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  • 1. Aho-Mantila, L.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Assessment of SOLPS5.0 divertor solutions with drifts and currents against L-mode experiments in ASDEX Upgrade and JET2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 3, article id 035003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The divertor solutions obtained with the plasma edge modelling tool SOLPS5.0 are discussed. The code results are benchmarked against carefully analysed L-mode discharges at various density levels with and without impurity seeding in the full-metal tokamaks ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The role of the cross-field drifts and currents in the solutions is analysed in detail, and the improvements achieved by fully activating the drift and current terms in view of matching the experimental signals are addressed. The persisting discrepancies are also discussed.

  • 2.
    Aiba, N.
    et al.
    Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Otwock, Poland.
    Analysis of ELM stability with extended MHD models in JET, JT-60U and future JT-60SA tokamak plasmas2018In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 60, no 1, article id 014032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability with respect to a peeling-ballooning mode (PBM) was investigated numerically with extended MHD simulation codes in JET, JT-60U and future JT-60SA plasmas. The MINERVA-DI code was used to analyze the linear stability, including the effects of rotation and ion diamagnetic drift (omega(*i)), in JET-ILW and JT-60SA plasmas, and the JOREK code was used to simulate nonlinear dynamics with rotation, viscosity and resistivity in JT-60U plasmas. It was validated quantitatively that the ELM trigger condition in JET-ILW plasmas can be reasonably explained by taking into account both the rotation and omega(*i) effects in the numerical analysis. When deuterium poloidal rotation is evaluated based on neoclassical theory, an increase in the effective charge of plasma destabilizes the PBM because of an acceleration of rotation and a decrease in omega(*i). The difference in the amount of ELM energy loss in JT-60U plasmas rotating in opposite directions was reproduced qualitatively with JOREK. By comparing the ELM affected areas with linear eigenfunctions, it was confirmed that the difference in the linear stability property, due not to the rotation direction but to the plasma density profile, is thought to be responsible for changing the ELM energy loss just after the ELM crash. A predictive study to determine the pedestal profiles in JT-60SA was performed by updating the EPED1 model to include the rotation and w*i effects in the PBM stability analysis. It was shown that the plasma rotation predicted with the neoclassical toroidal viscosity degrades the pedestal performance by about 10% by destabilizing the PBM, but the pressure pedestal height will be high enough to achieve the target parameters required for the ITER-like shape inductive scenario in JT-60SA.

  • 3. Aiba, N.
    et al.
    Pamela, S.
    Honda, M.
    Urano, H.
    Giroud, C.
    Delabie, E.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Lupelli, I.
    Hayashi, N.
    Huijsmans, G.
    Analysis of ELM stability with extended MHD models in JET, JT-60U and future JT-60SA tokamak plasmas2018In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 60, no 1, article id 014032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability with respect to a peeling-ballooning mode (PBM) was investigated numerically with extended MHD simulation codes in JET, JT-60U and future JT-60SA plasmas. The MINERVA-DI code was used to analyze the linear stability, including the effects of rotation and ion diamagnetic drift (omega(*i)), in JET-ILW and JT-60SA plasmas, and the JOREK code was used to simulate nonlinear dynamics with rotation, viscosity and resistivity in JT-60U plasmas. It was validated quantitatively that the ELM trigger condition in JET-ILW plasmas can be reasonably explained by taking into account both the rotation and omega(*i) effects in the numerical analysis. When deuterium poloidal rotation is evaluated based on neoclassical theory, an increase in the effective charge of plasma destabilizes the PBM because of an acceleration of rotation and a decrease in omega(*i). The difference in the amount of ELM energy loss in JT-60U plasmas rotating in opposite directions was reproduced qualitatively with JOREK. By comparing the ELM affected areas with linear eigenfunctions, it was confirmed that the difference in the linear stability property, due not to the rotation direction but to the plasma density profile, is thought to be responsible for changing the ELM energy loss just after the ELM crash. A predictive study to determine the pedestal profiles in JT-60SA was performed by updating the EPED1 model to include the rotation and w*i effects in the PBM stability analysis. It was shown that the plasma rotation predicted with the neoclassical toroidal viscosity degrades the pedestal performance by about 10% by destabilizing the PBM, but the pressure pedestal height will be high enough to achieve the target parameters required for the ITER-like shape inductive scenario in JT-60SA.

  • 4. Alfier, A.
    et al.
    Pasqualotto, R.
    Spizzo, G.
    Canton, A.
    Fassina, A.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Electron temperature profiles in RFX-mod2008In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 035013-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron temperature profiles have been measured by the main Thomson scattering ( TS) diagnostic on the RFX-mod reversed field pinch experiment in Padova, Italy. The increased accuracy and spatial and temporal resolution permits one to measure in detail the improvements in T-e profiles, obtained with the active saddle coil system, which allows one to obtain core temperature 30% higher and scaling stronger with plasma current, steeper gradients in the core (+30%) and at the edge (+60%). 1D power balance calculations show that the active control of MHD modes largely reduces the values of electron heat diffusivity along the whole plasma radius, with similar to 50% reduction at the edge and similar to 30% in the core. The resulting electron energy confinement time is doubled. Further improvements occur during quasi-single helicity (QSH) states: the new TS allows one to study in detail the hot island that develops in the core. A characterization of the island electron thermal profile is presented, in terms of width, temperature increase, gradients and asymmetry; the effect on density profile is also discussed. A 2D transport code has been applied to calculate the heat diffusivity inside the magnetic island corresponding to the QSH state, also considering the correlation between temperature increase and pressure gradient with the chaos level around the island. Finally, electron energy confinement time during QSH states is compared with that in MH states.

  • 5.
    Annibaldi, Silvia Valeria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics. Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Italy .
    Zonca, F.
    Buratti, P.
    Excitation of beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes in the presence of a magnetic island2007In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 475-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observation of magnetic activity in several discharges in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade has revealed high-frequency oscillations that accompany the development of large magnetic islands in ohmic plasmas. The frequency of these oscillations is one order of magnitude above the typical island rotation frequency and one order of magnitude below the toroidicity-induced gap of the shear-Alfvén continuum. By writing a precise dispersion relation, we interpret these modes as beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes, i.e. Alfvén eigenmodes located in the low frequency gap which is caused by finite compressibility.

  • 6. Baiocchi, B.
    et al.
    Mantica, P.
    Giroud, C.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Naulin, V.
    Salmi, A.
    Tala, T.
    Tsalas, M.
    Discriminating the role of rotation and its gradient in determining ion stiffness mitigation in JET2013In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 025010-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting from recent JET experimental results that show a significant reduction of ion stiffness in the plasma core region due to plasma rotation in the presence of low magnetic shear, an experiment was carried out at JET in order to separate the role of rotation and rotation gradient in mitigating the ion stiffness level. Enhanced toroidal field ripple (up to 1.5%) and external resonant magnetic fields are the two mechanisms used to try and decouple the rotation value from its gradient. In addition, shots with reversed toroidal field and plasma current, yielding counter-current neutral beam injection, were compared with standard co-injection cases. These tools also allowed varying the rotation independently of the injected power. Shots with high rotation gradient are found to maintain their low stiffness level even when the absolute value of the rotation was significantly reduced. Conversely, high but flat rotation yields much less peaked ion temperature profiles than a peaked rotation profile with lower values. This behaviour suggests the rotation gradient as the main player in reducing the ion stiffness level. In addition, it is found that inverting the rotation gradient sign does not suppress its effect on ion stiffness.

  • 7. Baranov, Y. F.
    et al.
    Jenkins, I
    Alper, B
    Challis, D
    Conroy, S
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Neutron Research.
    Kiptily, V
    Ongena, J
    Popovichev, S
    Smeulders, P
    Surrey, E
    Zastrow, K.-D.
    Anomalous and classical neutral beam fast ion diffusion on JET2009In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 044004-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trace tritium experiments (TTE) on JET were analysed using Monte Carlo modelling of the neutron emission resulting from the neutral beam injection (NBI) of short (similar to 300 ms) tritium ( T) beam blips into reversed shear, hybrid ELMy H-mode and L-mode deuterium plasmas for a wide range of plasma parameters. The calculated neutron fluxes from deuterium-tritium ( DT) reactions could only be made consistent with all plasmas by applying an artificial reduction of the T beam power in the modelling of between 20% and 40%. A similar discrepancy has previously been observed in both JET (Gorini et al 2004 Proc. 31st EPS Conf. on Plasma Physics ( London, UK) vol 28G (ECA)) and TFTR (Ruskov et al 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 924), although no mechanism has yet been found that could explain such a difference in the measured T beam power. Applying this correction in the T beam power, good agreement between calculated and measured DT neutron emission profiles was obtained in low to moderate line averaged density ((n(e)) over bar < 4 x 10(19) m(-3)) ELMy H-Mode plasmas assuming that the fast beam ions experience no, or relatively small, anomalous diffusion (D-an << 0.5 m(2) s(-1)). However, the modelled neutron profiles do not agree with measurements in higher density plasmas using the same assumption and the disagreement between the measured and calculated shape of the neutron profile increases with plasma density. In this paper it is demonstrated that large anomalous losses of fast ions have to be assumed in the simulations to improve agreement between experimental and simulated neutron profiles, characterized by the goodness of fit. Various types of fast ion losses are modelled to explain aspects of the data, though further investigation will be required in order to gain a more detailed understanding of the nature of those anomalous losses.

  • 8. Basiuk, V.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Towards self-consistent plasma modelisation in presence of neoclassical tearing mode and sawteeth: effects on transport coefficients2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 12, article id 125012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) increase the effective heat and particle radial transport inside the plasma, leading to a flattening of the electron and ion temperature and density profiles at a given location depending on the safety factor q rational surface (Hegna and Callen 1997 Phys. Plasmas 4 2940). In burning plasma such as in ITER, this NTM-induced increased transport could reduce significantly the fusion performance and even lead to a disruption. Validating models describing the NTM-induced transport in present experiment is thus important to help quantifying this effect on future devices. In this work, we apply an NTM model to an integrated simulation of current, heat and particle transport on JET discharges using the European transport simulator. In this model, the heat and particle radial transport coefficients are modified by a Gaussian function locally centered at the NTM position and characterized by a full width proportional to the island size through a constant parameter adapted to obtain the best simulations of experimental profiles. In the simulation, the NTM model is turned on at the same time as the mode is triggered in the experiment. The island evolution is itself determined by the modified Rutherford equation, using self-consistent plasma parameters determined by the transport evolution. The achieved simulation reproduces the experimental measurements within the error bars, before and during the NTM. A small discrepancy is observed on the radial location of the island due to a shift of the position of the computed q = 3/2 surface compared to the experimental one. To explain such small shift (up to about 12% with respect to the position observed from the experimental electron temperature profiles), sensitivity studies of the NTM location as a function of the initialization parameters are presented. First results validate both the transport model and the transport modification calculated by the NTM model.

  • 9.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Welander, Anders
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Measurements of hot electrons in the Extrap T1 reversed field pinch1998In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 40, p. 319-333Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Beurskens, M. N. A.
    et al.
    Osborne, T. H.
    Horton, L. D.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Groebner, R.
    Leonard, A.
    Lomas, P.
    Nunes, I.
    Saarelma, S.
    Snyder, P. B.
    Balboa, I.
    Bray, B.
    Crombe, K.
    Flanagan, J.
    Giroud, C.
    Giovannozzi, E.
    Kempenaars, M.
    Kohen, N.
    Loarte, A.
    Lonnroth, J.
    de la Luna, E.
    Maddison, G.
    Maggi, C.
    McDonald, D.
    McKee, G.
    Pasqualotto, R.
    Saibene, G.
    Sartori, R.
    Solano, E.
    Suttrop, W.
    Wolfrum, E.
    Walsh, M.
    Yan, Z.
    Zabeo, L.
    Zarzoso, D.
    Pedestal width and ELM size identity studies in JET and DIII-D; implications for ITER2009In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 51, no 12, p. 124051-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dependence of the H-mode edge transport barrier width on normalized ion gyroradius (rho* = rho/a) in discharges with type I ELMs was examined in experiments combining data for the JET and DIII-D tokamaks. The plasma configuration as well as the local normalized pressure (beta), collisionality (nu*), Mach number and the ratio of ion and electron temperature at the pedestal top were kept constant, while rho* was varied by a factor of four. The width of the steep gradient region of the electron temperature (T-e) and density (n(e)) pedestals normalized to machine size showed no or only a weak trend with rho*. A rho(1/2) or rho(1) dependence of the pedestal width, given by some theoretical predictions, is not supported by the current experiments. This is encouraging for the pedestal scaling towards ITER as it operates at lower rho* than existing devices. Some differences in pedestal structure and ELM behaviour were, however, found between the devices; in the DIII-D discharges, the n(e) and T-e pedestal were aligned at high rho* but the ne pedestal shifted outwards in radius relative to T-e as rho* decreases, while on JET the profiles remained aligned while rho* was scanned by a factor of two. The energy loss at an ELM normalized to the pedestal energy increased from 10% to 40% as rho* increased by a factor of two in the DIII-D discharges but no such variation was observed in the case of JET. The measured pedestal pressures and widths were found to be consistent with the predictions from modelling based on peeling-ballooning stability theory, and are used to make projections towards ITER

  • 11. Beurskens, M. N. A.
    et al.
    Schweinzer, J.
    Angioni, C.
    Burckhart, A.
    Challis, C. D.
    Chapman, I.
    Fischer, R.
    Flanagan, J.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Giroud, C.
    Hobirk, J.
    Joffrin, E.
    Kallenbach, A.
    Kempenaars, M.
    Leyland, M.
    Lomas, P.
    Maddison, G.
    Maslov, M.
    McDermott, R.
    Neu, R.
    Nunes, I.
    Osborne, T.
    Ryter, F.
    Saarelma, S.
    Schneider, P. A.
    Snyder, P.
    Tardini, G.
    Viezzer, E.
    Wolfrum, E.
    The effect of a metal wall on confinement in JET and ASDEX Upgrade2013In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 55, no 12, p. 124043-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In both JET and ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) the plasma energy confinement has been affected by the presence of a metal wall by the requirement of increased gas fuelling to avoid tungsten pollution of the plasma. In JET with a beryllium/tungsten wall the high triangularity baseline H-mode scenario (i.e. similar to the ITER reference scenario) has been the strongest affected and the benefit of high shaping to give good normalized confinement of H-98 similar to 1 at high Greenwald density fraction of f(GW) similar to 0.8 has not been recovered to date. In AUG with a full tungsten wall, a good normalized confinement H-98 similar to 1 could be achieved in the high triangularity baseline plasmas, albeit at elevated normalized pressure beta(N) > 2. The confinement lost with respect to the carbon devices can be largely recovered by the seeding of nitrogen in both JET and AUG. This suggests that the absence of carbon in JET and AUG with a metal wall may have affected the achievable confinement. Three mechanisms have been tested that could explain the effect of carbon or nitrogen (and the absence thereof) on the plasma confinement. First it has been seen in experiments and by means of nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations (with the GENE code), that nitrogen seeding does not significantly change the core temperature profile peaking and does not affect the critical ion temperature gradient. Secondly, the dilution of the edge ion density by the injection of nitrogen is not sufficient to explain the plasma temperature and pressure rise. For this latter mechanism to explain the confinement improvement with nitrogen seeding, strongly hollow Z(eff) profiles would be required which is not supported by experimental observations. The confinement improvement with nitrogen seeding cannot be explained with these two mechanisms. Thirdly, detailed pedestal structure analysis in JET high triangularity baseline plasmas have shown that the fuelling of either deuterium or nitrogen widens the pressure pedestal. However, in JET-ILW this only leads to a confinement benefit in the case of nitrogen seeding where, as the pedestal widens, the obtained pedestal pressure gradient is conserved. In the case of deuterium fuelling in JET-ILW the pressure gradient is strongly degraded in the fuelling scan leading to no net confinement gain due to the pedestal widening. The pedestal code EPED correctly predicts the pedestal pressure of the unseeded plasmas in JET-ILW within +/- 5%, however it does not capture the complex variation of pedestal width and gradient with fuelling and impurity seeding. Also it does not predict the observed increase of pedestal pressure by nitrogen seeding in JET-ILW. Ideal peeling ballooning MHD stability analysis shows that the widening of the pedestal leads to a down shift of the marginal stability boundary by only 10-20%. However, the variations in the pressure gradient observed in the JET-ILW fuelling experiment is much larger and spans a factor of more than two. As a result the experimental points move from deeply unstable to deeply stable on the stability diagram in a deuterium fuelling scan. In AUG-W nitrogen seeded plasmas, a widening of the pedestal has also been observed, consistent with the JET observations. The absence of carbon can thus affect the pedestal structure, and mainly the achieved pedestal gradient, which can be recovered by seeding nitrogen. The underlying physics mechanism is still under investigation and requires further understanding of the role of impurities on the pedestal stability and pedestal structure formation.

  • 12. Bourdelle, C.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Core turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas: bridging theory and experiment with QuaLiKiz2016In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 58, no 1, article id 014036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonlinear gyrokinetic codes allow for detailed understanding of tokamak core turbulent transport. However, their computational demand precludes their use for predictive profile modeling. An alternative approach is required to bridge the gap between theoretical understanding and prediction of experiments. A quasilinear gyrokinetic model, QuaLiKiz (Bourdelle et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 112501), is demonstrated to be rapid enough to ease systematic interface with experiments. The derivation and approximation of this approach are reviewed. The quasilinear approximation is proven valid over a wide range of core plasma parameters. Examples of profile prediction using QuaLiKiz coupled to the CRONOS integrated modeling code (Artaud et al 2010 Nucl. Fusion 50 043001) are presented. QuaLiKiz is being coupled to other integrated modeling platforms such as ETS and JETTO. QuaLiKiz quasilinear gyrokinetic turbulent heat, particle and angular momentum fluxes are available to all users. It allows for extensive stand-alone interpretative analysis and for first principle based integrated predictive modeling.

  • 13.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    The critical role of magnetic helicity in astrophysical large-scale dynamos2009In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 51, no 12, p. 4043-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of magnetic helicity in astrophysical large-scale dynamos is reviewed and compared with cases where there is no energy supply and an initial magnetic field can only decay. In both cases magnetic energy tends to get redistributed to larger scales. Depending on the efficiency of magnetic helicity fluxes the decay of a helical field can speed up. Likewise, the saturation of a helical dynamo can speed up through magnetic helicity fluxes. The astrophysical importance of these processes is reviewed in the context of the solar dynamo and an estimated upper limit for the magnetic helicity flux of 1046 Mx2/cycle is given.

  • 14. Bravenec, R.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Benchmarking the GENE and GYRO codes through the relative roles of electromagnetic and E x B stabilization in JET high-performance discharges2016In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 58, no 12, article id 125018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations using the GENE code have previously predicted a significant nonlinear enhanced electromagnetic stabilization in certain JET discharges with high neutral-beam power and low core magnetic shear (Citrin et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 155001, 2015 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 57 014032). This dominates over the impact of E x B flow shear in these discharges. Furthermore, fast ions were shown to be a major contributor to the electromagnetic stabilization. These conclusions were based on results from the GENE gyrokinetic turbulence code. In this work we verify these results using the GYRO code. Comparing results (linear frequencies, eigenfunctions, and nonlinear fluxes) from different gyrokinetic codes as a means of verification (benchmarking) is only convincing if the codes agree for more than one discharge. Otherwise, agreement may simply be fortuitous. Therefore, we analyze three discharges, all with a carbon wall: a simplified, two-species, circular geometry case based on an actual JET discharge; an L-mode discharge with a significant fast-ion pressure fraction; and a low-triangularity high-beta hybrid discharge. All discharges were analyzed at normalized toroidal flux coordinate rho = 0.33 where significant ion temperature peaking is observed. The GYRO simulations support the conclusion that electromagnetic stabilization is strong, and dominates E x B shear stabilization.

  • 15.
    Brenning, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Axnäs, Ingvar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Koepke, Mark
    KTH.
    Raadu, Michael A.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tennfors, Einar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Radiation from an electron beam in magnetized plasma: excitation of a whistler mode wave packet by interacting, higher-frequency, electrostatic-wave eigenmodes2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 12, article id 124006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infrequent, bursty, electromagnetic, whistler-mode wave packets, excited spontaneously in the laboratory by an electron beam from a hot cathode, appear transiently, each with a time duration tau around similar to 1 mu s. The wave packets have a center frequency f(W) that is broadly distributed in the range 7 MHz < f(W) < 40 MHz. They are excited in a region with separate electrostatic (es) plasma oscillations at values of f(hf), 200 MHz < f(hf) < 500 MHz, that are hypothesized to match eigenmode frequencies of an axially localized hf es field in a well-defined region attached to the cathode. Features of these es-eigenmodes that are studied include: the mode competition at times of transitions from one dominating es-eigenmode to another, the amplitude and spectral distribution of simultaneously occurring es-eigenmodes that do not lead to a transition, and the correlation of these features with the excitation of whistler mode waves. It is concluded that transient coupling of es-eigenmode pairs at f(hf) such that vertical bar f(1, hf) - f(2, hf)vertical bar = f(W) < f(ge) can explain both the transient lifetime and the frequency spectra of the whistler-mode wave packets (f(W)) as observed in lab. The generalization of the results to bursty whistler-mode excitation in space from electron beams, created on the high potential side of double layers, is discussed.

  • 16.
    Brodin, Gert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Ekman, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Zamanian, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Nonlinear wave damping due to multi-plasmon resonances2018In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 60, no 2, article id 025009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For short wavelengths, it is well known that the linearized Wigner-Moyal equation predicts wave damping due to wave-particle interaction, where the resonant velocity shifted from the phase velocity by a velocity v(q) = hk/2m. Here h is the reduced Planck constant, k is the wavenumber and m is the electron mass. Going beyond linear theory, we find additional resonances with velocity shifts nv(q), n= 2,3, ..., giving rise to a new wave-damping mechanism that we term multi-plasmon damping, as it can be seen as the simultaneous absorption (or emission) of multiple plasmon quanta. Naturally this wave damping is not present in classical plasmas. For a temperature well below the Fermi temperature, if the linear (n = 1) resonant velocity is outside the Fermi sphere, the number of linearly resonant particles is exponentially small, while the multi-plasmon resonances can be located in the bulk of the distribution. We derive sets of evolution equations for the case of two-plasmon and three-plasmon resonances for Langmuir waves in the simplest case of a fully degenerate plasma. By solving these equations numerically for a range of wave-numbers we find the corresponding damping rates, and we compare them to results from linear theory to estimate the applicability. Finally, we discuss the effects due to a finite temperature.

  • 17.
    Brodin, Gert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Ekman, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Zamanian, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Quantum kinetic theories in degenerate plasmas2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 1, article id 014043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this review we give an overview of the recent work on quantum kinetic theories of plasmas. We focus, in particular, on the case where the electrons are fully degenerate. For such systems, perturbation methods using the distribution function can be problematic. Instead we present a model that considers the dynamics of the Fermi surface. The advantage of this model is that, even though the value of the distribution function can be greatly perturbed outside the equilibrium Fermi surface, deformation of the Fermi surface is small up to very large amplitudes. Next, we investigate the short-scale dynamics for which the Wigner-Moyal equation replaces the Vlasov equation. In particular, we study wave-particle interaction, and deduce that new types of wave damping can occur due to the simultaneous absorption (or emission) of multiple wave quanta. Finally, we consider exchange effects within a quantum kinetic formalism to find a model that is more accurate than those using exchange potentials from density functional theory. We deduce the exchange corrections to the dispersion relations for Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves. In comparison to results based on exchange potentials deduced from density functional theory we find that the latter models are reasonably accurate for Langmuir waves, but rather inaccurate for ion acoustic waves.

  • 18.
    Brodin, Gert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Marklund, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Zamanian, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Stefan, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Spin and magnetization effects in plasmas2011In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 074013-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum effects in plasmas are of interest for a diverse set of systems, and have thus as a field been revived and attracted a lot of attention from a wide community over the past decade. In models of quantum plasmas, the effects studied mostly are due to the quantum particle dispersion and tunnelling. Such effects can be of importance in dense systems and on short length scales. There are also a number of effects related to spin and statistics. However, up to recently the magnetization effect in plasmas due to the intrinsic electron spin has been largely ignored. The magnetization dynamics of e.g. solids has many important applications, such as components for memory storage, but has also been discussed in more 'proper' plasma environments, such as fusion plasmas. Furthermore, also from a basic science point-of-view the effects of intrinsic spin and gyromagnetic effects are of considerable interest. Here we give a short review of a number of different models for treating magnetization effects in plasmas, with a focus on recent results. In particular, the transition between kinetic models and fluid models is discussed. We also give a number of examples of applications of such theories, as well as an outlook for possible future work.

  • 19. Brunetti, D.
    et al.
    Graves, J. P.
    Cooper, W. A.
    Wahlberg, C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Fast growing resistive two fluid instabilities in hybrid-like tokamak configuration2014In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 075025-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytic derivation of the dispersion relation for resistive instabilities in a low-shear tokamak configuration is presented. The resistive infernal mode model (Charlton et al 1989 Phys. Fluids B 1 798) is generalized to include plasma diamagnetism, subsonic equilibrium toroidal flow shear and viscosity. An estimate of the transition point between the fast S-3/13 infernal-like (S is the Lundquist number) and the slow S-3/5 tearing-like scaling is given. A novel S-3/8 scaling is found close to the ideal ion-diamagnetic magnetohydrodynamic stability boundary. New moderately fast scalings in S are also found when sheared toroidal E x B flow and viscosity are considered. An analytic treatment of the m = n = 1 quasi-interchange mode in presence of density gradients with flat temperature profiles has been made.

  • 20.
    Brunetti, D.
    et al.
    CNR, IFP, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy.
    Graves, J. P.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, SPC, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Lazzaro, E.
    CNR, IFP, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy.
    Mariani, A.
    CNR, IFP, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy.
    Nowak, S.
    CNR, IFP, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy.
    Cooper, W. A.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, SPC, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Wahlberg, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Space Plasma Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Astronomy and Space Physics. EURATOM VR Fus Assoc, POB 515, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Helical equilibrium magnetohydrodynamic flow effects on the stability properties of low-n ideal external-infernal modes in weak shear tokamak configurations2019In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 61, no 6, article id 064003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of equilibrium helical flows on the stability properties of low shear tokamak plasmas is assessed. The corrections due to such helical flow to the equilibrium profiles (mass density, pressure, Shafranov shift, magnetic fluxes) are computed by minimising order by order the generalised Grad-Shafranov equation. By applying the same minimisation procedure, a set of three coupled equations, suitable for the study of magnetohydrodynamic perturbations localised within core or edge transport barriers is derived in circular tokamak geometry. We apply these equations to modelling the impact of strong poloidal flow shear in the edge region caused by a radial electric field on the stability of edge infernal modes retaining vacuum effects. Due to the poloidal flow shearing, the effect of plasma rotation is not simply a Doppler shift of the eigenfrequency. Stabilisation is found even for weak flow amplitude.

  • 21.
    Brunsell, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Cecconello, Marco
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Drake, James Robert
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Gravestijn, Robert
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hedqvist, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Malmberg, Jenny A.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Initial results from the rebuilt EXTRAP T2R RFP device2001In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 43, no 11, p. 1457-1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EXTRAP T2R thin shell reversed-field pinch (RFP) device has recently resumed operation after a major rebuild including the replacement of the graphite armour with molybdenum limiters, a fourfold increase of the shell time constant, and the replacement of the helical coil used for the toroidal field with a conventional solenoid-type coil. Wall-conditioning using hydrogen glow discharge cleaning was instrumental for successful RFP operation. Carbon was permanently removed from the walls during the first week of operation. The initial results from RFP operation with relatively low plasma currents in the range I-p = 70-100 kA are reported. RFP discharges are sustained for more than three shell times. Significant improvements in plasma parameters are observed, compared to operation before the rebuild. There is a substantial reduction in the carbon impurity level. The electron density behaviour is more shot-to-shot reproducible. The typical density is n(e) = 0.5-1 x 10(19) m(-3). Monitors of H-alpha line radiation indicate that the plasma wall interaction is more toroidally symmetric and that there is less transient gas release from the wall. The minimum loop voltage is in the range V-t = 28-35 V, corresponding to a reduction by a factor of two to three compared to the value before the rebuild.

  • 22.
    Brunsell, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Yadikin, Dmitriy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Drake, James Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics.
    Zanca, P.
    Active control of multiple resistive wall modes2005In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 47, no 12 B, p. B25-B36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     A two-dimensional array of saddle coils at M-c poloidal and N-c toroidal positions is used on the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (Brunsell P R et al 2001 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43 1457) to study active control of resistive wall modes (RWMs). Spontaneous growth of several RWMs with poloidal mode number m = 1 and different toroidal mode number n is observed experimentally, in agreement with linear MHD modelling. The measured plasma response to a controlled coil field and the plasma response computed using the linear circular cylinder MHD model are in quantitive agreement. Feedback control introduces a linear coupling of modes with toroidal mode numbers n, n' that fulfil the condition vertical bar n - n'vertical bar = N-c. Pairs of coupled unstable RWMs are present in feedback experiments with an array of Mc x Nc = 4 x 16 coils. Using intelligent shell feedback, the coupled modes are generally not controlled even though the field is suppressed at the active coils. A better suppression of coupled modes may be achieved in the case of rotating modes by using the mode control feedback scheme with individually set complex gains. In feedback with a larger array of Mc x Nc = 4 x 32 coils, the coupling effect largely disappears, and with this array, the main internal RWMs n = -11, -10, +5, +6 are all simultaneously suppressed throughout the discharge (7-8 wall times). With feedback there is a two-fold extension of the pulse length, compared to discharges without feedback.

  • 23.
    Bychkov, Vitaly
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Modestov, Mikhail
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Akkerman, Vyacheslav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Eriksson, Lars-Erik
    Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology 41246 Göteborg, Sweden.
    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial  fusion, astrophysical plasma and flames2007In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 49, no 12B, p. B513-B520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous results are reviewed and new results are presented on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confined fusion, flames and Supernovae including gravitational and thermonuclear explosion mechanisms. The instability couples micro-scale plasma interaction with laser radiation, with neutrino, or thermonuclear reactions to large-scale hydrodynamic phenomena. In inertial fusion the instability stops target compression. In Supernovae the instability produces large-scale convection, which determines fate of the star. The instability is often accompanied by mass flux through the unstable interface, which may have both stabilizing or destabilizing influence. Destabilization happens due to the Darrieus-Landau instability of a deflagartion front. Still, it is unclear if the instabilities lead to well-organized large-scale structures (bubbles) or to relatively isotropic turbulence (mixing layer)

  • 24.
    Bykov, Igor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Banon, Jean-Philippe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Brunsell, Per R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Transport asymmetry and release mechanisms of metal dust in the reversed-field pinch configuration2014In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 035014-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental data on dust resident in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch are reported. Mobile dust grains are captured in situ by silicon collectors, whereas immobile grains are sampled post mortem from the wall by adhesive tape. The simulation of collection asymmetries by the MIGRAINe dust dynamics code in combination with the experimental results is employed to deduce some characteristics of the mechanism of intrinsic dust release. All evidence suggests that re-mobilization is dominant with respect to dust production.

  • 25.
    Cannas, Barbara
    et al.
    Univ Cagliari, Elect & Elect Engn Dept, Cagliari, Italy.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, Warsaw, Poland.
    Nonlinear dynamic analysis of D-alpha signals for type I edge localized modes characterization on JET with a carbon wall2018In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 60, no 2, article id 025010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of type-I ELM time-series from the JET tokamak, the world's largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment, have been investigated. The dynamic analysis has been focused on the detection of nonlinear structure in D a radiation time series. Firstly, the method of surrogate data has been applied to evaluate the statistical significance of the null hypothesis of static nonlinear distortion of an underlying Gaussian linear process. Several nonlinear statistics have been evaluated, such us the time delayed mutual information, the correlation dimension and the maximal Lyapunov exponent. The obtained results allow us to reject the null hypothesis, giving evidence of underlying nonlinear dynamics. Moreover, no evidence of low-dimensional chaos has been found; indeed, the analysed time series are better characterized by the power law sensitivity to initial conditions which can suggest a motion at the 'edge of chaos', at the border between chaotic and regular non-chaotic dynamics. This uncertainty makes it necessary to further investigate about the nature of the nonlinear dynamics. For this purpose, a second surrogate test to distinguish chaotic orbits from pseudoperiodic orbits has been applied. In this case, we cannot reject the null hypothesis which means that the ELM time series is possibly pseudo-periodic. In order to reproduce pseudo-periodic dynamical properties, a periodic state-of-the-art model, proposed to reproduce the ELM cycle, has been corrupted by a dynamical noise, obtaining time series qualitatively in agreement with experimental time series.

  • 26. Carnevale, D.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Runaway electron beam control2019In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 61, no 1, article id 014036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-disruption runaway electron (RE) beams in tokamaks with large current can cause deep melting of the vessel and are one of the major concerns for ITER operations. Consequently, a considerable effort is provided by the scientific community in order to test RE mitigation strategies. We present an overview of the results obtained at FTU and TCV controlling the current and position of RE beams to improve safety and repeatability of mitigation studies such as massive gas (MGI) and shattered pellet injections (SPI). We show that the proposed RE beam controller (REB-C) implemented at FTU and TCV is effective and that current reduction of the beam can be performed via the central solenoid reducing the energy of REs, providing an alternative/parallel mitigation strategy to MGI/SPI. Experimental results show that, meanwhile deuterium pellets injected on a fully formed RE beam are ablated but do not improve RE energy dissipation rate, heavy metals injected by a laser blow off system on low-density flat-top discharges with a high level of RE seeding seem to induce disruptions expelling REs. Instabilities during the RE beam plateau phase have shown to enhance losses of REs, expelled from the beam core. Then, with the aim of triggering instabilities to increase RE losses, an oscillating loop voltage has been tested on RE beam plateau phase at TCV revealing, for the first time, what seems to be a full conversion from runaway to ohmic current. We finally report progresses in the design of control strategies at JET in view of the incoming SPI mitigation experiments.

  • 27. Castaldo, C.
    et al.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    De Angeli, M.
    de Angelis, U.
    On the feasibility of electro-optical detection of dust-impact ionization in tokamaks2010In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 105003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility of the optical and electrical detection of dust-impact ionization events in the scrape-off layers of tokamak plasmas is evaluated. It is shown that the expected light emission and the charge released during a dust impact on a biased target can be measured above the light emission and the charge collected due to the background plasma. A scheme of an electro-optical probe for diagnostics of fast dust particles is proposed.

  • 28.
    Cecconello, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Jones, O. M.
    Boeglin, W. U.
    Perez, R. V.
    Darrow, D. S.
    Klimek, Iwona
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sharapov, S. E.
    Fitzgerald, M.
    McClements, K. G.
    Keeling, D. L.
    Allan, S. Y.
    Michael, C. A.
    Akers, R. J.
    Conway, N. J.
    Scannell, R.
    Turnyanskiy, M.
    Ericsson, G.
    Energetic ion behaviour in MAST2015In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 014006-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies of fast ion transport resulting from a range of instabilities, including n = 1 internal kink modes (fishbones and long-lived modes), toroidal Alfven eigenmodes and sawteeth have been carried out at MAST. Strong correlations were found between relative changes in magnetic edge coils signals, edge D alpha signal a fast ion D alpha system, a prototype collimated neutron flux monitor and a recently installed prototype charged fusion product detector array, indicating both redistribution and loss of fast ions. Preliminary interpretation of these observations with a suite of stability, modelling and interpretative codes is discussed.

  • 29.
    Cecconello, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Malmberg, Jenny A.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Spizzo, G.
    Chapman, B. E.
    Gravestjin, Robert M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Franz, P.
    Piovesan, P.
    Martin, P.
    Drake, James R.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Current profile modification experiments in EXTRAP T2R2004In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 145-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) experiments have been conducted in the resistive shell EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch experiment. During the current profile modification phase, the fluctuation level of the m = 1 internally resonant tearing modes decreases, and the velocity of these modes increases. The m = 0 modes are not affected during PPCD, although termination occurs with a burst in the m = 0 amplitude. The PPCD phase is characterized by an increase in the central electron temperature (up to 380 eV) and in the soft x-ray signal. Spectroscopic observations confirm an increase in the central electron temperature. During PPCD, the plasma poloidal beta increases to 14%, and the estimated energy confinement time doubles, reaching 380 mus. The reduction in the fluctuation level and the corresponding increase in the energy confinement time are qualitatively consistent with a reduction in parallel transport along stochastic magnetic field lines.

  • 30.
    Cecconello, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Malmberg, Jenny-Ann
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Nielsen, P
    Pasqualotto, R
    Drake, James Robert
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Study of the confinement properties in a reversed-field pinch with mode rotation and gas fuelling2002In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 44, no 8, p. 1625-1638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An extensive investigation of the global confinement properties in different operating scenarios in the rebuilt EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (RFP) experiment is reported here. In particular, the role of a fast gas puff valve system, used to control plasma density, on confinement is studied. Without gas puffing, the electron density decays below 0.5 x 10(19) M-3. The poloidal beta varies between 5% and 15%, decreasing at large I/N. The energy confinement time ranges from 70 to 225 mus. With gas puffing, the density is sustained at n(e) approximate to 1.5 x 10(19) m(-3). However, a general slight deterioration of the plasma performances is observed for the same values of I/N: the plasma becomes cooler and more radiative. The poloidal beta is comparable to that in the scenarios without puff but the energy confinement time drops ranging from 60 to 130 mus. The fluctuation level and the energy confinement time have been found to scale with the Lundquist number as S-0.05+/-0.07 and S0.5+/-0.1, respectively. Mode rotation is typical for all the discharges and rotation velocity is observed to increase with increasing electron diamagnetic velocity.

  • 31.
    Cecconello, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Brunsell, Per R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Kuldkepp, Mattias
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Rotation in a reversed field pinch with active feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes2006In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 1311-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active feedback stabilization of multiple resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been successfully proven in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. One of the features of plasma discharges operated with active feedback stabilization, in addition to the prolongation of the plasma discharge, is the sustainment of the plasma rotation. Sustained rotation is observed both for the internally resonant tearing modes (TMs) and the intrinsic impurity oxygen ions. Good quantitative agreement between the toroidal rotation velocities of both is found: the toroidal rotation is characterized by an acceleration phase followed, after one wall time, by a deceleration phase that is slower than in standard discharges. The TMs and the impurity ions rotate in the same poloidal direction with also similar velocities. Poloidal and toroidal velocities have comparable amplitudes and a simple model of their radial profile reproduces the main features of the helical angular phase velocity. RWMs feedback does not qualitatively change the TMs behaviour and typical phenomena such as the dynamo and the `slinky' are still observed. The improved sustainment of the plasma and TMs rotation occurs also when feedback only acts on internally non- resonant RWMs. This may be due to an indirect positive effect, through non- linear coupling between TMs and RWMs, of feedback on the TMs or to a reduced plasma- wall interaction affecting the plasma flow rotation. Electromagnetic torque calculations show that with active feedback stabilization the TMs amplitude remains well below the locking threshold condition for a thick shell. Finally, it is suggested that active feedback stabilization of RWMs and current profile control techniques can be employed simultaneously thus improving both the plasma duration and its confinement properties.

  • 32.
    Cecconello, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sperduti, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Study of the effect of sawteeth on fast ions and neutron emission in MAST using a neutron camera2018In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 60, no 5, article id 055008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the sawtooth instability on the confinement of fast ions on MAST, and the impact it has on the neutron emission, has been studied in detail using the TRANSP/NUBEAM codes coupled to a full orbit following code. The sawtooth models in TRANSP/NUBEAM indicate that, on MAST, passing and trapped fast ions are redistributed in approximately equal number and on a level that is consistent with the observations. It has not been possible to discriminate between the different sawtooth models since their predictions are all compatible with the neutron camera observations. Full orbit calculations of the fast ion motion have been used to estimate the characteristic time scales and energy thresholds that according to theoretical predictions govern the fast ions redistribution: no energy threshold for the redistribution for either passing and trapped fast ions was found. The characteristic times have, however, frequencies that are comparable with the frequencies of a m = 1, n = 1 perturbation and its harmonics with toroidal mode numbers n = 2, ..., 4, suggesting that on spherical tokamaks, in addition to the classical sawtooth-induced transport mechanisms of fast ions by attachment to the evolving perturbation and the associated E x B drift, a resonance mechanism between the m = 1 perturbation and the fast ions orbits might be at play.

  • 33. Chankin, A. , V
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Assessment of the strength of kinetic effects of parallel electron transport in the SOL and divertor of JET high radiative H-mode plasmas using EDGE2D-EIRENE and KIPP codes2018In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 60, no 11, article id 115011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The kinetic code for plasma periphery (KIPP) was used to assess the importance of the kinetic effects of parallel electron transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) and divertor of JET high radiative H-mode inter-ELM plasma conditions with the ITER-like wall and strong nitrogen (N-2) injection. Plasma parameter profiles along a magnetic field from one of the EDGE2D-EIRENE simulation cases were used as an input for KIPP runs. Profiles were maintained by particle and power sources. KIPP generated electron distribution functions, f(e), parallel power fluxes, electron-ion thermoforces, Debye sheath potential drops and electron sheath transmission factors at divertor targets. For heat fluxes in the main SOL, KIPP results showed deviations from classical (e.g. Braginskii) fluxes by factors typically of similar to 1.5, sometimes up to 2, with the flux limiting for more upstream positions and flux enhancement near entrances to the divertor. In the divertor, at the same time, for radial positions closer to the separatrix, very large heat flux enhancement factors of up to ten or even higher, indicative of a strong nonlocal heat transport, were found at the outer target, with heat power flux density exhibiting bump-on-tail features at high energies. Under such extreme conditions, however, contributions of conductive power fluxes to total power fluxes were strongly reduced, with convective power fluxes becoming comparable, or sometimes exceeding, conductive power fluxes. Electron-ion thermoforce, on the other hand, which is known to be determined mostly by thermal and subthermal electrons, was found to be in good agreement with Braginskii formulas, including the Z(eff) dependence. Overall, KIPP results indicate, at least for the plasma conditions used in this modelling, a sizable, but not dominant, effect of kinetics on parallel electron transport.

  • 34. Chankin, A. , V
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    EDGE2D-EIRENE simulations of the influence of isotope effects and anomalous transport coefficients on near scrape-off layer radial electric field2019In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 61, no 7, article id 075010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EDGE2D-EIRENE (the 'code') simulations show that radial electric field, Er, in the near scrape-off layer (SOL) of tokamaks can have large variations leading to a strong local E x B shear greatly exceeding that in the core region. This was pointed out in simulations of JET plasmas with varying divertor geometry, where the magnetic configuration with larger predicted near SOL E-r was found to have lower H-mode power threshold, suggesting that turbulence suppression in the SOL by local E. x. B shear can be a player in the L-H transition physics (Delabie et al 2015 42nd EPS Conf. on Plasma Physics (Lisbon, Portugal, 22-26 June 2015) paper O3.113 (http://ocs.ciemat.es/EPS2015PAP/pdf/O3.113.pdf), Chankin et al 2017 Nucl. Mater. Energy 12 273). Further code modeling of JET plasmas by changing hydrogen isotopes (H-D-T) showed that the magnitude of the near SOL E-r is lower in H cases in which the H-mode threshold power is higher (Chankin et al 2017 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 59 045012). From the experiment it is also known that hydrogen plasmas have poorer particle and energy confinement than deuterium plasmas, consistent with the code simulation results showing larger particle diffusion coefficients at the plasma edge, including SOL, in hydrogen plasmas (Maggi et al 2018 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 60 014045). All these experimental observations and code results support the hypothesis that the near SOL E x B shear can have an impact on the plasma confinement. The present work analyzes neutral ionization patterns of JET plasmas with different hydrogen isotopes in L-mode cases with fixed input power and gas puffing rate, and its impact on target electron temperature, T-e, and SOL E-r. The possibility of a self-feeding mechanism for the increase in the SOL E-r via the interplay between poloidal E x B drift and target T-e is discussed. It is also shown that reducing anomalous turbulent transport coefficients, particle diffusion and electron and ion heat conductivities, leads to higher peak target T-e and larger E-r, suggesting the possibility of a positive feedback loop, under an implicitly made assumption that the E x B shear in the SOL is capable of suppressing turbulence.

  • 35. Chapman, I. T.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Advances in understanding and utilising ELM control in JET2016In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 58, no 1, article id 014017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Edge localised mode (ELM) control may be essential to develop ITER scenarios with a reasonable lifetime of divertor components, whilst ELM pacing may be essential to develop stationary ITER scenarios with a tungsten divertor. Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have mitigated ELMs in high collisionality plasmas in JET. The efficacy of RMPs in mitigating the ELMs is found to depend on plasma shaping, with the change in magnetic boundary achieved when non-axisymmetric fields are applied facilitating access to small ELM regimes. The understanding of ELM pacing by vertical kicks or pellets has also been improved in a range of pedestal conditions in JET (T-ped = 0.7-1.3 keV) encompassing the ITER-expected domain (beta(N) = 1.4-2.4, H-98(y,H- 2) = 0.8-1.2, f(GW) similar to 0.7). ELM triggering is reliable provided the perturbation is above a threshold which depends on pedestal parameters. ELM triggering is achieved even in the first 10% of the natural ELM cycle suggesting no inherent maximum frequency. At high normalised pressure, the peeling-ballooning modes are stabilised as predicted by ELITE, necessitating a larger perturbation from either kicks or pellets in order to trigger ELMs. Both kicks and pellets have been used to pace ELMs for tungsten flushing. This has allowed stationary plasma conditions with low gas injection in plasmas where the natural ELM frequency is such that it would normally preclude stationary conditions.

  • 36. Chapman, I. T.
    et al.
    Graves, J. P.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Asunta, O.
    Bonoli, P.
    Choi, M.
    Jaeger, E. F.
    Jucker, M.
    Sauter, O.
    Sawtooth control in ITER using ion cyclotron resonance heating2011In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 53, no 12, p. 124003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical modelling of the effects of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) on the stability of the internal kink mode suggests that ICRH should be considered as an essential sawtooth control tool in ITER. Sawtooth control using ICRH is achieved by directly affecting the energy of the internal kink mode rather than through modification of the magnetic shear by driving localized currents. Consequently, ICRH can be seen as complementary to the planned electron cyclotron current drive actuator, and indeed will improve the efficacy of current drive schemes. Simulations of the ICRH distribution using independent RF codes give confidence in numerical predictions that the stabilizing influence of the fusion-born alphas can be negated by appropriately tailored minority (3)He ICRH heating in ITER. Finally, the effectiveness of all sawtooth actuators is shown to increase as the q = 1 surface moves towards the manetic axis, whilst the passive stabilization arising from the alpha and NBI particles decreases.

  • 37. Chapman, I. T.
    et al.
    Pinches, S. D.
    Graves, J. P.
    Akers, R. J.
    Appel, L. C.
    Budny, R. V.
    Coda, S.
    Conway, N. J.
    de Bock, M.
    Eriksson, L-G
    Hastie, R. J.
    Hender, T. C.
    Huysmans, G. T. A.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Koslowski, H. R.
    Kraemer-Flecken, A.
    Lennholm, M.
    Liang, Y.
    Saarelma, S.
    Sharapov, S. E.
    Voitsekhovitch, I.
    The physics of sawtooth stabilization2007In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 49, no 12B, p. B385-B394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long period sawteeth have been observed to result in low-beta triggering of neo-classical tearing modes, which can significantly degrade plasma confinement. Consequently, a detailed physical understanding of sawtooth behaviour is critical, especially for ITER where fusion-born a particles are likely to lead to very long sawtooth periods. Many techniques have been developed to control, and in particular to destabilize the sawteeth. The application of counter-current neutral beam injection (NBI) in JET has resulted in shorter sawtooth periods than in Ohmic plasmas. This result has been explained because, firstly, the counter-passing fast ions give a destabilizing contribution to the n=1 internal kink mode-which is accepted to be related to sawtooth oscillations-and secondly, the flow shear strongly influences the stabilizing trapped particles. A similar experimental result has been observed in counter-NBI heated plasmas in MAST. However, the strong toroidal flows in spherical tokamaks mean that the sawtooth behaviour is determined by the gyroscopic flow stabilization of the kink mode rather than kinetic effects. In NBI heated plasmas in smaller conventional aspect-ratio tokamaks, such as TEXTOR, the flow and kinetic effects compete to give different sawtooth behaviour. Other techniques applied to destabilize sawteeth are the application of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) or ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). In JET, it has been observed that localized ICRH is able to destabilize sawteeth which were otherwise stabilized by a co-existing population of energetic trapped ions in the core. This is explained through the dual role of the ICRH in reducing the critical magnetic shear required to trigger a sawtooth crash, and the increase in the local magnetic shear which results from driving current near the q=1 rational surface. Sawtooth control in ITER could be provided by a combination of ECCD and co-passing off-axis negative-NBI fast ions.

  • 38. Chapman, I. T.
    et al.
    Walkden, N. R.
    Graves, J. P.
    Wahlberg, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Space Plasma Physics.
    The effects of sheared toroidal rotation on stability limits in tokamak plasmas2011In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 53, no 12, p. 125002-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sheared toroidal rotation is found to increase the ideal external kink stability limit, thought to be the ultimate performance limit in fusion tokamaks. However, at rotation speeds approaching a significant fraction of the Alfven speed, the toroidal rotation shear drives a Kelvin-Helmholtz-like global plasma instability. Optimizing the rotation profile to maximize the pressure before encountering external kink modes, but simultaneously avoiding flow-driven instabilities, can lead to a window of stability that might be attractive for operating future high-performance fusion devices such as a spherical tokamak component test facility.

  • 39. Citrin, J.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Tractable flux-driven temperature, density, and rotation profile evolution with the quasilinear gyrokinetic transport model QuaLiKiz2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 12, article id 124005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quasilinear turbulent transport models are a successful tool for prediction of core tokamak plasma profiles in many regimes. Their success hinges on the reproduction of local nonlinear gyrokinetic fluxes. We focus on significant progress in the quasilinear gyrokinetic transport model QuaLiKiz (Bourdelle et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 014036), which employs an approximated solution of the mode structures to significantly speed up computation time compared to full linear gyrokinetic solvers. Optimisation of the dispersion relation solution algorithm within integrated modelling applications leads to flux calculations x 10(6-7) faster than local nonlinear simulations. This allows tractable simulation of flux-driven dynamic profile evolution including all transport channels: ion and electron heat, main particles, impurities, and momentum. Furthermore, QuaLiKiz now includes the impact of rotation and temperature anisotropy induced poloidal asymmetry on heavy impurity transport, important for W-transport applications. Application within the JETTO integrated modelling code results in 1 s of JET plasma simulation within 10 h using 10 CPUs. Simultaneous predictions of core density, temperature, and toroidal rotation profiles for both JET hybrid and baseline experiments are

  • 40. Citrin, J.
    et al.
    Garcia, J.
    Görler, T.
    Jenko, F.
    Mantica, P.
    Told, D.
    Bourdelle, C.
    Hatch, D. R.
    Hogeweij, G. M. D.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Pueschel, M. J.
    Schneider, M.
    Electromagnetic stabilization of tokamak microturbulence in a high-beta regime2015In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 014032-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of electromagnetic stabilization and flow shear stabilization on ITG turbulence is investigated. Analysis of a low-beta JET L-mode discharge illustrates the relation between ITG stabilization and proximity to the electromagnetic instability threshold. This threshold is reduced by suprathermal pressure gradients, highlighting the effectiveness of fast ions in ITG stabilization. Extensive linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations are then carried out for the high-beta JET hybrid discharge 75225, at two separate locations at inner and outer radii. It is found that at the inner radius, nonlinear electromagnetic stabilization is dominant and is critical for achieving simulated heat fluxes in agreement with the experiment. The enhancement of this effect by suprathermal pressure also remains significant. It is also found that flow shear stabilization is not effective at the inner radii. However, at outer radii the situation is reversed. Electromagnetic stabilization is negligible while the flow shear stabilization is significant. These results constitute the high-beta generalization of comparable observations found at low-beta at JET. This is encouraging for the extrapolation of electromagnetic ITG stabilization to future devices. An estimation of the impact of this effect on the ITER hybrid scenario leads to a 20% fusion power improvement.

  • 41. Corre, Y.
    et al.
    Joffrin, E.
    Monier-Garbet, P.
    Andrew, Y.
    Arnoux, G.
    Beurskens, M.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Brix, M.
    Buttery, R.
    Coffey, I.
    Crombe, K.
    de La Luna, E.
    Felton, R.
    Giroud, C.
    Hacquin, S.
    Hobirk, J.
    Huber, A.
    Imbeaux, F.
    Jachmich, S.
    Kempenaars, M.
    Litaudon, X.
    Leggate, H.
    Loarer, T.
    Maddison, G.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics.
    Rapp, J.
    Sauter, O.
    Savchkov, A.
    Telesca, G.
    Widdowson, A.
    Zastrow, K. D.
    Zimmermann, O.
    Hybrid H-mode scenario with nitrogen seeding and type III ELMs in JET2008In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 115012-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of the 'hybrid' H-mode regime (long pulse operation with high neutron fluency) has been extensively investigated in JET during the 2005-2007 experimental campaign up to normalized pressure beta(N) = 3, toroidal magnetic field B-t = 1.7T, with type I ELMs plasma edge conditions. The optimized external current drive sources, self-generated non-inductive bootstrap current and plasma core stability properties provide a good prospect of achieving a high fusion gain at reduced plasma current for long durations in ITER. One of the remaining issues is the erosion of the divertor target plates associated with the type I ELM regime. A possible solution could be to operate with a plasma edge in the type III ELM regime (reduced transient and stationary heat loads) obtained with impurity seeding. An integrated hybrid type III ELM regime with a normalized pressure beta(N) = 2.6 (PNBI similar to 20-22 MW) and a thermal confinement factor of H-98* 98(y, 2) similar to 0.83 has been recently successfully developed on JET with nitrogen seeding. This scenario shows good plasma edge condition (compatible with the future ITER-like wall on JET) and moderate MHD activity. In this paper, we report on the experimental development of the scenario (with plasma current I-p = 1.7MA and magnetic field B-t = 1.7T) and the trade-off between heat load reduction at the target plates and global confinement due to nitrogen seeding and type III ELM working conditions.

  • 42. Counsell, G.
    et al.
    Coad, P.
    Grisola, C.
    Hopf, C.
    Jacob, W.
    Kirschner, A.
    Kreter, A.
    Krieger, K.
    Likonen, J.
    Philipps, V.
    Roth, J.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Salancon, E.
    Semerok, A.
    Tabares, F. L.
    Widdowson, A.
    Tritium retention in next step devices and the requirements for mitigation and removal techniques2006In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 48, no 12B, p. B189-B199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanisms underlying the retention of fuel species in tokamaks with carbon plasma-facing components are presented, together with estimates for the corresponding retention of tritium in ITER. The consequential requirement for new and improved schemes to reduce the tritium inventory is highlighted and the results of ongoing studies into a range of techniques are presented, together with estimates of the tritium removal rate in ITER in each case. Finally, an approach involving the integration of many tritium removal techniques into the ITER operational schedule is proposed as a means to extend the period of operations before major intervention is required.

  • 43.
    Dahlin, Jon-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Scheffel, Jan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Anderson, Jay
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Numerical studies of active current profile control in the reversed-field pinch2007In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 183-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quenching of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) dynamo is observed in numerical simulations using current profile control. A novel algorithm employing active feedback of the dynamo field has been utilized. The quasi-steady state achieved represents an important improvement as compared with earlier numerical work and may indicate a direction for the design of future experiments. Both earlier and the novel schemes of feedback control result in quasi-single helicity states. The energy confinement time and poloidal beta are observed to be substantially increased, as compared with the conventional RFP, in both the cases. Different techniques for experimental implementation are discussed.

  • 44. de Vries, P. C.
    et al.
    Joffrin, E.
    Hawkes, N. C.
    Litaudon, X.
    Challis, C. D.
    Andrew, Y.
    Beurskens, M.
    Brix, M.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Crombe, K.
    Giroud, C.
    Hobirk, J.
    Johnson, T.
    Lonnroth, J.
    Salmi, A.
    Tala, T.
    Yavorskij, V.
    Zastrow, K. D.
    Effect of toroidal field ripple on the formation of internal transport barriers2008In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 50, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of a toroidal field (TF) ripple on the formation and performance of internal transport barriers (ITBs) has been studied in JET. It was found that the TF ripple had a profound effect on the toroidal plasma rotation. An increased TF ripple up to delta = 1% led to a lower rotation and reduced the rotational shear in the region where the ITBs were formed. ITB triggering events were observed in all cases and it is thought that the rotational shear may be less important for this process than, for example, the q-profile. However, the increase in the pressure gradient following the ITB trigger was reduced in discharges with a larger TF ripple and consequently a lower rotational shear. This suggests that toroidal rotation and its shear play a role in the growth of the ITB once it has been triggered.

  • 45. Devynck, P.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Scaling of the frequencies of the type one edge localized modes and their effect on the tungsten source in JET ITER-like wall2016In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 58, no 12, article id 125014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A database of 250 pulses taken randomly during the experimental campaigns of JET with the ITER-like wall (ILW) is used to study the frequency dependences of the type I edge localized modes (ELM). A scaling of the ELM frequency is presented as a function of the pedestal density drop dN(ped) and a very simple model to interpret this scaling is discussed. In this model, the frequency of the ELMs is governed by the time needed by the neutral flux to refill the density of the pedestal. The filling rate is the result of a small imbalance between the neutral flux filling the pedestal and the outward flux that expels the particles to the SOL. The ELM frequency can be governed by such a mechanism if the recovery time of the temperature of the pedestal in JET occurs before or at the same time as the one of the density. This is observed to be the case. An effect of the fuelling is measured when the number of injected particles is less than 1 x 10(22) particles s(-1). In that case an increase of the inter-ELM time is observed which is related to the slower recovery of the density pedestal. Additionally, a scaling is found for the source of tungsten during the ELMs. The number of tungsten atoms eroded by the ELMs per second is proportional to dNped multiplied by the ELM frequency. This is possible only if the tungsten sputtering yield is independent of the energy of the impinging particle hitting the divertor. This result is in agreement with Guillemault et al (2015 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 57 085006) and is compatible with the D+ ions hitting the divertor having energies above 2 keV. Finally, by plotting the W-content/W-source ratio during ELM crash, a global decreasing behaviour with the ELM frequency is found. However at frequencies below 40 Hz a scatter towards upper values is found. This scatter is found to correlate with the gas injection level. In a narrow ELM frequency band around 20 Hz, it is found that both the ratio W-content/W-source and W-source decrease with the gas injection.

  • 46.
    Dieckmann, Mark E
    et al.
    Ruhr-University Bochum.
    Bret, Antoine
    ETSI-Industriales University of Castilla-La Mancha.
    Shukla, Padma Kant
    Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV Ruhr-University Bochum.
    Comparing electrostatic instabilities driven by mildly and highly relativistic proton beams2007In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 49, no December, p. 1989-2004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electrostatic instability driven by counter-propagating tenuous proton beams that traverse a bulk plasma consisting of electrons and protons is considered. The system is spatially homogeneous and is evolved in time with a one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, which allows for a good statistical plasma representation. Mildly and highly relativistic beam speeds are modeled. The proton beams with a speed of 0.9c result in waves that saturate by the trapping of electrons. The collapse of the phase space holes in the electron distribution scatters these to a flat-top momentum distribution. The final electric fields are weak and the proton beams are weakly modulated. No secondary instabilities are likely to form that could thermalize the proton beams. The proton beams moving with 0.99c initially heat the bulk plasma through a three-wave interaction. Coalescing phase space holes in the bulk proton distribution arising from the saturation of ion acoustic waves transport wave energy to low wavenumbers. Highly relativistic phase space holes form in the electron distribution, which are not spatially homogeneous. The spatial envelope of these electron phase space holes interacts with the fluctuations driven by the phase space holes in the bulk protons, triggering a modulational instability. A Langmuir wave condensate forms that gives rise to strong and long electrostatic wave packets, as well as to a substantial modulation of the proton beams. The final state of the system with the highly relativistic proton beams is thus more unstable to further secondary instabilities that may transfer a larger beam energy fraction to the electrons and thermalize the proton beams more rapidly

  • 47.
    Dieckmann, Mark E
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Doria, D.
    Queens University of Belfast, North Ireland.
    Sarri, G.
    Queens University of Belfast, North Ireland.
    Romagnani, L.
    Ecole Polytech, France.
    Ahmed, H.
    Queens University of Belfast, North Ireland.
    Folini, D.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Walder, R.
    University of Lyon, France.
    Bret, A.
    University of Castilla La Mancha, Spain; Institute Invest Energet and Aplicac Ind, Spain.
    Borghesi, M.
    Queens University of Belfast, North Ireland.
    Electrostatic shock waves in the laboratory and astrophysics: similarities and differences2018In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 60, no 1, article id 014014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary lasers allow us to create shocks in the laboratory that propagate at a speed that matches that of energetic astrophysical shocks like those that ensheath supernova blast shells. The rapid growth time of the shocks and the spatio-temporal resolution, with which they can be sampled, allow us to identify the processes that are involved in their formation and evolution. Some laser-generated unmagnetized shocks are mediated by collective electrostatic forces and effects caused by binary collisions between particles can be neglected. Hydrodynamic models, which are valid for many large-scale astrophysical shocks, assume that collisions enforce a local thermodynamic equilibrium in the medium; laser-generated shocks are thus not always representative for astrophysical shocks. Laboratory studies of shocks can improve the understanding of their astrophysical counterparts if we can identify processes that affect electrostatic shocks and hydrodynamic shocks alike. An example is the nonlinear thin-shell instability (NTSI). We show that the NTSI destabilises collisionless and collisional shocks by the same physical mechanism.

  • 48.
    Dieckmann, Mark E
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eliasson, Bengt
    Institute of Theoretical Physics IV Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany.
    Shukla, Padma K
    Institute of Theoretical Physics IV Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany.
    Sircombe, Nathan J
    Space and Astrophysics Group University of Warwick.
    Dendy, Richard O
    Space and Astrophysics Group University of Warwick.
    Two-stream instability in collisionless shocks and foreshock2006In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 48, no 12 B, p. B303-B311Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shocks play a key role in plasma thermalization and particle acceleration in the near Earth space plasma, in astrophysical plasma and in laser plasma interactions. An accurate understanding of the physics of plasma shocks is thus of immense importance. We give an overview over some recent developments in particle-in-cell simulations of plasma shocks and foreshock dynamics. We focus on ion reflection by shocks and on the two-stream instabilities these beams can drive, and these are placed in the context of experimental observations, e.g. by the Cluster mission. We discuss how we may expand the insight gained from the observation of proton beam driven instabilities at near Earth plasma shocks to better understand their astrophysical counterparts, such as ion beam instabilities triggered by internal and external shocks in the relativistic jets of gamma ray bursts, shocks in the accretion discs of micro-quasars and supernova remnant shocks. It is discussed how and why the peak energy that can be reached by particles that are accelerated by two-stream instabilities increases from keV energies to GeV energies and beyond, as we increase the streaming speed to relativistic values, and why the particle energy spectrum sometimes resembles power law distributions.

  • 49.
    Dieckmann, Mark E
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Folini, Doris
    École Normale Supérieure, Lyon, CRAL, UMR CNRS 5574, Université de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon, France.
    Bret, Antoine
    Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, ETSI Ind, E-13071 Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Walder, Rolf
    École Normale Supérieure, Lyon, CRAL, UMR CNRS 5574, Université de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon, France.
    Simulation studies of temperature anisotropy driven pair-Alfvén and aperiodic instabilities in magnetized pair plasma2019In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 61, no 8, article id 085027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compare with one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations the aperiodically growing instabilities driven by a bi-Maxwellian velocity distribution in unmagnetized electron plasma (Weibel instability) and in pair plasma. The simulation box is aligned with the cool direction. The waves in both simulations evolve towards a circularly polarized non-propagating magnetic structure. Its current and magnetic field are aligned and the structure is in a force-free state. We examine how a background magnetic field B 0, which is parallel to the simulation direction, affects the waves in the pair plasma. A weak B 0 cannot inhibit the growth of the aperiodically growing instability but it prevents it from reaching the force-free stable state. The mode collapses and seeds a pair Alfvén waves. An intermediate B 0 couples the thermal anisotropy to the pair Alfvén mode and propagating magnetowaves grow. The phase speed of the pair of Alfvén waves is increased by the thermal anisotropy. Its growth is suppressed when B 0 is set to the value that stabilizes the mirror mode.

  • 50.
    Dieckmann, Mark E
    et al.
    Ruhr-Universität Bochum.
    Meli, Athina
    Department of Physics National University of Athens, Greece.
    Shukla, Padma Kant
    Institut für Theoretische Physik IV Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Drury, Luke OC
    Cosmic Rays Section Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin, Ireland.
    Mastichiadis, Apostolos
    Department of Physics, National University of Athens National University of Athens.
    Two-dimensional PIC simulations of ion beam instabilities in Supernova-driven plasma flows2008In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 50, p. 065020-1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supernova remnant blast shells can reach the flow speed vs = 0.1c and shocks form at its front. Instabilities driven by shock-reflected ion beams heat the plasma in the foreshock, which may inject particles into diffusive acceleration. The ion beams can have the speed vb vs. For vb vs the Buneman or upper-hybrid instabilities dominate, while for vb vs the filamentation and mixed modes grow faster. Here the relevant waves for vb vs are examined and how they interact nonlinearly with the particles. The collision of two plasma clouds at the speed vs is modelled with particle-in-cell simulations, which convect with them magnetic fields oriented perpendicular to their flow velocity vector. One simulation models equally dense clouds and the other one uses a density ratio of 2. Both simulations show upper-hybrid waves that are planar over large spatial intervals and that accelerate electrons to ~10 keV. The symmetric collision yields only short oscillatory wave pulses, while the asymmetric collision also produces large-scale electric fields, probably through a magnetic pressure gradient. The large-scale fields destroy the electron phase space holes and they accelerate the ions, which facilitates the formation of a precursor shock. 

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