Change search
Refine search result
1 - 13 of 13
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Alvarez, Laura
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Espaillat, Akbar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Hermoso, Juan A.
    de Pedro, Miguel A.
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Peptidoglycan Remodeling by the Coordinated Action of Multispecific Enzymes2014In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 190-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall constitutes the main defense barrier of bacteria against environmental insults and acts as communication interface. The biochemistry of this macromolecule has been well characterized throughout the years but recent discoveries have unveiled its chemical plasticity under environmental stresses. Non-canonical D-amino acids (NCDAA) are produced and released to the extracellular media by diverse bacteria. Such molecules govern cell wall adaptation to challenging environments through their incorporation into the polymer, a widespread capability among bacteria that reveals the inherent catalytic plasticity of the enzymes involved in the cell wall metabolism. Here, we analyze the recent structural and biochemical characterization of Bsr, a new family of broad spectrum racemases able to generate a wide range of NCDAA. We also discuss the necessity of a coordinated action of PG multispecific enzymes to generate adequate levels of modification in the murein sacculus. Finally, we also highlight how this catalytic plasticity of NCDAA-incorporating enzymes has allowed the development of new revolutionary methodologies for the study of PG modes of growth and in vivo dynamics.

  • 2.
    Hamasuna, Ryoichi
    et al.
    Department of Urology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.
    Ohnishi, Makoto
    Department of Bacteriology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.
    Matsumoto, Masahiro
    Department of Urology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.
    Okumura, Ryo
    Rare Disease & LCM Laboratories, Group I, R&D Division, Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.
    Unemo, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea and other STIs, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Matsumoto, Tetsuro
    Department of Urology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.
    In Vitro Activity of Sitafloxacin and Additional Newer Generation Fluoroquinolones Against Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates2018In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 30-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major public health concern globally, and new antimicrobials for treatment of gonorrhea are imperative. In this study, the in vitro activity of sitafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone mainly used for respiratory tract or urogenital infections in Japan, and additional newer generation fluoroquinolones were determined against ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, sitafloxacin, pazufloxacin, and tosufloxacin against 47 N. gonorrhoeae isolates cultured in 2009 in Japan were determined by agar dilution method. The quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC was sequenced. The in vitro potency of sitafloxacin was substantially higher compared with all other tested fluoroquinolones. The MICs of sitafloxacin ranged from 0.03 to 0.5 mg/L for 35 ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae isolates (ciprofloxacin MICs from 2 to 32 mg/L). No identified mutations in GyrA and ParC QRDR resulted in higher sitafloxacin MIC than 0.5 mg/L. Sitafloxacin had a high activity against N. gonorrhoeae isolates, including strains with mutations in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, resulting in high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin and all other newer generation fluoroquinolones examined. However, it was still to a lower extent affected by GyrA and ParC QRDR mutations resulting in sitafloxacin MICs of up to 0.5 mg/L. This indicates that sitafloxacin should not be considered for empirical first-line monotherapy of gonorrhea. However, sitafloxacin could be valuable in a dual antimicrobial therapy and for cases with ceftriaxone resistance or allergy.

