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  • 1.
    Ahvenniemi, Esko
    et al.
    Aalto Univ, Dept Chem, POB 16100, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland..
    Akbashev, Andrew R.
    Stanford Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Ali, Saima
    Aalto Univ, Sch Chem Technol, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, POB 16200, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Bechelany, Mikhael
    Univ Montpellier, ENSCM, CNRS, IEM,UMR 5635, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Berdova, Maria
    Univ Twente, Ind Focus Grp XUV Opt, NL-7522 ND Enschede, Netherlands..
    Boyadjiev, Stefan
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Solid State Phys, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria..
    Cameron, David C.
    Masaryk Univ, CEPLANT, Kotlarska 267-2, CS-61137 Brno, Czech Republic..
    Chen, Rong
    Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Mech Sci & Engn, Sch Opt & Elect Informat, 1037 Luoyu Rd, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, Peoples R China..
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Cremers, Veronique
    Univ Ghent, CoCooN, Dept Solid State Sci, Krijgslaan 281-S1, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Devi, Anjana
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inorgan Mat Chem, D-44801 Bochum, Germany..
    Drozd, Viktor
    St Petersburg State Univ, Inst Chem, Univ Skaya Emb 7-9, St Petersburg 199034, Russia..
    Elnikova, Liliya
    Inst Theoret & Expt Phys, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117218, Russia..
    Gottardi, Gloria
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, Ctr Mat & Microsyst, I-38123 Trento, Italy..
    Grigoras, Kestutis
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, POB 1000,Tietotie 3, FI-02044 Espoo, Vtt, Finland..
    Hausmann, Dennis M.
    Lam Res Corp, Tualatin, OR 97062 USA..
    Hwang, Cheol Seong
    Seoul Natl Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Coll Engn, Seoul 08826, South Korea.;Seoul Natl Univ, Interuniv Semicond Res Ctr, Coll Engn, Seoul 08826, South Korea..
    Jen, Shih-Hui
    Globalfoundries, Albany, NY 12203 USA..
    Kallio, Tanja
    Aalto Univ, Sch Chem Engn, Dept Chem, POB 16100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Kanervo, Jaana
    Aalto Univ, Sch Chem Engn, Dept Chem, POB 16100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland.;Abo Akad Univ, FI-20500 Turku, Finland..
    Khmelnitskiy, Ivan
    St Petersburg Electrotech Univ LETI, Res & Educ Ctr Nanotechnol, Ul Prof Popova 5, St Petersburg 197376, Russia..
    Kim, Do Han
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Klibanov, Lev
    Techinsights, 3000 Solandt Rd, Ottawa, ON K2K2X2, Canada..
    Koshtyal, Yury
    Ioffe Inst, Lab Lithium Ion Technol, 26 Politekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russia..
    Krause, A. Outi I.
    Aalto Univ, Sch Chem Technol, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, POB 16200, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Kuhs, Jakob
    Univ Ghent, CoCooN, Dept Solid State Sci, Krijgslaan 281-S1, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Kaerkkaenen, Irina
    Sentech Instruments GmbH, Schwarzschildstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kaariainen, Marja-Leena
    NovaldMed Ltd Oy, Telkantie 5, FI-82500 Kitee, Finland..
    Kaariainen, Tommi
    NovaldMed Ltd Oy, Telkantie 5, FI-82500 Kitee, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Inorgan Chem Lab, POB 55,AI Virtasen Aukio 1, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Lamagna, Luca
    STMicroelectronics, Via C Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza, MB, Italy..
    Lapicki, Adam A.
    Seagate Technol Ireland, 1 Disc Dr, Derry BT48 7BD, North Ireland..
    Leskela, Markku
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Chem, POB 55, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Lipsanen, Harri
    Aalto Univ, Dept Micro & Nanosci, Tietotie 3, Espoo 02150, Finland..
    Lyytinen, Jussi
    Aalto Univ, Sch Chem Technol, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, POB 16200, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Malkov, Anatoly
    Tech Univ, St Petersburg State Inst Technol, Dept Chem Nanotechnol & Mat Elect, 26 Moskovsky Prosp, St Petersburg 190013, Russia..
    Malygin, Anatoly
    Tech Univ, St Petersburg State Inst Technol, Dept Chem Nanotechnol & Mat Elect, 26 Moskovsky Prosp, St Petersburg 190013, Russia..
    Mennad, Abdelkader
    CDER, UDES, RN 11 BP 386 Bou Ismail, Tipasa 42415, Algeria..
    Militzer, Christian
    Tech Univ Chemnitz, Inst Chem, Phys Chem, Str Nationen 62, D-09111 Chemnitz, Germany..
    Molarius, Jyrki
    Summa Semicond Oy, PL 11, Espoo 02131, Finland..
    Norek, Malgorzata
    Mil Univ Technol, Fac Adv Technol & Chem, Dept Adv Mat & Technol, Str Kaliskiego 2, PL-00908 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla
    ASELSAN Inc, Microelect Guidance & Electroopt Business Sect, TR-06750 Ankara, Turkey..
    Panov, Mikhail
    St Petersburg Electrotech Univ LETI, Ctr Microtechnol & Diagnost, Ul Prof Popova 5, St Petersburg 197376, Russia..
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Piallat, Fabien
    KOBUS, F-38330 Montbonnot St Martin, France..
    Popov, Georgi
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Chem, POB 55, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Puurunen, Riikka L.
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, POB 1000,Tietotie 3, FI-02044 Espoo, Vtt, Finland..
    Rampelberg, Geert
    Univ Ghent, CoCooN, Dept Solid State Sci, Krijgslaan 281-S1, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Ras, Robin H. A.
    Rauwel, Erwan
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Tartu Coll, Puiestee 78, EE-51008 Tartu, Estonia..
    Roozeboom, Fred
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Appl Phys, Grp Plasma & Mat Proc, POB 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands.;TNO, High Tech Campus 21, NL-5656 AE Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Sajavaara, Timo
    Univ Jyvaskyla, Dept Phys, POB 35, Jyvaskyla 40014, Finland..
    Salami, Hossein
    Univ Maryland, Dept Chem & Biomol Engn, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Savin, Hele
    Aalto Univ, Dept Micro & Nanosci, Tietotie 3, Espoo 02150, Finland..
    Schneider, Nathanaelle
    IRDEP CNRS, 6 Quai Watier, F-78401 Chatou, France.;IPVF, 8 Rue Renaissance, F-92160 Antony, France..
    Seidel, Thomas E.
    Seitek50, POB 350238, Palm Coast, FL 32135 USA..
    Sundqvist, Jonas
    Fraunhofer Inst Ceram Technol & Syst IKTS, Syst Integrat & Technol Transfer, Winterbergstr 28, D-01277 Dresden, Germany..
    Suyatin, Dmitry B.
    Lund Univ, Div Solid State Phys, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, NanoLund, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Törndahl, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    van Ommen, J. Ruud
    Delft Univ Technol, Dept Chem Engn, Van der Maasweg 9, NL-2629 HZ Delft, Netherlands..
    Wiemer, Claudia
    CNR, IMM, Lab MDM, Via C Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza, MB, Italy..
    Ylivaara, Oili M. E.
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, POB 1000,Tietotie 3, FI-02044 Espoo, Vtt, Finland..
    Yurkevich, Oksana
    Immanuel Kant Balt Fed Univ, Res & Educ Ctr Funct Nanomat, A Nevskogo 14, Kaliningrad 236041, Russia..
    Recommended reading list of early publications on atomic layer deposition-Outcome of the "Virtual Project on the History of ALD"2017In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 35, no 1, article id 010801Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), a gas-phase thin film deposition technique based on repeated, self-terminating gas-solid reactions, has become the method of choice in semiconductor manufacturing and many other technological areas for depositing thin conformal inorganic material layers for various applications. ALD has been discovered and developed independently, at least twice, under different names: atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) and molecular layering. ALE, dating back to 1974 in Finland, has been commonly known as the origin of ALD, while work done since the 1960s in the Soviet Union under the name "molecular layering" (and sometimes other names) has remained much less known. The virtual project on the history of ALD (VPHA) is a volunteer-based effort with open participation, set up to make the early days of ALD more transparent. In VPHA, started in July 2013, the target is to list, read and comment on all early ALD academic and patent literature up to 1986. VPHA has resulted in two essays and several presentations at international conferences. This paper, based on a poster presentation at the 16th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition in Dublin, Ireland, 2016, presents a recommended reading list of early ALD publications, created collectively by the VPHA participants through voting. The list contains 22 publications from Finland, Japan, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States. Up to now, a balanced overview regarding the early history of ALD has been missing; the current list is an attempt to remedy this deficiency.

  • 2.
    Ahvenniemi, Esko
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Akbashev, Andrew R.
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Ali, Saima
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Bechelany, Mikhael
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Berdova, Maria
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Boyadjiev, Stefan
    Bulgarian Academic Science, Bulgaria.
    Cameron, David C.
    Masaryk University, Czech Republic.
    Chen, Rong
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    University of Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Cremers, Veronique
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Devi, Anjana
    Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany.
    Drozd, Viktor
    St Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Elnikova, Liliya
    Institute Theoret and Expt Phys, Russia.
    Gottardi, Gloria
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, Italy.
    Grigoras, Kestutis
    VTT Technical Research Centre Finland, Finland.
    Hausmann, Dennis M.
    Lam Research Corp, OR 97062 USA.
    Seong Hwang, Cheol
    Seoul National University, South Korea; Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Jen, Shih-Hui
    Globalfoundries, NY 12203 USA.
    Kallio, Tanja
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Kanervo, Jaana
    Aalto University, Finland; Abo Akad University, Finland.
    Khmelnitskiy, Ivan
    St Petersburg Electrotech University of LETI, Russia.
    Han Kim, Do
    MIT, MA 02139 USA.
    Klibanov, Lev
    Techinsights, Canada.
    Koshtyal, Yury
    Ioffe Institute, Russia.
    Krause, A. Outi I.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Kuhs, Jakob
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Kaerkkaenen, Irina
    Sentech Instruments GmbH, Germany.
    Kaariainen, Marja-Leena
    NovaldMedical Ltd Oy, Finland.
    Kaariainen, Tommi
    NovaldMedical Ltd Oy, Finland; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lamagna, Luca
    STMicroelectronics, Italy.
    Lapicki, Adam A.
    Seagate Technology Ireland, North Ireland.
    Leskela, Markku
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lipsanen, Harri
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Lyytinen, Jussi
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Malkov, Anatoly
    Technical University, Russia.
    Malygin, Anatoly
    Technical University, Russia.
    Mennad, Abdelkader
    CDER, Algeria.
    Militzer, Christian
    Technical University of Chemnitz, Germany.
    Molarius, Jyrki
    Summa Semicond Oy, Finland.
    Norek, Malgorzata
    Mil University of Technology, Poland.
    Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla
    ASELSAN Inc, Turkey.
    Panov, Mikhail
    St Petersburg Electrotech University of LETI, Russia.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Piallat, Fabien
    KOBUS, France.
    Popov, Georgi
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Puurunen, Riikka L.
    VTT Technical Research Centre Finland, Finland.
    Rampelberg, Geert
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Ras, Robin H. A.
    Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Rauwel, Erwan
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Roozeboom, Fred
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; TNO, Netherlands.
    Sajavaara, Timo
    University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Salami, Hossein
    University of Maryland, MD 20742 USA.
    Savin, Hele
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Schneider, Nathanaelle
    IRDEP CNRS, France; IPVF, France.
    Seidel, Thomas E.
    Seitek50, FL 32135 USA.
    Sundqvist, Jonas
    Fraunhofer Institute Ceram Technology and Syst IKTS, Germany.
    Suyatin, Dmitry B.
    Lund University, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Torndahl, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    van Ommen, J. Ruud
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Wiemer, Claudia
    CNR, Italy.
    Ylivaara, Oili M. E.
    VTT Technical Research Centre Finland, Finland.
    Yurkevich, Oksana
    Immanuel Kant Balt Federal University, Russia.
    Recommended reading list of early publications on atomic layer deposition-Outcome of the "Virtual Project on the History of ALD"2017In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 35, no 1, article id 010801Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), a gas-phase thin film deposition technique based on repeated, self-terminating gas-solid reactions, has become the method of choice in semiconductor manufacturing and many other technological areas for depositing thin conformal inorganic material layers for various applications. ALD has been discovered and developed independently, at least twice, under different names: atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) and molecular layering. ALE, dating back to 1974 in Finland, has been commonly known as the origin of ALD, while work done since the 1960s in the Soviet Union under the name "molecular layering" (and sometimes other names) has remained much less known. The virtual project on the history of ALD (VPHA) is a volunteer-based effort with open participation, set up to make the early days of ALD more transparent. In VPHA, started in July 2013, the target is to list, read and comment on all early ALD academic and patent literature up to 1986. VPHA has resulted in two essays and several presentations at international conferences. This paper, based on a poster presentation at the 16th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition in Dublin, Ireland, 2016, presents a recommended reading list of early ALD publications, created collectively by the VPHA participants through voting. The list contains 22 publications from Finland, Japan, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States. Up to now, a balanced overview regarding the early history of ALD has been missing; the current list is an attempt to remedy this deficiency. (C) 2016 Author(s).

