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  • 1. Agren, P.
    et al.
    Andersson, K.
    Haviland, David B.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Kinetic inductance and Coulomb blockade in one dimensional Josephson junction arrays2001In: Journal of Low Temperature Physics, ISSN 0022-2291, E-ISSN 1573-7357, Vol. 124, no 02-jan, p. 291-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One dimensional Josephson junction arrays have been fabricated and current-voltage characteristics (IVC) have been measured at cryogenic temperatures. The arrays were fabricated in a SQUID-geometry which allowed an in. situ tuning of thc Josephson energy by application of a magnetic field. The IVC of thc arrays shows a clear Coulomb blockade state. In the Coulomb blockade regime the IVC are hysteretic, The array is modeled using a Serial resistive-inductive-junction model which is able to qualitatively explain the IVC. In this model an inductance of the order of 0.1-10 mH per Junction is needed to account for the hysteresis. Kinetic inductance. stemming from the inertia of the Cooper pairs. gives the correct order of magnitude. The problem of self-heating is also discussed as an alternative explanation of the hysteresis.

  • 2. Baym, Gordon
    et al.
    Beck, D. H.
    Pethick, C. J.
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita).
    Low-Temperature Transport Properties of Very Dilute Classical Solutions of He in Superfluid He2015In: Journal of Low Temperature Physics, ISSN 0022-2291, E-ISSN 1573-7357, Vol. 178, no 3-4, p. 200-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report microscopic calculations of the thermal conductivity, diffusion constant, and thermal diffusion constant for classical solutions of He in superfluid He at temperatures K, where phonons are the dominant excitations of the He. We focus on solutions with He concentrations , for which the main scattering mechanisms are phonon-phonon scattering via 3-phonon Landau and Beliaev processes, which maintain the phonons in a drifting equilibrium distribution, and the slower process of He-phonon scattering, which is crucial for determining the He distribution function in transport. We use the fact that the relative changes in the energy and momentum of a He atom in a collision with a phonon are small to derive a Fokker-Planck equation for the He distribution function, which we show has an analytical solution in terms of Sonine polynomials. We also calculate the corrections to the Fokker-Planck results for the transport coefficients.

  • 3. Bergman, A. S.
    et al.
    Ade, P. A. R.
    Akers, S.
    Amiri, M.
    Austermann, J. A.
    Beall, J. A.
    Becker, D. T.
    Benton, S. J.
    Bock, J. J.
    Bond, J. R.
    Bryan, S. A.
    Chiang, H. C.
    Contaldi, C. R.
    Domagalski, R. S.
    Dore, O.
    Duff, S. M.
    Duivenvoorden, Adri J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Eriksen, H. K.
    Farhang, M.
    Filippini, J. P.
    Fissel, L. M.
    Fraisse, A. A.
    Freese, Katherine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). University of Michigan, USA.
    Galloway, M.
    Gambrel, A. E.
    Gandilo, N. N.
    Ganga, K.
    Grigorian, A.
    Gualtieri, R.
    Gudmundsson, Jón E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Halpern, M.
    Hartley, J.
    Hasselfield, M.
    Hilton, G.
    Holmes, W.
    Hristov, V. V.
    Huang, Z.
    Hubmayr, J.
    Irwin, K. D.
    Jones, W. C.
    Khan, A.
    Kuo, C. L.
    Kermish, Z. D.
    Li, S.
    Mason, P. V.
    Megerian, K.
    Moncelsi, L.
    Morford, T. A.
    Nagy, J. M.
    Netterfield, C. B.
    Nolta, M.
    Osherson, B.
    Padilla, I. L.
    Racine, B.
    Rahlin, A. S.
    Redmond, S.
    Reintsema, C.
    Romualdez, L. J.
    Ruhl, J. E.
    Runyan, M. C.
    Ruud, T. M.
    Shariff, J. A.
    Shaw, E. C.
    Shiu, C.
    Soler, J. D.
    Song, X.
    Trangsrud, A.
    Tucker, C.
    Tucker, R. S.
    Turner, A. D.
    Ullom, J.
    van der List, J. F.
    Van Lanen, J.
    Vissers, M. R.
    Weber, A. C.
    Wehus, I. K.
    Wen, S.
    Wiebe, D. V.
    Young, E. Y.
    280 GHz Focal Plane Unit Design and Characterization for the SPIDER-2 Suborbital Polarimeter2018In: Journal of Low Temperature Physics, ISSN 0022-2291, E-ISSN 1573-7357, Vol. 193, no 5-6, p. 1075-1084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the construction and characterization of the 280 GHz bolometric focal plane units (FPUs) to be deployed on the second flight of the balloon-borne SPIDER instrument. These FPUs are vital to SPIDER's primary science goal of detecting or placing an upper limit on the amplitude of the primordial gravitational wave signature in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by constraining the B-mode contamination in the CMB from Galactic dust emission. Each 280 GHz focal plane contains a 16 x 16 grid of corrugated silicon feedhorns coupled to an array of aluminum-manganese transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers fabricated on 150 mm diameter substrates. In total, the three 280 GHz FPUs contain 1530 polarization-sensitive bolometers (765 spatial pixels) optimized for the low loading environment in flight and read out by time-division SQUID multiplexing. In this paper, we describe the mechanical, thermal, and magnetic shielding architecture of the focal planes and present cryogenic measurements which characterize yield and the uniformity of several bolometer parameters. The assembled FPUs have high yields, with one array as high as 95% including defects from wiring and readout. We demonstrate high uniformity in device parameters, finding the median saturation power for each TES array to be similar to 3 pW at 300 mK with a less than 6% variation across each array at 1 sigma. These focal planes will be deployed alongside the 95 and 150 GHz telescopes in the SPIDER-2 instrument, slated to fly from McMurdo Station in Antarctica in December 2018.