  • 3.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Laurell, Karl
    Uppsala University.
    Rakib, Mufti Mahmud
    Uppsala University.
    Ahlstedt, Erik
    Uppsala University.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Uppsala University ; Kalmar County Hospital.
    Caceres, Mercedes
    Natl Autonomous Univ Leon UNAN Leon, Nicaragua.
    Jarhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University.
    Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum -Lactamases in Healthy Humans, Poultry, and Wild Birds in Leon, NicaraguaA Shared Pool of bla(CTX-M) Genes and Possible Interspecies Clonal Spread of Extended-Spectrum -Lactamases-Producing Escherichia coli2016In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 682-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a major concern in the healthcare of today, especially the increasing number of gram-negative bacteria producing -lactamases such as extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs). However, little is known about the relationship of ESBL producers in humans and domestic and wild birds, especially in a low-income setting. Therefore, we studied the fecal carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in healthy humans, poultry, and wild birds in the vicinity of Leon, Nicaragua. Three hundred fecal samples were collected during December 2012 from humans (n=100), poultry (n=100) and wild birds (n=100). The samples were examined for ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae, revealing the prevalence of 27% in humans, 13% in poultry, and 8% in wild birds. Further characterization of the ESBL-producing isolates was performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (NDM, CTX-M), epidemiological typing (ERIC2-PCR), multilocus sequence typing, and sequencing. ESBL producers harbored bla(CTX-M-2), bla(CTX-M-15), bla(CTX-M-22), and bla(CTX-M-3) genotypes. The bla(CTX-M-15) constituted the absolute majority of ESBL genes among all samples. ERIC-PCR demonstrated highly related E. coli clones among humans, poultry, and wild birds. Clinically relevant E. coli clone ST648 was found in humans and poultry. There is a shared pool of bla(CTX-M) genes between humans and domesticated and wild birds in Nicaragua, and the results suggest shared clones of ESBL-producing E. coli. The study adds to the notion that wild birds and poultry can pick up antibiotic-resistant bacteria of human origin and function as a melting pot of resistance. Structured surveillance programs of antimicrobial resistance and a more regulated prescription of antibiotics are warranted in Nicaragua.

  • 4.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Laurell, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Rakib, Mufti Mahmud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Ahlstedt, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. Linnaeus Univ, Sch Nat Sci, Kalmar, Sweden.;Kalmar Cty Hosp, Clin Microbiol, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Caceres, Mercedes
    Natl Autonomous Univ Leon UNAN Leon, Fac Med Sci, Dept Microbiol, Leon, Nicaragua..
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum -Lactamases in Healthy Humans, Poultry, and Wild Birds in Leon, NicaraguaA Shared Pool of bla(CTX-M) Genes and Possible Interspecies Clonal Spread of Extended-Spectrum -Lactamases-Producing Escherichia coli2016In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 682-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a major concern in the healthcare of today, especially the increasing number of gram-negative bacteria producing -lactamases such as extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs). However, little is known about the relationship of ESBL producers in humans and domestic and wild birds, especially in a low-income setting. Therefore, we studied the fecal carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in healthy humans, poultry, and wild birds in the vicinity of Leon, Nicaragua. Three hundred fecal samples were collected during December 2012 from humans (n=100), poultry (n=100) and wild birds (n=100). The samples were examined for ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae, revealing the prevalence of 27% in humans, 13% in poultry, and 8% in wild birds. Further characterization of the ESBL-producing isolates was performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (NDM, CTX-M), epidemiological typing (ERIC2-PCR), multilocus sequence typing, and sequencing. ESBL producers harbored bla(CTX-M-2), bla(CTX-M-15), bla(CTX-M-22), and bla(CTX-M-3) genotypes. The bla(CTX-M-15) constituted the absolute majority of ESBL genes among all samples. ERIC-PCR demonstrated highly related E. coli clones among humans, poultry, and wild birds. Clinically relevant E. coli clone ST648 was found in humans and poultry. There is a shared pool of bla(CTX-M) genes between humans and domesticated and wild birds in Nicaragua, and the results suggest shared clones of ESBL-producing E. coli. The study adds to the notion that wild birds and poultry can pick up antibiotic-resistant bacteria of human origin and function as a melting pot of resistance. Structured surveillance programs of antimicrobial resistance and a more regulated prescription of antibiotics are warranted in Nicaragua.

  • 5.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Melhus, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Sandegren, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Alam, Munirul
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    The Gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus) as an Environmental Bioindicator and Reservoir for Antibiotic Resistance on the Coastlines of the Bay of Bengal2014In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 466-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence and frequency of multiresistant bacteria in wild birds act as indicators of the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance. To explore the rate of contamination mediated by Escherichia coli, 150 fecal samples from the brown-headed gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus) and 8 water samples from the Bay of Bengal area were collected, cultured, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Special attention was paid to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates, which were further characterized genetically. Antibiotic resistance was found in 42.3% (36/85) of the E. coli isolates and multidrug resistance in 11.8%. Isolates from the area with a higher human activity were more resistant than those from an area with a lower level of activity. Most frequent was resistance to ampicillin (29.4%), followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (24.7%) and quinolones (22.4%). Carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli was relatively high (17.3%) in the gulls, whereas no ESBL producers were found in the water. All ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, but one, carried blaCTX-M-15 or blaCTX-M-15-like genes. A blaCTX-M-14-like enzyme was found as an exception. Gulls from two different colonies shared E. coli clones and harbored the clinically relevant sequence types ST10, ST48, and ST131. The high frequency of antibiotic resistance and ESBL production among E. coli isolates from gulls indicates that the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance has already gone far on the coastlines of the Bay of Bengal. Considering the limited control over the antibiotic consumption and waste from human activities in Bangladesh, there is no easy solution in sight.

  • 6.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ.
    Melhus, Åsa
    Uppsala Univ.
    Sandegren, Linus
    Uppsala Univ.
    Alam, Munirul
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Bangladesh.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Uppsala Univ.
    The Gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus) as an Environmental Bioindicator and Reservoir for Antibiotic Resistance on the Coastlines of the Bay of Bengal2014In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 466-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence and frequency of multiresistant bacteria in wild birds act as indicators of the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance. To explore the rate of contamination mediated by Escherichia coli, 150 fecal samples from the brown-headed gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus) and 8 water samples from the Bay of Bengal area were collected, cultured, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Special attention was paid to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates, which were further characterized genetically. Antibiotic resistance was found in 42.3% (36/85) of the E. coli isolates and multidrug resistance in 11.8%. Isolates from the area with a higher human activity were more resistant than those from an area with a lower level of activity. Most frequent was resistance to ampicillin (29.4%), followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (24.7%) and quinolones (22.4%). Carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli was relatively high (17.3%) in the gulls, whereas no ESBL producers were found in the water. All ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, but one, carried bla(CTX-M-15) or bla(CTX-M-15)-like genes. A bla(CTX-M-14)-like enzyme was found as an exception. Gulls from two different colonies shared E. coli clones and harbored the clinically relevant sequence types ST10, ST48, and ST131. The high frequency of antibiotic resistance and ESBL production among E. coli isolates from gulls indicates that the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance has already gone far on the coastlines of the Bay of Bengal. Considering the limited control over the antibiotic consumption and waste from human activities in Bangladesh, there is no easy solution in sight.

  • 7.
    Hessman, Jon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Atterby, Clara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    High Prevalence and Temporal Variation of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase–Producing Bacteria in Urban Swedish Mallards2018In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria present a growing global healthcare challenge. Previous research demonstrates that wild birds harbor extended spectrum -lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and may contribute to their dissemination. We aimed to assess prevalence and temporal variation in the detection rate of ESBL-producing bacteria in urban wild birds and to evaluate methods regarding sample handling. Monthly fecal sampling was performed in 2013 at an urban pond in Sweden. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction targeting bla(CTX-M). Subsets of samples were analyzed in multiple replicates and without previous freezing. Pond water samples were screened for 12 antibiotics. Out of 813 fecal samples, 47% grew ESBL-producing E. coli, a higher prevalence than in similar studies. Detection rate varied considerably between months, ranging from 4.2% in May to 84% in July, and was significantly higher during warm months. A majority of isolates harbored CTX-M-15 type ESBL. Detection rates were increased by duplicating samples and by avoiding freezing. No antibiotics were detected in pond water. This study demonstrates high prevalence and a previously undescribed temporal variation in detection rate of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in wild birds. The distribution of CTX-M genes corresponds well with Swedish human isolates, indicating communication between the genetic pools of ESBLs in humans and wild birds. Urban ponds may serve as important natural reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance.