  • 3.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, IFM Mat Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Angstrom Lab, POB 534, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Louring, Sascha
    Aarhus Univ, Interdisciplinary Nanosci Ctr iNANO, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.;Danish Technol Inst, Tribol Ctr, Teknol Pk,Kongsvang Alle 29, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Lundin, Daniel
    Univ Paris Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, LPGP, CNRS,UMR 8578, F-91405 Orsay, France..
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, IFM Mat Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, IFM Mat Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, IFM Mat Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Synthesis of hydrogenated diamondlike carbon thin films using neon-acetylene based high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges2016In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 34, no 6, article id 061504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogenated diamondlike carbon (DLC:H) thin films exhibit many interesting properties that can be tailored by controlling the composition and energy of the vapor fluxes used for their synthesis. This control can be facilitated by high electron density and/or high electron temperature plasmas that allow one to effectively tune the gas and surface chemistry during film growth, as well as the degree of ionization of the film forming species. The authors have recently demonstrated by adding Ne in an Ar-C high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge that electron temperatures can be effectively increased to substantially ionize C species [Aijaz et al., Diamond Relat. Mater. 23, 1 (2012)]. The authors also developed an Ar-C2H2 HiPIMS process in which the high electron densities provided by the HiPIMS operation mode enhance gas phase dissociation reactions enabling control of the plasma and growth chemistry [Aijaz et al., Diamond Relat. Mater. 44, 117 (2014)]. Seeking to further enhance electron temperature and thereby promote electron impact induced interactions, control plasma chemical reaction pathways, and tune the resulting film properties, in this work, the authors synthesize DLC: H thin films by admixing Ne in a HiPIMS based Ar/C2H2 discharge. The authors investigate the plasma properties and discharge characteristics by measuring electron energy distributions as well as by studying discharge current characteristics showing an electron temperature enhancement in C2H2 based discharges and the role of ionic contribution to the film growth. These discharge conditions allow for the growth of thick (>1 mu m) DLC: H thin films exhibiting low compressive stresses (similar to 0.5 GPa), high hardness (similar to 25 GPa), low H content (similar to 11%), and density in the order of 2.2 g/cm(3). The authors also show that film densification and change of mechanical properties are related to H removal by ion bombardment rather than subplantation.

  • 4.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Louring, Sascha
    Aarhus University, Denmark; Danish Technology Institute, Denmark.
    Lundin, Daniel
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis of hydrogenated diamondlike carbon thin films using neon-acetylene based high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges2016In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 34, no 6, article id 061504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogenated diamondlike carbon (DLC:H) thin films exhibit many interesting properties that can be tailored by controlling the composition and energy of the vapor fluxes used for their synthesis. This control can be facilitated by high electron density and/or high electron temperature plasmas that allow one to effectively tune the gas and surface chemistry during film growth, as well as the degree of ionization of the film forming species. The authors have recently demonstrated by adding Ne in an Ar-C high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge that electron temperatures can be effectively increased to substantially ionize C species [Aijaz et al., Diamond Relat. Mater. 23, 1 (2012)]. The authors also developed an Ar-C2H2 HiPIMS process in which the high electron densities provided by the HiPIMS operation mode enhance gas phase dissociation reactions enabling control of the plasma and growth chemistry [Aijaz et al., Diamond Relat. Mater. 44, 117 (2014)]. Seeking to further enhance electron temperature and thereby promote electron impact induced interactions, control plasma chemical reaction pathways, and tune the resulting film properties, in this work, the authors synthesize DLC: H thin films by admixing Ne in a HiPIMS based Ar/C2H2 discharge. The authors investigate the plasma properties and discharge characteristics by measuring electron energy distributions as well as by studying discharge current characteristics showing an electron temperature enhancement in C2H2 based discharges and the role of ionic contribution to the film growth. These discharge conditions allow for the growth of thick (amp;gt;1 mu m) DLC: H thin films exhibiting low compressive stresses (similar to 0.5 GPa), high hardness (similar to 25 GPa), low H content (similar to 11%), and density in the order of 2.2 g/cm(3). The authors also show that film densification and change of mechanical properties are related to H removal by ion bombardment rather than subplantation. (C) 2016 American Vacuum Society.

  • 5.
    Alami, Jones
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Music, Denis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gudmundsson, J. T.
    University of Iceland, Reykjavik.
    Böhlmark, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ion-assisted Physical Vapor Deposition for enhanced film properties on non-flat surfaces2005In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 278-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have synthesized Ta thin films on Si substrates placed along a wall of a 2-cm-deep and 1-cm-wide trench, using both a mostly neutral Ta flux by conventional dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and a mostly ionized Ta flux by high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS). Structure of the grown films was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The Ta thin film grown by HPPMS has a smooth surface and a dense crystalline structure with grains oriented perpendicular to the substrate surface, whereas the film grown by dcMS exhibits a rough surface, pores between the grains, and an inclined columnar structure. The improved homogeneity achieved by HPPMS is a direct consequence of the high ion fraction of sputtered species.

  • 6.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khatibi, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Theoretical investigation of cubic B1-like and corundum (Cr1−xAlx)2O3 solid solutions2013In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 31, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    First-principles calculations are employed to investigate the stability and properties of cubic rock-salt-like (Cr1−xAlx)2O3 solid solutions, stabilized by metal site vacancies as recently reported experimentally. It is demonstrated that the metal site vacancies can indeed be ordered in a way that gives rise to a suitable fourfold coordination of all O atoms in the lattice. B1-like structures with ordered and disordered metal site vacancies are studied for (Cr0.5Al0.5)2O3 and found to have a cubic lattice spacing close to the values reported experimentally, in contrast to fluorite-like and perovskite structures. The obtained B1-like structures are higher in energy than corundum solid solutions for all compositions, but with an energy offset per atom similar to other metastable systems possible to synthesize with physical vapor deposition techniques. The obtained electronic structures show that the B1-like systems are semiconducting although with smaller band gaps than the corundum structure.

  • 7.
    Almer, Jonathan
    et al.
    IKP, Konstruktionsmaterial Linköpings universitet.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Håkansson, Greger
    Tixon Brukens Sverige AB Linköping.
    Microstructural evolution during tempering of arc-evaporated Cr-N coatings2000In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 121-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr-N coatings were arc-deposited at 50 and 300 V. The changes in the coating microstructure and phase content during tempering were monitored. As a result, the phase stability and activation energies for defect diffusion were determined as a function of ion energy.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Jon M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Czigány, Zs.
    Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Budapest, Hungary.
    Jin, P.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nagoya 463-8560, Japan.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Microstructure of α-alumina thin films deposited at low temperatures on chromia template layers2004In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 117-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radio frequency sputtering has been used to deposit -alumina (-Al2O3) thin films at substrate temperatures of 280–560 °C. The films are shown to be single phased and hard. Nanoindentation gives values of 306±31 and 27±3 GPa for elastic modulus and hardness, respectively, for a substrate temperature of 280 °C. Growth of the phase was achieved by in situ predeposition of a chromia template layer. Chromia crystallizes in the same hexagonal structure as -alumina, with a lattice mismatch of 4.1% in the a- and 4.6% in the c-parameter, and is shown to nucleate readily on the amorphous substrates (silicon with a natural oxide layer). This results in local epitaxy of -alumina on the chromia layer, as is shown by transmission electron microscopy. The alumina grains are columnar with grain widths increasing from 22±7 to 41±9 nm, as the temperature increases from 280 to 560 °C. This is consistent with a surface diffusion dominated growth mode and suggests that -alumina deposition at low temperatures is possible once initial grain nucleation has occurred. Results are also presented demonstrating chromia/-alumina growth on a technological substrate (Haynes230 Ni-based super alloy, Haynes International, Inc.).

  • 9. Axelsson, O.
    et al.
    Paul, Jan
    Weisel, M.D.
    Hoffmann, F,M.
    Reactive evaporation of potassium in CO2 and the formation of bulk intermediates1994In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 158-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potassium vapor condensed in CO2 has been studied by transmission infrared spectroscopy and by total pressure thermal desorption spectroscopy. The results are compared with surface spectroscopic data for CO2 adsorbed on alkali metal overlayers. Both systems show the formation of bulk coordinated oxalate species at cryogenic temperatures and the conversion to carbonate intermediates upon annealing.

  • 10. Baglin, J
    et al.
    d'Heurle, F
    Petersson, CS
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Nucleation controlled thin film interactions: Silicides1980In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 471-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bakhit, Babak
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engberg, David
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strategy for simultaneously increasing both hardness and toughness in ZrB2-rich Zr1-xTaxBy thin films2019In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, no 3, article id 031506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Refractory transition-metal diborides exhibit inherent hardness. However, this is not always sufficient to prevent failure in applications involving high mechanical and thermal stress, since hardness is typically accompanied by brittleness leading to crack formation and propagation. Toughness, the combination of hardness and ductility, is required to avoid brittle fracture. Here, the authors demonstrate a strategy for simultaneously enhancing both hardness and ductility of ZrB2-rich thin films grown in pure Ar on Al2O3(0001) and Si(001) substrates at 475 degrees C. ZrB2.4 layers are deposited by dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS) from a ZrB2 target, while Zr1-xTaxBy alloy films are grown, thus varying the B/metal ratio as a function of x, by adding pulsed high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from a Ta target to deposit Zr1-xTaxBy alloy films using hybrid Ta-HiPIMS/ZrB2-DCMS sputtering with a substrate bias synchronized to the metal-rich portion of each HiPIMS pulse. The average power P-Ta (and pulse frequency) applied to the HiPIMS Ta target is varied from 0 to 1800W (0 to 300 Hz) in increments of 600W (100 Hz). The resulting boron-to-metal ratio, y = B/(Zr+Ta), in as-deposited Zr1-xTaxBy films decreases from 2.4 to 1.5 as P-Ta is increased from 0 to 1800W, while x increases from 0 to 0.3. A combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), glancing-angle XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), analytical Z-contrast scanning TEM, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atom-probe tomography reveals that all films have the hexagonal AlB2 crystal structure with a columnar nanostructure, in which the column boundaries of layers with 0 amp;lt;= x amp;lt; 0.2 are B-rich, whereas those with x amp;gt;= 0.2 are Ta-rich. The nanostructural transition, combined with changes in average column widths, results in an similar to 20% increase in hardness, from 35 to 42 GPa, with a simultaneous increase of similar to 30% in nanoindentation toughness, from 4.0 to 5.2MPa root m. Published by the AVS.

  • 12.
    Bakhit, Babak
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Controlling the B/Ti ratio of TiBx thin films grown by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering2018In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 36, no 3, article id 030604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TiBx thin films grown from compound TiB2 targets by magnetron sputter deposition are typically highly over-stoichiometric, with x ranging from 3.5 to 2.4, due to differences in Ti and B preferential-ejection angles and gas-phase scattering during transport from the target to the substrate. Here, the authors demonstrate that stoichiometric TiB2 films can be obtained using highpower impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) operated in power-controlled mode. The B/Ti ratio x of films sputter-deposited in Ar is controllably varied from 2.08 to 1.83 by adjusting the length of HiPIMS pulses t(on) between 100 and 30 mu s, while maintaining average power and pulse frequency constant. This results in peak current densities J(T), peak ranging from 0.27 to 0.88 A/cm(2). Energy- and time-resolved mass spectrometry analyses of the ion fluxes incident at the substrate position show that the density of metal ions increases with decreasing t(on) due to a dramatic increase in J(T, peak) resulting in the strong gas rarefaction. With t(on)amp;lt;60 mu s (J(T),(peak)amp;gt; 0.4 A/cm(2)), film growth is increasingly controlled by ions incident at the substrate, rather than neutrals, as a result of the higher plasma dencity and, hence, electron-impact ionization probablity. Thus, since sputter- ejected Ti atoms have a higher probability of being ionized than B atoms, due to their lower first-ionization potential and larger ionization cross-section, the Ti concentration in as-deposited films increases with decreasing ton (increasing J(T,peak)) as ionized sputtered species are steered to the substrate by the plasma in order to maintain charge neutrality. Published by the AVS.

