Change search
Refine search result
12345 1 - 50 of 216
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Alku, Paavo
    et al.
    Airas, Matti
    Björkner, Eva
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    An amplitude quotient based method to analyze changes in the shape of the glottal pulse in the regulation of vocal intensity2006In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 120, no 2, p. 1052-1062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents an approach to visualizing intensity regulation in speech. The method expresses a voice sample in a two-dimensional space using amplitude-domain values extracted from the glottal flow estimated by inverse filtering. The two-dimensional presentation is obtained by expressing a time-domainmeasure of the glottal pulse, the amplitude quotient (AQ), as a function of the negative peak amplitude of the flow derivative (d(peak)). The regulation of vocal intensity was analyzed with the proposed method from voices varying from extremely soft to very loud with a SPL range of approximately 55 dB. When vocal intensity was increased, the speech samples first showed a rapidly decreasing trend as expressed on the proposed AQ-d(peak) graph. When intensity was further raised, the location of the samples converged toward a horizontal line, the asymptote of a hypothetical hyperbola. This behavior of the AQ-d(peak) graph indicates that the intensity regulation strategy changes from laryngeal to respiratory mechanisms and the method chosen makes it possible to quantify how control mechanisms underlying the regulation of vocal intensity change gradually between the two means. The proposed presentation constitutes an easy-to-implement method to visualize the function of voice production in intensity regulation because the only information needed is the glottal flow wave form estimated by inverse filtering the acoustic speech pressure signal.

  • 2.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordström, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundén, Peter
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aircraft noise and speech intelligibility in an outdoor living space2014In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 135, no 6, p. 3455-3462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of effects on speech intelligibility from aircraft noise in outdoor places are currently lacking. To explore these effects, first-order ambisonic recordings of aircraft noise were reproduced outdoors in a pergola. The average background level was 47 dB L-Aeq. Lists of phonetically balanced words (L-ASmax,L- word = 54 dB) were reproduced simultaneously with aircraft passage noise (L-ASmax,L- noise = 72-84 dB). Twenty individually tested listeners wrote down each presented word while seated in the pergola. The main results were (i) aircraft noise negatively affects speech intelligibility at sound pressure levels that exceed those of the speech sound (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N < 0), and (ii) the simple A-weighted S/N ratio was nearly as good an indicator of speech intelligibility as were two more advanced models, the Speech Intelligibility Index and Glasberg and Moore's [J. Audio Eng. Soc. 53, 906-918 (2005)] partial loudness model. This suggests that any of these indicators is applicable for predicting effects of aircraft noise on speech intelligibility outdoors.

  • 3.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nordström, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lundén, Peter
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Aircraft noise and speech intelligibility in an outdoor living space2014In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 135, no 6, p. 3455-3462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of effects on speech intelligibility from aircraft noise in outdoor places are currently lacking. To explore these effects, first-order ambisonic recordings of aircraft noise were reproduced outdoors in a pergola. The average background level was 47 dB L-Aeq. Lists of phonetically balanced words (L-ASmax,L- word = 54 dB) were reproduced simultaneously with aircraft passage noise (L-ASmax,L- noise = 72-84 dB). Twenty individually tested listeners wrote down each presented word while seated in the pergola. The main results were (i) aircraft noise negatively affects speech intelligibility at sound pressure levels that exceed those of the speech sound (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N < 0), and (ii) the simple A-weighted S/N ratio was nearly as good an indicator of speech intelligibility as were two more advanced models, the Speech Intelligibility Index and Glasberg and Moore's [J. Audio Eng. Soc. 53, 906-918 (2005)] partial loudness model. This suggests that any of these indicators is applicable for predicting effects of aircraft noise on speech intelligibility outdoors.

  • 4.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Starkhammar, Josefin
    Evander, Mikael
    Almqvist, Monica
    Lindström, Kjell
    Persson, Hans W.
    An echolocation visualization and interface system for dolphin research2008In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 123, no 2, p. 1188-1194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes the development and testing of a tool for dolphin research. This tool was able to visualize the dolphin echolocation signals as well as function as an acoustically operated "touch screen." The system consisted of a matrix of hydrophones attached to a semitransparent screen, which was lowered in front of an underwater acrylic panel in a dolphin pool. When a dolphin aimed its sonar beam at the screen, the hydrophones measured the received sound pressure levels. These hydrophone signals were then transferred to a computer where they were translated into a video image that corresponds to the dynamic sound pressure variations in the sonar beam and the location of the beam axis. There was a continuous projection of the image back onto the hydrophone matrix screen, giving the dolphin an immediate visual feedback to its sonar output. The system offers a whole new experimental methodology in dolphin research and since it is software-based, many different kinds of scientific questions can be addressed. The results were promising and motivate further development of the system and studies of sonar and cognitive abilities of dolphins. © 2008 Acoustical Society of America.

  • 5.
    Arnela, Marc
    et al.
    GTM–Grup de recerca en Tecnologies Mèdia, La Salle, Universitat Ramon Llull, C/Quatre Camins 30, Barcelona, E-08022, Catalonia, Spain.
    Blandin, Rémi
    GIPSA-Lab, Unité Mixte de Recherche au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 5216, Grenoble Campus, St. Martin d'Heres, F-38402, France.
    Dabbaghchian, Saeed
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Guasch, Oriol
    GTM–Grup de recerca en Tecnologies Mèdia, La Salle, Universitat Ramon Llull, C/Quatre Camins 30, Barcelona, E-08022, Catalonia, Spain.
    Alías, Francesc
    GTM–Grup de recerca en Tecnologies Mèdia, La Salle, Universitat Ramon Llull, C/Quatre Camins 30, Barcelona, E-08022, Catalonia, Spain.
    Pelorson, Xavier
    GIPSA-Lab, Unité Mixte de Recherche au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 5216, Grenoble Campus, St. Martin d'Heres, F-38402, France.
    Van Hirtum, Annemie
    GIPSA-Lab, Unité Mixte de Recherche au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 5216, Grenoble Campus, St. Martin d'Heres, F-38402, France.
    Engwall, Olov
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Influence of lips on the production of vowels based on finite element simulations and experiments2016In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 139, no 5, p. 2852-2859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional (3-D) numerical approaches for voice production are currently being investigated and developed. Radiation losses produced when sound waves emanate from the mouth aperture are one of the key aspects to be modeled. When doing so, the lips are usually removed from the vocal tract geometry in order to impose a radiation impedance on a closed cross-section, which speeds up the numerical simulations compared to free-field radiation solutions. However, lips may play a significant role. In this work, the lips&apos; effects on vowel sounds are investigated by using 3-D vocal tract geometries generated from magnetic resonance imaging. To this aim, two configurations for the vocal tract exit are considered: with lips and without lips. The acoustic behavior of each is analyzed and compared by means of time-domain finite element simulations that allow free-field wave propagation and experiments performed using 3-D-printed mechanical replicas. The results show that the lips should be included in order to correctly model vocal tract acoustics not only at high frequencies, as commonly accepted, but also in the low frequency range below 4 kHz, where plane wave propagation occurs.