  • 8.
    Horcajo, Pilar
    et al.
    Centro de Biología Molecular ‘‘Severo Ochoa,’’ Universidad Autónoma de Madrid-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain.
    de Pedro, Miguel A
    Centro de Biología Molecular ‘‘Severo Ochoa,’’ Universidad Autónoma de Madrid-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain.
    Cava, Felipe
    Centro de Biología Molecular ‘‘Severo Ochoa,’’ Universidad Autónoma de Madrid-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain.
    Peptidoglycan plasticity in bacteria: stress-induced peptidoglycan editing by noncanonical D-amino acids2012In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 306-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been generally assumed that the role of D-amino acids in bacterial physiology is rather limited. However, recent new evidence demonstrated that millimolar concentrations of noncanonical D-amino acids are synthesized and released to the environment by bacteria from diverse phyla. These D-amino acids help bacteria adapt to environmental challenges by modulating the structure and composition of the peptidoglycan (PG). This regulation, which appears to be well conserved among bacterial species, occurs principally through the incorporation of the D-amino acids into the terminus of the peptide moiety of muropeptides. These findings revived interest in studies investigating D-amino acids as an exciting and trendy topic in current microbiology, which considers them as fundamental players in different aspects of bacterial physiology. In this article, we provide an overview of the origins of research on the effects of D-amino acids in the biology of bacterial cell walls, including their recent implication as key factors for stress-associated PG remodeling.

  • 9.
    Kaarme, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hasan, Badrul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Rashid, Mahmudur
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Zero Prevalence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Among Swedish Preschool Children2015In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 65-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Enterococci are a natural part of the bacterial flora of humans, animals, and insects and are frequently found in the community. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged as a growing problem, associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of VRE among healthy Swedish preschool children and ascertain whether they constitute a reservoir for the bacteria.

    Methods: In total, 313 individual diapers were collected from preschools in Uppsala, Sweden. Fecal samples were screened by analyzing the color change in a broth followed by polymerase chain reaction for vanA and vanB genes, which are associated with vancomycin resistance.

    Results: Neither vanA nor vanB genes could be detected from the samples.

    Conclusions: Preschool children in Uppsala do not constitute a reservoir for VRE. The zero prevalence is consistent with the overall decline in VRE prevalence in Sweden during the last years.

  • 10. Prellner, Karin
    et al.
    Hermansson, Ann
    White, P.
    Melhus, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Briles, D.
    Immunization and protection in pneumococcal otitis media studied in a rat model1999In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 73-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent and growing problem of bacterial resistance to common antibiotics has generated great interest in different methods for prevention of infections. The treatment of the pathogens causing upper airway infections and especially acute otitis media (AOM) is especially interesting in this context because these infections are a common cause of prescription of antibiotics all over the world. Both in AOM and recurrent AOM, Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most frequently occurring bacterium is isolated in 30-50% of all AOM attacks. In the last decade, multiresistant S. pneumoniae have emerged as a major problem. Thus, it is important to explore possibilities that immunization may protect against pneumococcal OM. In a well-defined animal model using Sprague-Dawley rats, we have investigated the effects of different routes of immunization with different antigens and whole cells. Together with otomicroscopical evaluation of middle ear (ME) status, samples for bacterial cultivation as well as for studies of histopathological changes have been collected. Antibody titers have been followed during and after pneumococcal AOM by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.

  • 11. Saffari, Fereshteh
    et al.
    Widerström, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Gurram, Bharat Kumar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Edebro, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Hojabri, Zoya
    Monsen, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Clones of Staphylococcus epidermidis in Iranian Hospitals: Clonal Relatedness to Healthcare-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Isolates in Northern Europe2016In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 570-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus epidermidis in Iranian hospitals and to compare the genotypes with a previously characterized collection of >1,300 S. epidermidis isolates of nosocomial and community origin from Northern Europe, Australia, and USA. In total, 82 clinical S. epidermidis isolates from three Iranian hospitals were examined by multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of the ica operon, and the predilection to biofilm formation were assessed. Three predominant PFGE clones were found. The PFGE patterns of the most common sequence type (PFGE type 040-ST2) showed 80% similarity to multidrug-resistant S. epidermidis (MDRSE) clinical isolates from eight hospitals in Northern Europe. The second most common (PFGE 024-ST22) showed an unique PFGE pattern, whereas the third most predominant genotype (PFGE 011-ST5) proved indistinguishable to the PFGE Co-ST5 identified in five hospitals in Northern Europe. In conclusion, the study documented the dissemination of three MDRSE clones within and between hospitals in Iran and revealed an intercontinental spread of two clonal multidrug-resistant lineages (ST2 and ST5) in the hospital environment. Isolates of the predominant clones were significantly more frequently associated with multidrug-resistance and biofilm formation compared to nonclonal isolates. Further studies are needed to explore and characterize the genetic traits that enable these successful MDRSE clones to persist and disseminate worldwide in the healthcare settings.

  • 12.
    Tegnell, Anders
    et al.
    The Swedish Institute of Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Grabowska, Katarzyna
    The Swedish Institute of Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Anders
    Department of Mathematical Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mikael
    Department of Mathematical Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Giesecke, Johan
    The Swedish Institute of Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
    Öhman, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Study of developed resistance due to antibiotic treatment of coagulase-negative staphylococci2003In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are a major cause of postoperative infections. These infections are often associated with foreign material implants and/or a compromised immune system in the patient. Multiresistant strains are increasingly common in the hospital environment and there is concern that the infections will become difficult or impossible to treat. This report is based on a study of 75 patients, with postoperative infections caused by CoNS after thoracic surgery. All patients were treated with surgical revision and antibiotic therapy. One or more bacterial cultures were made in each case, and the resistance pattern of the CoNS found was determined. The goal of the study was to evaluate possible relationships between antibiotic therapy and the appearance of resistance to antibiotics in CoNS found. To describe this relationship, three models were constructed and analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The results indicate an increased resistance to β-lactam antibiotics and clindamycin after the use of cephalosporins. Also, the use of vancomycin or vancomycin combination with rifampicin or fusidic acid increases the risk for development of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, netilmycin, and rifampicin. The hypothesis that a combination of antibiotics will curtail the development of resistance was not supported in this study.

  • 13.
    Zou, Huiyun
    et al.
    Shandong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zheng, Beiwen
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Mingli
    Ctr Dis Prevent and Control, Peoples R China.
    Ottoson, Jakob
    Natl Food Agcy, Sweden.
    Li, Yubo
    Ctr Dis Prevent and Control, Peoples R China.
    Berglund, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology, Infection and Inflammation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Chi, Xiaohui
    Shandong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ji, Xiang
    Shandong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Xuewen
    Shandong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology, Infection and Inflammation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Evaluating Dissemination Mechanisms of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Rural Environments in China by Using CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli as an Indicator2019In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that the environment plays an important role both in the emergence and in dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), Mechanisms and factors facilitating this development are, however, not yet well understood. The high detection rate of CTX-M genes in environmental sources provides an opportunity to explore this issue. In this study, 88 CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli were isolated from 30 pig feces samples from 30 pig farms and 201 environmental samples. CTX-M-producing E. coli was detected with the following frequencies in the different types of samples: pig feces, 73%; river water, 64%; river sediment, 52%; wastewater, 31%; drinking water, 23%; outlet sediment, 21%; soil, 17%; and vegetables, 4.4%. Dissemination of CTX-M-producing E. coli to different environmental matrices was evaluated by analyzing the genetic relatedness of isolates from different environmental sources, and putative transmission routes through bird feces, pig feces, drinking water, river sediment, river water, and wastewater were hypothesized. Dissemination through these routes is likely facilitated by anthropogenic activities and environmental factors. Wild birds as potential vectors for dissemination of CTX-M-producing E. coli have the capacity to spread ARB across long distances. Regional dissemination between different environmental matrices of CTX-M-producing E. coli increases the exposure risk of humans and animals in the area.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-05-22 08:00
1 - 13 of 13
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf