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  • 1.
    Andersson, L.
    et al.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Univ Colorado, APS, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Delory, G. T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, SSL, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Eriksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Westfall, J.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Reed, H.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    McCauly, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, SSL, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Summers, D.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Meyers, D.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    The Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW) Instrument for MAVEN2015In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 195, no 1-4, p. 173-198Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the sensors, the sensor biasing and control, the signal-processing unit, and the operation of the Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW) instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission. The LPW instrument is designed to measure the electron density and temperature in the ionosphere of Mars and to measure spectral power density of waves (DC-2 MHz) in Mars' ionosphere, including one component of the electric field. Low-frequency plasma waves can heat ions resulting in atmospheric loss. Higher-frequency waves are used to calibrate the density measurement and to study strong plasma processes. The LPW is part of the Particle and Fields (PF) suite on the MAVEN spacecraft. The LPW instrument utilizes two, 40 cm long by 0.635 cm diameter cylindrical sensors with preamplifiers, which can be configured to measure either plasma currents or plasma waves. The sensors are mounted on a pair of meter long stacer booms. The sensors and nearby surfaces are controlled by a Boom Electronics Board (BEB). The Digital Fields Board (DFB) conditions the analog signals, converts the analog signals to digital, processes the digital signals including spectral analysis, and packetizes the data for transmission. The BEB and DFB are located inside of the Particle and Fields Digital Processing Unit (PFDPU).

  • 2. Angelopoulos, V.
    et al.
    Sibeck, D.
    Carlson, C. W.
    McFadden, J. P.
    Larson, D.
    Lin, R. P.
    Bonnell, J. W.
    Mozer, F. S.
    Ergun, R.
    Cully, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Glassmeier, K. H.
    Auster, U.
    Roux, A.
    LeContel, O.
    Frey, S.
    Phan, T.
    Mende, S.
    Frey, H.
    Donovan, E.
    Russell, C. T.
    Strangeway, R.
    Liu, J.
    Mann, I.
    Rae, I. J.
    Raeder, J.
    Li, X.
    Liu, W.
    Singer, H. J.
    Sergeev, V. A.
    Apatenkov, S.
    Parks, G.
    Fillingim, M.
    Sigwarth, J.
    First Results from the THEMIS Mission2008In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 141, no 1-4, p. 453-476Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    THEMIS was launched on February 17, 2007 to determine the trigger and large-scale evolution of substorms. During the first seven months of the mission the five satellites coasted near their injection orbit to avoid differential precession in anticipation of orbit placement, which started in September 2007 and led to a commencement of the baseline mission in December 2007. During the coast phase the probes were put into a string-of-pearls configuration at 100 s of km to 2 R-E along-track separations, which provided a unique view of the magnetosphere and enabled an unprecedented dataset in anticipation of the first tail season. In this paper we describe the first THEMIS substorm observations, captured during instrument commissioning on March 23, 2007. THEMIS measured the rapid expansion of the plasma sheet at a speed that is commensurate with the simultaneous expansion of the auroras on the ground. These are the first unequivocal observations of the rapid westward expansion process in space and on the ground. Aided by the remote sensing technique at energetic particle boundaries and combined with ancillary measurements and MHD simulations, they allow determination and mapping of space currents. These measurements show the power of the THEMIS instrumentation in the tail and the radiation belts. We also present THEMIS Flux Transfer Events (FTE) observations at the magnetopause, which demonstrate the importance of multi-point observations there and the quality of the THEMIS instrumentation in that region of space.

  • 3.
    Bale, S. D.
    et al.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Goetz, K.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Harvey, P. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Turin, P.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Bonnell, J. W.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Dudok de Wit, T.
    CNRS, LPC2E, 3A Ave Rech Sci, Orleans, France..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    MacDowall, R. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Pulupa, M.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Bolton, M.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Bougeret, J. -L
    Bowen, T. A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Burgess, D.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Astron Unit, London, England..
    Cattell, C. A.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Chandran, B. D. G.
    Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Chaston, C. C.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Chen, C. H. K.
    Imperial Coll, Dept Phys, London, England..
    Choi, M. K.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Connerney, J. E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Cranmer, S.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Diaz-Aguado, M.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Donakowski, W.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Drake, J. F.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Farrell, W. M.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Fergeau, P.
    CNRS, LPC2E, 3A Ave Rech Sci, Orleans, France..
    Fermin, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Fischer, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Fox, N.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD USA..
    Glaser, D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Goldstein, M.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Gordon, D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Hanson, E.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Harris, S. E.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Hayes, L. M.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Hinze, J. J.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Hollweg, J. V.
    Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Horbury, T. S.
    Imperial Coll, Dept Phys, London, England..
    Howard, R. A.
    Naval Res Lab, Washington, DC 20375 USA..
    Hoxie, V.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Jannet, G.
    CNRS, LPC2E, 3A Ave Rech Sci, Orleans, France..
    Karlsson, M.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Kasper, J. C.
    Univ Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Kellogg, P. J.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Kien, M.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Klimchuk, J. A.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Krasnoselskikh, V. V.
    CNRS, LPC2E, 3A Ave Rech Sci, Orleans, France..
    Krucker, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Lynch, J. J.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Maksimovic, M.
    Observ Paris, LESIA, Meudon, France..
    Malaspina, D. M.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Marker, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Martin, P.
    CNRS, LPC2E, 3A Ave Rech Sci, Orleans, France..
    Martinez-Oliveros, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    McCauley, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    McComas, D. J.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    McDonald, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Meyer-Vernet, N.
    Observ Paris, LESIA, Meudon, France..
    Moncuquet, M.
    Observ Paris, LESIA, Meudon, France..
    Monson, S. J.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Mozer, F. S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Murphy, S. D.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Odom, J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Oliverson, R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Olson, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Parker, E. N.
    Univ Chicago, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 5640 S Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Pankow, D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Phan, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Quataert, E.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Astron, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Quinn, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ruplin, S. W.
    Praxis Studios, Brooklyn, NY USA..
    Salem, C.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Seitz, D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Sheppard, D. A.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Siy, A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stevens, K.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Summers, D.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Szabo, A.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Timofeeva, M.
    CNRS, LPC2E, 3A Ave Rech Sci, Orleans, France..
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Velli, M.
    UCLA, Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Yehle, A.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Werthimer, D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Wygant, J. R.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    The FIELDS Instrument Suite for Solar Probe Plus2016In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 204, no 1-4, p. 49-82Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission will make the first in situ measurements of the solar corona and the birthplace of the solar wind. The FIELDS instrument suite on SPP will make direct measurements of electric and magnetic fields, the properties of in situ plasma waves, electron density and temperature profiles, and interplanetary radio emissions, amongst other things. Here, we describe the scientific objectives targeted by the SPP/FIELDS instrument, the instrument design itself, and the instrument concept of operations and planned data products.

  • 4.
    Bale, S. D.
    et al.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Goetz, K.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Harvey, P. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Turin, P.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Bonnell, J. W.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Dudok de Wit, T.
    CNRS, LPC2E, 3A Ave Rech Sci, Orleans, France..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    MacDowall, R. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Pulupa, M.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    André, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Institutet för rymdfysik, Uppsalaavdelningen.
    Bolton, M.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Bougeret, J. -L
    Bowen, T. A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Burgess, D.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Astron Unit, London, England..
    Cattell, C. A.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Chandran, B. D. G.
    Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Chaston, C. C.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Chen, C. H. K.
    Imperial Coll, Dept Phys, London, England..
    Choi, M. K.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Connerney, J. E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Cranmer, S.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Diaz-Aguado, M.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Donakowski, W.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Drake, J. F.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Farrell, W. M.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Fergeau, P.
    CNRS, LPC2E, 3A Ave Rech Sci, Orleans, France..
    Fermin, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Fischer, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Fox, N.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD USA..
    Glaser, D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Goldstein, M.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Gordon, D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Hanson, E.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Harris, S. E.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Hayes, L. M.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Hinze, J. J.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Hollweg, J. V.
    Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Horbury, T. S.
    Imperial Coll, Dept Phys, London, England..
    Howard, R. A.
    Naval Res Lab, Washington, DC 20375 USA..
    Hoxie, V.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Jannet, G.
    CNRS, LPC2E, 3A Ave Rech Sci, Orleans, France..
    Karlsson, M.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Kasper, J. C.
    Univ Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Kellogg, P. J.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Kien, M.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Klimchuk, J. A.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Krasnoselskikh, V. V.
    CNRS, LPC2E, 3A Ave Rech Sci, Orleans, France..
    Krucker, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Lynch, J. J.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Maksimovic, M.
    Observ Paris, LESIA, Meudon, France..
    Malaspina, D. M.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Marker, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Martin, P.
    CNRS, LPC2E, 3A Ave Rech Sci, Orleans, France..
    Martinez-Oliveros, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    McCauley, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    McComas, D. J.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    McDonald, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Meyer-Vernet, N.
    Observ Paris, LESIA, Meudon, France..
    Moncuquet, M.
    Observ Paris, LESIA, Meudon, France..
    Monson, S. J.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Mozer, F. S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Murphy, S. D.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Odom, J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Oliverson, R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Olson, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Parker, E. N.
    Univ Chicago, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 5640 S Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Pankow, D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Phan, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Quataert, E.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Astron, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Quinn, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ruplin, S. W.
    Praxis Studios, Brooklyn, NY USA..
    Salem, C.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Seitz, D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Sheppard, D. A.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Siy, A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stevens, K.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Summers, D.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Szabo, A.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Timofeeva, M.
    CNRS, LPC2E, 3A Ave Rech Sci, Orleans, France..
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala universitet, Institutet för rymdfysik, Uppsalaavdelningen.
    Velli, M.
    UCLA, Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Yehle, A.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Werthimer, D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Wygant, J. R.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    The FIELDS Instrument Suite for Solar Probe Plus2016In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 204, no 1-4, p. 49-82Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission will make the first in situ measurements of the solar corona and the birthplace of the solar wind. The FIELDS instrument suite on SPP will make direct measurements of electric and magnetic fields, the properties of in situ plasma waves, electron density and temperature profiles, and interplanetary radio emissions, amongst other things. Here, we describe the scientific objectives targeted by the SPP/FIELDS instrument, the instrument design itself, and the instrument concept of operations and planned data products.

  • 5.
    Blanc, M.
    et al.
    Univ Toulouse 3, CNRS, IRAP, F-31062 Toulouse, France..
    Andrews, David. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Coates, A. J.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Hamilton, D. C.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Jackman, C. M.
    Univ Southampton, Sch Phys & Astron, Southampton SO17 1BJ, Hants, England..
    Jia, X.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Atmospher Ocean & Space Sci, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Kotova, A.
    Univ Toulouse 3, CNRS, IRAP, F-31062 Toulouse, France.;Max Planck Inst Solar Syst Res, Gottingen, Germany..
    Morooka, M.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Smith, H. T.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD USA..
    Westlake, J. H.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD USA..
    Saturn Plasma Sources and Associated Transport Processes2015In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 192, no 1-4, p. 237-283Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the different sources of plasma for Saturn's magnetosphere, as they are known essentially from the scientific results of the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan. At low and medium energies, the main plasma source is the cloud produced by the "geyser" activity of the small satellite Enceladus. Impact ionization of this cloud occurs to produce on the order of 100 kg/s of fresh plasma, a source which dominates all the other ones: Titan (which produces much less plasma than anticipated before the Cassini mission), the rings, the solar wind (a poorly known source due to the lack of quantitative knowledge of the degree of coupling between the solar wind and Saturn's magnetosphere), and the ionosphere. At higher energies, energetic particles are produced by energy diffusion and acceleration of lower energy plasma produced by the interchange instabilities induced by the rapid rotation of Saturn, and possibly, for the highest energy range, by contributions from the CRAND process acting inside Saturn's magnetosphere. Discussion of the transport and acceleration processes acting on these plasma sources shows the importance of rotation-induced radial transport and energization of the plasma, and also shows how much the unexpected planetary modulation of essentially all plasma parameters of Saturn's magnetosphere remains an unexplained mystery.

  • 6.
    Blomberg, Lars G.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Cumnock, Judy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Glassmeier, K. H.
    Treumann, R. A.
    Plasma waves in the Hermean magnetosphere2007In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 132, no 04-feb, p. 575-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hermean magnetosphere is likely to contain a number of wave phenomena. We briefly review what little is known so far about fields and waves around Mercury. We further discuss a number of possible phenomena, including ULF pulsations, acceleration-related radiation, bow shock waves, bremsstrahlung (or braking radiation), and synchrotron radiation. Finally, some predictions are made as to the likelihood that some of these types of wave emission exist.

  • 7.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Lazarian, A.
    Astrophysical Hydromagnetic Turbulence2013In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 178, no 2-4, p. 163-200Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent progress in astrophysical hydromagnetic turbulence is being reviewed. The physical ideas behind the now widely accepted Goldreich-Sridhar model and its extension to compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence are introduced. Implications for cosmic ray diffusion and acceleration is being discussed. Dynamo-generated magnetic fields with and without helicity are contrasted against each other. Certain turbulent transport processes are being modified and often suppressed by anisotropy and inhomogeneities of the turbulence, while others are being produced by such properties, which can lead to new large-scale instabilities of the turbulent medium. Applications of various such processes to astrophysical systems are being considered.

  • 8.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita).
    Lazarian, A.
    Astrophysical Hydromagnetic Turbulence2013In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 178, no 2-4, p. 163-200Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent progress in astrophysical hydromagnetic turbulence is being reviewed. The physical ideas behind the now widely accepted Goldreich-Sridhar model and its extension to compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence are introduced. Implications for cosmic ray diffusion and acceleration is being discussed. Dynamo-generated magnetic fields with and without helicity are contrasted against each other. Certain turbulent transport processes are being modified and often suppressed by anisotropy and inhomogeneities of the turbulence, while others are being produced by such properties, which can lead to new large-scale instabilities of the turbulent medium. Applications of various such processes to astrophysical systems are being considered.

  • 9.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita).
    Sokoloff, Dmitry
    Subramanian, Kandaswamy
    Current Status of Turbulent Dynamo Theory From Large Scale to Small-Scale Dynamos2012In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 169, no 1-4, p. 123-157Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent advances in turbulent dynamo theory are reviewed. High resolution simulations of small-scale and large-scale dynamo action in periodic domains are compared with each other and contrasted with similar results at low magnetic Prandtl numbers. It is argued that all the different cases show similarities at intermediate length scales. On the other hand, in the presence of helicity of the turbulence, power develops on large scales, which is not present in non-helical small-scale turbulent dynamos. At small length scales, differences occur in connection with the dissipation cutoff scales associated with the respective value of the magnetic Prandtl number. These differences are found to be independent of whether or not there is large-scale dynamo action. However, large-scale dynamos in homogeneous systems are shown to suffer from resistive slow-down even at intermediate length scales. The results from simulations are connected to mean field theory and its applications. Recent work on magnetic helicity fluxes to alleviate large-scale dynamo quenching, shear dynamos, nonlocal effects and magnetic structures from strong density stratification are highlighted. Several insights which arise from analytic considerations of small-scale dynamos are discussed.

  • 10.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Sokoloff, Dmitry
    Subramanian, Kandaswamy
    Current Status of Turbulent Dynamo Theory From Large Scale to Small-Scale Dynamos2012In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 169, no 1-4, p. 123-157Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent advances in turbulent dynamo theory are reviewed. High resolution simulations of small-scale and large-scale dynamo action in periodic domains are compared with each other and contrasted with similar results at low magnetic Prandtl numbers. It is argued that all the different cases show similarities at intermediate length scales. On the other hand, in the presence of helicity of the turbulence, power develops on large scales, which is not present in non-helical small-scale turbulent dynamos. At small length scales, differences occur in connection with the dissipation cutoff scales associated with the respective value of the magnetic Prandtl number. These differences are found to be independent of whether or not there is large-scale dynamo action. However, large-scale dynamos in homogeneous systems are shown to suffer from resistive slow-down even at intermediate length scales. The results from simulations are connected to mean field theory and its applications. Recent work on magnetic helicity fluxes to alleviate large-scale dynamo quenching, shear dynamos, nonlocal effects and magnetic structures from strong density stratification are highlighted. Several insights which arise from analytic considerations of small-scale dynamos are discussed.

  • 11.
    Brown, M. R.
    et al.
    Swarthmore College, PA, USA.
    Browning, P. K.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Dieckmann, Mark Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Furno, I.
    Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne, Switzerland .
    Intrator, T. P.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM, USA .
    Microphysics of Cosmic Plasmas: Hierarchies of Plasma Instabilities from MHD to Kinetic2013In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 178, no 2-4, p. 357-383Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we discuss the idea of a hierarchy of instabilities that can rapidly couple the disparate scales of a turbulent plasma system. First, at the largest scale of the system, L, current carrying flux ropes can undergo a kink instability. Second, a kink instability in adjacent flux ropes can rapidly bring together bundles of magnetic flux and drive reconnection, introducing a new scale of the current sheet width, , perhaps several ion inertial lengths (δ i ) across. Finally, intense current sheets driven by reconnection electric fields can destabilize kinetic waves such as ion cyclotron waves as long as the drift speed of the electrons is large compared to the ion thermal speed, v D v i . Instabilities such as these can couple MHD scales to kinetic scales, as small as the proton Larmor radius, ρ i .

  • 12. Bykov, A. M.
    et al.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Malkov, M. A.
    Osipov, S. M.
    Microphysics of Cosmic Ray Driven Plasma Instabilities2013In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 178, no 2-4, p. 201-232Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energetic nonthermal particles (cosmic rays, CRs) are accelerated in supernova remnants, relativistic jets and other astrophysical objects. The CR energy density is typically comparable with that of the thermal components and magnetic fields. In this review we discuss mechanisms of magnetic field amplification due to instabilities induced by CRs. We derive CR kinetic and magnetohydrodynamic equations that govern cosmic plasma systems comprising the thermal background plasma, comic rays and fluctuating magnetic fields to study CR-driven instabilities. Both resonant and non-resonant instabilities are reviewed, including the Bell short-wavelength instability, and the firehose instability. Special attention is paid to the longwavelength instabilities driven by the CR current and pressure gradient. The helicity production by the CR current-driven instabilities is discussed in connection with the dynamo mechanisms of cosmic magnetic field amplification.

  • 13. Bykov, A. M.
    et al.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita).
    Malkov, M. A.
    Osipov, S. M.
    Microphysics of Cosmic Ray Driven Plasma Instabilities2013In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 178, no 2-4, p. 201-232Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energetic nonthermal particles (cosmic rays, CRs) are accelerated in supernova remnants, relativistic jets and other astrophysical objects. The CR energy density is typically comparable with that of the thermal components and magnetic fields. In this review we discuss mechanisms of magnetic field amplification due to instabilities induced by CRs. We derive CR kinetic and magnetohydrodynamic equations that govern cosmic plasma systems comprising the thermal background plasma, comic rays and fluctuating magnetic fields to study CR-driven instabilities. Both resonant and non-resonant instabilities are reviewed, including the Bell short-wavelength instability, and the firehose instability. Special attention is paid to the longwavelength instabilities driven by the CR current and pressure gradient. The helicity production by the CR current-driven instabilities is discussed in connection with the dynamo mechanisms of cosmic magnetic field amplification.

  • 14. Cameron, R. H.
    et al.
    Dikpati, M.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). University of Colorado, USA.
    The Global Solar Dynamo2017In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 210, no 1-4, p. 367-395Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A brief summary of the various observations and constraints that underlie solar dynamo research are presented. The arguments that indicate that the solar dynamo is an alpha-omega dynamo of the Babcock-Leighton type are then shortly reviewed. The main open questions that remain are concerned with the subsurface dynamics, including why sunspots emerge at preferred latitudes as seen in the familiar butterfly wings, why the cycle is about 11 years long, and why the sunspot groups emerge tilted with respect to the equator (Joy's law). Next, we turn to magnetic helicity, whose conservation property has been identified with the decline of large-scale magnetic fields found in direct numerical simulations at large magnetic Reynolds numbers. However, magnetic helicity fluxes through the solar surface can alleviate this problem and connect theory with observations, as will be discussed.

  • 15. Cameron, R. H.
    et al.
    Dikpati, M.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    The Global Solar Dynamo2016In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, p. 1-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A brief summary of the various observations and constraints that underlie solar dynamo research are presented. The arguments that indicate that the solar dynamo is an alpha-omega dynamo of the Babcock-Leighton type are then shortly reviewed. The main open questions that remain are concerned with the subsurface dynamics, including why sunspots emerge at preferred latitudes as seen in the familiar butterfly wings, why the cycle is about 11 years long, and why the sunspot groups emerge tilted with respect to the equator (Joy’s law). Next, we turn to magnetic helicity, whose conservation property has been identified with the decline of large-scale magnetic fields found in direct numerical simulations at large magnetic Reynolds numbers. However, magnetic helicity fluxes through the solar surface can alleviate this problem and connect theory with observations, as will be discussed.

  • 16.
    Camprubi, E.
    et al.
    Univ Utrecht, Dept Earth Sci, Origins Ctr, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    De Leeuw, J. W.
    NIOZ Royal Netherlands Inst Sea Res, Texel, Netherlands;Univ Utrecht, Dept Earth Sci, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    House, C. H.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Geosci, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Raulin, F.
    UPEC UP CNRS IPSL, LISA, Paris, France.
    Russell, M. J.
    CALTECH, Jet Prop Lab, Planetary Chem & Astrobiol, Pasadena, CA USA.
    Spang, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution. NIOZ Royal Netherlands Inst Sea Res, Texel, Netherlands.
    Tirumalai, M. R.
    Univ Houston, Dept Biol & Biochem, Houston, TX USA.
    Westall, F.
    CNRS, Ctr Biophys Mol, Orleans, France.
    The Emergence of Life2019In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 215, no 8, article id 56Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to provide the reader with an overview of the different possible scenarios for the emergence of life, to critically assess them and, according to the conclusions we reach, to analyze whether similar processes could have been conducive to independent origins of life on the several icy moons of the Solar System. Instead of directly proposing a concrete and unequivocal cradle of life on Earth, we focus on describing the different requirements that are arguably needed for the transition between non-life to life. We approach this topic from geological, biological, and chemical perspectives with the aim of providing answers in an integrative manner. We reflect upon the most prominent origins hypotheses and assess whether they match the aforementioned abiogenic requirements. Based on the conclusions extracted, we address whether the conditions for abiogenesis are/were met in any of the oceanic icy moons.

  • 17. Carr, C.
    et al.
    Cupido, E.
    Lee, C. G. Y.
    Balogh, A.
    Beek, T.
    Burch, J. L.
    Dunford, C. N.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Gill, Reine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Glassmeier, K. H.
    Goldstein, R.
    Lagoutte, D.
    Lundin, R.
    Lundin, K.
    Lybekk, B.
    Michau, J. L.
    Musmann, G.
    Nilsson, H.
    Pollock, C.
    Richter, I.
    Trotignon, J. G.
    RPC: The rosetta plasma consortium2007In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 128, no 1-4, p. 629-647Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) will make in-situ measurements of the plasma enviromnent of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The consortium will provide the complementary data sets necessary for an understanding of the plasma processes in the inner coma, and the structure and evolution of the coma with the increasing cometary activity. Five sensors have been selected to achieve this: the Ion and Electron Sensor (IES), the Ion Composition Analyser (ICA), the Langmuir Probe (LAP), the Mutual Impedance Probe (MIP) and the Magnetometer (MAG). The sensors interface to the spacecraft through the Plasma Interface Unit (PIU). The consortium approach allows for scientific, technical and operational coordination, and makes Optimum use of the available mass and power resources.

  • 18.
    Chandra, Poonam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Pune University, India.
    Circumstellar Interaction in Supernovae in Dense Environments-An Observational Perspective2018In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 214, no 1, article id UNSP 27Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a supernova explosion, the ejecta interacting with the surrounding circumstellar medium ( CSM) give rise to variety of radiation. Since CSM is created from the mass loss from the progenitor, it carries footprints of the late time evolution of the star. This is one of the unique ways to get a handle on the nature of the progenitor system. Here, I will focus mainly on the supernovae ( SNe) exploding in dense environments, a.k.a. Type IIn SNe. Radio and X-ray emission from this class of SNe have revealed important modifications in their radiation properties, due to the presence of high density CSM. Forward shock dominance in the X-ray emission, internal free-free absorption of the radio emission, episodic or non-steady mass loss rate, and asymmetry in the explosion seem to be common properties of this class of SNe.

  • 19. Coates, A. J.
    et al.
    Wahlund, Jan-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Ågren, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Edberg, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Cui, J.
    Wellbrock, A.
    Szego, K.
    Recent Results from Titan's Ionosphere2011In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 162, no 1-4, p. 85-111Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titan has the most significant atmosphere of any moon in the solar system, with a pressure at the surface larger than the Earth's. It also has a significant ionosphere, which is usually immersed in Saturn's magnetosphere. Occasionally it exits into Saturn's magnetosheath. In this paper we review several recent advances in our understanding of Titan's ionosphere, and present some comparisons with the other unmagnetized objects Mars and Venus. We present aspects of the ionospheric structure, chemistry, electrodynamic coupling and transport processes. We also review observations of ionospheric photoelectrons at Titan, Mars and Venus. Where appropriate, we mention the effects on ionospheric escape.

  • 20. Coates, A.J.
    et al.
    Wahlund, J.-E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Ågren, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Space Plasma Physics.
    Edberg, N.J.T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Cui, J.
    Wellbrock, A.
    Szego, K
    Recent results from Titan’s ionosphere2011In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 162, no 1-4, p. 85-111Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Cockell, Charles S.
    et al.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    McMahon, Sean
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Lim, Darlene S.S.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, USA.
    Rummel, John
    SETI Institute, Friday Harbor, USA.
    Stevens, Adam
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Hughes, Scott S.
    Dept. of Geosciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, USA.
    Nawotniak, Shannon E. Kobs
    Dept. of Geosciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, USA.
    Brady, Allyson L.
    School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
    Marteinsson, Viggo
    School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh, UK. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Armilla, Spain.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Harrison, Jesse
    Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Sample Collection and Return from Mars: Optimising Sample Collection Based on the Microbial Ecology of Terrestrial Volcanic Environments2019In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 215, no 7, article id 44Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With no large-scale granitic continental crust, all environments on Mars are fundamentally derived from basaltic sources or, in the case of environments such as ices, evaporitic, and sedimentary deposits, influenced by the composition of the volcanic crust. Therefore, the selection of samples on Mars by robots and humans for investigating habitability or testing for the presence of life should be guided by our understanding of the microbial ecology of volcanic terrains on the Earth. In this paper, we discuss the microbial ecology of volcanic rocks and hydrothermal systems on the Earth. We draw on microbiological investigations of volcanic environments accomplished both by microbiology-focused studies and Mars analog studies such as the NASA BASALT project. A synthesis of these data emphasises a number of common patterns that include: (1) the heterogeneous distribution of biomass and diversity in all studied materials, (2) physical, chemical, and biological factors that can cause heterogeneous microbial biomass and diversity from sub-millimetre scales to kilometre scales, (3) the difficulty of a priori prediction of which organisms will colonise given materials, and (4) the potential for samples that are habitable, but contain no evidence of a biota. From these observations, we suggest an idealised strategy for sample collection. It includes: (1) collection of multiple samples in any given material type (∼9 or more samples), (2) collection of a coherent sample of sufficient size (∼10 cm3∼10 cm3) that takes into account observed heterogeneities in microbial distribution in these materials on Earth, and (3) collection of multiple sample suites in the same material across large spatial scales. We suggest that a microbial ecology-driven strategy for investigating the habitability and presence of life on Mars is likely to yield the most promising sample set of the greatest use to the largest number of astrobiologists and planetary scientists.

  • 22. Cremonese, Gabriele
    et al.
    Sprague, Ann
    Warell, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Astronomy and Space Physics.
    Thomas, Nicolas
    Ksamfomality, Leonid
    The surface of Mercury as seen by Mariner 102007In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 132, no 2-4, p. 291-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mariner 10 spacecraft made three fly by passes of Mercury in 1974 and 1975. It imaged a little under half of the surface and discovered Mercury had an intrinsic magnetic field. Here we briefly describe the surface of Mercury as seen by Mariner 10 as a back drop to the new discoveries made since those historic fly bys by ground-based observations and to the optimistic anticipation of new discoveries by MESSENGER and BepiColombo spacecraft that are scheduled for encounter in the next decade.

  • 23.
    Davidsson, Björn J. R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Astronomy and Space Physics.
    Comet Knudsen layers2008In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 138, no 1-4, p. 207-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews some important results about Knudsen layers obtained in theoretical gas kinetics research in the last few decades, focusing on the weak and strong evaporation problems in two-surface, half-space, and spherical geometries. Furthermore, the application of such results in cometary science is reviewed. In order to illustrate some properties of the half-space evaporation problem for water ice surfaces at temperatures relevant for active comets, a number of numerical Direct Simulation Monte Carlo calculations are presented.

  • 24.
    de la Cruz Rodríguez, Jaime
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    van Noort, M.
    Radiative Diagnostics in the Solar Photosphere and Chromosphere2017In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 210, no 1-4, p. 109-143Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic fields on the surface of the Sun and stars in general imprint or modify the polarization state of the electromagnetic radiation that is leaving from the star. The inference of solar/ stellar magnetic fields is performed by detecting, studying and modeling polarized light from the target star. In this review we present an overview of techniques that are used to study the atmosphere of the Sun, and particularly those that allow to infer magnetic fields. We have combined a small selection of theory on polarized radiative transfer, inversion techniques and we discuss a number of results from chromospheric inversions.

  • 25.
    Dones, Luke
    et al.
    SW Res Inst, Boulder, CO 80302 USA..
    Brasser, Ramon
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Earth Life Sci Inst, Meguro Ku, Tokyo 1528550, Japan..
    Kaib, Nathan
    Univ Oklahoma, HL Dodge Dept Phys & Astron, Norman, OK 73019 USA..
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy. PAS Space Res Ctr, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Origin and Evolution of the Cometary Reservoirs2015In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 197, no 1-4, p. 191-269Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comets have three known reservoirs: the roughly spherical Oort Cloud (for long-period comets), the flattened Kuiper Belt (for ecliptic comets), and, surprisingly, the asteroid belt (for main-belt comets). Comets in the Oort Cloud were thought to have formed in the region of the giant planets and then placed in quasi-stable orbits at distances of thousands or tens of thousands of AU through the gravitational effects of the planets and the Galaxy. The planets were long assumed to have formed in place. However, the giant planets may have undergone two episodes of migration. The first would have taken place in the first few million years of the Solar System, during or shortly after the formation of the giant planets, when gas was still present in the protoplanetary disk around the Sun. The Grand Tack (Walsh et al. in Nature 475:206-209, 2011) models how this stage of migration could explain the low mass of Mars and deplete, then repopulate the asteroid belt, with outer-belt asteroids originating between, and outside of, the orbits of the giant planets. The second stage of migration would have occurred later (possibly hundreds of millions of years later) due to interactions with a remnant disk of planetesimals, i.e., a massive ancestor of the Kuiper Belt. Safronov (Evolution of the Protoplanetary Cloud and Formation of the Earth and the Planets, 1969) and Fernandez and Ip (Icarus 58:109-120, 1984) proposed that the giant planets would have migrated as they interacted with leftover planetesimals; Jupiter would have moved slightly inward, while Saturn and (especially) Uranus and Neptune would have moved outward from the Sun. Malhotra (Nature 365:819-821, 1993) showed that Pluto's orbit in the 3:2 resonance with Neptune was a natural outcome if Neptune captured Pluto into resonance while it migrated outward. Building on this work, Tsiganis et al. (Nature 435:459-461, 2005) proposed the Nice model, in which the giant planets formed closer together than they are now, and underwent a dynamical instability that led to a flood of comets and asteroids throughout the Solar System (Gomes et al. in Nature 435:466-469, 2005b). In this scenario, it is somewhat a matter of luck whether an icy planetesimal ends up in the Kuiper Belt or Oort Cloud (Brasser and Morbidelli in Icarus 225:40-49, 2013), as a Trojan asteroid (Morbidelli et al. in Nature 435:462-465, 2005; NesvornA1/2 and VokrouhlickA1/2 in Astron. J. 137:5003-5011, 2009; NesvornA1/2 et al. in Astrophys. J. 768:45, 2013), or as a distant "irregular" satellite of a giant planet (NesvornA1/2 et al. in Astron. J. 133:1962-1976, 2007). Comets could even have been captured into the asteroid belt (Levison et al. in Nature 460:364-366, 2009). The remarkable finding of two "inner Oort Cloud" bodies, Sedna and 2012 , with perihelion distances of 76 and 81 AU, respectively (Brown et al. in Astrophys. J. 617:645-649, 2004; Trujillo and Sheppard in Nature 507:471-474, 2014), along with the discovery of other likely inner Oort Cloud bodies (Chen et al. in Astrophys. J. Lett. 775:8, 2013; Brasser and Schwamb in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 446:3788-3796, 2015), suggests that the Sun formed in a denser environment, i.e., in a star cluster (Brasser et al. in Icarus 184:59-82, 2006, 191:413-433, 2007, 217:1-19, 2012b; Kaib and Quinn in Icarus 197:221-238, 2008). The Sun may have orbited closer or further from the center of the Galaxy than it does now, with implications for the structure of the Oort Cloud (Kaib et al. in Icarus 215:491-507, 2011). We focus on the formation of cometary nuclei; the orbital properties of the cometary reservoirs; physical properties of comets; planetary migration; the formation of the Oort Cloud in various environments; the formation and evolution of the Kuiper Belt and Scattered Disk; and the populations and size distributions of the cometary reservoirs. We close with a brief discussion of cometary analogs around other stars and a summary.

  • 26. Dubinin, E.
    et al.
    Fraenz, M.
    Fedorov, A.
    Lundin, R.
    Edberg, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Duru, F.
    Vaisberg, O.
    Ion Energization and Escape on Mars and Venus2011In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 162, no 1-4, p. 173-211Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mars and Venus do not have a global magnetic field and as a result solar wind interacts directly with their ionospheres and upper atmospheres. Neutral atoms ionized by solar UV, charge exchange and electron impact, are extracted and scavenged by solar wind providing a significant loss of planetary volatiles. There are different channels and routes through which the ionized planetary matter escapes from the planets. Processes of ion energization driven by direct solar wind forcing and their escape are intimately related. Forces responsible for ion energization in different channels are different and, correspondingly, the effectiveness of escape is also different. Classification of the energization processes and escape channels on Mars and Venus and also their variability with solar wind parameters is the main topic of our review. We will distinguish between classical pickup and 'mass-loaded' pickup processes, energization in boundary layer and plasma sheet, polar winds on unmagnetized planets with magnetized ionospheres and enhanced escape flows from localized auroral regions in the regions filled by strong crustal magnetic fields.

  • 27. Ergun, R. E.
    et al.
    Tucker, S.
    Westfall, J.
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Malaspina, D. M.
    Summers, D.
    Wallace, J.
    Karlsson, M.
    Mack, J.
    Brennan, N.
    Pyke, B.
    Withnell, P.
    Torbert, R.
    Macri, J.
    Rau, D.
    Dors, I.
    Needell, J.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Olsson, Göran F.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Cully, C. M.
    The Axial Double Probe and Fields Signal Processing for the MMS Mission2016In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 199, no 1-4, p. 167-188Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Axial Double Probe (ADP) instrument measures the DC to similar to 100 kHz electric field along the spin axis of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft (Burch et al., Space Sci. Rev., 2014, this issue), completing the vector electric field when combined with the spin plane double probes (SDP) (Torbert et al., Space Sci. Rev., 2014, this issue, Lindqvist et al., Space Sci. Rev., 2014, this issue). Two cylindrical sensors are separated by over 30 m tip-to-tip, the longest baseline on an axial DC electric field ever attempted in space. The ADP on each of the spacecraft consists of two identical, 12.67 m graphite coilable booms with second, smaller 2.25 m booms mounted on their ends. A significant effort was carried out to assure that the potential field of the MMS spacecraft acts equally on the two sensors and that photo- and secondary electron currents do not vary over the spacecraft spin. The ADP on MMS is expected to measure DC electric field with a precision of similar to 1 mV/m, a resolution of similar to 25 mu V/m, and a range of similar to 1 V/m in most of the plasma environments MMS will encounter. The Digital Signal Processing (DSP) units on the MMS spacecraft are designed to perform analog conditioning, analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion, and digital processing on the ADP, SDP, and search coil magnetometer (SCM) (Le Contel et al., Space Sci. Rev., 2014, this issue) signals. The DSP units include digital filters, spectral processing, a high-speed burst memory, a solitary structure detector, and data compression. The DSP uses precision analog processing with, in most cases, > 100 dB in dynamic range, better that -80 dB common mode rejection in electric field (E) signal processing, and better that -80 dB cross talk between the E and SCM (B) signals. The A/D conversion is at 16 bits with similar to 1/4 LSB accuracy and similar to 1 LSB noise. The digital signal processing is powerful and highly flexible allowing for maximum scientific return under a limited telemetry volume. The ADP and DSP are described in this article.

  • 28. Eriksson, A. I.
    et al.
    Bostrom, R.
    Gill, R.
    Ahlen, L.
    Jansson, S. E.
    Wahlund, J. E.
    Andre, M.
    Malkki, A.
    Holtet, J. A.
    Lybekk, B.
    Pedersen, A.
    Blomberg, Lars G.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Olsson, G.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    et al.,
    RPC-LAP: The Rosetta Langmuir probe instrument2007In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 128, no 04-jan, p. 729-744Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rosetta dual Langmuir probe instrument, LAP, utilizes the multiple powers of a pair of spherical Langmuir probes for measurements of basic plasma parameters with the aim of providing detailed knowledge of the outgassing, ionization, and subsequent plasma processes around the Rosetta target comet. The fundamental plasma properties to be studied are the plasma density, the electron temperature, and the plasma flow velocity. However, study of electric fields up to 8 kHz, plasma density fluctuations, spacecraft potential, integrated UV flux, and dust impacts is also possible. LAP is fully integrated in the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC), the instruments of which together provide a comprehensive characterization of the cometary plasma.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Boström, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Gill, Reine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Åhlén, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Jansson, Sven-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Wahlund, Jan-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Mälkki, A.
    Holtet, J. A.
    Lybekk, B.
    Pedersen, A.
    Blomberg, L. G.
    RPC-LAP: The Rosetta Langmuir probe instrument2007In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 128, no 1-4, p. 729-744Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rosetta dual Langmuir probe instrument, LAP, utilizes the multiple powers of a pair of spherical Langmuir probes for measurements of basic plasma parameters with the aim of providing detailed knowledge of the outgassing, ionization, and subsequent plasma processes around the Rosetta target comet. The fundamental plasma properties to be studied are the plasma density, the electron temperature, and the plasma flow velocity. However, study of electric fields up to 8 kHz, plasma density fluctuations, spacecraft potential, integrated UV flux, and dust impacts is also possible. LAP is fully integrated in the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC), the instruments of which together provide a comprehensive characterization of the cometary plasma.

  • 30. Gustafsson, G
    et al.
    Bostrom, R
    Holback, B
    Holmgren, G
    Lundgren, A
    Stasiewicz, K
    Ahlen, L
    Mozer, F S
    Pankow, D
    Harvey, P
    Berg, P
    Ulrich, R
    Pedersen, A
    Schmidt, R
    Butler, A
    Fransen, A W C
    Klinge, D
    Thomsen, M
    Fälthammar, Carl-Gunne
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Christenson, Sverker
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Holtet, J
    Lybekk, B
    Sten, T A
    Tanskanen, P
    Lappalainen, K
    Wygant, J
    The electric field and wave experiment for the Cluster mission1997In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 79, p. 137-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electric-field and wave experiment (EFW) on Cluster is designed to measure the electric-field and density fluctuations with sampling rates up to 36 000 samples s(-1). Langmuir probe sweeps can also be made to determine the electron density and temperature. The instrument has several important capabilities. These include (1) measurements of quasi-static electric fields of amplitudes lip to 700 mV m(-1) with high amplitude and time resolution, (2) measurements over short periods of time of up to five simualtaneous waveforms (two electric signals and three magnetic signals from the seach coil magnetometer sensors) of a bandwidth of 4 kHz with high time resolution, (3) measurements of density fluctuations in four points with high time resolution. Among the more interesting scientific objectives of the experiment are studies of nonlinear wave phenomena that result in acceleration of plasma as well as large- and small-scale interferometric measurements. By using four spacecraft for large-scale differential measurements and several Langmuir probes on one spacecraft for small-scale interferometry, it will be possible to study motion and shape of plasma structures on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This paper describes the primary scientific objectives of the EFW experiment and the technical capabilities of the instrument.

  • 31.
    Gómez-Elvira, J.
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Armiens, C.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Castañer, L.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña.
    Domínguez, M.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña.
    Genzer, M.
    FMI-Arctic Research Centre, Sodankylä.
    Gómez, F.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Haberle, R.
    NASA Ames Research Center.
    Harri, A. M.
    FMI-Arctic Research Centre, Sodankylä.
    Jiménez, V.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña.
    Kahanpää, H.
    FMI-Arctic Research Centre, Sodankylä.
    Kowalski, L.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña.
    Lepinette, A.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Martín, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Martínez-Frías, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    McEwan, I.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Mora, L.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Moreno, J.
    EADS-CRISA.
    Navarro, S.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Pablo, M. A. De
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares.
    Peinado, V.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Peña, A.
    EADS-CRISA.
    Polkko, J.
    FMI-Arctic Research Centre, Sodankylä.
    Ramos, M.
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares.
    Renno, N. O.
    Michigan University.
    Ricart, J.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    REMS: The environmental sensor suite for the Mars Science Laboratory rover2012In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 170, no 1-4, p. 583-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) will investigate environmental factors directly tied to current habitability at the Martian surface during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Three major habitability factors are addressed by REMS: the thermal environment, ultraviolet irradiation, and water cycling. The thermal environment is determined by a mixture of processes, chief amongst these being the meteorological. Accordingly, the REMS sensors have been designed to record air and ground temperatures, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed in the horizontal and vertical directions, as well as ultraviolet radiation in different bands. These sensors are distributed over the rover in four places: two booms located on the MSL Remote Sensing Mast, the ultraviolet sensor on the rover deck, and the pressure sensor inside the rover body. Typical daily REMS observations will collect 180 minutes of data from all sensors simultaneously (arranged in 5 minute hourly samples plus 60 additional minutes taken at times to be decided during the course of the mission). REMS will add significantly to the environmental record collected by prior missions through the range of simultaneous observations including water vapor; the ability to take measurements routinely through the night; the intended minimum of one Martian year of observations; and the first measurement of surface UV irradiation. In this paper, we describe the scientific potential of REMS measurements and describe in detail the sensors that constitute REMS and the calibration procedures. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 32. Harvey, P
    et al.
    Mozer, F.S.
    Pankow, D.
    Wygant, J.
    Maynard, N.C.
    Singer, H.
    Sullivan, W.
    Anderson, P.B.
    Pfaff, R.
    Aggson, T.
    Pedersen, A.
    Fälthammar, Carl-Gunne
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tanskanen, P.
    The electric field instrument on the Polar satellite1995In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 71, p. 583-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Polar satellite carries a system of four wire booms in the spacecraft spin plane and two rigid booms along the spin axis. Each of the booms has a spherical sensor at its tip along with nearby guard and stub surfaces whose potentials relative to that of their sphere are controlled by associated electronics. The potential differences between opposite sphere pairs are measured to yield the three components of the DC to >1 MHz electric field. Spheres can also be operated in a mode in which their collected current is measured to give information on the plasma density and its fluctuations. The scientific studies to be performed by this experiment as well as the mechanical and electrical properties of the detector system are described.

  • 33.
    Jakosky, B. M.
    et al.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Lin, R. P.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Grebowsky, J. M.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Luhmann, J. G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Mitchell, D. F.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Beutelschies, G.
    Lockheed Martin Corp, Littleton, CO USA..
    Priser, T.
    Lockheed Martin Corp, Littleton, CO USA..
    Acuna, M.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Andersson, L.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Baird, D.
    NASA, JSC, Houston, TX USA..
    Baker, D.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Bartlett, R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Benna, M.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Bougher, S.
    Univ Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Brain, D.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Carson, D.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Cauffman, S.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Chamberlin, P.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Chaufray, J. -Y
    Cheatom, O.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Clarke, J.
    Boston Univ, Boston, MA 02215 USA..
    Connerney, J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Cravens, T.
    Univ Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA..
    Curtis, D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Delory, G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Demcak, S.
    NASA, JPL, Pasadena, CA USA..
    DeWolfe, A.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Eparvier, F.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Ergun, R.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Eriksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Espley, J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Fang, X.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Folta, D.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Fox, J.
    Wright State Univ, Dayton, OH 45435 USA..
    Gomez-Rosa, C.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Habenicht, S.
    Lockheed Martin Corp, Littleton, CO USA..
    Halekas, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Holsclaw, G.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Houghton, M.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Howard, R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Jarosz, M.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Jedrich, N.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Johnson, M.
    Lockheed Martin Corp, Littleton, CO USA..
    Kasprzak, W.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Kelley, M.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    King, T.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Lankton, M.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Larson, D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Leblanc, F.
    CNRS, LATMOS, Paris, France..
    Lefevre, F.
    CNRS, LATMOS, Paris, France..
    Lillis, R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Mahaffy, P.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Mazelle, C.
    IRAP, Toulouse, France..
    McClintock, W.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    McFadden, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Mitchell, D. L.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Montmessin, F.
    CNRS, LATMOS, Paris, France..
    Morrissey, J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Peterson, W.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Possel, W.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Sauvaud, J. -A
    Schneider, N.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Sidney, W.
    Lockheed Martin Corp, Littleton, CO USA..
    Sparacino, S.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Stewart, A. I. F.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Tolson, R.
    Natl Inst Aerosp, Hampton, VA USA..
    Toublanc, D.
    IRAP, Toulouse, France..
    Waters, C.
    Lockheed Martin Corp, Littleton, CO USA..
    Woods, T.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Yelle, R.
    Univ Arizona, Tucson, AZ USA..
    Zurek, R.
    NASA, JPL, Pasadena, CA USA..
    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) Mission2015In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 195, no 1-4, p. 3-48Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MAVEN spacecraft launched in November 2013, arrived at Mars in September 2014, and completed commissioning and began its one-Earth-year primary science mission in November 2014. The orbiter's science objectives are to explore the interactions of the Sun and the solar wind with the Mars magnetosphere and upper atmosphere, to determine the structure of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere and the processes controlling it, to determine the escape rates from the upper atmosphere to space at the present epoch, and to measure properties that allow us to extrapolate these escape rates into the past to determine the total loss of atmospheric gas to space through time. These results will allow us to determine the importance of loss to space in changing the Mars climate and atmosphere through time, thereby providing important boundary conditions on the history of the habitability of Mars. The MAVEN spacecraft contains eight science instruments (with nine sensors) that measure the energy and particle input from the Sun into the Mars upper atmosphere, the response of the upper atmosphere to that input, and the resulting escape of gas to space. In addition, it contains an Electra relay that will allow it to relay commands and data between spacecraft on the surface and Earth.

  • 34.
    Karak, Bidya Binay
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita).
    Jiang, Jie
    Miesch, Mark S.
    Charbonneau, Paul
    Choudhuri, Arnab Rai
    Flux Transport Dynamos: From Kinematics to Dynamics2014In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 186, no 1-4, p. 561-602Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past several decades, Flux-Transport Dynamo (FTD) models have emerged as a popular paradigm for explaining the cyclic nature of solar magnetic activity. Their defining characteristic is the key role played by the mean meridional circulation in transporting magnetic flux and thereby regulating the cycle period. Most FTD models also incorporate the so-called Babcock-Leighton (BL) mechanism in which the mean poloidal field is produced by the emergence and subsequent dispersal of bipolar active regions. This feature is well grounded in solar observations and provides a means for assimilating observed surface flows and fields into the models in order to forecast future solar activity, to identify model biases, and to clarify the underlying physical processes. Furthermore, interpreting historical sunspot records within the context of FTD models can potentially provide insight into why cycle features such as amplitude and duration vary and what causes extreme events such as Grand Minima. Though they are generally robust in a modeling sense and make good contact with observed cycle features, FTD models rely on input physics that is only partially constrained by observation and that neglects the subtleties of convective transport, convective field generation, and nonlinear feedbacks. Here we review the formulation and application of FTD models and assess our current understanding of the input physics based largely on complementary 3D MHD simulations of solar convection, dynamo action, and flux emergence.

  • 35.
    Karak, Bidya Binay
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jiang, Jie
    Miesch, Mark S.
    Charbonneau, Paul
    Choudhuri, Arnab Rai
    Flux Transport Dynamos: From Kinematics to Dynamics2014In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 186, no 1-4, p. 561-602Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past several decades, Flux-Transport Dynamo (FTD) models have emerged as a popular paradigm for explaining the cyclic nature of solar magnetic activity. Their defining characteristic is the key role played by the mean meridional circulation in transporting magnetic flux and thereby regulating the cycle period. Most FTD models also incorporate the so-called Babcock-Leighton (BL) mechanism in which the mean poloidal field is produced by the emergence and subsequent dispersal of bipolar active regions. This feature is well grounded in solar observations and provides a means for assimilating observed surface flows and fields into the models in order to forecast future solar activity, to identify model biases, and to clarify the underlying physical processes. Furthermore, interpreting historical sunspot records within the context of FTD models can potentially provide insight into why cycle features such as amplitude and duration vary and what causes extreme events such as Grand Minima. Though they are generally robust in a modeling sense and make good contact with observed cycle features, FTD models rely on input physics that is only partially constrained by observation and that neglects the subtleties of convective transport, convective field generation, and nonlinear feedbacks. Here we review the formulation and application of FTD models and assess our current understanding of the input physics based largely on complementary 3D MHD simulations of solar convection, dynamo action, and flux emergence.

  • 36.
    Kauristie, K.
    et al.
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Helsinki, Finland..
    Morschhauser, A.
    GFZ German Res Ctr Geosci, Potsdam, Germany..
    Olsen, N.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Natl Space Inst, DTU Space, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Finlay, C. C.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Natl Space Inst, DTU Space, Lyngby, Denmark..
    McPherron, R. L.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Gjerloev, J. W.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Laurel, MD USA..
    Opgenoorth, Hermann J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    On the Usage of Geomagnetic Indices for Data Selection in Internal Field Modelling2017In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 206, no 1-4, p. 61-90Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a review on geomagnetic indices describing global geomagnetic storm activity (Kp, am, Dst and dDst/dt) and on indices designed to characterize high latitude currents and substorms (PC and AE-indices and their variants). The focus in our discussion is in main field modelling, where indices are primarily used in data selection criteria for weak magnetic activity. The publicly available extensive data bases of index values are used to derive joint conditional Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) for different pairs of indices in order to investigate their mutual consistency in describing quiet conditions. This exercise reveals that Dst and its time derivative yield a similar picture as Kp on quiet conditions as determined with the conditions typically used in internal field modelling. Magnetic quiescence at high latitudes is typically searched with the help of Merging Electric Field (MEF) as derived from solar wind observations. We use in our PDF analysis the PC-index as a proxy for MEF and estimate the magnetic activity level at auroral latitudes with the AL-index. With these boundary conditions we conclude that the quiet time conditions that are typically used in main field modelling (, and ) correspond to weak auroral electrojet activity quite well: Standard size substorms are unlikely to happen, but other types of activations (e.g. pseudo breakups ) can take place, when these criteria prevail. Although AE-indices have been designed to probe electrojet activity only in average conditions and thus their performance is not optimal during weak activity, we note that careful data selection with advanced AE-variants may appear to be the most practical way to lower the elevated RMS-values which still exist in the residuals between modeled and observed values at high latitudes. Recent initiatives to upgrade the AE-indices, either with a better coverage of observing stations and improved baseline corrections (the SuperMAG concept) or with higher accuracy in pinpointing substorm activity (the Midlatitude Positive Bay-index) will most likely be helpful in these efforts.

  • 37.
    Keller, H. U.
    et al.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung.
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Astronomy and Space Physics.
    Zaccariotto, M.
    CISAS, University of Padova.
    OSIRIS: The scientific camera system onboard Rosetta2007In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 128, no 1-4, p. 433-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System OSIRIS is the scientific camera system onboard the Rosetta spacecraft (Figure 1). The advanced high performance imaging system will be pivotal for the success of the Rosetta mission. OSIRIS will detect 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from a distance of more than 106 km, characterise the comet shape and volume, its rotational state and find a suitable landing spot for Philae, the Rosetta lander. OSIRIS will observe the nucleus, its activity and surroundings down to a scale of ~2 cm px−1. The observations will begin well before the onset of cometary activity and will extend over months until the comet reaches perihelion. During the rendezvous episode of the Rosetta mission, OSIRIS will provide key information about the nature of cometary nuclei and reveal the physics of cometary activity that leads to the gas and dust coma. OSIRIS comprises a high resolution Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) unit and a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) unit accompanied by three electronics boxes. The NAC is designed to obtain high resolution images of the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko through 12 discrete filters over the wavelength range 250–1000 nm at an angular resolution of 18.6 μrad px−1. The WAC is optimised to provide images of the near-nucleus environment in 14 discrete filters at an angular resolution of 101 μrad px−1. The two units use identical shutter, filter wheel, front door, and detector systems. They are operated by a common Data Processing Unit. The OSIRIS instrument has a total mass of 35 kg and is provided by institutes from six European countries.

  • 38.
    Korablev, O.
    et al.
    Space Research Institute (IKI)MoscowRussia.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR)GranadaSpain.
    Zorzano, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de AstrobiologíaINTA-CSICMadridSpain.
    The Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) of Three Spectrometers for the ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter2018In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 247, no 1, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) package is an element of the Russian contribution to the ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) mission. ACS consists of three separate infrared spectrometers, sharing common mechanical, electrical, and thermal interfaces. This ensemble of spectrometers has been designed and developed in response to the Trace Gas Orbiter mission objectives that specifically address the requirement of high sensitivity instruments to enable the unambiguous detection of trace gases of potential geophysical or biological interest. For this reason, ACS embarks a set of instruments achieving simultaneously very high accuracy (ppt level), very high resolving power (>10,000) and large spectral coverage (0.7 to 17 μm—the visible to thermal infrared range). The near-infrared (NIR) channel is a versatile spectrometer covering the 0.7–1.6 μm spectral range with a resolving power of ∼20,000. NIR employs the combination of an echelle grating with an AOTF (Acousto-Optical Tunable Filter) as diffraction order selector. This channel will be mainly operated in solar occultation and nadir, and can also perform limb observations. The scientific goals of NIR are the measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and dayside or night side airglows. The mid-infrared (MIR) channel is a cross-dispersion echelle instrument dedicated to solar occultation measurements in the 2.2–4.4 μm range. MIR achieves a resolving power of >50,000. It has been designed to accomplish the most sensitive measurements ever of the trace gases present in the Martian atmosphere. The thermal-infrared channel (TIRVIM) is a 2-inch double pendulum Fourier-transform spectrometer encompassing the spectral range of 1.7–17 μm with apodized resolution varying from 0.2 to 1.3 cm−1. TIRVIM is primarily dedicated to profiling temperature from the surface up to ∼60 km and to monitor aerosol abundance in nadir. TIRVIM also has a limb and solar occultation capability. The technical concept of the instrument, its accommodation on the spacecraft, the optical designs as well as some of the calibrations, and the expected performances for its three channels are described.

  • 39. Koschny, D
    et al.
    Dhiri, V
    Wirth, K
    Zender, J
    Solaz, R
    Hoofs, R
    Laureijs, R
    Ho, T.-M.
    Davidsson, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Astronomy and Space Physics.
    Schwehm, G
    Scientific planning and commanding of the Rosetta payload2007In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 128, no 1-4, p. 167-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ESA’s Rosetta mission was launched in March 2004 and is on its way to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, where it is scheduled to arrive in summer 2014. It comprises a payload of 12 scientific instruments and a Lander. All instruments are provided by Principal Investigators, which are responsible for their operations.

    As for most ESA science missions, the ground segment of the mission consists of a Mission Operations Centre (MOC) and a Science Operations Centre (SOC). While the MOC is responsible for all spacecraft-related aspects and the final uplink of all command timelines to the spacecraft, the scientific operations of the instruments and the collection of the data and ingestion into the Planetary Science Archive are coordinated by the SOC. This paper focuses on the tasks of the SOC and in particular on the methodology and constraints to convert the scientific goals of the Rosetta mission to operational timelines.

  • 40. Ksanfomality, Leonid
    et al.
    Harmon, John
    Petrova, Elena
    Thomas, Nicolas
    Veselovsky, Igor
    Warell, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Astronomy and Space Physics.
    Earth-Based Visible and Near-IR Imaging of Mercury2007In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 132, no 2-4, p. 351-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New planned orbiter missions to Mercury have prompted renewed efforts to investigate the surface of Mercury via ground-based remote sensing. While the highest resolution instrumentation optical telescopes (e.g., HST) cannot be used at angular distances close to the Sun, advanced ground-based astronomical techniques and modern analytical and software can be used to obtain the resolved images of the poorly known or unknown part of Mercury. Our observations of the planet presented here were carried out in many observatories at morning and evening elongation of the planet. Stacking the acquired images of the hemisphere of Mercury, which was not observed by the Mariner 10 mission (1974–1975), is presented. Huge features found there change radically the existing hypothesis that the “continental” character of a surface may be attributed to the whole planet. We present the observational method, the data analysis approach, the resulting images and obtained properties of the Mercury’s surface.

  • 41. Lamy, P
    et al.
    Toth, I
    Davidsson, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Astronomy and Space Physics.
    Groussin, O
    Gutierrez, P
    Jorda, L
    Kaasalainen, M
    Lowry, S
    A portrait of the nucleus of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2007In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 128, no 1-4, p. 23-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2003, comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko was selected as the new target of the Rosetta mission as the most suitable alternative to the original target, comet 46P/Wirtanen, on the basis of orbital considerations even though very little was known about the physical properties of its nucleus. In a matter of a few years and based on highly focused observational campaigns as well as thorough theoretical investigations, a detailed portrait of this nucleus has been established that will serve as a baseline for planning the Rosetta operations and observations. In this review article, we present a novel method to determine the size and shape of a cometary nucleus: several visible light curves were inverted to produce a size–scale free three–dimensional shape, the size scaling being imposed by a thermal light curve. The procedure converges to two solutions which are only marginally different. The nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko emerges as an irregular body with an effective radius (that of the sphere having the same volume) = 1.72 km and moderate axial ratios a/b = 1.26 and a/c = 1.5 to 1.6. The overall dimensions measured along the principal axis for the two solutions are 4.49–4.75 km, 3.54–3.77 km and 2.94–2.92 km. The nucleus is found to be in principal axis rotation with a period = 12.4–12.7 h. Merging all observational constraints allow us to specify two regions for the direction of the rotational axis of the nucleus: RA = 220°+50° −30° and Dec = −70° ± 10° (retrograde rotation) or RA = 40°+50° -30° and Dec = +70°± 10° (prograde), the better convergence of the various determinations presently favoring the first solution. The phase function, although constrained by only two data points, exhibits a strong opposition effect rather similar to that of comet 9P/Tempel 1. The definition of the disk–integrated albedo of an irregular body having a strong opposition effect raises problems, and the various alternatives led to a R-band geometric albedo in the range 0.045–0.060, consistent with our present knowledge of cometary nuclei. The active fraction is low, not exceeding ~ 7% at perihelion, and is probably limited to one or two active regions subjected to a strong seasonal effect, a picture coherent with the asymmetric behaviour of the coma. Our slightly downward revision of the size of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko resulting from the present analysis (with the correlative increase of the albedo compared to the originally assumed value of 0.04), and our best estimate of the bulk density of 370 kg m−3, lead to a mass of ~ 8 × 10e12 kg which should ease the landing of Philae and insure the overall success of the Rosetta mission.

  • 42. Le Contel, O.
    et al.
    Leroy, P.
    Roux, A.
    Coillot, C.
    Alison, D.
    Bouabdellah, A.
    Mirioni, L.
    Meslier, L.
    Galic, A.
    Vassal, M. C.
    Torbert, R. B.
    Needell, J.
    Rau, D.
    Dors, I.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Westfall, J.
    Summers, D.
    Wallace, J.
    Magnes, W.
    Valavanoglou, A.
    Olsson, Göran F.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Chutter, M.
    Macri, J.
    Myers, S.
    Turco, S.
    Nolin, J.
    Bodet, D.
    Rowe, K.
    Tanguy, M.
    de la Porte, B.
    The Search-Coil Magnetometer for MMS2016In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 199, no 1-4, p. 257-282Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tri-axial search-coil magnetometer (SCM) belongs to the FIELDS instrumentation suite on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission (Torbert et al. in Space Sci. Rev. (2014), this issue). It provides the three magnetic components of the waves from 1 Hz to 6 kHz in particular in the key regions of the Earth's magnetosphere namely the subsolar region and the magnetotail. Magnetospheric plasmas being collisionless, such a measurement is crucial as the electromagnetic waves are thought to provide a way to ensure the conversion from magnetic to thermal and kinetic energies allowing local or global reconfigurations of the Earth's magnetic field. The analog waveforms provided by the SCM are digitized and processed inside the digital signal processor (DSP), within the Central Electronics Box (CEB), together with the electric field data provided by the spin-plane double probe (SDP) and the axial double probe (ADP). On-board calibration signal provided by DSP allows the verification of the SCM transfer function once per orbit. Magnetic waveforms and on-board spectra computed by DSP are available at different time resolution depending on the selected mode. The SCM design is described in details as well as the different steps of the ground and in-flight calibrations.

  • 43. Lindqvist, P. -A
    et al.
    Olsson, G.
    Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    King, B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Granoff, M.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Rau, D.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Needell, G.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Turco, S.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Dors, I.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Beckman, P.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Macri, J.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Frost, C.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Salwen, J.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Eriksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Åhlén, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Porter, J.
    Univ Oulu, Oulu, Finland..
    Lappalainen, K.
    Univ Oulu, Oulu, Finland..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Wermeer, W.
    Univ Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Tucker, S.
    Univ Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    The Spin-Plane Double Probe Electric Field Instrument for MMS2016In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 199, no 1-4, p. 137-165Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Spin-plane double probe instrument (SDP) is part of the FIELDS instrument suite of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS). Together with the Axial double probe instrument (ADP) and the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI), SDP will measure the 3-D electric field with an accuracy of 0.5 mV/m over the frequency range from DC to 100 kHz. SDP consists of 4 biased spherical probes extended on 60 m long wire booms 90(a similar to) apart in the spin plane, giving a 120 m baseline for each of the two spin-plane electric field components. The mechanical and electrical design of SDP is described, together with results from ground tests and calibration of the instrument.

  • 44.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Olsson, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Torbert, R. B.
    King, B.
    Granoff, M.
    Rau, D.
    Needell, G.
    Turco, S.
    Dors, I.
    Beckman, P.
    Macri, J.
    Frost, C.
    Salwen, J.
    Eriksson, A.
    Ahlen, L.
    Khotyaintsev, Y. V.
    Porter, J.
    Lappalainen, K.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Wermeer, W.
    Tucker, S.
    The Spin-Plane Double Probe Electric Field Instrument for MMS2016In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 199, no 1-4, p. 137-165Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Spin-plane double probe instrument (SDP) is part of the FIELDS instrument suite of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS). Together with the Axial double probe instrument (ADP) and the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI), SDP will measure the 3-D electric field with an accuracy of 0.5 mV/m over the frequency range from DC to 100 kHz. SDP consists of 4 biased spherical probes extended on 60 m long wire booms 90(a similar to) apart in the spin plane, giving a 120 m baseline for each of the two spin-plane electric field components. The mechanical and electrical design of SDP is described, together with results from ground tests and calibration of the instrument.

  • 45.
    Mann, Ingrid
    et al.
    Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels, Belgium.
    Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Murad, Edmond
    AFRL retired, MA, USA.
    Popova, Olga
    Institute for Dynamics of Geospheres, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia.
    Meyer-Vernet, Nicole
    LESIA, CNRS, UPMC, Univ. Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, France.
    Rosenberg, Marlene
    Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Univ. of California, San Diego, USA.
    Mukai, Tadashi
    Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.
    Czechowski, Andrzej
    Polish Space Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland.
    Mukai, Sonoyo
    Kinki University, Higashi Osaka, Japan.
    Safrankova, Jana
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Nemecek, zdenek
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Dusty plasma effects in near earth space and interplanetary medium2011In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 161, no 1-4, p. 1-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review dust and meteoroid fluxes and their dusty plasma effects in the interplanetary medium near Earth orbit and in the Earth’s ionosphere. Aside from in-situ measurements from sounding rockets and spacecraft, experimental data cover radar and optical observations of meteors. Dust plasma interactions in the interplanetary medium are observed by the detection of charged dust particles, by the detection of dust that is accelerated in the solar wind and by the detection of ions and neutrals that are released from the dust. These interactions are not well understood and lack quantitative description. There is still a huge discrepancy in the estimates of meteoroid mass deposition into the atmosphere. The radar meteor observations are of particular interest for determining this number. Dust measurements from spacecraft require a better understanding of the dust impact ionization process,as well as of the dust charging processes. The latter are also important for further studying nanodust trajectories in the solar wind. Moreover understanding of the complex dependencies that cause the variation of nanodust fluxes is still a challenge.

  • 46.
    Marklund, Göran T.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Electric Fields and Plasma Processes in the Auroral Downward Current Region, Below, Within, and Above the Acceleration Region2009In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 142, no 1-4, p. 1-21Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The downward field-aligned current region plays an active role in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes associated with aurora. A quasi-static electric field structure with a downward parallel electric field forms at altitudes between 800 km and 5000 km, accelerating ionospheric electrons upward, away from the auroral ionosphere. A wealth of related phenomena, including energetic ion conics, electron solitary waves, low-frequency wave activity, and plasma density cavities occur in this region, which also acts as a source region for VLF saucers. Results are presented from sounding rockets and satellites, such as Freja, FAST, Viking, and Cluster, to illustrate the characteristics of the electric fields and related parameters, at altitudes below, within, and above the acceleration region. Special emphasis will be on the high-altitude characteristics and dynamics of quasi-static electric field structures observed by Cluster. These structures, which extend up to altitudes of at least 4-5 Earth radii, appear commonly as monopolar or bipolar electric fields. The former are found to occur at sharp boundaries, such as the polar cap boundary whereas the bipolar fields occur at soft plasma boundaries within the plasma sheet. The temporal evolution of quasi-static electric field structures, as captured by the pearls-on-a-string configuration of the Cluster spacecraft indicates that the formation of the electric field structures and of ionospheric plasma density cavities are closely coupled processes. A related feature of the downward current often seen is a broadening of the current sheet with time, possibly related to the depletion process. Preliminary studies of the coupling of electric fields in the downward current region, show that small-scale structures appear to be decoupled from the ionosphere, similar to what has been found for the upward current region. However, exceptions are also found where small-scale electric fields couple perfectly between the ionosphere and Cluster altitudes. Recent FAST results indicate that the degree of coupling differs between sheet-like and curved structures, and that it is typically partial. The mapping depends on the current-voltage relationship in the downward current region, which is highly non-linear and still unclear, as to its specific form.

  • 47.
    Marklund, Göran T.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Andre, M.
    Lundin, R.
    Grahn, S.
    The Swedish small satellite program for space plasma investigations2004In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 111, no 04-mar, p. 377-413Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of the Swedish small satellite program, in combination with an active participation by Swedish research groups in major international missions, has placed Sweden in the frontline of experimental space research. The program started with the development of the research satellite Viking which was launched in 1986, for detailed investigations of the aurora. To date, Sweden has developed and launched a total of six research satellites; five for space plasma investigations; and the most recent satellite Odin, for research in astronomy and aeronomy. These fall into three main categories according to their physical dimension, financial cost and level of ambition: nano-satellites, micro-satellites, and mid-size satellites with ambitious scientific goals. In this brief review we focus on five space plasma missions, for which operations have ended and a comprehensive scientific data analysis has been conducted, which allows for a judgement of their role and impact on the progress in auroral research. Viking and Freja, the two most well-known missions of this program, were pioneers in the exploration of the aurora. The more recent satellites, Munin, Astrid, and Astrid-2 (category 1 and 2), proved to be powerful tools, both for testing new technologies and for carrying out advanced science missions. The Swedish small satellite program has been internationally recognized as cost efficient and scientifically very successful.

  • 48. Miesch, M.
    et al.
    Matthaeus, W.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Petrosyan, A.
    Pouquet, A.
    Cambon, C.
    Jenko, F.
    Uzdensky, D.
    Stone, J.
    Tobias, S.
    Toomre, J.
    Velli, M.
    Large-Eddy Simulations of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in Heliophysics and Astrophysics2015In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We live in an age in which high-performance computing is transforming the way we do science. Previously intractable problems are now becoming accessible by means of increasingly realistic numerical simulations. One of the most enduring and most challenging of these problems is turbulence. Yet, despite these advances, the extreme parameter regimes encountered in space physics and astrophysics (as in atmospheric and oceanic physics) still preclude direct numerical simulation. Numerical models must take a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach, explicitly computing only a fraction of the active dynamical scales. The success of such an approach hinges on how well the model can represent the subgrid-scales (SGS) that are not explicitly resolved. In addition to the parameter regime, heliophysical and astrophysical applications must also face an equally daunting challenge: magnetism. The presence of magnetic fields in a turbulent, electrically conducting fluid flow can dramatically alter the coupling between large and small scales, with potentially profound implications for LES/SGS modeling. In this review article, we summarize the state of the art in LES modeling of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. After discussing the nature of MHD turbulence and the small-scale processes that give rise to energy dissipation, plasma heating, and magnetic reconnection, we consider how these processes may best be captured within an LES/SGS framework. We then consider several specific applications in heliophysics and astrophysics, assessing triumphs, challenges, and future directions.

  • 49. Miesch, Mark
    et al.
    Matthaeus, William
    Brandenburg, Axel
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita).
    Petrosyan, Arakel
    Pouquet, Annick
    Cambon, Claude
    Jenko, Frank
    Uzdensky, Dmitri
    Stone, James
    Tobias, Steve
    Toomre, Juri
    Velli, Marco
    Large-Eddy Simulations of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in Heliophysics and Astrophysics2015In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 194, no 1-4, p. 97-137Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We live in an age in which high-performance computing is transforming the way we do science. Previously intractable problems are now becoming accessible by means of increasingly realistic numerical simulations. One of the most enduring and most challenging of these problems is turbulence. Yet, despite these advances, the extreme parameter regimes encountered in space physics and astrophysics (as in atmospheric and oceanic physics) still preclude direct numerical simulation. Numerical models must take a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach, explicitly computing only a fraction of the active dynamical scales. The success of such an approach hinges on how well the model can represent the subgrid-scales (SGS) that are not explicitly resolved. In addition to the parameter regime, heliophysical and astrophysical applications must also face an equally daunting challenge: magnetism. The presence of magnetic fields in a turbulent, electrically conducting fluid flow can dramatically alter the coupling between large and small scales, with potentially profound implications for LES/SGS modeling. In this review article, we summarize the state of the art in LES modeling of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. After discussing the nature of MHD turbulence and the small-scale processes that give rise to energy dissipation, plasma heating, and magnetic reconnection, we consider how these processes may best be captured within an LES/SGS framework. We then consider several specific applications in heliophysics and astrophysics, assessing triumphs, challenges, and future directions.

  • 50. Mozer, F.S.
    et al.
    Torbert, R.B.
    Fahleson, Ulf
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Fälthammar, Carl-Gunne
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Gonfalone, A.
    Pedersen, A.
    Electric field measurements in the solar wind, bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetopause, and magnetosphere1978In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 22, p. 791-804Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 67
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