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  • 1.
    Adlmann, Franz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Busch, S.
    Vacaliuc, B.
    Nelson, A.
    Ankner, J.F.
    Browning, J.F.
    Parizzi, A.
    Bilheux, J. -K.
    Halbert, C.E.
    Korolkovas, Airidas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Wolff, Max
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Normalization of stroboscopic neutron scattering experiments2018In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 434, p. 61-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutron scattering studies of kinetic processes are often flux limited. For processes which can be repeated many times, this can be mitigated by stroboscopic reintegration. The recorded scattering events are assigned to different time slices of the process and corresponding slices from all repetitions are summed up. The normalization of such data with respect to the incident beam spectrum can be challenging since the incident neutron flux may not necessarily be evenly distributed over all time slices. In this paper, we discuss how this can result in misleading information and we expand on a technique to amend these issues.

  • 2.
    Aldahan, Ala Adin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Morad, Sadoon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics.
    Sturesson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    ElSaiy, A.
    10Be in rhodochrosite nodules from Neogene sediments along the Galapagos Ridge, equatorial Pacific2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 7-8, p. 1253-1256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microcrystalline, calcian rhodochrosite occurs as nodules around burrows in late Neogene pelagic sediments from the Galapagos Ridge in the Guatemala Basin, eastern equatorial Pacific (DSDP Leg 68; Site 503). Be-10 isotope revealed that the rhodochrosite nodules have formed under growth conditions much faster than those reported for Fe-Mn nodules. The overall REE patterns of the nodules and host pelagic sediments indicate element derivation mainly from marine pore water. However, variations in the shale normalised Eu values suggest influx of hydrothermal fluids into mounds area at Galapagos, which is also evidenced by the similar minor and major element contents in the nodules and host sediments.

  • 3.
    Aldahan, Ala
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Alfimov, V.
    Cato, I.
    Sveriges geologiska undersökning.
    Kekli, Aziz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Anthropogenic I-129 in the Baltic Sea2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 259, no 1, p. 491-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report here data on the distribution of I-129 in water of the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak-Kattegat basins obtained through sampling campaigns during the years 2000 and 2001. I-129 in the water of the Skagerrak-Kattegat shows persistently high concentrations in both the surface and deep parts. A decreasing trend in surface water I-129 concentration is observed away from the Kattegat basin and into the Baltic Sea. Inventory calculations indicate that at least 95%of the isotope supply to the Baltic Sea is from the North Sea marine water via Skagerrak-Kattegat and only minor part is from riverine inflow and the Chernobyl accident. As the discharges from the nuclear reprocessing facilities were not decreased during the last decade, it is expected that more I-129 will accumulate in the Baltic Sea and related basins in the future. Consequently, systematic sampling is needed to reevaluate the concentration levels not only in the water, but also in the sediments and biota of the region.

  • 4.
    Alemon, B.
    et al.
    University of Guadalajara, Mexico .
    Flores, M.
    University of Guadalajara, Mexico .
    Canto, C.
    Instituto de Física, UNAM, Coyoacán, Mexico.
    Andrade, E.
    Instituto de Física, UNAM, Coyoacán, Mexico.
    de Lucio, O.G.
    Instituto de Física, UNAM, Coyoacán, Mexico.
    Rocha, M.F.
    ESIME-Z, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ion beam analysis, corrosion resistance and nanomechanical properties of TiAlCN/CNx multilayer grown by reactive magnetron sputtering2014In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 331, p. 134-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel TiAlCN/CNx, multilayer coating, consisting of nine TiAlCN/CNx periods with a top layer 0.5 mu m of CNx, was designed to enhance the corrosion resistance of CoCrMo biomedical alloy. The multilayers were deposited by dc and RF reactive magnetron sputtering from Ti0.5Al0.5 and C targets respectively in a N-2/Ar plasma. The corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the multilayer coatings were analyzed and compared to CoCrMo bulk alloy. Ion beam analysis (IBA) and X-ray diffraction tests were used to measure the element composition profiles and crystalline structure of the films. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by means of potentiodynamic polarization measurements using simulated body fluid (SBF) at typical body temperature and the nanomechanical properties of the multilayer evaluated by nanoindentation tests were analyzed and compared to CoCrMo bulk alloy. It was found that the multilayer hardness and the elastic recovery are higher than the substrate of CoCrMo. Furthermore the coated substrate shows a better general corrosion resistance than that of the CoCrMo alloy alone with no observation of pitting corrosion.

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  • 5. Alfimov, Vasily
    et al.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Possnert, Goran
    Water masses and I-129 distribution in the Nordic Seas2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 294, p. 542-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of the radioactive isotope iodine-129 as a tracer of water circulation in the oceans has provided interesting information with respect to sources and mixing of different water masses. We here present results of I-129 distribution in water profiles located in the Nordic Seas and use the isotope to fingerprint water masses in the region. The samples were collected by the US research vessel Knorr in May-June 2002. I-129 signatures along the Norwegian Sea reflect a mixing of I-129-rich surface water along the Scandinavian continental slope and I-129-poor North Atlantic surface water. These two water masses become less segregated along the Fram Strait where apparent I-129 enrichment penetrates the return Arctic flow into the East Greenland Current. The I-129 data further suggest existence of a water mass that is not entirely labeled with respect to origin at the Denmark Strait bottom water. This water parcel probably originates from the Iceland Sea. I-129 data also shed light on the major deep water outflow from the Nordic Seas located at the Faeroe Bank Channel. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 6. Alfimov, Vasily
    et al.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Water masses and I-129 distribution in the Nordic Seas2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 294, p. 542-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of the radioactive isotope iodine-129 as a tracer of water circulation in the oceans has provided interesting information with respect to sources and mixing of different water masses. We here present results of I-129 distribution in water profiles located in the Nordic Seas and use the isotope to fingerprint water masses in the region. The samples were collected by the US research vessel Knorr in May-June 2002. I-129 signatures along the Norwegian Sea reflect a mixing of I-129-rich surface water along the Scandinavian continental slope and I-129-poor North Atlantic surface water. These two water masses become less segregated along the Fram Strait where apparent I-129 enrichment penetrates the return Arctic flow into the East Greenland Current. The I-129 data further suggest existence of a water mass that is not entirely labeled with respect to origin at the Denmark Strait bottom water. This water parcel probably originates from the Iceland Sea. I-129 data also shed light on the major deep water outflow from the Nordic Seas located at the Faeroe Bank Channel.

  • 7.
    Alfimov, Vasily
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Measurements of Cl-36 with a gas-filled magnet at the Uppsala tandem laboratory2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 259, no 1, p. 199-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a gas-filled magnet combined with a gas ionization detector for measurements of Cl-36 was systematically studied at the Uppsala tandem laboratory. Our tests were conducted at a terminal voltage of 4,6 MV using gas-foil stripping and a 37 MeV Cl-36(+7) ion beam. An optimal suppression of the interfering isobar S-36 in the stand-alone gas-filled magnet (2 mbar N-2 gas pressure) was found to be >= 300, and an additional >= 300 times reduction was achieved by the Eresidual signal of the two-anode gas ionization detector. The overall suppression in the order of >= 10(5) permits analysis of samples with a sulfur content of <= 5 ppm and Cl-36/Cl ratios of >= 10(-15). We have successfully measured samples with Cl-36/Cl ratios in the range of 10(-12)-10(-15) demonstrating the use of a mediumsized tandem accelerator system (similar to 1 MeV/amu) for Cl-36 AMS.

  • 8. Andersson, LP
    et al.
    Berg, Sören
    Hyder, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Jadrny, J
    Nilsson, Ö
    Dependence of gain on plate separation in a parallel plate channel multiplier1974In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 100, p. 539-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Andersson, LP
    et al.
    Hyder, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Berg, Sören
    Minority carrier injection and resistance moulation in silicon surface barrier diodes1974In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 114, p. 237-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Andersson, LP
    et al.
    Hyder, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Misra, M
    Semiconductor contracts to silicon surface barrier detectors1974In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 118, p. 537-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Andersson, P.
    et al.
    Sandstrom, J.
    Hanstorp, D.
    Gibson, N. D.
    Wendt, K.
    Pegg, D. J.
    Thomas, R. D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Selective detection of C-13 by laser photodetachment mass spectrometry2008In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 266, no 16, p. 3667-3673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we demonstrate how laser photodetachment mass spectrometry (LPMS) can be used to selectively detect C-13(-) ions in the presence of C-12(-) ions in a low energy ion beam. An isotopically enriched beam of carbon ions consisting of equal amounts of C-13(-) and 12C- ions was extracted from an ion source. The ions interacted with a laser beam in a collinear geometry over a distance of 70 cm. Residual atoms produced in the photodetachment process were detected in a neutral particle detector placed downstream of the collinear interaction region. By making use of the Doppler effect we were able to selectively photodetach C-13(-) ions. The number of detected C-13 atoms was 13 times larger than the number of detected C-12 atoms. The population of the excited, weakly bound D-2 excited state of the C- ion was depleted by the use of a second laser. This significantly reduced the background accompanying the signal arising from the photodetachment of the S-4 ground state C- ion. Different applications of the LPMS method will be discussed in the paper.

  • 12. Andreeva, M. A.
    et al.
    Monina, N.G.
    Häggström, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Materials Physics.
    Lindgren, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Materials Physics.
    Kalska, B.
    Kamali, M
    Vdovichev, S. N
    Salashchenko, N. N.
    Semenov, V. G
    Leupold, O
    Rüffer, R
    Nuclear resonant reflectivity with standing waves for the investigation of a thin 57Fe layer buried inside a superconducting Si/[Mo/Si]45/57Fe/Nb multilayer2008In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 266, no 1, p. 187-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A special multilayer sample Si/[Mo/Si]45/57Fe/Nb has been prepared for the depth selective investigations of the hyperfine fields in thin iron layer at low temperatures above and below the superconducting transition in the top Nb layer (Tc 8 K) by means of the nuclear resonant reflectivity with standing waves. The periodic multilayer [Mo/Si]45 below the iron layer in our sample was used as “a standing wave generator”. A weak magnetic hyperfine splitting in the 57Fe layer was detected just at low temperature. A slight variation of the nuclear resonant reflectivity time spectra measured above and below Tc was observed. At first it was supposed that this change of the spectrum shape is caused by the spatial modulation of ferromagnetic domains in the 57Fe layer caused by a proximity effect. A closer analysis, however, reveals that the spectrum variations are due to just the changes of the relative weights of the magnetic and paramagnetic phases in 57Fe layer.

  • 13. Audren, A.
    et al.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Linnarsson, Margareta K.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Possnert, G.
    Damage recovery in ZnO by post-implantation annealing2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 11-12, p. 1842-1846Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO bulk samples were implanted with 200 key-Co ions at room temperature with two fluences, 1 x 10(16) and 8 x 10(16) cm(-2), and then annealed in air for 30 min at different temperatures up to 900 degrees C. After the implantation and each annealing step, the samples were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in random and channeling directions to follow the evolution of the disorder profile. The RBS spectra reveal that disorder is created during implantation in proportion to the Co fluence. The thermal treatments induce a disorder recovery, which is however, not complete after annealing at 900 degrees C, where about 15% of the damage remains. To study the Co profile evolution during annealing, the samples were, in addition to RBS, characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The results show that Co diffusion starts at 800 degrees C, but also that a very different behavior is seen for Co concentrations below and above the solubility limit. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 14. Audren, A.
    et al.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Possnert, G.
    Damage recovery in the oxygen sublattice of ZnO by post-implantation annealing2012In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 272, p. 418-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermally grown zinc oxide bulk samples were implanted with 200 key-Co ions with a fluence of 4.5 x 10(16) cm(-2) and then annealed in air during 30 min at different temperatures up to 900 degrees C. After the implantation and each annealing step, the samples were analyzed using the nuclear reaction O-16(alpha,alpha)O-16 at 3.045 MeV He in random and channeling directions to follow the annealing of the disorder profile in the O sublattice. For comparison, the disorder in the Zn sublattice was also observed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in random and channeling directions. The results reveal that the disorder created during the Co implantation is slightly higher in the O sublattice than in the Zn sublattice. The disorder recovery induced by the thermal treatments, starts at 500 degrees C in the O sublattice and at 700 degrees C in the Zn sublattice. Although, the most part of the disorder recovery occurs between 700 and 800 degrees C in both sublattices.

  • 15.
    Audren, Auregane
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Hallen, A.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Damage recovery in the oxygen sublattice of ZnO by post-implantation annealing2012In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 272, p. 418-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermally grown zinc oxide bulk samples were implanted with 200 key-Co ions with a fluence of 4.5 x 10(16) cm(-2) and then annealed in air during 30 min at different temperatures up to 900 degrees C. After the implantation and each annealing step, the samples were analyzed using the nuclear reaction O-16(alpha,alpha)O-16 at 3.045 MeV He in random and channeling directions to follow the annealing of the disorder profile in the O sublattice. For comparison, the disorder in the Zn sublattice was also observed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in random and channeling directions. The results reveal that the disorder created during the Co implantation is slightly higher in the O sublattice than in the Zn sublattice. The disorder recovery induced by the thermal treatments, starts at 500 degrees C in the O sublattice and at 700 degrees C in the Zn sublattice. Although, the most part of the disorder recovery occurs between 700 and 800 degrees C in both sublattices.

  • 16.
    Audren, Auregane
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics.
    Hallén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics.
    Linnarsson, M. K.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics.
    Damage recovery in ZnO by post-implantation annealing2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 11-12, p. 1842-1846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO bulk samples were implanted with 200 key-Co ions at room temperature with two fluences, 1 x 10(16) and 8 x 10(16) cm(-2), and then annealed in air for 30 min at different temperatures up to 900 degrees C. After the implantation and each annealing step, the samples were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in random and channeling directions to follow the evolution of the disorder profile. The RBS spectra reveal that disorder is created during implantation in proportion to the Co fluence. The thermal treatments induce a disorder recovery, which is however, not complete after annealing at 900 degrees C, where about 15% of the damage remains. To study the Co profile evolution during annealing, the samples were, in addition to RBS, characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The results show that Co diffusion starts at 800 degrees C, but also that a very different behavior is seen for Co concentrations below and above the solubility limit.

  • 17. Azarov, A. Yu.
    et al.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Svensson, B. G.
    Du, X. L.
    Kuznetsov, A. Yu.
    Damage accumulation and annealing behavior in high fluence implanted MgZnO2012In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 272, p. 426-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular beam epitaxy grown MgxZn1-xO (x <= 0.3) layers were implanted at room temperature with 150 keV Er-166(+) ions in a fluence range of 5 x 10(15-)3 x 10(16) cm(-2). Evolution of ion-induced damage and structural changes were studied by a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, nuclear reaction analysis and time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis. Results show that damage production enhances in both Zn- and O-sublattices with increasing the Mg content in the MgZnO. However, MgZnO as well as pure ZnO exhibits a high degree of dynamic annealing and MgZnO can not be amorphized even at the highest ion fluence used. Annealing of heavily damaged ZnO leads to a strong surface erosion and thinning of the film. Increasing the Mg content suppresses the surface evaporation in high fluence implanted MgZnO but leads to a strong surface decomposition accompanied with a Mg-rich surface layer formation during post-implantation annealing.

  • 18.
    Azarov, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Titov, A. I.
    Karaseov, P. A.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Effect of collision cascade density on radiation damage in SiC2009In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 267, no 8-9, p. 1247-1250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The damage accumulation in 6H-SiC bombarded at room temperature with 1.3 keV/amu atomic P+ ions and small cluster ions PFn+ (n = 2 and 4) have been studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling mode. Results show that collision cascade density strongly affects damage buildup in SiC. The cluster ion bombardment of SiC produces more stable defects both near the surface and in the region between the surface and bulk defect peaks than irradiation by atomic ions.

  • 19. Battistoni, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Broggi, Francesco
    Brugger, Markus
    Campanella, Mauro
    Carboni, Massimo
    Empl, Anton
    Fassó, Alberto
    Gadioli, Ettore
    Cerutti, Francesco
    Ferrari, Alfredo
    Ferrari, Anna
    Lantz, Mattias
    Riken Laboratory, Japan.
    Mairani, Andrea
    Margiotta, M.
    Morone, Cristina
    Muraro, Silvia
    Parodi, Katia
    Patera, Vincenzo
    Pelliccioni, Mauricio
    Pinsky, Larry
    Ranft, Johannes
    Roesler, Stefan
    Rollet, Sofia
    Sala, Paola R.
    Santana, Mario
    Sarchiapone, Lucia
    Sioli, Massimiliano
    Smirnov, George
    Sommerer, Florian
    Theis, Christian
    Trovati, Stefania
    Villari, R.
    Vincke, Heinz
    Vincke, Helmut
    Vlachoudis, Vasilis
    Vollaire, Joachim
    Zapp, Neil
    Applications of FLUKA Monte Carlo code for nuclear and accelerator physics2011In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 269, no 24, p. 2850-2856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FLUKA is a general purpose Monte Carlo code capable of handling all radiation components from thermal energies (for neutrons) or 1 keV (for all other particles) to cosmic ray energies and can be applied in many different fields. Presently the code is maintained on Linux. The validity of the physical models implemented in FLUKA has been benchmarked against a variety of experimental data over a wide energy range, from accelerator data to cosmic ray showers in the Earth atmosphere. FLUKA is widely used for studies related both to basic research and to applications in particle accelerators, radiation protection and dosimetry, including the specific issue of radiation damage in space missions, radiobiology (including radiotherapy) and cosmic ray calculations.

    After a short description of the main features that make FLUKA valuable for these topics, the present paper summarizes some of the recent applications of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code in the nuclear as well high energy physics. In particular it addresses such topics as accelerator related applications.

  • 20.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Eriksson, B
    Timing and amplitude characteristics of a parallel plate electron multiplier1974In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 117, p. 345-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Berggren, A. -M
    et al.
    Aldahan, A.
    Possnert, G.
    Hansson, M.
    Steen-Larsen, H. C.
    Storm, A. Sturevik
    Morth, C. -M
    Murad, A.
    Variability of Be-10 and delta O-18 in snow pits from Greenland and a surface traverse from Antarctica2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 294, p. 568-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine temporal variability of Be-10 in glacial ice, we sampled snow to a depth of 160 cm at the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) drilling site in Greenland. The samples span three years between the summers of 2006 and 2009. At the same time, spatial variability of Be-10 in glacial ice was explored through collection of the upper similar to 5 cm of surface snow in Antarctica during part of the Swedish-Japanese traverse from Svea to Syowa station during the austral summer in 2007-2008. The results of the Greenlandic 1 Be snow suggested variable concentrations that apparently do not clearly reflect the seasonal change as indicated by the delta O-18 data. The Be-10 concentration variability most likely reflects also effects of aerosol loading and deposition pathways, possibly in combination with post-depositional processes. The Antarctic traverse data expose a negative correlation between Be-10 and delta O-18, while there are weaker but still significant correlations to altitude and distance to the coast (approximated by the distance to the 70th latitude). These relationships indicate that geographical factors, mainly the proximity to the coast, may strongly affect 1 Be concentrations in snow in Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 22. Berggren, A. -M
    et al.
    Aldahan, A.
    Possnert, G.
    Hansson, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Steen-Larsen, H. C.
    Storm, A. Sturevik
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Murad, A.
    Variability of Be-10 and delta O-18 in snow pits from Greenland and a surface traverse from Antarctica2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 294, p. 568-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine temporal variability of Be-10 in glacial ice, we sampled snow to a depth of 160 cm at the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) drilling site in Greenland. The samples span three years between the summers of 2006 and 2009. At the same time, spatial variability of Be-10 in glacial ice was explored through collection of the upper similar to 5 cm of surface snow in Antarctica during part of the Swedish-Japanese traverse from Svea to Syowa station during the austral summer in 2007-2008. The results of the Greenlandic 1 Be snow suggested variable concentrations that apparently do not clearly reflect the seasonal change as indicated by the delta O-18 data. The Be-10 concentration variability most likely reflects also effects of aerosol loading and deposition pathways, possibly in combination with post-depositional processes. The Antarctic traverse data expose a negative correlation between Be-10 and delta O-18, while there are weaker but still significant correlations to altitude and distance to the coast (approximated by the distance to the 70th latitude). These relationships indicate that geographical factors, mainly the proximity to the coast, may strongly affect 1 Be concentrations in snow in Queen Maud Land, Antarctica.

  • 23.
    Berggren, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Haltia-Hovi, Eeva
    Saarinen, Timo
    Linking ice sheet and lake sediment archives of Be-10, 1468-1980 CE2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 294, p. 524-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of understanding and reconstructing our climate history it is important to investigate the link between climate and solar activity. Ice cores and ocean sediments have provided information on a range of timescales on atmospheric Be-10 production, which is a proxy for past solar activity due to its cosmogenic nature of production. We here present results from the first, to our knowledge, multi-centennial and annual resolution study of Be-10 in varved lake sediments. Varves were sampled over an interval covering the period 1468-2006 CE in sediment cored from Lake Lehmilampi in eastern Finland. The measured concentrations were converted into annual Be-10 deposition rates by using the weights of dried samples as an estimation of sedimentation rates and scaling the result from sampling to catchment area size. We compare the lake catchment Be-10 deposition rates to those derived from the Greenlandic ice cores NGRIP and Dye-3 along with past solar activity. Sediment Be-10 concentrations range 2.1-17.6 x 10(8) atoms g(-1). The high end of this range is represented by a limited number of samples, and the average is near the lower end at 4.1 x 10(8) atoms g(-1). The deposition rates range 0.5-3.9 x 10(6) atoms cm(-2) year(-1), with an average of 1.8 x 10(6) atoms cm(-2) year (0.057 atoms cm(-2) s(-1)). We note higher Be-10 deposition during the Sporer (similar to 1415-1535 CE) and Maunder (similar to 1645-1715 CE) solar minima, and also at the onset of the Dalton (similar to 1790-1830 CE) minimum. Equally high Be-10 values in the 1840s and lower deposition during the Dalton minimum are not consistent with contemporaneous solar activity. Although this may in part be a result of incomplete measurements in the 19th century, it also shows the complexity of deposition and the intricacy of reconstructing past solar activity from sediment Be-10 data. A comparison with ice core data reveals particularly good agreement between sediment and Dye-3 Be-10 flux around 1500-1750 CE.

  • 24.
    Berggren, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Hansson, M.
    Steen-Larsen, H. C.
    Storm, Anna Sturevik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Morth, C. -M
    Murad, A.
    Variability of Be-10 and delta O-18 in snow pits from Greenland and a surface traverse from Antarctica2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 294, p. 568-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine temporal variability of Be-10 in glacial ice, we sampled snow to a depth of 160 cm at the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) drilling site in Greenland. The samples span three years between the summers of 2006 and 2009. At the same time, spatial variability of Be-10 in glacial ice was explored through collection of the upper similar to 5 cm of surface snow in Antarctica during part of the Swedish-Japanese traverse from Svea to Syowa station during the austral summer in 2007-2008. The results of the Greenlandic 1 Be snow suggested variable concentrations that apparently do not clearly reflect the seasonal change as indicated by the delta O-18 data. The Be-10 concentration variability most likely reflects also effects of aerosol loading and deposition pathways, possibly in combination with post-depositional processes. The Antarctic traverse data expose a negative correlation between Be-10 and delta O-18, while there are weaker but still significant correlations to altitude and distance to the coast (approximated by the distance to the 70th latitude). These relationships indicate that geographical factors, mainly the proximity to the coast, may strongly affect 1 Be concentrations in snow in Queen Maud Land, Antarctica.

  • 25.
    Berggren, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Enhanced beam currents with co-precipitated niobium as a matrix for AMS measurements of 10Be2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 7-8, p. 795-798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When dealing with small amounts of 10Be, it is challenging to achieve the good performance in the ion source that is needed to enable a reliable AMS measurement. We have co-precipitated beryllium with dissolved NbCl5, using a range of mixing ratios, to establish an optimal and practical procedure. 9Be16O beam currents for co-precipitated samples of 9Be-Nb are often higher, but show a slower rise than for samples either co-precipitated or mixed with silver. However, while the Ag sample currents soon deteriorate, Nb sample currents stay high for an extended time, leading to higher measuring performance and better statistics. Although co-precipitated Be-Nb mixtures do not reach such high beam currents as BeO mechanically mixed with Nb powder, we prefer co-precipitation as it provides enough material for handling and an additional mixing step is avoided. We recommend use of NbCl5 as an alternative to AgNO3 on account of the much lower boron association of niobium compared to silver. No critical limit in the matrix:Be mixing ratio was observed, but we note a steady decline of maximum currents reached with increasing mixing ratio.

  • 26. Bergsaker, H.
    et al.
    Bykov, I.
    Petersson, P.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Likonen, J.
    Koivuranta, S.
    Coad, J. P.
    Widdowson, A. M.
    Microstructure and inhomogeneous fuel trapping at divertor surfaces in the JET tokamak2014In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 332, p. 266-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plasma deposited layers at divertor surfaces in the JET tokamak with carbon wall have been studied post mortem, using micro ion beam analysis (mu-IBA) methods, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The layers were formed during plasma operations over different periods through 1998-2009. They frequently have a columnar structure. For mu-IBA a 3 MeV He-3 beam was used, focused to about 5-15 mu m size. Nuclear reaction analysis was used to measure D, Be and C. Elemental mapping was carried out both at the original surface and on polished layer cross sections. Trapped deuterium is predominantly found in remote areas on the horizontal bottom divertor tiles and in regions with locally enhanced deuterium concentration on the vertical tiles. Pockets with enhanced deuterium concentration are found in the carbon fibre composite (CFC) substrate. Areas with dimensions of about 100 mu m with enhanced deuterium concentration are also found inside the deposited layers. The inhomogeneous fuel trapping is tentatively explained with co-deposition in partly protected pits in the substrate and by incorporation of dust particles in the growing layers.

  • 27.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Possnert, G.
    Likonen, J.
    Koivuranta, S.
    Coad, J. P.
    Widdowson, A. M.
    Microstructure and inhomogeneous fuel trapping at divertor surfaces in the JET tokamak2014In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 332, p. 266-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plasma deposited layers at divertor surfaces in the JET tokamak with carbon wall have been studied post mortem, using micro ion beam analysis (mu-IBA) methods, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The layers were formed during plasma operations over different periods through 1998-2009. They frequently have a columnar structure. For mu-IBA a 3 MeV He-3 beam was used, focused to about 5-15 mu m size. Nuclear reaction analysis was used to measure D, Be and C. Elemental mapping was carried out both at the original surface and on polished layer cross sections. Trapped deuterium is predominantly found in remote areas on the horizontal bottom divertor tiles and in regions with locally enhanced deuterium concentration on the vertical tiles. Pockets with enhanced deuterium concentration are found in the carbon fibre composite (CFC) substrate. Areas with dimensions of about 100 mu m with enhanced deuterium concentration are also found inside the deposited layers. The inhomogeneous fuel trapping is tentatively explained with co-deposition in partly protected pits in the substrate and by incorporation of dust particles in the growing layers.

  • 28.
    Blachucki, Wojciech
    et al.
    Univ Fribourg, Dept Phys, Chemin Musee 3, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland..
    Szlachetko, Jakub
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Swiss Light Source, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.;Jan Kochanowski Univ Humanities & Sci, Inst Phys, PL-25406 Kielce, Poland..
    Kayser, Yves
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Swiss Light Source, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Dousse, Jean-Claude
    Univ Fribourg, Dept Phys, Chemin Musee 3, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland..
    Hoszowska, Joanna
    Univ Fribourg, Dept Phys, Chemin Musee 3, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland..
    Zeeshan, Faisal
    Univ Fribourg, Dept Phys, Chemin Musee 3, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland..
    Sá, Jacinto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Polish Acad Sci, Inst Phys Chem, Warsaw, Poland.
    In situ high energy resolution off-resonant spectroscopy applied to a time-resolved study of single site Ta catalyst during oxidation2017In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 411, p. 63-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work high energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy (HEROS) was employed at a synchrotron to study a silica supported Ta(V) bisalkyl catalyst activated in hydrogen. The Ta L alpha(1) HEROS spectra were measured during oxidation of the starting complex and the relative species' concentration was successfully retrieved as a function of time using the fingerprint HEROS spectra measured for the unoxidized and the oxidized catalyst. Based on the experimental data and theory-based calculations, it was shown that oxidation of the active Ta catalyst leads to the formation of mono- and di-meric species on the SiO2 surface. The obtained results were compared to those of the previously reported time resolved HEROS study on an inactive silica supported Ta(V) bisalkyl catalyst's concentration evolution during its oxidation Blachucki et al. (2015). The study allowed observation of an immediate transition of the active Ta catalyst from its unoxidized form to the oxidized one. This finding is dissimilar to the result of the study on the inactive Ta catalyst, where the oxidation led through an intermediate step.

  • 29.
    Blomquist, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    The recoilless fraction of stainless steel as affected by applying different line shape approximations2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 2, p. 209-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mossbauer measurements have been made on a series of stainless steel absorbers of different type and thickness. The analysis has been performed with different line shape approximations to illuminate the sensitivity to the method used, with focus on the recoilless fraction f.

  • 30.
    Bruckner, Barbara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics. Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, IEP AOP, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Roth, D.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, IEP AOP, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Goebl, D.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, IEP AOP, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Bauer, P.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, IEP AOP, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    A note on extracting electronic stopping from energy spectra of backscattered slow ions applying Bragg's rule2018In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 423, p. 82-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic stopping measurements in chemically reactive targets, e.g., transition and rare earth metals are challenging. These metals often contain low Z impurities, which contribute to electronic stopping. In this article, we present two ways how one can correct for the presence of impurities in the evaluation of proton and He stopping in Ni for primary energies between 1 and 100 keV, either considering or ignoring the contribution of the low Z impurities to multiple scattering. We find, that for protons either method leads to concordant results, but for heavier projectiles, e.g. He ions, the influence on multiple scattering must not be neglected.

  • 31. Bykov, I.
    et al.
    Bergsaker, H.
    Petersson, P.
    Likonen, J.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Widdowson, A.
    Combined ion micro probe and SEM analysis of strongly non uniform deposits in fusion devices2015In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 342, p. 19-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional ion beam analysis (IBA) of deposited layers from fusion devices may have insufficient accuracy due to strongly uneven appearance of the layers. Surface roughness and spatial variation of the matrix composition make interpretation of broad beam spectra complex and non obvious. We discuss complications of applied IBA arising for fusion-relevant surfaces and demonstrate how quantification can be improved by employing micro IBA methods. The analysis is bound to pre-defined regions on the sample surface and can be extended by employing beams of several types, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereo SEM techniques. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 32. Bykov, I.
    et al.
    Petersson, P.
    Bergsåker, H.
    Hallén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Investigation of tritium analysis methods for ion microbeam application2012In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 273, p. 250-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The trapping and retention of tritium in deposited layers on plasma-facing components is a critical issue for the international tokamak experimental reactor (ITER) and for future power producing tokamak fusion reactors. Cross sections of deposited layers at surfaces in the JET tokamak divertor are being investigated using ion microbeam analysis. To include tritium analysis with high spatial resolution, a number of plausible ion beam techniques have been investigated. Calibration samples with 150 nm tritiated titanium films were used. Absolute concentrations were determined with classical ERD using 2.5-3.5 MeV C-12(+). Cross sections for non-Rutherford ERD and for the T(C-12,p)C-14 and T(C-12,alpha)B-11 nuclear reactions were measured for different angles in the energy range 2.5-15 MeV. Background spectra were collected from pure carbon, beryllium and deuterium enriched samples and the sensitivity for microbeam NRA measurements of the tritium concentration in thick targets with predominantly Be-C-D matrix was estimated.

  • 33. Bykov, Igor
    et al.
    Bergsaker, Henric
    Petersson, Per
    Likonen, Jari
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Quantitative plasma-fuel and impurity profiling in thick plasma-deposited layers by means of micro ion beam analysis and SIMS2014In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 332, p. 280-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operation of the Joint European Torus (JET) with full-carbon wall during the last decades has proven the importance of material re-deposition processes in remote areas of the tokamak. The thickness of the deposits in shadowed areas can reach 1 mm. The main constituent is carbon, with little inclusion of Inconel components. Atomic fractions Be/C and D/C can locally reach 1. Three methods were used to study thick deposits on JET divertor surfaces: (i) NRA analysis with a 15 mu m wide, 3 MeV He-3 ion microbeam on a polished cross section of the layer to determine the concentration distribution of D, Be and C and the distribution of Ni by particle induced X-ray emission; (ii) elastic proton scattering (EPS) from the top of the layers with a broad proton beam at 3.5 and 4.6 MeV. These methods were absolutely calibrated using thick elemental targets. (iii) Depth profiling of D, Be and Ni was done with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), sputtering the layers from the surface. The three methods are complementary. The thickest layers are accessible only by microbeam mapping of the cross sections, albeit with limited spatial resolution. The SIMS has the best depth resolution, but is difficult for absolute quantification and is limited in accessible depth. The probed depth with proton backscattering is limited to about 30 mu m. The combination of all three methods provided a coherent picture of the layer composition. It was possible to correlate the SIMS profiling results to quantitative data obtained by the microbeam method.

  • 34.
    Bykov, Igor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bergsaker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Possnert, G.
    Zhou, Y.
    Heinola, K.
    Pettersson, J.
    Conroy, S.
    Likonen, J.
    Petersson, Per
    Widdowson, A.
    Studies of Be migration in the JET tokamak using AMS with Be-10 marker2016In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 371, p. 370-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The JET tokamak is operated with beryllium limiter tiles in the main chamber and tungsten coated carbon fiber composite tiles and solid W tiles in the divertor. One important issue is how wall materials are migrating during plasma operation. To study beryllium redistribution in the main chamber and in the divertor, a Be-10 enriched limiter tile was installed prior to plasma operations in 2011-2012. Methods to take surface samples have been developed, an abrasive method for bulk Be tiles in the main chamber, which permits reuse of the tiles, and leaching with hot HCl to remove all Be deposited at W coated surfaces in the divertor. Quantitative analysis of the total amount of Be in cm(2) sized samples was made with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The Be-10/Be-9 ratio in the samples was measured with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The experimental setup and methods are described in detail, including sample preparation, measures to eliminate contributions in AMS from the B-10 isobar, possible activation due to plasma generated neutrons and effects of diffusive isotope mixing. For the first time marker concentrations are measured in the divertor deposits. They are in the range 0.4-1.2% of the source concentration, with moderate poloidal variation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 35.
    Bykov, Igor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Likonen, Jari
    Possnert, G.
    Widdowson, C.
    Combined ion micro probe and SEM analysis of strongly non uniform deposits in fusion devices2015In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 342, p. 19-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional ion beam analysis (IBA) of deposited layers from fusion devices may have insufficient accuracy due to strongly uneven appearance of the layers. Surface roughness and spatial variation of the matrix composition make interpretation of broad beam spectra complex and non obvious. We discuss complications of applied IBA arising for fusion-relevant surfaces and demonstrate how quantification can be improved by employing micro IBA methods. The analysis is bound to pre-defined regions on the sample surface and can be extended by employing beams of several types, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereo SEM techniques.

  • 36.
    Bykov, Igor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Likonen, Jari
    Possnert, Göran
    Quantitative plasma-fuel and impurity profiling in thick plasma-deposited layers by means of micro ion beam analysis and SIMS2014In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 332, p. 280-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operation of the Joint European Torus (JET) with full-carbon wall during the last decades has proven the importance of material re-deposition processes in remote areas of the tokamak. The thickness of the deposits in shadowed areas can reach 1 mm. The main constituent is carbon, with little inclusion of Inconel components. Atomic fractions Be/C and D/C can locally reach 1. Three methods were used to study thick deposits on JET divertor surfaces: (i) NRA analysis with a 15 mu m wide, 3 MeV He-3 ion microbeam on a polished cross section of the layer to determine the concentration distribution of D, Be and C and the distribution of Ni by particle induced X-ray emission; (ii) elastic proton scattering (EPS) from the top of the layers with a broad proton beam at 3.5 and 4.6 MeV. These methods were absolutely calibrated using thick elemental targets. (iii) Depth profiling of D, Be and Ni was done with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), sputtering the layers from the surface. The three methods are complementary. The thickest layers are accessible only by microbeam mapping of the cross sections, albeit with limited spatial resolution. The SIMS has the best depth resolution, but is difficult for absolute quantification and is limited in accessible depth. The probed depth with proton backscattering is limited to about 30 mu m. The combination of all three methods provided a coherent picture of the layer composition. It was possible to correlate the SIMS profiling results to quantitative data obtained by the microbeam method.

  • 37.
    Bykov, Igor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hallén, A.
    Possnert, G.
    Investigation of tritium analysis methods for ion microbeam application2012In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 273, p. 250-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The trapping and retention of tritium in deposited layers on plasma-facing components is a critical issue for the international tokamak experimental reactor (ITER) and for future power producing tokamak fusion reactors. Cross sections of deposited layers at surfaces in the JET tokamak divertor are being investigated using ion microbeam analysis. To include tritium analysis with high spatial resolution, a number of plausible ion beam techniques have been investigated. Calibration samples with 150 nm tritiated titanium films were used. Absolute concentrations were determined with classical ERD using 2.5-3.5 MeV C-12(+). Cross sections for non-Rutherford ERD and for the T(C-12,p)C-14 and T(C-12,alpha)B-11 nuclear reactions were measured for different angles in the energy range 2.5-15 MeV. Background spectra were collected from pure carbon, beryllium and deuterium enriched samples and the sensitivity for microbeam NRA measurements of the tritium concentration in thick targets with predominantly Be-C-D matrix was estimated.

  • 38. Cariatore, N. D.
    et al.
    Otranto, S.
    Wolff, W.
    Luna, H.
    Turco, F.
    Fregenal, D.
    Bernardi, G.
    Suárez, S.
    Schuch, Reinhold
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Water fragmentation induced by ion impact: Fragment-ion-energy determination at different Z(P)/v regimes2017In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 408, p. 198-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on the energy distributions of positive water ionic fragments produced by ion impact at MeV impact energies. An improved Coulomb explosion model coupled to a classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulation is used to provide energy centroids of the fragments for the dissociation channels resulting from the removal of two to five electrons from the water molecule. This model explicitly includes the post-collisional interaction of the projectile with the resulting ionic fragments affecting their kinetic energy release spectra especially at low impact energies. Theoretical data are benchmarked against recent data collected for 220 keV Xe22+ + H2O collisions which corresponds to a large Zp/v collision parameter. To extend our tests to the low Zp/v regime, fragment species as a function of emission energy and time-of-flight were recorded in 3 MeV Li3+ collisions by using an electrostatic spectrometer and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, respectively. Present experimental data reveals the existence of multiple-ionization processes leading to charge state up to 4+.

  • 39.
    Carlberg, M H
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Münger, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Atomistic study of defect generation mechanisms in Mo/W superlattices1996In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 112, no 1-4, p. 109-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we report the investigation of defect generation in Mo/W superlattices (SL). The study has been carried out using molecular dynamics (MD) and the embedded atom (EAM) potential. Mechanisms for the generation of observed defect patterns are proposed.

  • 40.
    Chang, Zhongwen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
    Olsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
    Terentyev, D
    Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Belgium.
    Sandberg, N
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Sweden.
    Multiscale calculation of dislocation bias in fcc Ni and bcc Fe model lattices2014In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to gain more insights on void swelling, dislocation bias is studied in this work. Molecular staticsimulations with empirical potentials are applied to map the dislocation–point defects interactionenergies in both fcc Ni and bcc Fe model lattices. The interaction energies are then used to numericallysolve the diffusion equation and obtain the dislocation bias. The importance of the dislocation core regionis studied under a the temperature range 573–1173 K and the dislocation densities 1012—1015 m-2. Theresults show that larger dislocation bias is found in the fcc Ni than in the bcc Fe under differenttemperatures and dislocation densities. The anisotropic interaction energy model is used to obtain thedislocation bias and the result is compared to that obtained using the atomistic interaction model, thecontribution from the core structure is then shown in both the Ni lattice and the Fe lattice.

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  • 41. Chen, C. C.
    et al.
    Lindgren, A. C.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Zhu, D. Z.
    Vantomme, A.
    Different strain relaxation mechanisms in strained Si/Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures by high dose B+ and BF2+ doping2002In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 198, no 02-jan, p. 57-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strained Si/Si0.8Ge0.2/Si heterostructures are implanted at room temperature with 7.5 keV B+ and 33 keV BF2+ ions to a high dose of 2 x 10(15) ions/cm(2), respectively. The samples are subsequently subjected to three-step anneals (spacer anneal, oxidation anneal and rapid thermal anneal), which are used to simulate a real fabrication process of SiGe-based MOSFET devices. The damage induced by implantation and its recovery are characterized by 2 MeV He-4(+) RBS/ channeling spectrometry. A damage layer on the surface is induced by B+ implantation, but BF2+ ion implantation amorphizes the surface of Si/Si0.8Ge0.2/Si heterostructure. Channeling angular scans along the (110) axial direction demonstrate that the strain stored in the SiGe layer could be nearly completely retained for the B+ implantated and subsequently annealed sample. However, the strain in the BF2+ implanted/annealed SiGe layer has decreased drastically.

  • 42.
    Chen, Xuegao
    et al.
    Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul En, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Gong, Meng
    Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Yi, Peng
    Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul En, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. United Arab Emirates Univ, Dept Geol, Al Ain, U Arab Emirates..
    Yu, Zhongbo
    Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul En, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Chen, Li
    Hohai Univ, State Key Lab Hydrol Water Resources & Hydraul En, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;Hohai Univ, Coll Hydrol & Water Resources, Nanjing 210098, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Distribution of I-129 in terrestrial surface water environments2015In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 361, p. 604-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global distribution of the radioactive isotope iodine-129 in surface waters (lakes and rivers) is presented here and compared with the atmospheric deposition and distribution in surface marine waters. The results indicate relatively high concentrations in surface water systems in close vicinity of the anthropogenic release sources as well as in parts of Western Europe, North America and Central Asia. I-129 level is generally higher in the terrestrial surface water of the Northern hemisphere compared to the southern hemisphere. The highest values of I-129 appear around 50 degrees N and 40 degrees S in the northern and southern hemisphere, separately. Direct gaseous and marine atmospheric emissions are the most likely avenues for the transport of 1291 from the sources to the terrestrial surface waters. To apply iodine-129 as process tracer in terrestrial surface water environment, more data are needed on I-129 distribution patterns both locally and globally.

  • 43. Chiapetto, Monica
    et al.
    Messina, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics. Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    Becquart, Charlotte S.
    Olsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
    Malerba, Lorenzo
    Nanostructure evolution of neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels: Revised Object kinetic Monte Carlo model2017In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 393, p. 105-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a revised set of parameters to be used in an Object kinetic Monte Carlo model to simulate the microstructure evolution under neutron irradiation of reactor pressure vessel steels at the operational temperature of light water reactors (∼300 °C). Within a “grey-alloy” approach, a more physical description than in a previous work is used to translate the effect of Mn and Ni solute atoms on the defect cluster diffusivity reduction. The slowing down of self-interstitial clusters, due to the interaction between solutes and crowdions in Fe is now parameterized using binding energies from the latest DFT calculations and the solute concentration in the matrix from atom-probe experiments. The mobility of vacancy clusters in the presence of Mn and Ni solute atoms was also modified on the basis of recent DFT results, thereby removing some previous approximations. The same set of parameters was seen to predict the correct microstructure evolution for two different types of alloys, under very different irradiation conditions: an Fe-C-MnNi model alloy, neutron irradiated at a relatively high flux, and a high-Mn, high-Ni RPV steel from the Swedish Ringhals reactor surveillance program. In both cases, the predicted self-interstitial loop density matches the experimental solute cluster density, further corroborating the surmise that the MnNi-rich nanofeatures form by solute enrichment of immobilized small interstitial loops, which are invisible to the electron microscope.

  • 44.
    Claisse, Antoine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
    Olsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
    First-principles calculations of (Y, Ti, O) cluster formation in body centred cubic iron-chromium2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 303, p. 18-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the ab initio parametrization necessary for a Monte Carlo study of the (Y, Ti, O) clusters in a FeCr matrix is done. The cohesive, binding and migration energies of all the solutes have been calculated in the dilute limit in the framework of density functional theory. The special case of the strong interaction between an Y atom and a vacancy has been considered. In the dilute limit, Cr is transparent with respect to Y, Ti, O or vacancies. On the contrary, Y binds O strongly in 2NN configuration while not in 1NN. Ti binds O in 1NN and 2NN configurations. A vacancy binds strongly with Y and O in 1NN position which is resulting in a low diffusion coefficient for Y. The peculiar case of the binding attraction between two interstitial oxygen atoms has been studied and is believed to be the main reason for the planar (2D) symmetry of the cluster nuclei. A preferential cluster shape is determined for the early nucleation stage, up to 12 atoms.

  • 45. Czekajewski, J
    et al.
    Tove, PA
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Grabowski, Z
    A solid state spectrometer for measuring the distribution of charged particles in aurorae1964In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 66-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Czerwinski, Bartlomiej
    et al.
    Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences - Bio and Soft Matter, Louvain-la-Neuve.
    Postawa, Zbigniew
    Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow.
    Garrison, Barbara J.
    Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University.
    Delcorte, Arnaud
    Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences - Bio and Soft Matter, Louvain-la-Neuve.
    Molecular dynamics study of polystyrene bond-breaking and crosslinking under C60 and Arn cluster bombardment2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, p. 22-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular dynamics computer simulations are used to elucidate the bond-breaking and crosslinking processes induced by 2.5 keV C60 and Arn cluster bombardment in an amorphous sec-butyl-terminated polystyrene sample. The obtained results indicate that replacement of C 60 by Ar18 or Ar60 projectiles leads to the decrease of the number of broken bonds and, hence, to the decrease of formation of new intra- and intermolecular (crosslinking) bonds. When the number of atoms in the Arn cluster is increased from 60 to 250 or more, the total number of broken bonds and the total number of newly created bonds reach a zero value. Additional comparison to the case of a fullerite crystal reveals that the change of material properties leads to almost 7.5-fold reduction of the efficiency of the crosslinking process.

  • 47. Dassanayake, B. S.
    et al.
    Das, Susanta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, The Manne Siegbahn Laboratory.
    Ayyad, A.
    Bereczky, R. J.
    Tokesi, K.
    Tanis, J. A.
    Charge evolution and energy loss associated with electron transmission through a macroscopic single glass capillary2011In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 269, no 11, p. 1243-1247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Charge (time) evolution and the angular dependence of incident electrons in the range 300-1030 eV through a single macroscopic glass capillary was studied. Charge measurements were done at a sample tilt angle of psi = 2' for observation angles 0= O' and 05 (both psi and 0 were measured with respect to the incident beam direction) at incident energies of 520.7 and 824.5 eV using a parallel-plate spectrometer. After equilibrium of transmission, electrons had lower average centroid (mean) energies than the respective primary beam values. Centroid energies of transmitted electrons at the centroid of the angular distribution (where the observation angle 0 is nearly equal to tilt angle of the sample psi) were found to decrease exponentially with increasing sample tilt angles for all the measured electron energies. This energy loss is attributed to inelastic scattering of electrons with the inner wall of the sample close to the capillary entrance. Furthermore, the centroid energies of the transmitted electron angular distributions at 520.7 eV were found to lose energy for angular positions away from the capillary axis (angular centroid position) for all tilt angles, indicating a higher degree of inelastic scattering at the edges of the angular distributions.

  • 48.
    Ekman, Jörgen
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, School of Technology.
    Helgesson, Johan
    Karlsson, Lennart B.
    Mohsenpour, Masoud
    Riihimäki, Iiro
    Touboltsev, Vladimir
    Jalkanen, Pasi
    Virtanen, Ari
    Kettunen, Heikki
    Huikari, Jussi
    Nieminen, Arto
    Moore, Iain
    Penttilä, Heikki
    Arstila, Kai
    Äystö, Juha
    Räisänen, Jyrki
    Whitlow, Harry J.
    Retention of Pb isotopes in glass surfaces for retrospective assessment of radon exposure2006In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 249, no 1-2, p. 544-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in radio-epidemiological techniques to retrospectively measure the radon dose exposure by determining the activity of 210Pb, the longest-lived 222Rn progeny, in glass surface layers. In this study the diffusion of 39 keV 209Pb+ ions implanted into glass using the IGISOL facility has been studied under conditions that mimic the recoil implantation of 210Pb from 222Rn. The resulting depth distributions of 209Pb were then measured after heat treatment in vacuum at different temperatures by a sputter erosion technique. The diffusion coefficient could be described by an Arrhenius equation D = D0exp(−H/kT) where and H = 2.81 ± 0.11 eV. No statistically significant loss of 209Pb from the sample was observed for annealing between 470 and 600 °C.

  • 49.
    Englund, Edvard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hou, X. L.
    Petersen, R.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Speciation of iodine (127I and 129I) in lake sediments2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 7-8, p. 1102-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fallout of anthropogenic I-129 at northern Europe has been occurring since the early 1950. Nevertheless, it is still unclear where and how this radioactive iodine is incorporated in the surface environment. In order to elucidate part of this problem, we here present an investigation of the occurrence modes of I-129 in varved lake sediments, collected in central Sweden and cover the period 1941-2007. Using a sequential extraction method, the results of I-129 and I-127 indicate that the partitioning of the two isotopes were more or less similar, despite the large gradient of I-129 within the sediment. Organic bound iodine was the dominant form over other fractions, while iodine bound to metal oxides was negligible. The leachable part constituted 5-6% of the iodine. Diagenetic influence seems to exert a limited effect on distribution of iodine in the examined sediment section.

  • 50.
    Englund, Edvard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hou, X. L.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Söderström, C.
    Iodine (129I and 127I) in aerosols from northern Europe2010In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 268, no 7-8, p. 1139-1141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Huge amount of I-129 has been emitted to the environment during the last decades from a variety of anthropogenic nuclear activities. Aerosols represent a carrier of iodine in the atmosphere in addition to gaseous forms for which data are lacking in Sweden. In this study the first time series of iodine isotopes (I-129 and I-127) in aerosols covering the period of 1983 to 2008 from two sites in Sweden are presented. The results show that both I-129 and I-127 concentrations are considerably higher in southern compared to northern Sweden. Furthermore there is a significant difference in the relative concentrations between the sites being similar to 6 times higher for I-129 compared to similar to 3 times for I-127. The portion of the I-129 related to dry deposition, based on aerosol data, represents only a minor amount of the total fallout which is dominated by wet deposition.

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