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  • 1.
    Beery, Thomas H.
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Outdoor recreation and place attachment: exploring the potential of outdoor recreation within a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve2017Inngår i: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 17, s. 54-63Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates outdoor recreation participation within a multifunctional landscape, a UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve. The reserve, the Kristianstad Vattenrike located in southern Sweden, has made a deliberate effort to make the experience of biodiversity possible for residents and visitors. Recreation is a keypart of the biodiversity conservation effort in the area, represented by the infrastructure of the Kristianstad Vattenrike's 21 visitor sites. Given the biosphere reserve context, this study investigates the question of whether there is a relationship between outdoor recreation participation and place attachment. Survey data was collected using concurrent application of multiple sampling strategies including both probability and purposive sampling of local adult residents of the biosphere area. Quantitative analysis showed a significant positive relationship between the level of outdoor recreation participation and place attachment. Qualitative data supported this relationship with more details about place attachment within the studied area. The study confirms a relationship between place attachment and outdoor recreation and provides insight into how the biosphere reserve context supports this relationship. The results of this study show that significant biodiversity management in close conjunction with outdoor recreational opportunity can be achieved and provides opportunities for human engagement and experience of biodiversity.

    Management Implications: This research can help managers design recreational settings that support biodiversity conservation goals. Our research found that:

    • A leading motivation for outdoor recreation participation is nature experience and this motivation can be used by managers to highlight a biodiversity conservation interpretive message in the design of outdoor recreation infrastructure.

    • Providing proximate access to nature based outdoor recreation, to support deliberate and direct experience of biodiversity, is an important component of engaging the public in biodiversity conservation.

    • Recreation proximity alone will not create public engagement in biodiversity conservation. However,proximity as a part of a deliberate institutional design including biodiversity conservation, sustainable development, and logistic support for research and monitoring may be critical for public engagement.

  • 2.
    Beery, Thomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning, Avdelningen för matematik- och naturvetenskapernas didaktik. Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för lärarutbildning, Forskningsmiljön Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA). Högskolan Kristianstad, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön Man & Biosphere Health (MABH).
    Olsson, Matilda Rask
    Vitestam, Moa
    Covid-19 and outdoor recreation management: Increased participation, connection to nature, and a look to climate adaptation2021Inngår i: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 36, s. 100457-100457, artikkel-id 100457Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Outdoor recreation management perspectives were investigated based on the general perception of increased public outdoor recreation participation during the Covid-19 pandemic and supported by survey research at local, regional, and national levels in Sweden. There is an interest in how outdoor recreation professionals perceived outdoor recreation by the public during the pandemic and whether professionals could identify specific implications from the Covid-19/outdoor recreation experience. Climate adaptation literature supports the idea that current global challenge coupled with projections for ongoing challenge requires a pro-active approach; this turn to climate adaptation for potential consideration or guidance is based on characteristics that the Covid-19 pandemic shares with climate change. Outdoor recreational professionals' review of a recent public survey and subsequent semi-structured interviews with this group were conducted to obtain outdoor recreation professionals' detailed perceptions on survey outcomes. Results show that the professionals confirm a rapid and significant increase in outdoor recreation participation. Further, professionals identified critical trends in the increase of new or inexperienced outdoor recreation participants. A positive and proactive list of implications emerged as themes of the interviews. A review and synthesis of the themes support the national goals for outdoor recreation in Sweden. Further, results indicate a current opportunity for outdoor recreation to address concerns for diminishing nature experience and support connectedness to nature. The connectedness to nature outcome further strengthens the comparison with climate adaptation strategy given the potential relationship between connectedness to nature and pro-environmental behavior.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Butler, Andrew
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ångman, Elin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sarlöv-Herlin, Ingrid
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Åkerskog, A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Psykologi.
    “There will be mushrooms again” – Foraging, landscape and forest fire2021Inngår i: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 33, artikkel-id 100358Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we address the relevance of recreational foraging, picking berries and mushrooms, for developing connection to nature and what happens when that practice is interrupted by drastic landscape change. We use the site of the largest forest fire in modern Swedish history as a case to examining the relevance of foraging. In previous studies, positive associations have been observed between the activity of picking berries and mushrooms with landscape-identity prior to forest fires. The results suggest that the more participants enjoyed foraging, the stronger their attachment to the landscape as well as memories and reasoning about the landscape. These relationships remainedafter the area has been drastically altered by fire, implying a significant role of foraging for keeping “alive” the positive feelings and memories of the forest landscape. Through questionnaires and semistructured interviews, we examine why individuals forage, what foraging meant for them before the event and how they relate to the landscape and foraging after the fire. Our findings suggest that these connections are built on an interplay between place, practice and intimate knowledge. We conclude that foraging play an essential role in defining and developing connections to landscape which can act as the basis for stewardship of the landscape. Management implications: • In order to facilitate reconnection to the landscape after a forest fire there is a need to understand how individuals and communities related to the landscape before the fire. • Foraging will always be reliant on issues of access, and specific management regimes. • Cultural values and small-scale activities play an essential role in defining and developing connections to landscape. Connections which can ultimately inform a sense of responsibility and stewardship. • Activities such as foraging are reliant on more than just the affordance provided by the physical and visual character of a landscape.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Eriksson, Axel
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för ekonomi, geografi, juridik och turism.
    Balslev Clausen, Helene
    Nature always recovers! A degrowth analysis of event participants’ perspective on environmental impacts2024Inngår i: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 45, artikkel-id 100706Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights the challenges of self-limitation, providing insights into how event sport participants relate to and act within limits. From a cultural degrowth perspective that advocates for the need to practice self-limitation and reduce environmental waste from economic activities, we examine how event participants perceive physical impacts on nature during two types of nature-based events in Jämtland, Sweden. Based on 50 semi-structured interviews, observations and photo-elicitation observations, the findings reveal the difficulties of adhering to limitations. Initially, the informants considered only trash or greenhouse gas emissions as impacts but were stunned to see photos of how impacts such as trail and soil erosion had gone beyond what they imagined. However, responsibility for limiting the effects tended to shift to others, particularly the event organisers. These two events present a paradox in tourism. The convivial idea of visiting nature collides with resource utilisation that heavily impacts the environment.