  • 6. Arnela, Marc
    et al.
    Dabbaghchian, Saeed
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Blandin, Rémi
    Guasch, Oriol
    Engwall, Olov
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Hirtum, Annemie Van
    Pelorson, Xavier
    Influence of vocal tract geometry simplifications on the numerical simulation of vowel sounds2016In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 140, no 3, p. 1707-1718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, the vocal tract shape has been approximated by one-dimensional (1D) area functions to study the production of voice. More recently, 3D approaches allow one to deal with the complex 3D vocal tract, although area-based 3D geometries of circular cross-section are still in use. However, little is known about the influence of performing such a simplification, and some alternatives may exist between these two extreme options. To this aim, several vocal tract geometry simplifications for vowels [ɑ], [i], and [u] are investigated in this work. Six cases are considered, consisting of realistic, elliptical, and circular cross-sections interpolated through a bent or straight midline. For frequencies below 4–5 kHz, the influence of bending and cross-sectional shape has been found weak, while above these values simplified bent vocal tracts with realistic cross-sections are necessary to correctly emulate higher-order mode propagation. To perform this study, the finite element method (FEM) has been used. FEM results have also been compared to a 3D multimodal method and to a classical 1D frequency domain model.

  • 7.
    Asraf, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    Phenomenological detectors for crack echo families in elastic solids2004In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 116, no 1, p. 379-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential performance of low-complexity phenomenological detectors for crack echo families in elastic solids is evaluated. Ultrasonic echoes from a strip-like crack residing in an isotropic elastic solid with coarse microstructure are considered and the achieved detector performance is compared to the theoretical upper bounds (constrained only by the underlying physics) obtained by means of a recently presented physics-based optimal detector. A phenomenological signal model for the scattering process is formulated based on the time-domain impulse-response method and used to derive detectors of low numerical complexity which are dependent on a small number of parameters. The proposed detectors are compared in terms of receiver operating characteristic curves, which are computed by means of Monte Carlo simulations for the case of a strip-like crack with uncertain angular orientation. The minimum probability of error criterion is used to optimize the detector parameters for the simulation study and shown to be useful even for small training data sets. These results show that the proposed detectors have close to optimal performance in particular for the case of high signal-to-noise ratios.

  • 8. Auregan, Yves
    et al.
    Farooqui, Maaz
    Groby, Jean-Phillipe
    Low frequency sound attenuation in a flow duct using a thin slow sound material2016In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 139, no 5, p. EL149-EL153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thin subwavelength material that can be flush mounted in a duct and that gives an attenuation band at low frequencies in air flow channels is presented. To decrease the material thickness, the sound is slowed in the material using folded side branch tubes. The impedance of the material is compared to the optimal value given by the Cremer condition, which can differ greatly from the air characteristic impedance. Grazing flow on this material increases the losses at the interface between the flow and the material.

  • 9.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Progress in soundscape research requires a common agenda2011In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 130, no 4, p. 2495-2495Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly believed that progress and success in any field requires competition. This is probably true, but this belief implies that all competitors have a common view on the objectives. There would not be much competition if all parties ran off in opposite directions, striving to achieve different goals. Nor would it lead to much progress. The present session calls for networking and international collaboration in soundscape research. For such collaboration to be successful, it is critical to agree on a common agenda; a mission; an objective. Recent development in soundscape research makes evident that the objective must be practical and applicable. Our minds must be set to implementing soundscape research in practice to avoid exhausting academic debates, which tend to be ends in themselves and do not contribute to progress. Two excellent, recent examples of international collaboration in soundscape research, contributing to progress, are ISO/TC 43/SC 1/WG 54 and the European COST Action TD0804 “Soundscape of European Cities and Landscapes.” Both illustrate the need for international and interdisciplinary collaboration among acousticians, architects, and urban planners to accelerate progress in soundscape research. The present paper presents possible topics for a common agenda in soundscape research.

  • 10.
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tower of Babel, or why bother about international standards?2011In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 130, no 4, p. 2467-2467Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While a vast nation like the USA has the capacity to be self-sufficient, many countries lack this privilege. Take Sweden as an example, a small country in northern Europe with a population of 9 million. Swedes are proud to be international. And they should, because how could a nation, which since the days of the Vikings has depended on international trade, sustain itself without a global economy. International standards support the development within this global economy, just like English as business language facilitates global collaboration. Imagine humanity without these common frames of reference.

  • 11.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Water features and acoustic diversity of urban parks2011In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 130, no 4, p. 2533-2533Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water features are well-acknowledged in architecture and urban planning for their visual characteristics. But, how do water features contribute to acoustic diversity and soundscape quality? Visitors in an urban park were recruited to complete a questionnaire on how they perceived the park including its soundscape. Meanwhile, the soundscape was manipulated by turning a fountain on or off at irregular hours. The fountain sounds had a positive effect on soundscape quality in an area close to the fountain, by masking background road-traffic noise. The fountain sound also masked other natural sounds, which may have a negative influence on acoustic diversity and soundscape quality. In addition, some participants may have mistaken the fountain sounds for distant road-traffic noise. Hence, when introducing a water feature in an urban park it is necessary to consider the acoustic characteristics of the water sounds, as well as the placement of the water feature.

  • 12.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A principal components model of soundscape perception2010In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 128, no 5, p. 2836-2846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for a model that identifies underlying dimensions of soundscape perception, and which may guide measurement and improvement of soundscape quality. With the purpose to develop such a model, a listening experiment was conducted. One hundred listeners measured 50 excerpts of binaural recordings of urban outdoor soundscapes on 116 attribute scales. The average attribute scale values were subjected to principal components analysis, resulting in three components: Pleasantness, eventfulness, and familiarity, explaining 50, 18 and 6% of the total variance, respectively. The principal-component scores were correlated with physical soundscape properties, including categories of dominant sounds and acoustic variables. Soundscape excerpts dominated by technological sounds were found to be unpleasant, whereas soundscape excerpts dominated by natural sounds were pleasant, and soundscape excerpts dominated by human sounds were eventful. These relationships remained after controlling for the overall soundscape loudness (Zwicker’s N10), which shows that ‘informational’ properties are substantial contributors to the perception of soundscape. The proposed principal components model provides a framework for future soundscape research and practice. In particular, it suggests which basic dimensions are necessary to measure, how to measure them by a defined set of attribute scales, and how to promote high-quality soundscapes.

  • 13.
    Bjurström, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Rydén, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Detecting the thickness mode frequency in a concrete plate using backward wave propagation2016In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 139, no 2, p. 649-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Material stiffness and plate thickness are the two key parameters when performing quality assurance/quality control on pavement structures. In order to estimate the plate thickness non-destructively, theImpact Echo (IE) method can be utilized to extract the thickness resonance frequency. An alternativeto IE for estimating the thickness resonance frequency of a concrete plate, and to subsequently enablethickness determination, is presented in this paper. The thickness resonance is often revealed as asharp peak in the frequency spectrum when contact receivers are used in seismic testing. Due to a lowsignal-to-noise ratio, IE is not ideal when using non-contact microphone receivers. In studying thecomplex Lamb wave dispersion curves at a frequency infinitesimally higher than the thickness frequency,it is seen that two counter-directed waves occur at the same frequency but with phase velocitiesin opposite directions. Results show that it is possible to detect the wave traveling with anegative phase velocity using both accelerometers and air-coupled microphones as receivers. Thisalternative technique can possibly be used in non-contact scanning measurements based on aircoupled microphones.

  • 14.
    Bodén, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    Experimental source characterization techniques for studying the acoustic properties of perforates under high level acoustic excitation2011In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 130, no 5, p. 2639-2647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses experimental techniques for obtaining the acoustic properties of in-duct samples with non-linear acoustic characteristic. The methods developed are intended both for studies of non-linear energy transfer to higher harmonics for samples only accessible from one side such as wall treatment in aircraft engine ducts or automotive exhaust systems and for samples accessible from both sides such as perforates or other top sheets. When harmonic sound waves are incident on the sample nonlinear energy transfer results in sound generation at higher harmonics at the sample (perforate) surface. The idea is that these sources can be characterized using linear system identification techniques similar to one-port or two-port techniques which are traditionally used for obtaining source data for in-duct sources such as IC-engines or fans. The starting point will be so called polyharmonic distortion modeling which is used for characterization of nonlinear properties of microwave systems. It will be shown how acoustic source data models can be expressed using this theory. Source models of different complexity are developed and experimentally tested. The results of the experimental tests show that these techniques can give results which are useful for understanding non-linear energy transfer to higher harmonics.

  • 15.
    Boij, Susann
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Flow effects on the acoustic end correction of a sudden in-duct area expansion2009In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 126, no 3, p. 995-1004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For scattering of plane waves at a sudden area expansion in a duct, the presence of flow may significantly alter the reactive properties. This paper studies the influence of a mean flow field and unstable separated flow on the reactive properties of the expansion, formulated as an end correction. Theoretical and experimental results show that the expansion end correction is significantly affected by the flow and hydrodynamic waves excited at the edge of the expansion. The effects are different in three regions where the Strouhal number is small, of order 1, and large. The influence is most significant at Strouhal numbers of the order 1, with specific limiting values for large and small Strouhal numbers, respectively. In the analytic model, an important feature is the shear layer at the edge modeled as a vortex sheet with the unsteady Kutta condition applied at the edge. The influence of Mach number, Helmholtz number, and area expansion ratio is studied, and a quasistationary, small Strouhal number, approximation yields an expression for the end correction. Further, the influence of edge condition is explored, emphasizing the importance of interaction between sound and unsteady vorticity shedding at the edge of the area expansion.

  • 16.
    Bolin, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Almgren, Martin
    Ohlsson, Esbjörn
    Karasalo, Ilkka
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Long term estimations of low frequency noise levels over water from an off-shore wind farm2014In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 135, no 3, p. 1106-1114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on computations of low frequency sound propagation from an off-shore wind farm. Two different methods for sound propagation calculations are combined with meteorological data for every 3 hours in the year 2010 to examine the varying noise levels at a reception point at 13 km distance. It is shown that sound propagation conditions play a vital role in the noise impact from the off-shore wind farm and ordinary assessment methods can become inaccurate at longer propagation distances over water. Therefore, this paper suggests that methodologies to calculate noise immission with realistic sound speed profiles need to be combined with meteorological data over extended time periods to evaluate the impact of low frequency noise from modern off-shore wind farms.

  • 17. Bolin, Karl
    et al.
    Almgren, Martin
    Olsson, Esbjörn
    SMHI, Research Department, Meteorology.
    Karasalo, Ilkka
    Long term estimations of low frequency noise levels over water from an off-shore wind farm2014In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 135, no 3, p. 1106-1114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on computations of low frequency sound propagation from an off-shore wind farm. Two different methods for sound propagation calculations are combined with meteorological data for every 3 hours in the year 2010 to examine the varying noise levels at a reception point at 13 km distance. It is shown that sound propagation conditions play a vital role in the noise impact from the off-shore wind farm and ordinary assessment methods can become inaccurate at longer propagation distances over water. Therefore, this paper suggests that methodologies to calculate noise immission with realistic sound speed profiles need to be combined with meteorological data over extended time periods to evaluate the impact of low frequency noise from modern off-shore wind farms. (C) 2014 Acoustical Society of America.