  • 4. Gualtieri, R.
    et al.
    Filippini, J. P.
    Ade, P. A. R.
    Amiri, M.
    Benton, S. J.
    Bergman, A. S.
    Bihary, R.
    Bock, J. J.
    Bond, J. R.
    Bryan, S. A.
    Chiang, H. C.
    Contaldi, C. R.
    Dore, O.
    Duivenvoorden, Adri J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Eriksen, H. K.
    Farhang, M.
    Fissel, L. M.
    Fraisse, A. A.
    Freese, Katherine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). University of Michigan, USA.
    Galloway, M.
    Gambrel, A. E.
    Gandilo, N. N.
    Ganga, K.
    Gramillano, R. V.
    Gudmundsson, Jón E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Halpern, M.
    Hartley, J.
    Hasselfield, M.
    Hilton, G.
    Holmes, W.
    Hristov, V. V.
    Huang, Z.
    Irwin, K. D.
    Jones, W. C.
    Kuo, C. L.
    Kermish, Z. D.
    Li, S.
    Mason, P. V.
    Megerian, K.
    Moncelsi, L.
    Morford, T. A.
    Nagy, J. M.
    Netterfield, C. B.
    Nolta, M.
    Osherson, B.
    Padilla, I. L.
    Racine, B.
    Rahlin, A. S.
    Reintsema, C.
    Ruhl, J. E.
    Runyan, M. C.
    Ruud, T. M.
    Shariff, J. A.
    Soler, J. D.
    Song, X.
    Trangsrud, A.
    Tucker, C.
    Tucker, R. S.
    Turner, A. D.
    van der List, J. F.
    Weber, A. C.
    Wehus, I. K.
    Wiebe, D. V.
    Young, E. Y.
    SPIDER: CMB Polarimetry from the Edge of Space2018In: Journal of Low Temperature Physics, ISSN 0022-2291, E-ISSN 1573-7357, Vol. 193, no 5-6, p. 1112-1121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SPIDER is a balloon-borne instrument designed to map the polarization of the millimeter-wave sky at large angular scales. Spider targets the B-mode signature of primordial gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), with a focus on mapping a large sky area with high fidelity at multiple frequencies. SPIDER's first long-duration balloon (LDB) flight in January 2015 deployed a total of 2400 antenna-coupled transition-edge sensors (TESs) at 90 GHz and 150 GHz. In this work we review the design and in-flight performance of the SPIDER instrument, with a particular focus on the measured performance of the detectors and instrument in a space-like loading and radiation environment. SPIDER's second flight in December 2018 will incorporate payload upgrades and new receivers to map the sky at 285 GHz, providing valuable information for cleaning polarized dust emission from CMB maps.

  • 5.
    Haviland, David B.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Andersson, K.
    Agren, P.
    Superconducting and insulating behavior in one-dimensional Josephson junction arrays2000In: Journal of Low Temperature Physics, ISSN 0022-2291, E-ISSN 1573-7357, Vol. 118, no 06-maj, p. 733-749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments on one-dimensional small capacitance Josephson Junction arrays are described. The arrays have a junction capacitance that is much larger than the stray capacitance of the electrodes, which we argue is important for observation of Coulomb blockade. The Josephson energy can be tuned in situ and an evolution from Josephson-like to Coulomb blockade behavior is observed. This evolution can be described as a superconducting to insulating, quantum phase transition. In the Coulomb blockade state, hysteretic current-voltage characteristics are described by a dynamic model which is dual to the resistively shunted junction model of classical Josephson junctions.

  • 6.
    Lundqvist, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Rapp, Östen
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Johansson, L. G.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Chen, H .Q.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Ivanov, Z. G.
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Andersson, Magnus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Vortex dynamics in a thin film of Tl2Ba2CuO61999In: Journal of Low Temperature Physics, ISSN 0022-2291, E-ISSN 1573-7357, Vol. 117, no 5-6, p. 1441-1445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vortex dynamics in a Tl2Ba2CuO6 (Tl-2201) thin film with a critical temperature T-c = 80.8 K has been studied by electrical resistivity measurements for magnetic fields 0 less than or equal to B less than or equal to 12 T. The vortex glass line, as determined from the disappearance of linear resistivity, was found to be well described by B-g (T) = B-0[(1 - T/T-c)/(T/T-c)(alpha), with B-0 approximate to 0.65 T and alpha approximate to 1.9. The glass line of Tl-2201 is observed to be located below the one of Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8+delta (Tl-2212) in a magnetic phase diagram based on a reduced temperature scale T/T-c, thus suggesting a higher anisotropy for Tl-2201.

  • 7.
    Ozana, Marek
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Shelankov, Andrei
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Superconductivity in multiple interface geometry: Applicability of quasiclassical theory2001In: Journal of Low Temperature Physics, ISSN 0022-2291, E-ISSN 1573-7357, Vol. 124, no 1-2, p. 223-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The method of two-point quasiclassical Green's function is reviewed and its applicability for description of multiple reflections/transmissions in layered structures is discussed. The Green's function of a sandwich built of super-conducting layers with a semi-transparent interface is found with the help of recently suggested quasiclassical method [A. Shelankov and M. Ozana, Phys. Rev. B 61. 7077 (2000)], as well as exactly, from thc Gor'kov equation. By the comparison of the results of the two approaches, thc validity of the quasiclassical method for thc description of real (non-integrable) systems is confirmed.

  • 8.
    Rapp, Östen.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Bjornangen, T.
    Eltsev, Y.
    Rydh, A.
    Resistivity studies by multiterminal transport measurements on single crystal YBa2Cu3O7-delta2003In: Journal of Low Temperature Physics, ISSN 0022-2291, E-ISSN 1573-7357, Vol. 131, no 06-maj, p. 1009-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiterminal transport studies provide a powerful technique to investigate vortex structure and correlations in the vicinity of the vortex solid-to-liquid transition in single crystals of high temperature superconductors. Recent results are described, including new contact configurations, allowing both longitudinal and transverse vortex correlations to be studied in one crystal during a single temperature sweep at constant field.

  • 9.
    Rydh, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Andersson, Magnus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Rapp, Östen
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Thermally assisted flux creep of a driven vortex lattice in untwinned YBa2Cu3O7-delta single crystals1999In: Journal of Low Temperature Physics, ISSN 0022-2291, E-ISSN 1573-7357, Vol. 117, no 5-6, p. 1335-1339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the driven vortex lattice in untwinned, clean YBa2 Cu-3 O7-delta single crystals, showing the first order (melting) transition T-m. At high enough driving currents (j similar to 10(3) A/cm(2), j greater than or similar to j(c)) and temperatures T < T-m a clear distinction is found between two different behaviours of the moving vortex lattice. The onset of dissipation is characterized by a noisy flux creep with a temperature independent activation energy U(j). At higher temperatures, the creep regime crosses over into a flux flow regime with linear resistivity. Apart from the dip in resistivity at T-m, associated with the peak effect and usually assigned to a softening of the shear modulus, the resistivity of the flowing flux lattice continuously extends into the vortex-liquid.

  • 10.
    Silaev, Mihail A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Theoretical Physics.
    Dissipative Vortex Motion in Fermi Superfluids at Ultra Low Temperatures2013In: Journal of Low Temperature Physics, ISSN 0022-2291, E-ISSN 1573-7357, Vol. 171, no 5-6, p. 539-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss in detail the recently proposed mechanism of dissipation and damping of the vortex motion in Fermi superfluids at temperatures much smaller than the critical one (Silaev, Phys. Rev. Lett., 108:045303, 2012). In the absence of the heat bath of normal component the kinetic energy of the superflow is transferred to the vortex core fermions due to the accelerated vortex motion. The resulting local heating of the vortex cores creates the heat flux carried by non-equilibrium quasiparticles emitted by moving vortices. Here we study this peculiar kinetics of localized quasiparticles beyond relaxation time approximation, calculate the decrement of Kelvin waves and the total power losses in Kelvin wave cascade realized by the turbulent motion of He-3-B.

  • 11. Sugai, H.
    et al.
    Ade, P. A. R.
    Akiba, Y.
    Alonso, D.
    Arnold, K.
    Aumont, J.
    Austermann, J.
    Baccigalupi, C.
    Banday, A. J.
    Banerji, R.
    Barreiro, R. B.
    Basak, S.
    Beall, J.
    Beckman, S.
    Bersanelli, M.
    Borrill, J.
    Boulanger, F.
    Brown, M. L.
    Bucher, M.
    Buzzelli, A.
    Calabrese, E.
    Casas, F. J.
    Challinor, A.
    Chan, V.
    Chinone, Y.
    Cliche, J. -F.
    Columbro, F.
    Cukierman, A.
    Curtis, D.
    Danto, P.
    de Bernardis, P.
    de Haan, T.
    De Petris, M.
    Dickinson, C.
    Dobbs, M.
    Dotani, T.
    Duband, L.
    Ducout, A.
    Duff, S.
    Duivenvoorden, Adri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Duval, J. -M.
    Ebisawa, K.
    Elleflot, T.
    Enokida, H.
    Eriksen, H. K.
    Errard, J.
    Essinger-Hileman, T.
    Finelli, F.
    Flauger, R.
    Franceschet, C.
    Fuskeland, U.
    Ganga, K.
    Gao, J. -R.
    Genova-Santos, R.
    Ghigna, T.
    Gomez, A.
    Gradziel, M. L.
    Grain, J.
    Grupp, F.
    Gruppuso, A.
    Gudmundsson, Jón E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Halverson, N. W.
    Hargrave, P.
    Hasebe, T.
    Hasegawa, M.
    Hattori, M.
    Hazumi, M.
    Henrot-Versille, S.
    Herranz, D.
    Hill, C.
    Hilton, G.
    Hirota, Y.
    Hivon, E.
    Hlozek, R.
    Hoang, D. -T.
    Hubmayr, J.
    Ichiki, K.
    Iida, T.
    Imada, H.
    Ishimura, K.
    Ishino, H.
    Jaehnig, G. C.
    Jones, M.
    Kaga, T.
    Kashima, S.
    Kataoka, Y.
    Katayama, N.
    Kawasaki, T.
    Keskitalo, R.
    Kibayashi, A.
    Kikuchi, T.
    Kimura, K.
    Kisner, T.
    Kobayashi, Y.
    Kogiso, N.
    Kogut, A.
    Kohri, K.
    Komatsu, E.
    Komatsu, K.
    Konishi, K.
    Krachmalnicoff, N.
    Kuo, C. L.
    Kurinsky, N.
    Kushino, A.
    Kuwata-Gonokami, M.
    Lamagna, L.
    Lattanzi, M.
    Lee, A. T.
    Linder, E.
    Maffei, B.
    Maino, D.
    Maki, M.
    Mangilli, A.
    Martinez-Gonzalez, E.
    Masi, S.
    Mathon, R.
    Matsumura, T.
    Mennella, A.
    Migliaccio, M.
    Minami, Y.
    Mistuda, K.
    Molinari, D.
    Montier, L.
    Morgante, G.
    Mot, B.
    Murata, Y.
    Murphy, J. A.
    Nagai, M.
    Nagata, R.
    Nakamura, S.
    Namikawa, T.
    Natoli, P.
    Nerval, S.
    Nishibori, T.
    Nishino, H.
    Nomura, Y.
    Noviello, F.
    O'Sullivan, C.
    Ochi, H.
    Ogawa, H.
    Ogawa, H.
    Ohsaki, H.
    Ohta, I.
    Okada, N.
    Okada, N.
    Pagano, L.
    Paiella, A.
    Paoletti, D.
    Patanchon, G.
    Piacentini, F.
    Pisano, G.
    Polenta, G.
    Poletti, D.
    Prouve, T.
    Puglisi, G.
    Rambaud, D.
    Raum, C.
    Realini, S.
    Remazeilles, M.
    Roudil, G.
    Rubino-Martin, J. A.
    Russell, M.
    Sakurai, H.
    Sakurai, Y.
    Sandri, M.
    Savini, G.
    Scott, D.
    Sekimoto, Y.
    Sherwin, B. D.
    Shinozaki, K.
    Shiraishi, M.
    Shirron, P.
    Signorelli, G.
    Smecher, G.
    Spizzi, P.
    Stever, S. L.
    Stompor, R.
    Sugiyama, S.
    Suzuki, A.
    Suzuki, J.
    Switzer, E.
    Takaku, R.
    Takakura, H.
    Takakura, S.
    Takeda, Y.
    Taylor, A.
    Taylor, E.
    Terao, Y.
    Thompson, K. L.
    Thorne, B.
    Tomasi, M.
    Tomida, H.
    Trappe, N.
    Tristram, M.
    Tsuji, M.
    Tsujimoto, M.
    Tucker, C.
    Ullom, J.
    Uozumi, S.
    Utsunomiya, S.
    Van Lanen, J.
    Vermeulen, G.
    Vielva, P.
    Villa, F.
    Vissers, M.
    Vittorio, N.
    Voisin, F.
    Walker, I.
    Watanabe, N.
    Wehus, I.
    Weller, J.
    Westbrook, B.
    Winter, B.
    Wollack, E.
    Yamamoto, R.
    Yamasaki, N. Y.
    Yanagisawa, M.
    Yoshida, T.
    Yumoto, J.
    Zannoni, M.
    Zonca, A.
    Updated Design of the CMB Polarization Experiment Satellite LiteBIRD2020In: Journal of Low Temperature Physics, ISSN 0022-2291, E-ISSN 1573-7357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments of transition-edge sensors (TESs), based on extensive experience in ground-based experiments, have been making the sensor techniques mature enough for their application on future satellite cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments. LiteBIRD is in the most advanced phase among such future satellites, targeting its launch in Japanese Fiscal Year 2027 (2027FY) with JAXA's H3 rocket. It will accommodate more than 4000 TESs in focal planes of reflective low-frequency and refractive medium-and-high-frequency telescopes in order to detect a signature imprinted on the CMB by the primordial gravitational waves predicted in cosmic inflation. The total wide frequency coverage between 34 and 448 GHz enables us to extract such weak spiral polarization patterns through the precise subtraction of our Galaxy's foreground emission by using spectral differences among CMB and foreground signals. Telescopes are cooled down to 5 K for suppressing thermal noise and contain polarization modulators with transmissive half-wave plates at individual apertures for separating sky polarization signals from artificial polarization and for mitigating from instrumental 1/f noise. Passive cooling by using V-grooves supports active cooling with mechanical coolers as well as adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators. Sky observations from the second Sun-Earth Lagrangian point, L2, are planned for 3 years. An international collaboration between Japan, the USA, Canada, and Europe is sharing various roles. In May 2019, the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, selected LiteBIRD as the strategic large mission No. 2.

  • 12.
    Ögren, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden.
    Kavoulakis, G. M.
    Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden.
    Persistent currents in a Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of disorder2007In: Journal of Low Temperature Physics, ISSN 0022-2291, E-ISSN 1573-7357, Vol. 149, no 3-4, p. 176-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine bosonic atoms that are confined in a toroidal, quasi-one-dimensional trap, subjected to a random potential. The resulting inhomogeneous atomic density is smoothened for sufficiently strong, repulsive interatomic interactions. Statistical analysis of our simulations show that the gas supports persistent currents, which become more fragile due to the disorder.

  • 13.
    Ögren, Magnus
    et al.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, School of Physical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden.
    Kavoulakis, G. M.
    Technological Education Institute of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.
    Stability of persistent currents in a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a toroidal trap2009In: Journal of Low Temperature Physics, ISSN 0022-2291, E-ISSN 1573-7357, Vol. 154, no 1-2, p. 30-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by recent experiments in Bose-Einstein condensed atoms that have been confined in toroidal traps, we examine the stability of persistent currents in such systems. We investigate the extent that the stability of these currents may be tunable, and the possible difficulties in their creation and detection.

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