  • 13. Bakke, J.
    et al.
    Tanskanen, J.
    Hägglund, Carl
    Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.
    Pakkanen, T.
    Bent, S.
    Growth characteristics, material properties, and optical properties of zinc oxysulfide films deposited by atomic layer deposition2012In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 30, p. 01A135-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Bakoglidis, Konstantinos D.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Ivan G.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Low-temperature growth of low friction wear-resistant amorphous carbon nitride thin films by mid-frequency, high power impulse, and direct current magnetron sputtering2015In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 33, no 5, article id 05E112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) thin films were deposited on steel AISI52100 and Si(001) substrates using mid-frequency magnetron sputtering (MFMS) with an MF bias voltage, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) with a synchronized HiPIMS bias voltage, and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) with a DC bias voltage. The films were deposited at a low substrate temperature of 150 °C and a N2/Ar flow ratio of 0.16 at the total pressure of 400 mPa. The negative bias voltage (Vs) was varied from 20 V to 120 V in each of the three deposition modes. The microstructure of the films was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), while the film morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All films possessed amorphous microstructure with clearly developed columns extending throughout the entire film thickness. Layers grown with the lowest substrate bias of 20 V exhibited pronounced intercolumnar porosity, independent of the technique used. Voids closed and dense films formed at Vs ≥ 60 V, Vs ≥ 100 V and Vs = 120 V for MFMS, DCMS and HiPIMS, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the nitrogen-to-carbon ratio, N/C, of the films ranged between 0.2 and 0.24. Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) showed that Ar content varied between 0 and 0.8 at% and increases as a function of Vs for all deposition techniques. All films exhibited compressive residual stress, σ, which depends on the growth method; HiPIMS produces the least stressed films with stress between – 0.4 and – 1.2 GPa for all Vs values, while for CNx films deposited by MFMS σ = – 4.2 GPa. Nanoindentation showed a significant increase in film hardness and reduced elastic modulus with increasing Vs for all techniques. The harder films were produced by MFMS with hardness as high as 25 GPa. Low friction coefficients, between 0.05 and 0.06, were recorded for all films. Furthermore, CNx films produced by MFMS and DCMS at Vs = 100 V and 120 V presented a high wear resistance with wear coefficients of k ≤ 2.3 x 10-5 mm3/Nm.

  • 15. Bardos, L
    et al.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Barankova, Hana
    Radio frequency plasma jet applied to boating of internal walls of narrow tubes1993In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 1486-1490Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Bardos, L
    et al.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Barankova, Hana
    Radio frequency plasma jet applied to coating of internal walls of narrow tubes1993In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 1486-1490Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Barker, Paul Michael
    et al.
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Patscheider, Jorg
    Modified high power impulse magnetron sputtering process for increased deposition rate of titanium2013In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 060604-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modified version of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been used to deposit titanium films at higher deposition rates than for conventional HiPIMS while maintaining similar pulse voltages and peak currents. In the present study, additional control parameters are explored through the chopping of the HiPIMS pulse into a pulse sequence. Experiments show that the use of sequences allows for an increase of the deposition rate of more than 45% compared to conventional HiPIMS. The increase in deposition rate is ascribed to a combination of reduced gas rarefaction effects, prevention of sustained self-sputtering, and a relaxation of ion trapping.

  • 18. Barklund, AM
    et al.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Influence of different etching mechanisms on the angular dependence of silicon nitride etching1993In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 1226-1229Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Baránková, Hana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Bárdos, Ladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Söderström, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Cold Atmospheric Plasma in Nitrogen and Air Generated by the Hybrid Plasma Source2006In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 1410-1413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generation of long plumes of cold atmospheric plasma in nitrogen and air has been successfully performed by the hybrid hollow electrode activated discharge (H-HEAD) source. The source with a simple cylindrical electrode terminated by a gas nozzle combines the microwave antenna plasma with the hollow cathode plasma generated inside the gas nozzle by pulsed dc power. The H-HEAD source is capable of generating up to 10 cm long plumes in air at microwave powers below 500 W and at air flow rates as low as 100 sccm (standard cubic centimeter per minute). The corresponding flow rates in the nitrogen plasma are even less than 80 sccm. The discharges in air and nitrogen have similar shapes and are comparable with the corresponding plasma columns in argon. A comparison of the optical emission spectra of the plasma in nitrogen and air is presented. The temperatures generated on steel substrates by interaction with nitrogen and air plasma columns at different microwaves and dc powers are compared with the corresponding effects in argon plasma.

  • 20. Belkind, A
    et al.
    Orban, Z
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Carlsson, P
    Serial cosputtering of some metal alloys: Enhancement of partial sputtering yields of light metals1993In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 314-318Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Barklund, AM
    Gelin, B
    Nender, C
    Katardjiev, Ilia V
    Atom assisted sputtering yield amplification1992In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 1592-1596Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Larsson, T
    Moradi, M
    Nender, C
    Process modelling of reactive sputtering1989In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1225-1229Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Larsson, T
    Nender, C
    Modelling of reactive sputtering of compound materials1987In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 202-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Moradi, M
    Nender, C
    Larsson, T
    Process modelling of reactive sputtering1989In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1225-1229Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Gelin, B
    Östling, M
    Babulanam, SM
    Self limiting etch depth using simultaneous sputter etching/deposition technique1984In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 470-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Larsson, T
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    The use of nitrogen mass flow as deposition rate control in reactive sputtering1986In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 594-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Nender, C
    Gelin, B
    Östling, M
    Ion assisted selective thin film deposition1986In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 448-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Blom, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Nender, C
    Norström, H
    Silicon etching in a direct current glow discharge of CF4/O2 and NF3/O21989In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 1321-1324Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Berg, Sören
    Östling, M
    Petersson, CS
    Deline, V
    d'Heurle, FM
    Titanium silicide films prepared by reactive sputtering1985In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 723-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Blom, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Larsson, T
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Östling, M
    Properties of titanium boride films prepared by reactive sputtering1988In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 1693-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Blom, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Larsson, T
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Östling, M
    Reactively sputtered titanium boride thin films1989In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 162-165Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Norström, H
    Östling, M
    Wiklund, P
    Buchta, R
    Petersson, CS
    Removal of RSE induced damages in silicon1986In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 752-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Stridh, B
    Berg, Sören
    A comparison of AES- and RBS-analysis of the composition of reactively sputtered TiSix-films1983In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 497-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Bras, Patrice
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Sterner, Jan
    Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Investigation of blister formation in sputtered Cu 2ZnSnS 4 absorbers for thin film solar cells2015In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 33, no 6, article id 061201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blister formation in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films sputtered from a quaternary compound target is investigated. While the thin film structure, composition, and substrate material are not correlated to the blister formation, a strong link between sputtering gas entrapment, in this case argon, and blistering effect is found. It is shown that argon is trapped in the film during sputtering and migrates to locally form blisters during the high temperature annealing. Blister formation in CZTS absorbers is detrimental for thin film solar cell fabrication causing partial peeling of the absorber layer and potential shunt paths in the complete device. Reduced sputtering gas entrapment, and blister formation, is seen for higher sputtering pressure, higher substrate temperature, and change of sputtering gas to larger atoms. This is all in accordance with previous publications on blister formation caused by sputtering gas entrapment in other materials.

  • 35.
    Broitman, E.
    et al.
    Department of Applied Science, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795, United States.
    Hellgren, N.
    Frederick Seitz Materials Res. Lab., University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Czigany, Zs.
    Twesten, R.D.
    Frederick Seitz Materials Res. Lab., University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Luning, J.
    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., Stanford, CA 94309, United States.
    Petrov, I.
    Frederick Seitz Materials Res. Lab., University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Holloway, B.C.
    Department of Applied Science, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795, United States.
    Structural and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering2003In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 851-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic study of physical properties of sputter-deposited DLC films was performed as a function of flux ratio and ion energy. The energy and flux ions and neutral atoms impinging on the surface of the growing films were deduced from Langmuir probe measurements and theoretical calculations. The bombardment of growing films by the energetic particles led to changes in microstructure and mechanical properties. Results suggest that the presence of defective graphite formed by subplanted C and Ar atoms is the dominant influence on the mechanical properties of the DLC films.

  • 36.
    Broitman, Esteban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Flores-Ruiz, Francisco
    Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., Unidad Queretaro.
    Novel method for in-situ and simultaneous nanofriction and nanowear characterization of materials2015In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 34, article id 043201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, there is an increased need to know the nanotribological properties of protectivecoatings used in part devices operating under nano- and microcontact situations, e.g., hard diskdrives, magnetic heads, microelectromechanical systems and microsensors, etc. Therefore, there isa demand for instruments and methods testing friction and wear at the nano- and microscales. Inthis work, the authors present a new methodology to measure simultaneously the friction, and wearof a surface. The authors have designed an experiment, where a probe is permanently scanning a10 lm track in a reciprocal movement. Different loads are applied in order to obtain thetopographic information which is used to calculate the wear rate and roughness evolution. Forcelateral sensors register simultaneously the friction force variations. The experimental input data areinformation vectors that contain: load (lN), friction force (lN), vertical Z displacement (nm),lateral X displacement (nm), and time (s). The data are processed using a simple program runningin MathLabVR which eliminates the thermal drift. The software output gives the resulting frictioncoefficient, track roughness, and wear rate as a function of the running cycles of the probe. Thenew method builds a novel bridge to relate tribological mechanisms at different scales

  • 37.
    Broitman, Esteban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Flores-Ruiz, Francisco J.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. IPN, Mexico.
    Di Giulio, Massimo
    University of Salento, Italy.
    Gontad, Francisco
    University of Salento, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Lorusso, Antonella
    University of Salento, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Perrone, Alessio
    University of Salento, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Microstructural, nanomechanical, and microtribological properties of Pb thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation techniques2016In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 021505-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the authors compare the morphological, structural, nanomechanical, and microtribological properties of Pb films deposited by thermal evaporation (TE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques onto Si (111) substrates. Films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, surface probe microscopy, and x-ray diffraction in theta-2 theta geometry to determine their morphology, root-mean-square (RMS) roughness, and microstructure, respectively. TE films showed a percolated morphology with densely packed fibrous grains while PLD films had a granular morphology with a columnar and tightly packed structure in accordance with the zone growth model of Thornton. Moreover, PLD films presented a more polycrystalline structure with respect to TE films, with RMS roughness of 14 and 10 nm, respectively. Hardness and elastic modulus vary from 2.1 to 0.8 GPa and from 14 to 10 GPa for PLD and TE films, respectively. A reciprocal friction test has shown that PLD films have lower friction coefficient and wear rate than TE films. Our study has demonstrated for first time that, at the microscale, Pb films do not show the same simple lubricious properties measured at the macroscale. (C) 2015 American Vacuum Society.

  • 38.
    Broitman, Esteban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SKF Res and Dev Ctr, Netherlands.
    Lorusso, Antonella
    Univ Salento, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Perrone, Alessio
    Univ Salento, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Karoutsos, Vagelis
    Univ Patras, Greece.
    Vainos, Nikolaos A.
    Univ Patras, Greece.
    Gontad, Francisco
    Univ Salento, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Nanomechanical and microtribological properties of yttrium thin films for photocathode engineering2019In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, no 3, article id 031507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors study the nanomechanical and microtribological properties of yttrium (Y) thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition on Cu polycrystalline substrates. Nanoindentation tests reveal that such films have a high hardness of H = 2.3 GPa and a reduced elastic modulus of 71.7 GPa with respect to the Cu substrates. The friction coefficient between a diamond tip and the Y film reaches a steady state value of mu similar to 0.34, lower than that for the Cu (mu similar to 0.38). Moreover, nano-scratch experiments show that Y films are more scratch-resistant than the Cu substrates, probably due to their greater hardness, higher elastic recovery, and lower friction coefficient. Their results confirm that the mechanical and tribological properties of the Y films are suitable for designing and fabricating scratch-resistant hybrid photocathodes and can reduce instabilities and unwanted discharges in the cavity of the radio-frequency gun. Furthermore, the low surface roughness and the low work function of the material are important characteristics for a photocathode based on the Y thin film for the production of high-brightness electron beams. Published by the AVS.

  • 39.
    Buttera, Sydney C.
    et al.
    Carleton University, Canada.
    Ronnby, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barry, Sean T.
    Carleton University, Canada.
    Thermal study of an indium trisguanidinate as a possible indium nitride precursor2018In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 36, no 1, article id 01A101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tris-N,N,-dimethyl-N,N -diisopropylguanidinatoindium(III) has been investigated both as a chemical vapor deposition precursor and an atomic layer deposition precursor. Although deposition was satisfactory in both cases, each report showed some anomalies in the thermal stability of this compound, warrenting further investigation, which is reported herein. The compound was found to decompose to produce diisopropylcarbodiimide both by computational modeling and solution phase nuclear magnetic resonance characterization. The decomposition was shown to have an onset at approximately 120 degrees C and had a constant rate of decomposition from 150 to 180 degrees C. The ultimate decomposition product was suspected to be bisdimethylamidoN, N,-dimethyl-N,N -diisopropylguanidinato-indium(III), which appeared to be an intractable, nonvolatile polymer. Published by the AVS.

  • 40.
    Bárdoš, Ladislav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Baránková, Hana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Gustavsson, L-E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics.
    Effect of substrate material and bias on properties of TiN films deposited in the hybrid plasma reactor2006In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 1655-1659Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Böhlmark, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alami, Jones
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Christou, Chris
    Diamond Light Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, United Kingdom.
    Ehiasarian, Arutiun P.
    Materials Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ionization of sputtered metals in high power pulsed magnetron sputtering2005In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 18-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ion to neutral ratio of the sputtered material have been studied for high power pulsed magnetron sputtering and compared with a continuous direct current (dc) discharge using the same experimental setup except for the power source. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to study the optical emission from the plasma through a side window. The emission was shown to be dominated by emission from metal ions. The distribution of metal ionized states clearly differed from the distribution of excited states, and we suggest the presence of a hot dense plasma surrounded by a cooler plasma. Sputtered material was ionized close to the target and transported into a cooler plasma region where the emission was also recorded. Assuming a Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution of excited states the emission from the plasma was quantified. This showed that the ionic contribution to the recorded spectrum was over 90% for high pulse powers. Even at relatively low applied pulse powers, the recorded spectra were dominated by emission from ions. OES analysis of the discharge in a continuous dc magnetron discharge was also made, which demonstrated much lower ionization.

  • 42. Carlsson, P
    et al.
    Nender, C
    Barankova, Hana
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Reactive spttering using two reactive gases, experiments and computer modeling1883In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 1534-1539fgArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Chen, Si
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Gate coupling and carrier distribution in silicon nanowire/nanoribbon transistors operated in electrolyte2011In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 011022-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transfer characteristics of back-gate silicon nanowire/nanoribbon (NW/NR) transistors measured in electrolyte exhibit a significantly higher on-current and a steeper subthreshold behavior than measured in air. Simulation results show that the gate capacitance for a NW/NR of a trapezoidal cross-section immersed in water is significantly higher than that exposed to air. Electrostatics simulations further show that for NWs/NRs with small widths, carriers are mainly accumulated at the two side-edges when they are immersed in water. Even the top surface of the NWs/NRs sees more accumulated carriers than the bottom one does; the latter is in fact located closest to the back-gate. These observations suggest that the interface properties at the side-edges and the top surface are crucial for NW/NR transistors to achieve high sensitivity when performing real-time sensing experiments in electrolyte. Finally, the sensitivity of back-gate NW/NR field-effect transistors to charge changes in electrolyte is found to have a weak dependence on the NW/NR width when the doping concentration is below 10(17) cm(-3). For higher NW/NR doping concentrations, narrower NWs/NRs are more sensitive.

  • 44. Cho, H.
    et al.
    Lee, K. P.
    Leerungnawarat, P.
    Chu, S. N. G.
    Ren, F.
    Pearton, S. J.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    High density plasma via hole etching in SiC2001In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1878-1881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughwafer vias up to 100 mum deep were formed in 4H-SiC substrates by inductively coupled plasma etching with SF6/O-2 at a controlled rate of similar to0.6 mum min(-1) and use of Al masks. Selectivities of > 50 for SiC over Al were achieved. Electrical (capacitance-voltage: current-voltage) and chemical (Auger electron spectroscopy) analysis techniques showed that the etching produced only minor changes in reverse breakdown voltage, Schottky barrier height, and near surface stoichiometry of the SiC and had high selectivity over common frontside metallization. The SiC etch rate was a strong function of the incident ion energy during plasma exposure. This process is attractive for power SiC transistors intended for high current, high temperature applications and also for SiC micromachining.

  • 45.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Challenge in determining the crystal structure of epitaxial 0001 oriented sp(2)-BN films2018In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 36, no 3, article id 030801Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boron nitride (BN) as a thin film is promising for many future electronic applications. On 0001 alpha-Al2O3 and 0001 4H/6H-SiC substrates, chemical vapor deposition yields epitaxial sp(2)-hybridized BN (sp(2)-BN) films oriented around the c-axis. Here, the authors seek to point out that sp(2)-BN can form two different polytypes; hexagonal BN (h-BN) and rhombohedral BN (r-BN), only differing in the stacking of the basal planes but with the identical distance between the basal planes and in-plane lattice parameters. This makes structural identification challenging in c- axis oriented films. The authors suggest the use of a combination of high-resolution electron microscopy with careful sample preparation and thin film x-ray diffraction techniques like pole figure measurements and glancing incidence (in-plane) diffraction to fully distinguish h-BN from r-BN. (C) 2018 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

  • 46.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Czigany, Zsolt
    Hungarian Academic Science, Hungary.
    Initial stages of growth and the influence of temperature during chemical vapor deposition of sp(2)-BN films2015In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 061520-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the structural evolution of thin films, starting by the initial stages of growth, is important to control the quality and properties of the film. The authors present a study on the initial stages of growth and the temperature influence on the structural evolution of sp(2) hybridized boron nitride (BN) thin films during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with triethyl boron and ammonia as precursors. Nucleation of hexagonal BN (h-BN) occurs at 1200 degrees C on alpha-Al2O3 with an AlN buffer layer (AlN/alpha-Al2O3). At 1500 degrees C, h-BN grows with a layer-by-layer growth mode on AlN/alpha-Al2O3 up to similar to 4 nm after which the film structure changes to rhombohedral BN (r-BN). Then, r-BN growth proceeds with a mixed layer-by-layer and island growth mode. h-BN does not grow on 6H-SiC substrates; instead, r-BN nucleates and grows directly with a mixed layer-by-layer and island growth mode. These differences may be caused by differences in substrate surface temperature due to different thermal conductivities of the substrate materials. These results add to the understanding of the growth process of sp(2)-BN employing CVD. (C) 2015 American Vacuum Society.

  • 47.
    Chun, JS
    et al.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA IBM Corp, Thomas J Watson Res Ctr, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Div Thin Film, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Carlsson, JRA
    Desjardins, P
    Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA IBM Corp, Thomas J Watson Res Ctr, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Div Thin Film, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Bergstrom, DB
    Petrov, I
    Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA IBM Corp, Thomas J Watson Res Ctr, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Div Thin Film, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Greene, JE
    Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA IBM Corp, Thomas J Watson Res Ctr, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Div Thin Film, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lavoie, C
    Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA IBM Corp, Thomas J Watson Res Ctr, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Div Thin Film, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Cabral, C
    Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA IBM Corp, Thomas J Watson Res Ctr, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Div Thin Film, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Synchrotron x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies of interfacial reaction paths and kinetics during annealing of fully-002-textured Al/TiN bilayers2001In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 182-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dense fully-002-textured polycrystalline TiN layers, 110 nm thick with a N/TI ratio of 1.02+/-0.03, were grown on SiO2 by ultrahigh vacuum magnetically unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition at T-s = 450 degreesC in pure N-2 utilizing high N-2(+)/Ti Aux ratios and low energy (E-N2(+) = 20 eV) ion irradiation of the growing film. Al overlayers, 160 nm thick and possessing a strong 002 texture inherited from the underlying TiN, were then deposited at T-s = 100 degreesC without breaking vacuum. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction was used to follow interfacial reaction paths and kinetics during postdeposition annealing as a function of time (t(a) = 200 - 1200 s) and temperature (T-a = 500 - 580 degreesC). Changes in bilayer microstructure and microchemistry were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM to obtain compositional maps of cross-sectional and plan-view specimens by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The initial bilayer reaction step during annealing involves the formation of a continuous AIN interfacial layer which, due to local epitaxy with the TIN underlayer, grows with the metastable zinc-blende structure up to a thickness x similar or equal to3-5 nm, and with the wurtzite structure thereafter. Ti atoms released during AIN formation diffuse into the Al layer leading to supersaturation followed by the nucleation of dispersed regions of tetragonal Al3Ti with inherited 002 preferred orientation. The aluminide domains grow rapidly until they reach the free surface, thereafter growth is two dimensional as Al3Ti grains spread radially. The overall activation energy for Al3Ti formation and growth is 1.8+/-0.1 eV. In situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction analyses during thermal ramping show that the onset temperature for interfacial reactions was increased by more than 100 degreesC for fully dense completely 002-textured bilayers compared to Ill-textured bilayers deposited by conventional reactive sputter deposition. (C) 2001 American Vacuum Society.

  • 48.
    Deminskyi, Petro
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rouf, Polla
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Atomic layer deposition of InN using trimethylindium and ammonia plasma2019In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, no 2, article id 020926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indium nitride (InN) is a low bandgap, high electron mobility semiconductor material of interest to optoelectronics and telecommunication. Such applications require the deposition of uniform crystalline InN thin films on large area substrates, with deposition temperatures compatible with this temperature-sensitive material. As conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) struggles with the low temperature tolerated by the InN crystal, the authors hypothesize that a time-resolved, surface-controlled CVD route could offer a way forward for InN thin film deposition. In this work, the authors report atomic layer deposition of crystalline, wurtzite InN thin films using trimethylindium and ammonia plasma on Si(100). They found a narrow atomic layer deposition window of 240-260 degrees C with a deposition rate of 0.36 A/cycle and that the flow of ammonia into the plasma is an important parameter for the crystalline quality of the film. X-ray diffraction measurements further confirmed the polycrystalline nature of InN thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show nearly stoichiometric InN with low carbon level (amp;lt;1 at. %) and oxygen level (amp;lt;5 at. %) in the film bulk. The low carbon level is attributed to a favorable surface chemistry enabled by the NH3 plasma. The film bulk oxygen content is attributed to oxidation upon exposure to air via grain boundary diffusion and possibly by formation of oxygen containing species in the plasma discharge. Published by the AVS.

  • 49.
    Edström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sangiovanni, Davide
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, USA.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of TiN/TiN(001) epitaxial film growth2016In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 041509-1-041509-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale classical molecular dynamics simulations of epitaxial TiN/TiN(001) thin film growth at 1200K are carried out using incident flux ratios N/Ti -1, 2, and 4. The films are analyzed as a function of composition, island size distribution, island edge orientation, and vacancy formation. Results show that N/Ti-1 films are globally understoichiometric with dispersed Ti-rich surface regions which serve as traps to nucleate 111-oriented islands, leading to local epitaxial breakdown. Films grown with N/Ti=2 are approximately stoichiometric and the growth mode is closer to layer-by-layer, while N/Ti-4 films are stoichiometric with N-rich surfaces. As N/Ti is increased from 1 to 4, island edges are increasingly polar, i. e., 110-oriented, and N-terminated to accommodate the excess N flux, some of which is lost by reflection of incident N atoms. N vacancies are produced in the surface layer during film deposition with N/Ti-1 due to the formation and subsequent desorption of N-2 molecules composed of a N adatom and a N surface atom, as well as itinerant Ti adatoms pulling up N surface atoms. The N vacancy concentration is significantly reduced as N/Ti is increased to 2; with N/Ti-4, Ti vacancies dominate. Overall, our results show that an insufficient N/Ti ratio leads to surface roughening via nucleation of small dispersed 111 islands, whereas high N/Ti ratios result in surface roughening due to more rapid upper-layer nucleation and mound formation. The growth mode of N/Ti-2 films, which have smoother surfaces, is closer to layer-by-layer. (C) 2016 American Vacuum Society.

  • 50.
    Eklund, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beckers, Manfred
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frodelius, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnetron sputtering of Ti3SiC2 thin films from a Ti3SiC2 compound target2007In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 1381-1388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti3 Si C2 thin films were synthesized by magnetron sputtering from Ti3 Si C2 and Ti targets. Sputtering from a Ti3 Si C2 target alone resulted in films with a C content of ∼50 at. % or more, due to gas-phase scattering processes and differences in angular and energy distributions between species ejected from the target. Addition of Ti to the deposition flux from a Ti3 Si C2 target is shown to bind the excess C in Ti Cx intergrown with Ti3 Si C2 and Ti4 Si C3. Additionally, a substoichiometric Ti Cx buffer layer is shown to serve as a C sink and enable the growth of Ti3 Si C2.

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