  • 18.
    Bolin, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Boue, Mathieu
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Karasalo, Ilkka
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Long range sound propagation over a sea surface2009In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 126, no 5, p. 2191-2197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes methodology and results from a model-based analysis of data on sound transmission from controlled sound sources at sea to a 10-km distant shore. The data consist of registrations of sound transmission loss together with concurrently collected atmospheric data at the source and receiver locations. The purpose of the analysis is to assess the accuracy of methods for transmission loss prediction in which detailed data on the local geography and atmospheric conditions are used for computation of the sound field. The results indicate that such sound propagation predictions are accurate and reproduce observed variations in the sound level as function of time in a realistic way. The results further illustrate that the atmospheric model must include a description of turbulence effects to ensure predicted noise levels to remain realistically high during periods of sound shadow. (C) 2009 Acoustical Society of America. [DOI: 10.1121/1.3238236]

  • 19.
    Bolin, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Åbom, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Air-borne sound generated by sea waves2010In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 127, no 5, p. 2771-2779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a semi-empiric model and measurements of air-borne sound generated by breaking sea waves. Measurements have been performed at the Baltic Sea. Shores with different slopes and sediment types have been investigated. Results showed that the sound pressure level increased from 60 dB at 0.4 m wave height to 78 dB at 2.0 m wave height. The 1/3 octave spectrum was dependent on the surf type. A scaling model based on the dissipated wave power and a surf similarity parameter is proposed and compared to measurements. The predictions show satisfactory agreement to the measurements. (C) 2010 Acoustical Society of America. [DOI: 10.1121/1.3327815]

  • 20.
    Carlson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Martinsson, Pär-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Exploring interaction effects in two-component gas mixtures using orthogonal signal correction of ultrasound pulses2005In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 117, no 5, p. 2961-2968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within Sweden and the EU, an increased use of biogas gas and natural gas is encouraged to decrease emission of carbon dioxide. To support more effective manufacturing, distribution, and consumption of energy gases, new methods for the measurement of the calorimetric value or the gas composition are needed. This paper presents a method to extract and visualize variations in ultrasound pulse shape, caused by interaction effects between the constituents of a two-component gas mixture. The method is based on a combination of principal component analysis and orthogonal signal correction. Pulse-echo ultrasound experiments on mixtures of oxygen and ethane in the concentration range from 20% to 80% ethane show that the extracted information could be correlated with the molar fraction of ethane in the mixture

  • 21.
    Cartling, Bo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Beating frequency and amplitude modulation of the piano tone due to coupling of tones2005In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 117, no 4, p. 2259-2267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence on a piano tone from weak coexcitation of damped adjacent tones due to coupling via the bridge is studied. The frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound resulting from coexcitation of one strong and one or two weak tones is analyzed. One weak tone causes frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound, and two weak tones produce beating frequency and amplitude modulation, where the beatings of the two modulations are of opposite phase. By digital recording of the sound of piano tones, the appearance of these phenomena is verified. The audibility of the observed frequency and amplitude modulation is discussed in terms of previously determined detection thresholds. The beating character of both frequency and amplitude modulations, however, distinguishes the phenomena from those previously studied and prompts further psychoacoustic investigations. It is shown that detuning of unison strings may significantly increase the frequency deviation of the frequency modulation in conjunction with affected amplitude modulation. The modulatory effects of coupling to adjacent tones therefore may possibly be utilized in the tuning process. A coupling of tones analogous to the situation in a piano may arise in other stringed musical instruments transferring string vibrations to a soundboard via a bridge.

  • 22.
    Cerdá, Salvador
    et al.
    Laboratory of Acoustics, Department of Applied Physics, University of Valencia.
    Romero, José
    Laboratory of Acoustics, Department of Applied Physics, University of Valencia.
    Navasquillo, Joaquin
    Laboratory of Acoustics, Department of Applied Physics, University of Valencia.
    Villarroel, Grover Zurita
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    A study of knock and adiabatic process in multi-fuel engines2000In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 108, no 5, p. 2594-2595Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For both engine designers and control purposes, a better understanding of the knocking that occurs during combustion in engines can lead to optimal decisions which will make engines operate more efficiently. The rapid rise in diesel engines is recognized as an audible impulse noise, which is known as ``knock.'' The knock is caused by the spontaneous combustion of a significant volume of fuel/air mixture. The knock produces shock waves within the combustion chamber and results in a great number of combustion chamber resonance frequencies. The engine used in the experiments was a six-cylinder modified diesel engine running in ethanol conditions. The main purpose of this research is to determine the knock phenomena and the adiabatic process. To perform the data analysis a time-frequency spectral approach was used. The results revealed both radial and circumferential resonances. The most important adiabatic coefficients were carried out and used to calculate the heat release rate.

  • 23.
    Chaigne, Antoine
    et al.
    ENST, Signal Department.
    Lambourg, Christophe
    ENST, Signal Department.
    Schedin, Staffan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Measurements and modeling of the transient acoustic field at impacted plates1998In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, no 5, p. 2814-1815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison between measured and simulated transient acoustic fields generated by thin impacted plates is reported. The plate is modeled by using finite difference methods and the radiated pressure is obtained by solving the Rayleigh integral [Ch. Lambourg and A. Chaigne, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 101(A) (1997)]. The results are evaluated in the form of the spatial pressure distribution at instants short after the excitation. Experimentally, a lead bullet (0.5 g, 100 m/s) is fired towards a cantilever steel plate (300×30×1 mm). The duration of the impact is estimated by using a high-speed camera that can register several million frames per second. An interferometric comparison of the change in optical path length of two holographic recordings, captured before and shortly after the impact, gives a 2-D projection of the acoustic field. A double-pulsed ruby laser, emitting light pulses of short duration (30 ns), is used as light source [S. Schedin, A. O. Waahlin, and P. Gren, J. Acoust. Soc. Am 99, 700-705 (1996)]. A high degree of similarity is observed between measured and simulated sound field, except in the close vicinity of the impact point. It is presumed that the discrepancies are due to nonlinear effects which are not included in the model

  • 24.
    Chang, You
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kim, Namkeun
    Incheon National University, South Korea.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The development of a whole-head human finite-element model for simulation of the transmission of bone-conducted sound2016In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 140, no 3, p. 1635-1651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A whole head finite element model for simulation of bone conducted (BC) sound transmission was developed. The geometry and structures were identified from cryosectional images of a female human head and eight different components were included in the model: cerebrospinal fluid, brain, three layers of bone, soft tissue, eye, and cartilage. The skull bone was modeled as a sandwich structure with an inner and outer layer of cortical bone and soft spongy bone (diploe) in between. The behavior of the finite element model was validated against experimental data of mechanical point impedance, vibration of the cochlear promontories, and transcranial BC sound transmission. The experimental data were obtained in both cadaver heads and live humans. The simulations showed multiple low-frequency resonances where the first was caused by rotation of the head and the second was close in frequency to average resonances obtained in cadaver heads. At higher frequencies, the simulation results of the impedance were within one standard deviation of the average experimental data. The acceleration response at the cochlear promontory was overall lower for the simulations compared with experiments but the overall tendencies were similar. Even if the current model cannot predict results in a specific individual, it can be used for understanding the characteristic of BC sound transmission in general. (C) 2016 Acoustical Society of America.

  • 25.
    Cuenca, Jacques
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Inverse estimation of the elastic and anelastic properties of the porous frame of anisotropic open-cell foams2012In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 132, no 2, p. 621-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for simultaneously identifying both the elastic and anelastic properties of the porous frame of anisotropic open-cell foams. The approach is based on an inverse estimation procedure of the complex stiffness matrix of the frame by performing a model fit of a set of transfer functions of a sample of material subjected to compression excitation in vacuo. The material elastic properties are assumed to have orthotropic symmetry and the anelastic properties are described using a fractional-derivative model within the framework of an augmented Hooke's law. The inverse estimation problem is formulated as a numerical optimization procedure and solved using the globally convergent method of moving asymptotes. To show the feasibility of the approach a numerically generated target material is used here as a benchmark. It is shown that the method provides the full frequency-dependent orthotropic complex stiffness matrix within a reasonable degree of accuracy.

  • 26.
    Dahl, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Ability to determine continuous drift in auditory sequences: Evidence for bias in listeners' perception of tempo2005In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    De Coensel, B.
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Botteldooren, Dick
    Ghent University.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A computational model for auditory saliency of environmental sound2009In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 125, no 4 (part2), p. 2528-2528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because the information flow received by the human auditory system exceeds the processing capacity of the brain, neural mechanisms engage and guide attention toward prominent parts of the auditory scene. Several computational models for auditory saliency have been proposed recently. Most of these are concerned with speech recognition, and therefore apply high temporal and spectral precision to relatively short sound fragments. Here, a simplified model is described that specifically targets the long exposure times usually considered in soundscape research. The model trades temporal and spectra accuracy for computational speed, but nevertheless implements the key elements that are present in the calculation of complex auditory saliency maps. A simplified “cochleagram” is calculated from the 1/3-octave band spectrogram using the Zwicker model for specific loudness. Saliency is determined based on spectro-temporal irregularities, extracted in parallel at different feature scales, using a center-surround mechanism. Finally, conspicuous peaks are selected using within-feature and between-feature competitions. The model is shown to behave as expected for a number of typical sounds. As an illustration, saliency calculation results for a set of recordings in urban parks are compared with other acoustical descriptors and with perceptual attribute scales from questionnaire studies.

  • 28.
    De Coensel, Bert
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Botteldooren, Dick
    Ghent University, Belgien.
    De Muer, Tom
    Ghent University, Belgien.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory for Sensory Research, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory for Sensory Research, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lercher, Peter
    Medical University Innsbruck, Österrike.
    A model for the perception of environmental sound based on notice-events2009In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 126, no 2, p. 656-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anapproach is proposed to shed light on the mechanisms underlyinghuman perception of environmental sound that intrudes in everyday living.Most research on exposure-effect relationships aims at relating overall effectsto overall exposure indicators in an epidemiological fashion, without includingavailable knowledge on the possible underlying mechanisms. Here, it isproposed to start from available knowledge on audition and perceptionto construct a computational framework for the effect of environmentalsound on individuals. Obviously, at the individual level additional mechanisms(inter-sensory, attentional, cognitive, emotional) play a role in the perceptionof environmental sound. As a first step, current knowledge ismade explicit by building a model mimicking some aspects ofhuman auditory perception. This model is grounded in the hypothesisthat long-term perception of environmental sound is determined primarily byshort notice-events. The applicability of the notice-event model is illustratedby simulating a synthetic population exposed to typical Flemish environmentalnoise. From these simulation results, it is demonstrated that thenotice-event model is able to mimic the differences between theannoyance caused by road traffic noise exposure and railway trafficnoise exposure that are also observed empirically in other studiesand thus could provide an explanation for these differences.

  • 29. De Coensel, Bert
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Brown, A. L.
    Perceptual constancy in auditory perception of distance to railway tracks2013In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 134, no 1, p. 474-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distance to a sound source can be accurately estimated solely from auditory information. With a sound source such as a train that is passing by at a relatively large distance, the most important auditory information for the listener for estimating its distance consists of the intensity of the sound, spectral changes in the sound caused by air absorption, and the motion-induced rate of change of intensity. However, these cues are relative because prior information/experience of the sound source-its source power, its spectrum and the typical speed at which it moves-is required for such distance estimates. This paper describes two listening experiments that allow investigation of further prior contextual information taken into account by listeners-viz., whether they are indoors or outdoors. Asked to estimate the distance to the track of a railway, it is shown that listeners assessing sounds heard inside the dwelling based their distance estimates on the expected train passby sound level outdoors rather than on the passby sound level actually experienced indoors. This form of perceptual constancy may have consequences for the assessment of annoyance caused by railway noise.

  • 30.
    Dickson, Crispin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    A method for time-varying annoyance rating of aircraft noise2009In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 126, no 1, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The method of continuous judgment by category is used and evaluated to measure time-varying attributes in aircraft flyover sounds. The results are also used to estimate preference between the different experimental sounds. Jurors were asked to rate perceived annoyance on a Borg CR 100 scale continuously during the playback of 11 flyover sequences and the results showed differences in perception in the time segment where the sound had been modified. The method can be used to evaluate maximum perceived annoyance, threshold levels, duration of perceptual presence temporal integration in perception, and perceptual mixtures over time.

  • 31.
    Dreschler, W. A.,
    et al.
    AMC, Clinical and Experimental Audiology, Amsterdam, Netherland.
    van Esch, T
    AMC, Clinical and Experimental Audiology, Amsterdam, Netherland.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lutman, Mark
    University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Lyzenga, Johannes
    Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Vorman, M
    Hoerzentrum Oldenburg, Hoerzentrum Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.
    Kollmeier, B
    Universität Oldenburg, Medizinische Physik, Oldenburg, Germany.
    Charactering the individual ear by the "Auditory Profile2008In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 123, no 5, article id 3714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a new approach to auditory diagnostics, which is one of the central themes of the EU-project HEARCOM. For this purpose we defined a so-called "Auditory Profile" that can be assessed for each individual listener using a standardized battery of audiological tests that - in addition to the pure-tone audiogram - focus on loudness perception, frequency resolution, temporal acuity, speech perception, binaural functioning, listening effort, subjective hearing abilities, and cognition. For the sake of testing time only summary tests are included from each of these areas, but the broad approach of characterizing auditory communication problems by means of standardized test is expected to have an added value above traditional testing in understanding the reasons for poor speech reception. The Auditory profile may also be relevant in the field of auditory rehabilitation and for design of acoustical environments. The results of an international 5-center study (in 4 countries and in 4 languages) will be presented and the relevance of a broad but well-standardized approach will be discussed.

  • 32.
    Drioli, Carlo
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    A flow waveform-matched low-dimensional glottal model based on physical knowledge2005In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 117, no 5, p. 3184-3195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore the possibility for physically based mathematical models of the voice source to accurately reproduce inverse filtered glottal volume-velocity waveforms. A low-dimensional, self-oscillating model of the glottal source with waveform-matching properties is proposed. The model relies on a lumped mechano-aerodynamic scheme loosely inspired by the one-and multimass lumped models. The vocal folds are represented by a single mechanical resonator and a propagation line which takes into account the vertical phase differences. The vocal-fold displacement is coupled to the glottal flow by means of an aerodynamic driving block which includes a general parametric nonlinear component. The principal characteristics of the flow-induced oscillations are retained, and the overall model is able to match inverse-filtered glottal flow signals. The method offers in principle the possibility of performing transformations of the glottal flow by acting on the physiologically based parameters of the model. This is a desirable property, e.g., for speech synthesis applications. The model was tested on a data set which included inverse-filtered glottal flow waveforms of different characteristics. The results demonstrate the possibility of reproducing natural speech waveforms with high accuracy, and of controlling important characteristics of the synthesis such as pitch.

  • 33. Du, Lin
    et al.
    Xu, Luzhou
    Li, Jian
    Guo, Bin
    Stoica, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Bahr, Chris
    Cattafesta, Louis N.
    Covariance-based approaches to aeroacoustic noise source analysis2010In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 128, no 5, p. 2877-2887Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Doellinger, Michael
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Traser, Louisa
    Richter, Bernhard
    Vocal fold vibrations at high soprano fundamental frequencies2013In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 133, no 2, p. EL82-EL87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human voice production at very high fundamental frequencies is not yet understood in detail. It was hypothesized that these frequencies are produced by turbulences, vocal tract/vocal fold interactions, or vocal fold oscillations without closure. Hitherto it has been impossible to visually analyze the vocal mechanism due to technical limitations. Latest high-speed technology, which captures 20 000 frames/s, using transnasal endoscopy was applied. Up to 1568Hz human vocal folds do exhibit oscillations with complete closure. Therefore, the recent results suggest that human voice production at very high F0s up to 1568Hz is not caused by turbulence, but rather by airflow modulation from vocal fold oscillations. (C) 2013 Acoustical Society of America

  • 35. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Baumann, Tobias
    Markl, Michael
    Richter, Bernhard
    Vocal tract area functions and formant frequencies in opera tenors' modal and falsetto registers2011In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 129, no 6, p. 3955-3963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to recent model investigations, vocal tract resonance is relevant to vocal registers. However, no experimental corroboration of this claim has been published so far. In the present investigation, ten professional tenors' vocal tract configurations were analyzed using MRI volumetry. All subjects produced a sustained tone on the pitch F4 (349 Hz) on the vowel /a/(1) in modal and (2) in falsetto register. The area functions were estimated from the MRI data and their associated formant frequencies were calculated. In a second condition the same subjects repeated the same tasks in a sound treated room and their formant frequencies were estimated by means of inverse filtering. In both recordings similar formant frequencies were observed. Vocal tract shapes differed between modal and falsetto register. In modal as compared to falsetto the lip opening and the oral cavity were wider and the first formant frequency was higher. In this sense the presented results are in agreement with the claim that the formant frequencies differ between registers.

  • 36.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    A Comparative Study of Focus Realization in Three Swedish Dialects1996In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 99, no 4, p. 2492-2492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State-of-the-art speech recognition and speech translation systems do not currently make use of prosodic information. Utterances often have one or more constituents semantically focused by prosodic means and detection of the focus/foci of anutterance is crucial for a correct interpretation of the speech signal. Thus, a semantic model of focus should be linked to a model describing the acoustic-phonetic correlates of the speech. However, variability exists at both the semantic and the prosodic ends. Semantically different kinds of foci might be associated with specific prosodic gestures. Also, a semantically specific type of focus might be realised indifferent ways in different varieties of a given language since general intonational patterns vary between dialects. In this paper, focus realisation in three different dialects of Swedish is investigated. Subjects from Stockholm, Gšteborg and Malmšö recorded three sets of four sentences where focus was systematically put on four different constituents by having the subjects answer wh-questions. Since Swedish is a language with two tonal accents, words with these accents both in and out of focus were included. Dialectal as well as individual variation in focus realisation is described with emphasis on invariant and optional phenomena.

  • 37.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, System Res. Spoken Language Processing.
    Lyberg, Bertil
    Telia Research AB, System Res. Spoken Language Processing.
    Inclusion of a prosodic module in spoken language translation1995In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 98, no 5, p. 2894-2895, article id 2aSC27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current speech recognition systems mainly work on statistical bases and make no use of information signalled by prosody, i.e. the segment duration and fundamental frequency contour of the speech signal. In more advanced applications for speech recognition, such as speech-to-speech translation systems, it is necessary to include the linguistic information conveyed by prosody. Earlier research has shown that prosody conveys information at syntactic, semantic and pragmatic levels. The degree of linguistic information conveyed by prosody varies between languages, from languages such as English, with a relatively low degree of prosodic disambiguation, via tone-accent languages such as Swedish, to pure tone languages. The inclusion of a prosodic module in speech translation systems is not only vital in order to link the source language to the target language, but could also be used to enhance speech recognition proper.  Besides syntactic and semantic information, properties such as dialect, sociolect, sex and attitude etc is signalled by prosody. Speech-to-speech recognition systems that will not transfer this type of information will be of limited value for person-to-person communication. A tentative architecture for the inclusion of a prosodic module in a speech-to-speech translation system is presented.

  • 38.
    Elowsson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Modeling the perception of tempo2015In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 137, no 6, p. 3163-3177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A system is proposed in which rhythmic representations are used to model the perception of tempo in music. The system can be understood as a five-layered model, where representations are transformed into higher-level abstractions in each layer. First, source separation is applied (Audio Level), onsets are detected (Onset Level), and interonset relationships are analyzed (Interonset Level). Then, several high-level representations of rhythm are computed (Rhythm Level). The periodicity of the music is modeled by the cepstroid vector-the periodicity of an interonset interval (IOI)-histogram. The pulse strength for plausible beat length candidates is defined by computing the magnitudes in different IOI histograms. The speed of the music is modeled as a continuous function on the basis of the idea that such a function corresponds to the underlying perceptual phenomena, and it seems to effectively reduce octave errors. By combining the rhythmic representations in a logistic regression framework, the tempo of the music is finally computed (Tempo Level). The results are the highest reported in a formal benchmarking test (2006-2013), with a P-Score of 0.857. Furthermore, the highest results so far are reported for two widely adopted test sets, with an Acc1 of 77.3% and 93.0% for the Songs and Ballroom datasets.

  • 39.
    Elowsson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Predicting the perception of performed dynamics in music audio with ensemble learning2017In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 141, no 3, p. 2224-2242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By varying the dynamics in a musical performance, the musician can convey structure and different expressions. Spectral properties of most musical instruments change in a complex way with the performed dynamics, but dedicated audio features for modeling the parameter are lacking. In this study, feature extraction methods were developed to capture relevant attributes related to spectral characteristics and spectral fluctuations, the latter through a sectional spectral flux. Previously, ground truths ratings of performed dynamics had been collected by asking listeners to rate how soft/loud the musicians played in a set of audio files. The ratings, averaged over subjects, were used to train three different machine learning models, using the audio features developed for the study as input. The highest result was produced from an ensemble of multilayer perceptrons with an R2 of 0.84. This result seems to be close to the upper bound, given the estimated uncertainty of the ground truth data. The result is well above that of individual human listeners of the previous listening experiment, and on par with the performance achieved from the average rating of six listeners. Features were analyzed with a factorial design, which highlighted the importance of source separation in the feature extraction.

  • 40. Enflo, Bengt
    et al.
    Hedberg, Claes
    Rudenko, Oleg
    Resonant properties of a nonlinear dissipative layer excited by a vibrating boundary: Q-factor and frequency response2005In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 117, no 2, p. 601-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simplified nonlinear evolution equations describing non-steady-state forced vibrations in an acoustic resonator having one closed end and the other end periodically oscillating are derived. An approach based on a nonlinear functional equation is used. The nonlinear Q-factor and the nonlinear frequency response of the resonator are calculated for steady-state oscillations of both inviscid and dissipative media. The general expression for the mean intensity of the acoustic wave in terms of the characteristic value of a Mathieu function is derived. The process of development of a standing wave is described analytically on the base of exact nonlinear solutions for different laws of periodic motion of the wall. For harmonic excitation the wave profiles are described by Mathieu functions, and their mean energy characteristics by the corresponding eigenvalues. The sawtooth-shaped motion of the boundary leads to a similar process of evolution of the profile, but the solution has a very simple form. Some possibilities to enhance the Q-factor of a nonlinear system by suppression of nonlinear energy losses are discussed. (C) 2005 Acoustical Society of America.

  • 41.
    Enflo, Bengt Olof
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Hedberg, C M
    Rudenko, O V
    Resonant properties of a nonlinear dissipative layer excited by a vibrating boundary: Q-factor and frequency response2005In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 117, no 2, p. 601-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simplified nonlinear evolution equations describing non-steady-state forced vibrations in an acoustic resonator having one closed end and the other end periodically oscillating are derived. An approach based on a nonlinear functional equation is used. The nonlinear Q-factor and the nonlinear frequency response of the resonator are calculated for steady-state oscillations of both inviscid and dissipative media. The general expression for the mean intensity of the acoustic wave in terms of the characteristic value of a Mathieu function is derived. The process of development of a standing wave is described analytically on the base of exact nonlinear solutions for different laws of periodic motion of the wall. For harmonic excitation the wave profiles are described by Mathieu functions, and their mean energy characteristics by the corresponding eigenvalues. The sawtooth-shaped motion of the boundary leads to a similar process of evolution of the profile, but the solution has a very simple form. Some possibilities to enhance the Q-factor of a nonlinear system by suppression of nonlinear energy losses are discussed.

  • 42.
    Fabiani, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Influence of pitch, loudness, and timbre on the perception of instrument dynamics2011In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 130, no 4, p. EL193-EL199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of variations in pitch, loudness, and timbre on the perception of the dynamics of isolated instrumental tones is investigated. A full factorial design was used in a listening experiment. The subjects were asked to indicate the perceived dynamics of each stimulus on a scale from pianissimo to fortissimo. Statistical analysis showed that for the instruments included (i.e., clarinet, flute, piano, trumpet, and violin) timbre and loudness had equally large effects, while pitch was relevant mostly for the first three. The results confirmed our hypothesis that loudness alone is not a reliable estimate of the dynamics of musical tones.

  • 43.
    Farooqui, Maaz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Elnady, Tamer
    Akl, Wael
    Sound attenuation in ducts using locally resonant periodic aluminum patches2016In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 139, no 6, p. 3276-3286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the control of low frequency noise has received a lot of attention for several applications. Traditional passive noise control techniques using Helmholtz resonators have size limitations in the low frequency range because of the long wavelength. Promising noise reductions, with flush mounted aluminum patches with no size problems can be obtained using local resonance phenomenon implemented in acoustic metamaterial techniques. The objective of this work is to introduce locally resonant thin aluminum patches flush mounted to a duct walls aiming at creating frequency stop bands in a specific frequency range. Green's function is used within the framework of interface response theory to predict the amount of attenuation of the local resonant patches. The two-port theory and finite elements are also used to predict the acoustic performance of these patches. No flow measurements were conducted and show good agreement with the models. The effect of varying the damping and the masses of the patches are used to expand the stop bandwidth and the effect of both Bragg scattering and the locally resonant mechanisms was demonstrated using mathematical models. The effect of the arrays of patches on the effective dynamic density and bulk modulus has also been investigated.

  • 44. Farooqui, Maaz
    et al.
    Elnady, Tamer
    Akl, Wael
    Validation of low frequency noise attenuation using locally resonant patches2016In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since conventional silencers in acoustic ducts have problems of size limitations at low frequencies and being prone to high backpressure, locally resonant aluminum patches are introduced in acoustic duct walls aiming at creating frequency stop bands in the low frequency region (below 1 KHz). With these flush mounted patches, promising noise reductions, with no such drawbacks, can be obtained, building on local resonance phenomenon implemented in acoustic metamaterials techniques. The objective of the current paper is to experimentally validate the performance of an array of flexible side-wall-mounted patches inside ducts. The experimental results are compared with Analytical Green's function method as well as Numerical Finite Element Method and a close agreement was found. The results show that the presence of the patches singly or periodically can play a prominent role in designing any acousticbandgap materials. The effect of the arrays of patches on the effective dynamic density and bulk modulushas also been investigated.

  • 45.
    Feng, Leiping
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Vehicle Engineering.
    Liu, M. H.
    Nilsson, A.
    Experimental study of structure-borne sound transmission loss of mechanical joints2001In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 110, no 3, p. 1391-1397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mechanical joint is one of the most effective ways to reduce the transmission of structure-borne sound. In order to increase the transmission loss, heavily damped joints are often used, which, in many cases, will reduce the structure integrity and hence can only be used in limited cases. In this study attention is focused on a type of resonant joint, i.e., a joint which will increase the transmission loss but will not reduce the structure integrity. The study is based on experiments in a one-dimensional structure. It is found that by adjusting the overlap of the joint, the transmission loss of 30 dB can be obtained at a certain frequency range without adding any dissipative materials. The mechanism of this high transmission loss is the cantilever-type resonance. The resonant frequency can be predicted precisely. The influence of extra dissipative material is investigated. The performance of the same joint in a finite structure is also examined by using the concept of vibrational insertion loss. When there is a certain damping in a finite system, a rather high insertion loss can still be achieved by using the above-mentioned joint, but the resonant frequency is shifted to higher end. It seems that the effective length of the cantilever is shortened by the finiteness.

  • 46.
    Feng, Leping
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    Active control of structurally radiated sound using multi-actuator method1995In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 98, no 1, p. 397-402Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Finnveden, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Hörlin, Nils-Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Barbagallo, Mathias
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Dynamic characterization of viscoelastic porous foams used in vehicles based on an inverse finite element method2014In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 135, no 4, p. 1834-1843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Viscoelastic properties of porous materials, typical of those used in vehicles for noise insulation and absorption, are estimated from measurements and inverse finite element procedures. The measurements are taken in a near vacuum and cover a broad frequency range: 20 Hz to 1 kHz. The almost cubic test samples were made of 25mm foam covered by a "heavy layer" of rubber. They were mounted in a vacuum chamber on an aluminum table, which was excited in the vertical and horizontal directions with a shaker. Three kinds of response are measured allowing complete estimates of the viscoelastic moduli for isotropic materials and also providing some information on the degree of material anisotropicity. First, frequency independent properties are estimated, where dissipation is described by constant loss factors. Then, fractional derivative models that capture the variation with frequency of the stiffness and damping are adapted. The measurement setup is essentially two-dimensional and calculations are three-dimensional and for a state of plane strain. The good agreement between measured and calculated response provides some confidence in the presented procedures. If, however, the material model cannot fit the measurements well, the inverse procedure yields a certain degree of arbitrariness to the parameter estimation.

  • 48.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Hellwagner, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Helgason, Pétur
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Salomão, Gláucia Laís
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Elovsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Lemaitre, Guillaume
    Institute for Research and Coordination in Acoustics and Music, Paris, France.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Prediction of three articulatory categories in vocal sound imitations using models for auditory receptive fields2018In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocal sound imitations provide a new challenge for understanding the coupling between articulatory mechanisms and the resulting audio. In this study, we have modeled the classification of three articulatory categories, phonation, supraglottal myoelastic vibrations, and turbulence from audio recordings. Two data sets were assembled, consisting of different vocal imitations by four professional imitators and four non-professional speakers in two different experiments. The audio data were manually annotated by two experienced phoneticians using a detailed articulatory description scheme. A separate set of audio features was developed specifically for each category using both time-domain and spectral methods. For all time-frequency transformations, and for some secondary processing, the recently developed Auditory Receptive Fields Toolbox was used. Three different machine learning methods were applied for predicting the final articulatory categories. The result with the best generalization was found using an ensemble of multilayer perceptrons. The cross-validated classification accuracy was 96.8 % for phonation, 90.8 % for supraglottal myoelastic vibrations, and 89.0 % for turbulence using all the 84 developed features. A final feature reduction to 22 features yielded similar results.

  • 49.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Hanover University, Germany .
    Hedblad, Anton
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Fabiani, Marco
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Elowsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Using listener-based perceptual features as intermediate representations in music information retrieval2014In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 136, no 4, p. 1951-1963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of perceptual features is introduced for describing general music properties based on human perception. This is an attempt at rethinking the concept of features, aiming to approach the underlying human perception mechanisms. Instead of using concepts from music theory such as tones, pitches, and chords, a set of nine features describing overall properties of the music was selected. They were chosen from qualitative measures used in psychology studies and motivated from an ecological approach. The perceptual features were rated in two listening experiments using two different data sets. They were modeled both from symbolic and audio data using different sets of computational features. Ratings of emotional expression were predicted using the perceptual features. The results indicate that (1) at least some of the perceptual features are reliable estimates; (2) emotion ratings could be predicted by a small combination of perceptual features with an explained variance from 75% to 93% for the emotional dimensions activity and valence; (3) the perceptual features could only to a limited extent be modeled using existing audio features. Results clearly indicated that a small number of dedicated features were superior to a "brute force" model using a large number of general audio features.

  • 50.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Does music performance allude to locomotion?: A model of final ritardandi derived from measurements of stopping runners1999In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 1469-1484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation explores the common assumption that music and motion are closely related by comparing the stopping of running and the termination of a piece of music. Video recordings were made of professional dancers’ stopping from running under different deceleration conditions, and instant values of body velocity, step frequency, and step length were estimated. In decelerations that were highly rated for aesthetic quality by a panel of choreographers, the mean body velocity could be approximated by a square-root function of time, which is equivalent to a cubic-root function of position. This implies a linear relationship between kinetic energy and time, i.e., a constant braking power. The mean body velocity showed a striking similarity with the mean tempo pattern of final ritardandi in music performances. The constant braking power was used as the basis for a model describing both the changes of tempo in final ritardandi and the changes of velocity in runners’ decelerations. The translation of physical motion to musical tempo was realized by assuming that velocity and musical tempo are equivalent. Two parameters were added to the model to account for the variation observed in individual ritardandi and in individual decelerations: ~1! the parameter q controlling the curvature, q53 corresponding to the runners’ deceleration, and ~2! the parameter vend for the final velocity and tempo value, respectively. A listening experiment was carried out presenting music examples with final ritardandi according to the model with different q values or to an alternative function. Highest ratings were obtained for the model with q52 and q53. Out of three functions, the model produced the best fit to individual measured ritardandi as well as to individual decelerations. A function previously used for modeling phrase-related tempo variations ~interonset duration as a quadratic function of score position! produced the lowest ratings and the poorest fits to individual ritardandi. The results thus seem to substantiate the commonly assumed analogies between motion and music.

12345 1 - 50 of 216
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf