotretoid lineage.

  • 15.
    Hybertsen, Frida
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Kiel, Steffen
    A middle Eocene seep deposit with silicified fauna from the Humptulips Formation in western Washington State, USA2018In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 751-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbonate blocks with silicified fossils were recovered from a newly recognized cold seep deposit, the Satsop  Weatherwax site, in the basal Humptulips Formation, along the West Fork of Satsop River in Washington State, USA. The petrography and the stable carbon isotope signature of the carbonate, with values as low as -43.5‰, indicate that these carbonate blocks formed at an ancient methane seep. The fossils recovered from this block include five vesicomyid specimens, two fragments of a thyasirid, five specimens of the peltospirid Depressigyra, two specimens of the hyalogyrinid Hyalogyrina, 25 specimens of the neritimorph Thalassonerita eocenica, and three limpet specimens of two different species. Five species can be described as new: Nuculana acutilineata (Nuculanoidea), Desbruyeresia belliatus (Provannidae), Provanna fortis (Provannidae), Orbitestella dioi (Orbitestellidae), and Leptochiton terryiverseni (Polyplacophora). Other fossils recovered from this site are numerous serpulid tubes, echinoid spines, one brachiopod fragment and two neogastropods. Almost all species recovered belong to extant genera and the fauna has a modern character, but are different from species found in younger seeps in Washington State. This is the first record of an orbitestellid from an ancient cold seep deposit, the first fossil provannids from the Humptulips Formation, and the first fossil record of Desbruyeresia from North America.

  • 16. Jadwiszczak, Piotr
    et al.
    Mörs, Thomas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Aspects of diversity in early Antarctic penguins2011In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Jadwiszczak, Piotr
    et al.
    Mörs, Thomas
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Aspects of diversity in early Antarctic penguins2011In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Kiel, Steffen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Three new bivalve genera from Triassic hydrocarbon seep deposits in southern Turkey2018In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 63, p. 221-234Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Kiel, Steffen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Sami, Marco
    Taviani, Marco
    A serpulid-Anodontia-dominated methane-seep deposit from the Miocene of northern Italy2018In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 63, p. 569-577Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Kiel, Steffen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Taviani, Marco
    Chemosymbiotic bivalves from the late Pliocene Stirone River hydrocarbon seep complex in northern Italy2018In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 63, p. 557-568Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. KIMURA, Yuri
    et al.
    TOMIDA, Yukimitsu
    Kalthoff, Daniela
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    CASANOVAS-VILAR, Isaac
    Mörs, Thomas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    A new endemic genus of eomyid rodents from the early Miocene of Japan2019In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Kouchinsky, Artem
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Clausen, Sébastien
    Université de Lille.
    Vendrasco, Michael J.
    California State University, Fullerton, CA.
    An early Cambrian fauna of skeletal fossils from the Emyaksin Formation, northern Siberia.2015In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 421-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An assemblage of mineralised skeletal fossils containing molluscs, hyoliths, halkieriids, chancelloriids, tommotiids, lobopodians, paleoscolecids, bradoriids, echinoderms, anabaritids, hyolithelminths, hexactinnelid, and heteractinid sponges is described from the early Cambrian Emyaksin Formation exposed along the Malaya Kuonamka and Bol’shaya Kuonamka rivers, eastern flanks of the Anabar Uplift, northern Siberian Platform. The sampled succession is attributed to the Tommotian–Botoman Stages of Siberia and correlated with Stage 2 of Series 1–Stage 4 of Series 2 of the IUGS chronostratigraphical scheme for the Cambrian. Carbon isotope chemostratigraphy is applied herein for regional correlation. The fauna contains the earliest Siberian and probably global first appearances of lobopodians, paleoscolecids, and echinoderms, and includes elements in common with coeval faunas from Gondwana, Laurentia, and Baltica. For the first time from Siberia, the latest occurrence of anabaritids is documented herein from the Atdabanian Stage. Problematic calcium phosphatic sclerites of Fengzuella zhejiangensis have not been previously known from outside China. The sellate sclerites, Camenella garbowskae and mitral sclerites, C. kozlowskii are unified within one species, C. garbowskae. In addition to more common slender sclerites, Rhombocorniculum insolutum include broad calcium phosphatic sclerites. A number of fossils described herein demonstrate excellent preservation of fine details of skeletal microstructures. Based on new microstructural data, sclerites of Rhombocorniculum are interpreted as chaetae of the type occurring in annelids. A new mollusc Enigmaconus? pyramidalis Kouchinsky and Vendrasco sp. nov. and a hyolith Triplicatella papilio Kouchinsky sp. nov. are described.