  • 5.
    Gössling, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    Lund-Durlacher, Dagmar
    Modul University Vienna, Austria.
    Tourist accommodation, climate change and mitigation: An assessment for Austria2021Inngår i: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 34, nr June, artikkel-id 100367Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accommodation is an important part of the tourism value chain, and accounts for a substantial share of the sector's greenhouse gas emissions. This paper provides a short global overview of the energy-intensity of various forms of accommodation establishments, with a more focused discussion of energy-use in Austria, including different types of end-uses. The paper concludes that the accommodation sector is, in comparison to transportation, already a low-carbon sector, and has a good potential to fully decarbonize until 2040. The paper analyses carbon management needs in businesses, as well as the role and importance of policies and legislation to accelerate decarbonization. This paper has an applied nature and is part of the Austrian Special Report on Climate Change.

    Management Implications:

    • Most accommodation establishments still waste energy. Yet, interest in saving energy is often limited due to the (perceived) low cost of energy.
    • A switch to renewable electricity use (sun, wind, water) as well as other renewable energies (wood, biogas) is only marginally more expensive than using conventional (fossil) energy.
    • Energy consulting, incentive programs, as well as energy-related legislation can also increase the interest of owners and managers to engage in energy savings.
    • For new buildings, architecture and design can support energy savings. Passive energy standards, passive solar heating, passive cooling, as well as smaller guest rooms or public areas reduce heating and cooling cost. Compact designs also reduce staff and operational cost.
    • Additional reductions in CO2 emissions can result out of greater awareness of energy use, and concomitant changes in service designs (e.g., food, wellness, transport).
    • Information on climate-friendliness in marketing materials and reservation platforms involves guests, influences their choices, and serves as an incentive for further low-carbon investments.
    • Staff training in energy-management and low-carbon operations can make significant contributions to operational energy savings, and is often paramount for the implementation of measures.
  • 6. Lindberg, Kreg
    et al.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi. Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Uncertainty, data treatment, and the measurement of outdoor recreation expenditure2015Inngår i: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 12, s. 99-107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Expenditure and economic impact analyses are common in outdoor recreation and tourism, but there are potential sources of error in resulting estimates. The present study extends expenditure evaluation using national period-based reporting data from Sweden. This appears to be the first study that: (i) systematically provided respondents with opportunities to correct reported expenditure amounts and (ii) utilized corrections, certainty evaluations, and survey completion time to adjust expenditure estimates. Greater expenditure complexity was associated with lower respondent certainty in expenditure reports. Survey completion time was positively correlated with certainty, though only marginally so. Fewer than 10% of respondents changed expenditure reports, and the changes did not have a dramatic effect on mean expenditure. Expenditure amounts in the fuel and grocery categories were the most likely to be changed and the most likely to affect reported certainty; this is consistent with potential error arising from allocation of expenditure to recreation versus non-recreation purposes. Most of the data treatments resulted in means and standard deviations that were within 10% of the common Naïve approach; however, the "high certainty" treatment substantially reduced the expenditure mean and standard deviation. Given the prevalence and importance of economic impact estimates, the diversity of analysis contexts, and the paucity of past research, further evaluation of alternate survey administration and data treatment approaches is recommended. This research will contribute to more informed policy making and management through enhanced data quality. Management implications Recreation is one of the important ecosystem services that natural areas provide, and the economic impact of visitor expenditure is one rationale for promoting outdoor recreation participation and sustaining natural areas. This study contributes to informed policy making and management by (i) providing guidance regarding data collection methods, including the role of probing and survey completion time, and (ii) illustrating different treatments of reported expenditure, with potential implications for data quality and results.

  • 7.
    Lund-Durlacher, Dagmar
    et al.
    Modul University Vienna, Austria.
    Gössling, Stefan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    An analysis of Austria's food service sector in the context of climate change2021Inngår i: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 34, artikkel-id 100342Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The food service industry and its relation to climate change have recently gained attention, as the greenhouse gas intensity of food production and consumption has become better understood. Food services – including restaurants, canteens, or catering - have great relevance for emissions as a result of the purchasing decisions they make as well as their influence on consumer choices. This paper provides an overview of the existing knowledge on these interrelationships, with a specific focus on Austria. Specifically, it investigates whether there are opportunities for the Austrian food service sector to contribute to mitigation. The paper also discusses the role of policies and waste management in changing food use patterns. The paper has an applied nature and is part of the Austrian Special Report on Tourism and Climate Change.

    Management implications

    In many cases the implementation of measures requires

    -a raised awareness and better knowledge about climate change and low-carbon food systems. In this context energy saving campaigns might be helpful to enhance the awareness

    -a commitment of managers, employees, and guests. Funding opportunities may encourage business and customers to move forward on climate-friendlier food choices.

    -a specific training for food service owners, managers, chefs, kitchen and service staff. The integration of climate-related content into the curricula of hospitality schools, universities and food programs will also be essential for mainstreaming food climate knowledge.

  • 8.
    Løland, Stig
    et al.
    Volda University College, Norway; Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Søreide, Maria Nordbø
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Hetland, Audun
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Updating in the mountains: a sensemaking perspective on ski guiding2023Inngår i: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 44, artikkel-id 100660Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For a ski guide, updating on the ever-changing natural conditions and group dynamics is essential to stay safe and provide a good experience for clients. In this paper, we explore how guides update their understanding in the mountains. Our data arise out of a one-season participant ethnography of ski guiding in Norway. The research team had two authors collecting data, one as an “outsider” and another as an “insider”. We find that the work of a ski guide involves a process of monitoring, testing, and projecting. Complementing and challenging the avalanche literature, we find that ski guide decision-making is an embodied updating process rather than a cognitive one that happens at “decision points”. We highlight the implications of these findings both for guides and researchers.

    Management implications:

    • Continuous updating is critical for adapting to changing conditions and for breaking with set frames of understanding. Therefore, guides should not overly rely on decision aids or fixed decisions.
    • Guides should listen to their intuition when something “feels off” and be in doubt when something “feels right”.
    • Clients should acknowledge that they are an active part of the setting and, therefore, influence the outcome with both direct and indirect actions.
    • Updating relies on the continuous monitoring, testing, and projecting of ecological and social cues. Neither type should be viewed in isolation.
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi.
    Fredman, Peter
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Bridging outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism in a commercial context: Insights from the Swedish service providers2017Inngår i: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 17, nr March 2017, s. 84-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how outdoor recreation demand is reflected in the commercial tourism supply. We bring together the demand and the supply perspectives as well as the domestic and international dimensions, i.e. linking outdoor recreation with nature-based tourism. The data is collected through a nation-wide survey among nature-based tourism providers, catering to both domestic and international markets in Sweden. Four major data-driven avenues of commercializing outdoor recreation are discussed (Winter/Nordic, Summer/Active, Summer/Relaxing and Extractive) and further profiled against external variables, such as types of business operations, international markets or seasonality. The findings offer a new insight into the patters of the commercial supply of nature-based tourism in Sweden, while also building on the previous research and history of outdoor recreation. Evident commercial importance and domestic popularity of such ordinary outdoor activities as cycling on roads, swimming, jogging, picnicking or hiking outside mountain areas are linked to changes in leisure and lifestyles noticed previously. Commercialization of outdoor recreation, a snapshot of which is presented in this study, is discussed as an ever-expanding and diversifying process, observed both in Sweden and globally.

  • 10. Marschall, Sarah
    et al.
    Granquist, Sandra Magdalena
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. The Icelandic Seal Center, Iceland; Marine and Freshwater Research Institute, Iceland.
    Burns, Georgette Leah
    Interpretation in wildlife tourism: Assessing the effectiveness of signage on visitor behaviour at a seal watching site in Iceland2017Inngår i: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 17, s. 11-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effectiveness of interpretive signage as a means of modifying visitor behaviour to reduce negative impacts on wildlife was tested empirically at a seal watching site on Vatnsnes peninsula in North West Iceland. From July to September 2014, the actions of 2440 visitors were observed and their behaviour recorded. To test the importance of how interpretive information is presented, signs with either ontological ( instructions without explanation) or teleological ( instructions with explanation) information were positioned along the path towards the site. A control group, to which no signs were provided, was also observed. Our results show that the majority of the tested behaviour was influenced when signs were present and that under some conditions teleological signs were more effective than ontological. The type of visitor group was found to significantly influence behaviour, with families having the most intrusive behaviour compared to singles, couples or other groups. The findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of how interpretative signage can modify tourist behaviour to facilitate sustainable wildlife tourism. The use of teleological signs for managing wildlife tourism activities is recommended because they are more effective than ontological signs in terms of modifying the general visitor behaviour. In addition, signage and other management strategies should address the different needs and responses relevant to the nature of the tourist group visiting the site. Special focus should be placed on families when signs are designed because this group type showed the highest probability of causing disturbance at the site. Management implications: In this paper we show that interpretation through signage can be a useful tool for sustainable development and management of wildlife watching. We recommend the following when designing interpretive signs: Visitors should be provided with teleological, rather than ontological, information. Signs should include illustrations with informative text. The information provided should take care to address families because they show the most intrusive behaviour. Information should be offered in multiple languages, as appropriate, to make information accessible to the greatest number of visitors. The content of the information should include practical information about wildlife protection, take home messages and comparisons between wildlife and humans to enable visitors to more readily establish a psychological connection with the wildlife. Although signage has many advantages, other methods for conveying information, such as guided tours with educated guides, are suggested as a way of supplementing signs.

  • 11.
    Nowak, Marie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för ekonomi, geografi, juridik och turism. Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Financing recreational trails through donations: Testing behavioural theory in mountain biking context2023Inngår i: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 42, artikkel-id 100603Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The funding of recreational trails in publicly accessible nature areas is a prevailing challenge for the development of tourism destinations. In some cases, mandatory fees are neither ideologically nor legally supported, meaning that local stakeholders are reliant on the voluntary contributions of trail users. In light of the motivational barriers and uncertainties that hinder recreationists from donating, we tested behaviourally informed interventions to enhance cooperation in such settings. Specifically, we examined the effect of normative social cues on the share and amount of donations for mountain biking trails by conducting a field experiment in a rural destination in Sweden. Consistent with our predictions and previous studies, we found an increase in both the donation amount and share of donators after the intervention. Additionally, our research shows that the change in behaviour seems to be related to the belief about the donation behaviour of others, which can easily be targeted in policies. These findings imply that voluntary contribution schemes enhanced with normative messages can provide effective funding strategies for recreational nature-based trails. The importance of developing these strategies with regard to the local context is highlighted. Management implications: • Mountain bikers are, to a large extent, willing to contribute financially to the upkeep of trails through donations. Proving information about previous contributions and framing techniques to highlight this norm can further increase the share of contributions. • Contributions of approximately SEK100–120 (€9–11) per visit seem to be the norm for mountain bikers in Rörbäcksnäs. • Stakeholders involved in the management of recreational trails might benefit from making more effort to raise awareness about the possibilities to donate, for example through more channels and displays, and by testing different placements and designs. 

  • 12.
    Nowak, Marie
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Turismvetenskap. Mid Sweden University, Östersund.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    Financing recreational trails through donations: Testing behavioural theory in mountain biking context2023Inngår i: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 42, artikkel-id 100603Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The funding of recreational trails in publicly accessible nature areas is a prevailing challenge for the development of tourism destinations. In some cases, mandatory fees are neither ideologically nor legally supported, meaning that local stakeholders are reliant on the voluntary contributions of trail users. In light of the motivational barriers and uncertainties that hinder recreationists from donating, we tested behaviourally informed interventions to enhance cooperation in such settings. Specifically, we examined the effect of normative social cues on the share and amount of donations for mountain biking trails by conducting a field experiment in a rural destination in Sweden. Consistent with our predictions and previous studies, we found an increase in both the donation amount and share of donators after the intervention. Additionally, our research shows that the change in behaviour seems to be related to the belief about the donation behaviour of others, which can easily be targeted in policies. These findings imply that voluntary contribution schemes enhanced with normative messages can provide effective funding strategies for recreational nature-based trails. The importance of developing these strategies with regard to the local context is highlighted. Management implications: • Mountain bikers are, to a large extent, willing to contribute financially to the upkeep of trails through donations. Proving information about previous contributions and framing techniques to highlight this norm can further increase the share of contributions. • Contributions of approximately SEK100–120 (€9–11) per visit seem to be the norm for mountain bikers in Rörbäcksnäs. • Stakeholders involved in the management of recreational trails might benefit from making more effort to raise awareness about the possibilities to donate, for example through more channels and displays, and by testing different placements and designs. © 2023 The Authors

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Petersson-Forsberg, Lena
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för planering och mediedesign.
    Swedish spatial planning: A blunt instrument for the protection of outdoor recreation2014Inngår i: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 5-6, nr April, s. 37-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Outdoor recreation opportunities are in great demand across Europe - so much so that for many citizens it affects their choice of where to live. National authorities, for example the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (2005), have stressed that municipal spatial planning (i.e. local land use planning) should be used to protect outdoor recreation. However, the circumstances under which outdoor recreation is integrated into spatial planning remain unclear. The study draws on a survey of Swedish citizens, and another survey of planning officials representing all 290 Swedish municipalities, qualitative interviews with ten municipal planning officials, and analyses of comprehensive planning documents in eleven municipalities. Based on a discussion of the supply of and demand for urban and peri-urban nature, the results show that in Sweden spatial planning is an important, but somewhat blunt instrument for the protection of nature areas suitable for outdoor recreation. It is argued that, a combination of the following planning measures would make it more effective: (i) increased public participation in the planning process; (ii) greater use of research-based knowledge of outdoor recreation; (iii) umbrella legislation for outdoor recreation; (iv) changes to the wording of the legislation; and (v) research on providing clearer definitions and their implementation to planning. Management implications This case study about the position of outdoor recreation in Swedish planning processes bears relevance for an international audience of practitioners and researchers. In Sweden, outdoor recreation as public interest carries very high rhetorical value, but both the spatial planning practice and the planning legislation carry notable weaknesses in defense of these interests. The following strategies are proposed to alleviate this situation: Knowledge about public recreation and suitable natural areas in and around urban areas needs to be communicated at all levels of spatial planning, to support the required trade-offs between competing interests.The high demand for recreational opportunities close to people's homes is one particularly strong argument for defending the public interest.In order to strengthen public participation, the planning process should be made more transparent, public meetings should be made more inviting, and be held at suitable times. Participation and knowledge transfer can also be enhanced by new methods such as geographic information systems (Soft GIS) that allow residents to share their knowledge of their living environment with urban planners and researchers.

  • 14.
    Sundqvist, Joachim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kost- och måltidsvetenskap.
    When you walk the trail, you start to fantasize about food, right? Teleologies and understandings of hikers’ meal practices while hiking in Arctic Sweden2022Inngår i: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, artikkel-id 100592Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food and eating while travelling are important to, and an intrinsic part of, the holistictourism experience. However, in some tourism contexts, e.g., mountain hiking, groupsof tourists import their own food to the destination and thus distance themselves fromlocal food cultures. This study aimed to explore the sensemaking of mountain hikers in Arctic Sweden vis-à-vis their meal practices. Twelve hikers, engaged in medium to longdistance hiking were interviewed at different trailheads along the Kungsleden trail. Theinterviews were analyzed thematically and interpreted through a practice theoreticallens. Results showed that the eating event were negotiated through two distinctphenomena. Food consumption, as social motivated, and the physical attributesmediated by the environment. These phenomena were, when interpreted through asocial practice theoretical lens, conceived as parts of two, distinct, teleological end-projects structures within the practice. The teleological ends, pursued by the hikers,were that of energizing the body, and that of having an enjoyable experience. Howhikers’ make sense of their meals could have managerial implications for tourismdestination managers and local food entrepreneurs as it provides insight into thecontextual drivers of thus meals, thus facilitating engagement with a wider market.

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