  • 23.
    Kouchinsky, Artem
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Landing, Ed
    New York State Museum.
    Steiner, Michael
    Freie Universität Berlin.
    Vendrasco, Michael
    Pasadena City College.
    Ziegler, Karen
    University of New Mexico.
    Terreneuvian stratigraphy and faunas from the Anabar Uplift, Siberia.2017In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 311-440Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Kouchinsky, Artem
    et al.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Palaeobiol, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Holmer, Lars E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Steiner, Michael
    Free Univ Berlin, Dept Earth Sci, D-12249 Berlin, Germany..
    Ushatinskaya, Galina T.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Paleontol, Moscow 117997, Russia..
    The new stem-group brachiopod Oymurania from the lower Cambrian of Siberia2015In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 963-980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A stem-group brachiopod, Oymurania gravestocki Ushatinskaya gen. et sp. nov. is described herein from the middle Atdabanian-lower Botoman Stages (similar to Cambrian Stage 3) of the Siberian Platform. The fossils were extracted from limestone beds of the Emyaksin, Perekhod, and Pestrotsvet formations as assemblages of disarticulated orthoconic to cyrtoconic porous shells in apatite preservation. The originally organophosphatic shells of Oymurania are externally similar to mitral sclerites (ventral valves) of the stem-group brachiopod Micrina, although no sellate-like sclerites, nor differentiated subapical area with apophyses were recognised in our material. The range of Oymurania shells with subcentral to posteromarginal apex is similar to that of ventral valves of Mickwitzia. Oymurania is also characterised by the system of radial and orthogonal canals open in pairs or triplets in small depressions or indentations of growth lamellae in the outer shell surface. The orthogonal (Micrina-Setatella type) and radial (horizontal setigerous tubes) canals are widespread among the early Cambrian stem-group brachiopods, such as Micrina, Mickwitzia, and Setatella. In addition to these canals, Oymurania exhibits a well-developed acrotretoid columnar microstructure, also known from Setatella. A broad subapical platform in cyrtoconic shells (presumably ventral valves) of Oymurania is interpreted homologous to the deltoid area in mitrals of Micrina and pseudointerarea/interarea in ventral valves of Setatella/paterinid brachiopods. Except with probable cell imprints and openings of orthogonal canals, no morphological differentiation was, however, reflected by the shell interior of Oymurania gravestocki. Being closely related to tannuolinids and mickwitziids, Oymurania complements the picture of diversification of the early Cambrian stem-group brachiopods that occurred in parallel with radiation of paterinids and other crow-group brachiopods on the Siberian Platform and worldwide.

  • 25.
    Larsson, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Peel, John Stuart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Högström, Anette E.S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Trachyplax arctica, a new multiplated probelematic fossil from the lower Cambrian of North Greenland2009In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 513-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new scleritome-bearing organism with eight sclerite types, Trachyplax   arctica gen. et sp. nov., is described from the lower Cambrian   Paralledal Formation of North Greenland. The originally calcareous   sclerites are now silicified; no microstructures are preserved. The   dominant sclerite type (A; maximum dimension 19.3 mm) is bilaterally   symmetrical, strongly arched, with an oval shield showing co-marginal   growth lines and a projecting rostrum with prominent radial   ornamentation. A similar sclerite morphology can be identified in   Silurian-Carboniferous multiplacophoran molluscs but the remaining   sclerite types, which also display a combination of concentric and   radial ornamentation, find no clear equivalents. Two models for   scleritome reconstruction are presented, based on the relative   abundance of the sclerites, but neither promotes a satisfactory   assignment to a higher taxon. Despite the morphological   dissimilarities, possibly reflecting the age discrepancy, reference to   the Multiplacophora is most attractive and entails a substantial   extension of the known geological range of that group.

  • 26.
    Lindström, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Peel, John Stuart
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Repaired injuries and shell form in some Palaeozoic pleurotomarioid gastropods2005In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 697-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pleurotomarioid gastropods typically develop a spiral band called the selenizone in the outer whorl face of the shell that is formed by the closure of an open slit in the apertural margin. The slit and selenizone may be important in controlling the extent to which fractures induced by predatory attacks propagate across the whorl surface. A prominent selenizone can prevent fractures from traversing the entire whorl. Study of six Palaeozoic pleurotomarioid gastropod species with repaired shell injuries shows that repaired injuries are dependent on both the nature of the selenizone and shell form. The species can be divided into three morphological groups (turbiniform, trochiform and planispiral) and show a variety of selenizones with different degrees of prominence. Turbiniform shells show more repaired injuries than planispiral forms, indicating that species in the former group more often survive predatory attacks. The studied material is too sparse for meaningful statistical analysis, but individual case studies suggest that the combined influence of shell form and the nature of the selenizone can make the interpretation complex.

  • 27.
    Mörs, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Stefen, Clara
    The castorid Steneofiber from NW Germany and its implications for the taxonomy of Miocene beavers2010In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Budziszewska-Karwowska, Ewa
    Univ Silesia, Museum Earth Sci, Fac Earth Sci, Bedzinska 60 St, PL-41200 Sosnowiec, Poland.
    A new occurrence of the Late Triassic archosaur Smok in southern Poland2018In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 703-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two isolated teeth, a dorsal vertebra, fragments of a humerus and femur, a fragmentary pubic "boot" and part of an ischium shaft, identified here as belonging to a large predatory archosaur were discovered in the Upper Triassic site at Marciszow near Zawiercie (southern Poland). Comparisons of the new fossils from Marciszow with the dorsal vertebrae, pubic "boot", ischium and femur of the theropod-like Smok wawelski from Lisowice (Silesia) reveal that the two taxa are very similar. Nevertheless, due to the lack of more diagnostic elements (e.g., braincase or cranial elements), we prefer to consider all described specimens from Marciszow as Smok sp. Smok sp. shares a low mound-like, anterior trochanter with trochanteric shelf on the femur, a massive pubic "boot" with a distinct depression (= bevelled area), and a transversely lenticular ischium shaft in cross-section with S. wawelski. Some observed characters of the dorsal vertebra (e.g., lack of some lamina, shape and position of zygapophyses), however, are different from S. wawelski and may also suggest that the new findings represent a second species of the genus in the Upper Triassic of Poland. The discovery of Smok sp. at Marciszow is significant because it is the second example of the co-occurrence of this genus with: (i) bones of a large dicynodont; and (ii) record of gnawed tetrapod bones. The discovery of Smok sp. and the lack of significant morphologic divergence from S. wawelski suggest that this taxon is the only large-bodied predator currently known from the Upper Triassic of Poland. This new evidence expands the record of the genus and contributes, in some measure, to our knowledge of the stratigraphical distribution of large predatory archosaurs from the Polish Upper Triassic bone-bearing levels.

  • 29.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Sulej, Tomasz
    Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Dzik, Jerzy
    Polish Academy of Sciences.
    A large predatory archosaur from the Late Triassic of Poland2012In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 267-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a new large predatory archosaur, Smok wawelski gen. et sp. nov., from the latest Triassic (latest Norian–early Rhaetian; approximately 205–200 Ma) of Lisowice (Lipie Śląskie clay−pit) in southern Poland. The length of the reconstructed skeleton is 5–6 m and that of the skull 50–60 cm, making S. wawelski larger than any other known predatory archosaur from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic of central Europe (including theropod dinosaurs and “rauisuchian” crurotarsans). The holotype braincase is associated with skull, pelvic and isolated limb−bones found in close proximity (within 30 m), and we regard them as belonging to the same individual. Large, apparently tridactyl tracks that occur in the same rock unit may have been left by animals of the same species. The highly autapomorphic braincase shows large attachment areas for hypertrophied protractor pterygoideus muscles on the lateral surface and a wide, funnel−like region between the basal tubera and basipterygoid processes on the ventral surface. The skeleton (cranial and postcranial) possesses some features similar to those in theropod dinosaurs and others to those in large crocodile−line archosaurs (“rauisuchians”), rendering phylogenetic placement of S. wawelski difficult at this time.

  • 30.
    Pott, C
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    The Triassic flora of Svalbard2014In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 59, p. 709-740Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Skovsted, Christian B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Balthasar, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Brock, Glenn A.
    Paterson, John R.
    The tommotiid Camenella reticulosa from the early Cambrian of South Australia: Morphology, scleritome reconstruction, and phylogeny2009In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 525-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tommotiid Camenella reticulosa is redescribed based on new collections of well preserved sclerites from the Arrowie Basin (Flinders Ranges), South Australia, revealing new information concerning morphology and microstructure. The acutely pyramidal mitral sclerite is described for the first time and the sellate sclerite is shown to be coiled through up to 1.5 whorls. Based on Camenella, a model is proposed by which tommotiid sclerites are composed of alternating dense phosphatic, and presumably originally organic-rich, laminae. Camenella is morphologically most similar to Lapworthella, Kennardia, and Dailyatia, and these taxa are interpreted to represent a monophyletic clade, here termed the "camenellans", within the Tommotiida. Potential reconstructions of the scleritome of Camenella are discussed and although a tubular scleritome construction was recently demonstrated for the tommotiids Eccentrotheca and Paterimitra, a bilaterally symmetrical scleritome model with the sclerites arranged symmetrically on the dorsal surface of a vagrant animal can not be ruled out.

  • 32.
    Skovsted, Christian B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Holmer, Lars E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    The Early Cambrian (Botomian) stem group brachiopod Mickwitzia from Northeast Greenland2003In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problematic brachiopod Mickwitzia Schmidt, 1888 is re-described based on new material of M. cf. occidens Walcott, 1908 from the Early Cambrian (Botomian) Bastion and Ella Island formations of Northeast Greenland. Etched material demonstrates that Mickwitzia has a lingulid-like juvenile ("larval") shell with trails of nick-points, reflecting the movement of marginal setae. Juvenile and early mature ventral valves have a lingulid-like pseudointerarea with a pedicle groove. The shell of M. cf. occidens is only partially phosphatic, in particular around the juvenile-early mature shell in both valves. The phosphatic shell includes at least two types of cylindrical structures: (1) slender columns identical with the columns of acrotretoid brachiopods and (2) relatively thicker tubes which may be open to the exterior surface and have internal striations (on the ventral pseudointerarea). The striations are most likely imprints of microvilli and these tubes can be inferred to have contained setae. The thinner linguliform columns and thicker setigerous striated tubes are considered to be homologous with identical structures in the sellate and mitral sclerites of the problematic Micrina, which has been identified as a probable primitive stem group of the Brachiopoda. Mickwitzia represents a more derived member of the stem group Brachiopoda.

  • 33.
    Skovsted, Christian B.
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Kouchinsky, Artem
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Holmer, Lars E.
    The problematic early Cambrian fossil Tumulduria incomperta represents the detached ventral interarea of a paterinid brachiopod.2014In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 359-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organophosphatic early Cambrian (Terreneuvian, Cambrian Stage 2) fossil Tumulduria incomperta has been problematic ever since its original description in 1969. Comparison of abundant specimens from the Lower Cambrian of Siberia with co-occurring brachiopod valves show that T. incomperta represents the central portion of the ventral interarea of a paterinid brachiopod similar to Cryptotreta neguertchenensis, and that the domed central portion of typical Tumulduria specimens represents the ridge-like pseudodeltidium of the interarea.

  • 34. Skovsted, Christian B.
    et al.
    Kouchinsky, Artem
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Holmer, Lars E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    The problematic early Cambrian fossil Tumulduria incomperta represents the detached ventral interarea of a paterinid brachiopod2014In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 359-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organophosphatic early Cambrian (Terreneuvian, Cambrian Stage 2) fossil Tumulduria incomperta has been problematic ever since its original description in 1969. Comparison of abundant specimens from the Lower Cambrian of Siberia with co-occurring brachiopod valves show that T. incomperta represents the central portion of the ventral interarea of a paterinid brachiopod similar to Cryptotreta neguertchenensis, and that the domed central portion of typical Tumulduria specimens represents the ridge-like pseudodeltidium of the interarea.

  • 35.
    Skovsted, Christian B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Peel, John S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Small shelly fossils from the argillaceous facies of the Lower Cambrian Forteau Formation of western Newfoundland2007In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 729-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diverse fauna of helcionelloid molluscs, hyoliths, and other small shelly fossils is described from limestone layers within the Forteau Formation of the Bonne Bay region in western Newfoundland. The fauna is dominated by internal moulds of various molluscs and tubular problematica, but also includes hyolith opercula, echinoderm ossicles, and other calcareous small shelly fossils preserved by phosphatisation. Originally organophosphatic shells are comparatively rare, but are represented by brachiopods, hyolithelminths, and tommotiids. The fauna is similar to other late Early Cambrian faunas from slope and outer shelf settings along the eastern margin of Laurentia and may be of middle Dyeran age. The similarity of these faunas indicates that at least by the late Early Cambrian, a distinctive and laterally continuous outer shelf fauna had evolved. The Forteau Formation also shares elements with faunas from other Early Cambrian provinces, strengthening ties between Laurentia and Australia, China, and Europe during the late Early Cambrian. Two new taxa of problematic fossil organisms are described, the conical Clavitella curvata gen. et sp. nov. and the wedge-shaped Sphenopteron boomerang gen. et sp. nov.

  • 36.
    Stein, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Waloszek, Dieter
    Maas, Andreas
    Haug, Joachim T.
    Müller, Klaus Jürgen
    The stem crustacean Oelandocaris oelandica re-visited2008In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 461-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The arthropod Oelandocaris oelandica from the upper Middle Cambrian “Orsten” of Sweden was recently recognized as a member of the early phase of crustacean evolution based on additional morphological detail from new specimens. Here we present a detailed investigation of all available material. It includes the description of a 400 μm long specimen probably representing an early developmental stage. Variation in size correlated with variation of trunk−segment numbers allowed recognition of different instars. The largest specimens do not exceed an estimated length of about 1 mm, indicating that our material may consist only of immature specimens. The characteristic, extremely long antennula of O. oelandica branches into three long rods. It may have served as the major structure to sweep in food, aided by the two subsequent appendages. These and the more posterior limbs were also responsible for locomotion. Minute pores on the outer edges of the posterior limbs and on the trunk tergites possibly contained sensilla originally, which may have served as water−current detectors. The presence of a minute proximal endite only on the third head appendage suggests a rather basal position of this species within Crustacea, because comparable developmental stages of other known stem crustaceans have such an endite on more of their appendages. Reconstruction of O. oelandica and its life attitudes (referred to the largest instar known) benefited from the application of 3D modelling. These helped, e.g., in identifying the combination of the plesiomorphic feeding function of the antennulae and the specialisation of the exopods of the next two appendages as a step toward the development of a sweep−net mode of feeding, one of the key novelties in the evolution of Crustacea. Such a mode of feeding coupled with locomotion of the three anterior appendages is still practiced in the naupliar and metanaupliar phases of many extant eucrustaceans, and even some adults.

  • 37.
    Sulej, Tomasz
    et al.
    Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    A new large capitosaurid temnospondyl amphibian from the Early Triassic of Poland2013In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 65-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Early Triassic record of the large capitosaurid amphibian genus Parotosuchus is supplemented by new material fromfluvial deposits of Wióry, southern Poland, corresponding in age to the Detfurth Formation (Spathian, Late Olenekian) ofthe Germanic Basin. The skull of the new capitosaurid shows an “intermediate” morphology between that of Parotosuchus helgolandicus from the Volpriehausen−Detfurth Formation (Smithian, Early Olenekian) of Germany and theslightly younger Parotosuchus orenburgensis from European Russia. These three species may represent an evolutionary lineage that underwent a progressive shifting of the jaw articulation anteriorly. The morphology of the Polish form is distinct enough from other species of Parotosuchus to warrant erection of a new species. The very large mandible of Parotosuchus ptaszynskii sp. nov. indicates that this was one of the largest tetrapod of the Early Triassic. Its prominent anatomical features include a triangular retroarticular process and an elongated base of the hamate process.

  • 38. Swilo, Marlena
    et al.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sulej, Tomasz
    Mammal-like tooth from the Upper Triassic of Poland2014In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 815-820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent Triassic discoveries have extended the record of near-mammals (Mammaliaformes) back to the Norian, about 215 Ma, and reveal a significant diversity of Late Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian) forms. We now add to this Late Triassic diversity a nearly complete double-rooted right lower molariform tooth (ZPAL V.33/734) from the Polish Upper Triassic that is significant because it comes from uppermost Norian–lower Rhaetian rocks and is the first discovery of a mammal-like tooth in the Mesozoic of Poland. The described tooth shows transitional dental morphology between advanced cynodonts and mammaliaforms and it appears to represent a basal mammaliaform (genus Hallautherium), probably belonging to Morganucodonta.

  • 39.
    Topper, Timothy P.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Holmer, Lars E.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Skovsted, Christian
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Balthasar, Uwe
    University of Glasgow.
    Harper, David A.T.
    The oldest brachiopods from the lower Cambrian of South Australia2013In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 93-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The morphology and organophosphatic shell structure of the paterinate brachiopod Askepasma is documented using new and previously collected specimens from the lower Cambrian of South Australia. Lack of adequately preserved material has seen the majority of paterinate specimens previously reported from South Australia referred to the genus Askepasma and treated under open nomenclature. Large collections of paterinates from the lower Cambrian Wilkawillina, Ajax, and Wirrapowie limestones in the Arrowie Basin, South Australia have prompted redescription of the type species Askepasma toddense and the erection of a new species, Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. currently represents the oldest known brachiopod from the lower Cambrian successions in South Australia with a FAD in pre−trilobitic (Terreneuvian, Cambrian Stage 2, lower Atdabanian) strata in the basal part of the Wilkawillina and Wirrapowie limestones. Askepasma toddense predominantly occurs in Abadiella huoi Zone equivalent strata (Unnamed Cambrian Series 2, Stage 3, middle–upper Atdabanian) in the upper part of the lower Wilkawillina, Wirrapowie, and Ajax limestones. The shell microstructure of Askepasma suggests a proximal stem group position within the Brachiopoda and similarities with tommotiid taxa provides further evidence that the ancestry of crown group brachiopods is firmly entrenched within the Tommotiida.

  • 40.
    Topper, Timothy P
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Holmer, Lars E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Skovsted, Christian B
    Department of Palaeozoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brock, Glenn A
    Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Balthasar, Uwe
    School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, Gregory Building, Lilybank Gardens, University of Glasgow, UK.
    Larsson, Cecilia M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Pettersson Stolk, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Harper, David A T
    The oldest brachiopods from the lower Cambrian of South Australia2013In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 93-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The morphology and organophosphatic shell structure of the paterinate brachiopod Askepasma is documented using new and previously collected specimens from the lower Cambrian of South Australia. Lack of adequately preserved material has seen the majority of paterinate specimens previously reported from South Australia referred to the genus Askepasma and treated under open nomenclature. Large collections of paterinates from the lower Cambrian Wilkawillina, Ajax, and Wirrapowie limestones in the Arrowie Basin, South Australia have prompted redescription of the type species Askepasma toddense and the erection of a new species, Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. currently represents the oldest known brachiopod from the lower Cambrian successions in South Australia with a FAD in pre-trilobitic (Terreneuvian, Cambrian Stage 2, lower Atdabanian) strata in the basal part of the Wilkawillina and Wirrapowie limestones. Askepasma toddense predominantly occurs in Abadiella huoi Zone equivalent strata (Unnamed Cambrian Series 2, Stage 3, middle upper Atdabanian) in the upper part of the lower Wilkawillina, Wirrapowie, and Ajax limestones. The shell microstructure of Askepasma suggests a proximal stem group position within the Brachiopoda and similarities with tommotiid taxa provides further evidence that the ancestry of crown group brachiopods is firmly entrenched within the Tommotiida.

  • 41. Wesley-Hunt, Gina D.
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Basicranial morphology and phylogenetic position of the upper Eocene carnivoramorphan Quercygale.2005In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 50, p. 837-846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quercygale angustidens is a small, early carnivoramorphan from the upper Eocene of northwest Europe including the Phosphorites du Quercy, France. Although there is extensive material of the genus, very little has been published on the auditory region which is an important character complex for taxonomy and phylogenetic studies. This paper presents a detailed description of the basicranium of an undistorted partial skull of Quercygale. The new data form the basis for a phylogenetic analysis of Quercygale in the context of basal carnivoramorphan interrelationships. Quercygale has a mix of derived and plesiomorphic characters. The promontorium is highly derived, and unlike that of any other “miacoid”. Yet, based on the evidence from surrounding bones the bulla does not appear to be as expanded as in other closely related miacids. In the phylogenetic analysis Quercygale is the sister−taxon to Nimravidae and crown−group Carnivora, and it appears to be the most derived of the stem−group Miacidae. We discuss the implications that the position of Quercygale has on carnivoramorphan phylogenetics.

  • 42.
    Zammit, Maria
    et al.
    University of Adelaide.
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Healed bite marks on a Cretaceous ichthyosaur2011In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 859-863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports of pathological ichthyosaur fossils are very rare. The identification of a series of healed cuts and an associated gouge on the lower jaw of an adult (ca 5 metres body length) Platypterygius specimen from the Lower Cretaceous of Australia is therefore significant, because it constitutes direct evidence of bite force trauma sustained during the life of the animal. Based on the close spacing and non-lethal facial positioning of the wounds, they were probably not inflicted by a predator. Alternative explanations might include an accidental aggressive encounter with another large vertebrate, or perhaps an intraspecific interaction such as during courtship or combat over food, mates or territory.

1 - 42 of 42
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