Endre søk
Begrens søket
1 - 32 of 32
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1. Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood
    et al.
    Khan, Mir Ajab
    Khan, Nadeem
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Shah, Munir H
    Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important wild edible fruits species used by tribal communities of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan2013Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 148, nr 2, s. 528-536Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Present survey was conducted to explore ethnomedicinal uses and cultural importance of wild edible fruits species by the inhabitants of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Materials and methods: Information was obtained through informed consent semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, market survey, focus group conversation, unceremonious dialogue and village walks with key informants. Cultural significance of each species was calculated based on use report by participants at each study site. Results: A total of 35 wild edible fruits belonging to 21 genera and 17 families were used for the treatment of various ailments and consumed. Rosaceae was found dominating family with (8 spp.), followed by Moraceae (6 spp.), Rhamnaceae (5 spp.), Palmae and Vitaceae (2 spp. each) and remaining families were represented by one species each. Fruits (48%) were found highly utilized plant parts, followed by leaves (34%), bark, flowers and seeds (4% each), branches, latex and roots (2% each). Water was used as a medium for preparation while milk, ghee, oil, egg and butter are used for application. Modes of preparation were fall into seven categories like fresh parts eaten raw (38%), powder (24%), decoction (20%), extract (12 %), paste (4%), juice and latex (2% each). Based on cultural important index (CI) Morus nigra was found most significant species within top ten fruit plants followed by Morus alba, Olea ferruginea, Berberis lycium, Pyrus pashia, Ficus carica, Ficus palmata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Diospyros lotus and Ziziphus nummularia. Conclusions: Traditional uses of wild edible plant depend mainly on socio-economic factors rather than climatic conditions or wealth of flora. Use reports and citation demonstrated that there is a common cultural heritage regarding the gathered food plants. Further investigation is required for Antioxidant study, essential and toxic components, pharmacological applications; dietary requirements and biotechnological techniques to improve yields.

    (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Abuzeid, Nadir
    et al.
    Medical and Aromat Plants Research Institute, Sudan; Omdurman Islamic University, Sudan.
    Kalsum, Sadaf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Koshy, Richin John
    Larsson, Marie C
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Glader, Mikaela
    Andersson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Raffetseder, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Pienaar, Elsje
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Eklund, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för inflammationsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Alhassan, Muddathir S.
    Medical and Aromat Plants Research Institute, Sudan.
    AlGadir, Haidar A.
    Medical and Aromat Plants Research Institute, Sudan.
    Koko, Waleed S.
    Medical and Aromat Plants Research Institute, Sudan.
    Schon, Thomas
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Ahmed Mesaik, M.
    University of Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia; University of Karachi, Pakistan.
    Abdalla, Omer M.
    University of Karachi, Pakistan.
    Khalid, Asaad
    Medical and Aromat Plants Research Institute, Sudan.
    Lerm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Antimycobacterial activity of selected medicinal plants traditionally used in Sudan to treat infectious diseases2014Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 157, s. 134-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis underscores the need for continuous development of new and efficient methods to determine the susceptibility of isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the search for novel antimycobacterial agents. Natural products constitute an important source of new drugs, and design and implementation of antimycobacterial susceptibility testing methods are necessary to evaluate the different extracts and compounds. In this study we have explored the antimycobacterial properties of 50 ethanolic extracts from different parts of 46 selected medicinal plants traditionally used in Sudan to treat infectious diseases. Materials and methods: Plants were harvested and ethanolic extracts were prepared. For selected extracts, fractionation with hydrophilic and hydrophobic solvents was undertaken. A luminometry-based assay was used for determination of mycobacterial growth in broth cultures and inside primary human macrophages in the presence or absence of plant extracts and fractions of extracts. Cytotoxicity was also assessed for active fractions of plant extracts. Results: Of the tested extracts, three exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on an avirulent strain of Mycobacterium tubercluosis (H37Ra) at the initial screening doses (125 and 6.25 mu g/ml). These were bark and leaf extracts of Khaya senegalensis and the leaf extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Further fractions of these plant extracts were prepared with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, ethanol and water, and the activity of these extracts was retained in hydrophobic fractions. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that the chloroform fraction of Khaya senegalensis bark was non-toxic to human monocyte-derived macrophages and other cell types at the concentrations used and hence, further analysis, including assessment of IC50 and intracellular activity was done with this fraction. Conclusion: These results encourage further investigations to identify the active compound(s) within the chloroform fraction of Khaya senegalensis bark. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Adia, Madina Mohamed
    et al.
    Emami, Seyedeh Noushin
    Byamukama, Robert
    Faye, Ingrid
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Antiplasmodial activity and phytochemical analysis of extracts from selected Ugandan medicinal plants2016Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 186, s. 14-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Resistance of the parasites to known antimalarial drugs has provided the necessity to find new drugs from natural products against malaria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of some plants used by Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMPs) of Prometra and Rukararwe in malaria treatment in Uganda to provide scientific proof of the efficacies claimed by these Herbalists. Materials and methods: The air dried samples of Clerodendrum rotundifolium (leaves), Microglossa pyrifolia (leaves), Momordica foetida (leaves) and Zanthoxylum chalybeum (stem bark) used for malaria treatment by TMPs were successively extracted with ethyl acetate, methanol and water to yield twelve extracts. The extracts were tested against the chloroquine-sensitive (NF54) and chloroquine-resistant (FCR3) Plasmodium falciparum strains in vitro using the micro Mark III test which is based on assessing the inhibition of schizont maturation. A compound A was extracted and purified from the stem bark of Z. chalybeum and its structure was identified and confirmed by spectroscopic methods. Results: Most of the extracts tested (92%) showed an antiplasmodial activity with IC50 < 50 mu g/mL. In spite of successive extractions with different solvents, potent anti-plasmodial activity (IC50 < 5 mu g/mL) was observed in the ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of M. pyrifolia and C. rotundifolium. Preferential enrichments of activity into water (IC50 < 15 mu g/mL) and Ethyl acetate (IC50 < 5 mu g/mL) were seen in the case of M. foetida and Z chalybeum respectively. The most active extracts were from C rotundifolium and M. pyrifolia with IC50 values less than 2 mu g/mL. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycocides. Fagaramide isolated from Z chalybeum had a higher activity (IC50 2.85 mu g/mL) against the chloroquine-resistant strain than against the chloroquine-senstive (IC50 16.6 mu g/mL) strain used in the study. Conclusion: The plant extracts analysed in this study presented an average antiplasmodial activity (58%). This study revealed for the first time the antiplasmodial activity of the plant C. rotundofolium. It's the first time the compound fagaramide (N-isobutyl-3-(3,4-methylene dioxyphenyl) - 2E-propenamide) has been isolated from Z. chalybeum as one of the compounds that contribute to the activity of this plant against P. falciparum.

  • 4.
    Ahluwalia, Bani
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Calmino Group AB, Sahlgrenska Science Park, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Maria K.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Stefan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Öhman, Lena
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of Aloe barbadensis Mill. extract (AVH200®) on human blood T cell activity in vitro2016Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 179, s. 301-309Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aloe barbadensis Mill. (Aloe vera) is a widely used medicinal plant well reputed for its diverse therapeutic applications. It has been used for thousands of years in folk medicine to treat various conditions and the Aloe vera gel has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory as well as immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory properties. However, the mode of action is still unclear.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was determine the effects of two well-defined A. barbadensis Mill. extracts AVH200® and AVE200 on human blood T cells in vitro.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were stimulated polyclonally in the presence or absence of AVH200® and AVE200. The T cell phenotype was investigated by flow cytometry, cell proliferation was determined by CFSE dye and thymidine assay, respectively and cytokine secretion was determined by MSD® Multi-Spot Assay system and ELISA.

    RESULTS: The presence of AVH200® resulted in a reduced expression of CD25 among CD3(+) T cells and suppression of T cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, AVH200® reduced the expression of CD28 on CD3(+) T cells. AVH200® also reduced the secretion of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17A in PBMC cultures. The AVH200® dose dependent reduction in T cell activation and proliferation recorded in the cell cultures was not due to apoptosis or cell death. Additionally, AVH200® was found to be more effective as compared to AVE200 in reducing T cell activation and proliferation.

    CONCLUSION: AVH200® has the potential to reduce the activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion of healthy human blood T cells. Our study suggests that AVH200® has a suppressive effect on human blood T cells in vitro.

  • 5.
    Andersson Dunstan, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    Noreen, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    Serrano, Gudelia
    Cox, Paul A
    Perera, Premila
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    Bohlin, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    Evaluation of some Samoan and Peruvian medicinal plants by prostaglandin biosynthesis and rat ear oedema assays1997Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 57, nr 1, s. 35-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In our ongoing program to find new anti-inflammatory compounds, 58 extracts from 46 different medicinal plant species, used in treatment of inflammatory disorders - 38 plants from the traditional medicine of Western Samoa and eight originating from the indigenous medicine of the Shipibo-Conibo tribe of Peruvian Amazonia - were evaluated. The ability of all extracts to inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis in vitro was examined. Of the plant species tested 14 showed moderate to strong inhibition; including 11 Samoan and three Peruvian species. Further, 12 Samoan and all eight Peruvian species were investigated on their inhibitory activity of ethyl phenylpropiolate induced rat ear oedema in vivo Significant activity was shown by 10 of the Samoan and by all eight Peruvian species. An additional evaluation of the most active species was provided through a compilation of existing literature documenting traditional medicinal uses, pharmacological activity and chemical constituents. Several known cyclooxygenase-l inhibitors were reported to which the observed pharmacological activity can be attributed at least partly. The combination of chemical and pharmacological literature data and our experimental data may help to explain the anti-inflammatory use of these species in indigenous medicine.

  • 6.
    Asiimwe, Savina
    et al.
    Makerere Univ, Sch Biosci, Kampala, Uganda.
    Kamatenesi-Mugisha, Maud
    Namutebi, Agnes
    Borg-Karlsson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Musiimenta, Peace
    Ethnobotanical study of nutri-medicinal plants used for the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic ailments among the local communities of western Uganda2013Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 150, nr 2, s. 639-648Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Herbal remedies are a source of therapeutics for nearly 80% of the population in Uganda. Poor health facilities and limited access to antiretroviral drugs have perpetuated and increased the use of traditional medicine especially in rural areas for the treatment of opportunistic ailments of HIV/AIDS. To document the traditional uses of nutri-medicinal plants in the management of immunocompromised ailments associated with HIV/AIDS. To document the parts and growth forms of plants used, methods of preparation and administration of the herbal remedies. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in Mbarara and Isingiro districts of western Uganda between December 2010 and May 2011. Ethnobotanical information was collected from 64 respondents who were sampled based on recommendations of local elders and administrators. Ethnobotanical data on the use of nutri-medicinal plants for traditional treatment of HIV/AIDS opportunistic ailments were collected by employing semi-structured interviews with selected respondents, house hold visits and field observations as described by (Martin, 1995a). The respondents were mainly traditional medical practitioners who treat patients who are already receiving antiretroviral drugs. Fidelity levels of plant species and informant consensus factor were determined to show the percentage of informants claiming the use of certain plant species for the same major purpose and to analyse people's knowledge of plant use. Results: The study revealed 81 plant species most of which were herbs (49%). Leaves (71%) were the most frequently used parts in remedy preparations which were mainly administered orally (85%). The majority of plants (54%) were harvested from wild populations. Hibiscus sabdariffa L, Plumeria obtusa L, and Abutilon guineense (Shumach.) Baker. F and Exell were the nutri-medicinal plants that scored the highest Fidelity level values. The informant's consensus about usages of plants ranged from 0.75 to 0.80. Plants that are presumed to be effective in treating a certain disease have higher informant consensus factor (ICF) values. Family Asteraceae accounted for 18% of the total species recorded. Thirteen species (16%) of the plants are edible and provide nutritional support. Conclusion: The study recorded plant species with potential to treat ailments associated with immunocompromised people living with HIV/AIDS in western Uganda. Such studies can help stimulate confidence in traditional medicine and enhance appreciation of herbal medicine among the people and to appreciate the value of the plant resources and therefore enhance conservation efforts of the plant species. The high consensus means the majority of informants agree on the use of plant species and this reflects the intercultural relevance and the agreement in the use of the nutri-medicinal plants to the people. We recommend the documented plants for further Ethnopharmacological studies.

  • 7.
    Boldbaatar, Delgerbat
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    El-Seedi, Hesham R.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    Findakly, Meriana
    Jabri, Safa
    Javzan, Batkhuu
    Choidash, Battsetseg
    Göransson, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    Hellman, Bjorn
    Antigenotoxic and antioxidant effects of the Mongolian medicinal plant Leptopyrum fumarioides (L): An in vitro study2014Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 155, nr 1, s. 599-606Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Leptopyrum fumarioides has been used in the traditional medicine of Mongolia for the treatment of various diseases, including drug intoxications. However, since there is only sparse information about its chemistry, active components, and pharmacological and toxicological effects, the major aim of the present study employing mouse lymphoma cells was to evaluate the genotoxic and antigenotoxic/antioxidative effects of extracts and components isolated from this plant. Material and methods: A crude methanol extract was separated into three different sub-extracts: dichloromethane, n-butanol, and water. The major constituent of the n-butanol extract, i.e., the flavone luteolin-7-O-glucoside and a mixture of the most abundant compounds in the dichloromethane sub-extract were then isolated. DNA damage was evaluated using the comet assay; the antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Results: The crude methanol extract, the dichloromethane sub-extract and the mixture of compounds isolated from the latter fraction, increased the level of DNA damage after three hours of exposure. In contrast, no increase in DNA damage was observed in the cells that had been exposed to the n-butanol and water sub-extracts, or to the pure flavone. When non-DNA damaging concentrations of extracts and compounds were tested together with the DNA damaging agent catechol, all sub-extracts were found to reduce the catechol-induced DNA damage (the flavone was then found to be the most effective protective agent). The n-butanol sub-extract and the flavone were also found to have the most prominent antioxidative effects. Conclusion: Based on the results from the present study, components in Leptopyrum fumarioides were found to protect the DNA damage induced by catechol, probably by acting as potent antioxidants.

  • 8.
    Claeson, Ubonwan Pongprayoon
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    Malmfors, Torbjörn
    Wikman, Georg
    Bruhn, Jan G.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    Adhatoda vasica: a critical review of ethnopharmacological and toxicological data2000Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 72, nr 1-2, s. 1-20Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhatoda vasica (L.) Nees is a well-known plant drug in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases and disorders, particularly for the respiratory tract ailments. During the last 20 years, several scientific reports on oxytocic and abortifacient effects of vasicine and alkaloid derived from the plant have appeared. This leads to questions concerning the safety of A. vasica as a herbal medicine. In this article, the major data on traditional uses as well as ethnopharmacological and toxicological studies, both published and unpublished, are reviewed and commented upon. The data have been evaluated from the point of view of correctness, reliability, relevance and importance for the overall evaluation of the safety of A. vasica.

  • 9.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Cotingting, Crystle
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Medicinal plants for women's healthcare in southeast Asia: a meta-analysis of their traditional use, chemical constituents, and pharmacology2014Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 151, nr 2, s. 747-767Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance

    This is an extensive review of plants used traditionally for women's healthcare in Southeast Asia and surrounding countries. Medicinal plants have a significant role in women's healthcare in many rural areas of the world. Plants with numerous efficacious observations have historically been used as a starting point in the development of new drugs, and a large percentage of modern pharmaceuticals have been derived from medicinal plants.

    Materials and methods

    A review was conducted for all plant use mentioned specifically for female healthcare, such as medicine to increase fertility, induce menstruation or abortion, ease pregnancy and parturition, reduce menstrual bleeding and postpartum hemorrhage, alleviate menstrual, parturition and postpartum pain, increase or inhibit lactation, and treat mastitis and uterine prolapse, in 200 studies focusing on medicinal plant use, either general studies or studies focusing specifically on women's healthcare.

    Results

    Nearly 2000 different plant species are reported to be used in over 5000 combinations. Most common areAchyranthes asperaArtemisia vulgarisBlumea balsamiferaCarica papayaCurcuma longaHibiscus rosa-sinensisLeonurus japonicusPsidium guajava and Ricinus communis, and each of these species had been reported in more than 10 different scientific articles.

    Conclusions

    This review provides a basis for traditional plant use in women's healthcare, and these species can be used as the starting point in the discovery of new drugs.

  • 10.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Systematisk botanik.
    Kool, Anneleen
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Systematisk botanik.
    Broberg, Anders
    Department of Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mziray, William R
    National Herbarium of Tanzania, Tropical Pesticide Research Institute.
    Hedberg, Inga
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Systematisk botanik.
    Levenfors, Jolanta J
    Agrivir AB, Uppsala.
    Anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity of some herbal remedies from Tanzania2005Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 96, nr 3, s. 461-469Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants are not only important to the millions of people to whom traditional medicine serves as the only opportunity for health care and to those who use plants for various purposes in their daily lives, but also as a source of new pharmaceuticals. During interviews with the Pare people from Northeastern Tanzania, 29 plants that are used for medicinal purposes as well as 41 plants used for non-medicinal purposes were reported. Six medicinally used plants were selected for bioactivity analysis. Extracts of Coccinia adoensis, Cineraria grandiflora, Pavonia urens, Marattia fraxinea, Clutia abyssinica var. usambarica, and Vangueria infausta were made using ethyl acetate, methanol, cold water and boiling water. The antimicrobial activity was tested on Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium culmorum, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas syringae, and Erwinia amylovora. All plants showed activity against several test organisms.

  • 11.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Lamxay, Vichith
    Björk, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Comparing medicinal plant knowledge using similarity indices: A case of the Brou, Saek and Kry in Lao PDR2012Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 141, nr 1, s. 481-500Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    known traditional ecosystem services, as it provides primary healthcare, contributes to subsistence livelihoods, and for its potential value as a source of novel pharmaceuticals. People living in close contact with their surroundings for many generations are hypothesized to have developed, through trial-and-error, in-depth knowledge of ecosystems, biodiversity, and their management and utility. In the case of medicinal plant knowledge it could lead to an asymptotic climax or a constantly evolving equilibrium of cures with proven efficacy and those under assessment.Methods: An in-depth study of 97 plant species used in traditional medicine by the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups in Lao PDR was made to test similarity in medicinal plant knowledge.Results: Medicinal plants were used in 99 different ways in 510 species-use combinations. Medicinal uses could be generalized into 12 use categories with 747 species-category combinations. Similarity indices show Brou and Saek plant use appears to be most similar (QS(BS): 60.0; JI(BS): 75.1) followed by Kry and Saek (QS(KS): 51.6; JI(KS): 53.4), and then Kry and Brou (QS(BK): 46.9; JI(BK): 44.1).Discussion: Intercultural similarities found are quite low, considering that all three groups share the same geographical and ecological area and have the same dependence on medicinal plants. Intercultural transmission is unimpeded but many treatments are likely to be ineffective. Comparison of the similarities found here with similarities computed from other data show that these results are homologous with other sympatric ethnic groups, and much higher than those for allopatrically living groups.Conclusion: Medicinal plant knowledge does not reach a stable climax, but appears to evolve continually by trial-and-error, as effective cures to many ailments are unavailable.

  • 12.
    Demma, Jemal
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Engidawork, E
    Hellman, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Potential genotoxicity of plant extracts used in Ethiopian traditional medicine2009Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 122, nr 1, s. 136-142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim of the study: Although traditional herbal medicines are widely used in Ethiopia, no information is available on their potential genotoxicity. In the present study, hydroalcoholic extracts of Glinus lotoides, Plumbago zeylanica, Rumex steudelii and Thymus schimperi were evaluated for their DNA damaging effects using the comet assay. Material and methods: Mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells were exposed to different concentrations of the extracts for 3 h with and without metabolic activation (S9-mix) using 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide and benzo(a)pyrene as positive controls, and vehicles as negative controls. Results: In the absence of S9, all extracts were found to induce significant DNA damage without affecting the cell viability. T schimperi and R. steudelii were the most potent DNA-damaging extracts, and G. lotoides and P. zeylanica the least potent. The addition of S9 had different effects on the DNA damage induced by the extracts: it lowered the DNA damaging effect of P. zeylanica, did not affect the DNA damaging effect of T. schimperi, and increased the DNA damaging effects of R. steudelii and G. lotoides. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that all extracts evaluated have a genotoxic potential in vitro which needs to be substantiated by further studies.

  • 13.
    El-Seedi, Hesham R.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    Burman, Robert
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    Mansour, Ahmed
    Turki, Zaki
    Boulos, Loutfy
    Gullbo, Joachim
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Cancerfarmakologi och beräkningsmedicin.
    Göransson, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    The traditional medical uses and cytotoxic activities of sixty-one Egyptian plants: Discovery of an active cardiac glycoside from Urginea maritima2013Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 145, nr 3, s. 746-757Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Medicinal plants from the Sinai desert are widely used in traditional Bedouin medicine to treat a range of conditions including, cancers, and may thus be useful sources of novel anti-tumor compounds. Information on plants used in this way was obtained through collaboration with Bedouin herbalists. Aim of the study: To document the traditional uses of 61 species from 29 families of Egyptian medicinal plants and to investigate their biological activity using a cytotoxicity assay. Material and methods: MeOH extracts of the 61 plant species investigated were dissolved in 10% DMSO and their cytotoxic activity was evaluated. The extracts were tested in duplicate on three separate occasions at three different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 mu g/ml) against human lymphoma U-937 GTB. The most active extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using HPLC and LC/ESI-MS to isolate and identify its active components. Results and discussion: The most potent extracts were those from Asclepias sinaica, Urginea maritima, Nerium oleander and Catharanthus roseus, followed by those from Cichorium endivia, Pulicaria undulate and Melia azedarach. Literature reports indicate that several of these plants produce cardiac glycosides. Bioassay-guided fractionation of alcoholic U. maritima extracts led to the isolation of a bioactive bufadienolide that was subsequently shown to be proscillaridin A, as determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. This result demonstrates the value of plants used in traditional medicine as sources of medicinally interesting cytotoxic compounds.

  • 14.
    El-Seedi, Hesham R
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    De Smet, Peter A G M
    Beck, Olof
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi.
    Bruhn, Jan G
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    Prehistoric peyote use: alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas2005Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 101, nr 1-3, s. 238-242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two archaeological specimens of peyote buttons, i.e. dried tops of the cactus Lophophora williamsii (Lem.) Coulter, from the collection of the Witte Museum in San Antonio, was subjected to radiocarbon dating and alkaloid analysis. The samples were presumably found in Shumla Cave No. 5 on the Rio Grande, Texas. Radiocarbon dating shows that the calibrated 14C age of the weighted mean of the two individual dated samples corresponds to the calendric time interval 3780-3660 BC (one sigma significance). Alkaloid extraction yielded approximately 2% of alkaloids. Analysis with thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) led to the identification of mescaline in both samples. No other peyote alkaloids could be identified. The two peyote samples appear to be the oldest plant drug ever to yield a major bioactive compound upon chemical analysis. The identification of mescaline strengthens the evidence that native North Americans recognized the psychotropic properties of peyote as long as 5700 years ago.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Therese
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Svensson, Samuel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Andersson, Tony
    Landstinget i Kronoberg.
    Andersson, Rolf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Panax ginseng induces anterograde transport of pigment organelles in Xenopus melanophores2008Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 119, nr 1, s. 17-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Melanophores from Xenopus laevis are pigmented cells, capable of quick colour changes through cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) coordinated transport of their intracellular pigment granules, melanosomes. In this study we use the melanophore cell line to evaluate the effects of Panax ginseng extract G115 on organelle transport. Absorbance readings of melanophore-coated microplates, Correlate-EIA direct cAMP enzyme immunoassay kit, and western blot were used to measure the melanosome movement and changes in intracellular signalling. We show that Panax ginseng induces a fast concentration-dependent anterograde transport of the melanosomes. No significant increase in the cAMP level was seen and pre-incubation of melanophores with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor EGF-R Fragment 651-658 (M-EGF) only partly decreased the ginseng-induced dispersion. We also demonstrate that Panax ginseng, endothelin-3 (ET-3) and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) stimulate an activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Pre-incubation with M-EGF decreased the MAPK activity induced by ET-3 and MSH, but again only marginally affected the response of Panax ginseng. Thus, in melanophores we suggest that Panax ginseng stimulates an anterograde transport of pigment organelles via a non-cAMP and mainly PKC-independent pathway.

  • 16. Gupta, M P
    et al.
    Solis, P N
    Calderon, A I
    Guionneau-Sinclair, Francoise
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Correa, M
    Galdames, C
    Guerra, C
    Espinosa, A
    Alvenda, G I
    Robles, G
    Ocampo, R
    Medical ethnobotany of the Teribes of Bocas del Toro, Panama2005Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 96, nr 3, s. 389-401Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnomedical uses of 108 medicinal plant species, belonging to 52 families, 89 genera, used by the Teribe Amerindians of Bocas del Toro Province in Panama. along with their socio-cultural practices are reported here. The methods of administration of the herbal remedies, the plant parts used, their families and local names are also documented. The recorded medicinal plants were used mainly for fever, various type of pain and inflammation. The potential value of 26 plants and their traditional uses was elucidated through literature search.

  • 17. Holmstedt, Bo
    et al.
    Bruhn, Jan G
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    Ethnopharmacology: a challenge1983Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 251-256Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18. Irungu, Beatrice N
    et al.
    Adipo, Nicholas
    Orwa, Jennifer A
    Kimani, Francis
    Heydenreich, Matthias
    Midiwo, Jacob O
    Martin Björemark, Per
    Håkansson, Mikael
    Yenesew, Abiy
    Erdelyi, Mate
    Antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of the constituents of Turraea robusta and Turraea nilotica.2015Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 174, s. 419-425, artikkel-id S0378-8741(15)30107-0Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Turraea robusta and Turraea nilotica are African medicinal plants used for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including malaria. The genus Turraea is rich in limonoids and other triterpenoids known to possess various biological activities.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the stem bark of T. robusta six compounds, and from various parts of T. nilotica eleven compounds were isolated by the use of a combination of chromatographic techniques. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using NMR and MS, whilst the relative configuration of one of the isolated compounds, toonapubesin F, was established by X-ray crystallography. The antiplasmodial activities of the crude extracts and the isolated constituents against the D6 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum were determined using the semiautomated micro dilution technique that measures the ability of the extracts to inhibit the incorporation of (G-(3)H, where G is guanine) hypoxanthine into the malaria parasite. The cytotoxicity of the crude extracts and their isolated constituents was evaluated against the mammalian cell lines African monkey kidney (vero), mouse breast cancer (4T1) and human larynx carcinoma (HEp2).

    RESULTS: The extracts showed good to moderate antiplasmodial activities, where the extract of the stem bark of T. robusta was also cytotoxic against the 4T1 and the HEp2 cells (IC50<10 μg/ml). The compounds isolated from these extracts were characterized as limonoids, protolimonoids and phytosterol glucosides. These compounds showed good to moderate activities with the most active one being azadironolide, IC50 2.4 ± 0.03 μM and 1.1 ± 0.01 μM against the D6 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively; all other compounds possessed IC50 14.4-40.5 μM. None of the compounds showed significant cytotoxicity against vero cells, yet four of them were toxic against the 4T1 and HEp2 cancer cell lines with piscidinol A having IC50 8.0 ± 0.03 and 8.4 ± 0.01 μM against the 4T1 and HEp2 cells, respectively. Diacetylation of piscidinol A resulted in reduced cytotoxicity.

    CONCLUSION: From the medicinal plants T. robusta and T. nilotica, twelve compounds were isolated and characterized; two of the isolated compounds, namely 11-epi-toonacilin and azadironolide showed good antiplasmodial activity with the highest selectivity indices.

  • 19.
    Mati, Evan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Ethnobotany and trade of medicinal plants in the Qaysari Market, Kurdish Autonomous Region, Iraq2011Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 133, nr 2, s. 490-510Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim of study: Marketplaces epitomize a region's culture and trade, and can give a rapid insight into traditions and salience of commercialized medicinal products. The Qaysari bazaar, bordering the citadel in Erbil city in the Kurdistan Autonomous Region, Iraq, has 21 herbalist shops trading natural medicinal products, wild-crafted and cultivated from all over the Middle East and Asia Minor. Materials and methods: Freelist surveys were conducted with 18 of these herbalists to determine diversity and salience of traded traditional medicinal plants. Interviews were conducted to document use, trade volume, origin, stock and value of the reported species. Plant species were identified using a combination of morphological identification and molecular barcoding using the ITS region. Results: Vouchers were collected for a total of 158 samples, corresponding to 82 species of plants, 5 animal products, 8 types of stones, minerals or chemicals, as well as 16 mixtures of plant products. Consensus Analysis of the herbalist interviews shows strong support for a single culture of herbalist plant use. Conclusions: Most reported plant species are known to have been used since antiquity, and uses are identical or similar to previously documented uses. Herbalists report a steady year-on-year increase in trade due to the economic stability in recent times. A majority (64%) of medicinal plants is imported from outside Iraq, and the data shows that imported plants trade at a higher price than locally-sourced species, and that these species are stocked in higher volumes by the herbalists to ensure a steady supply to consumers. A strong tradition of herbal medicine exists in Kurdistan today exemplified by the diverse and vigorous trade in medicinal plants commercialized from the provinces around Erbil to countries as far away as India, Spain and Libya.

  • 20.
    Mati, Evan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Ethnobotany and trade of medicinal plants in the Qaysari Market, Kurdish Autonomous Region, Iraq.2011Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 133, nr 2, s. 490-510Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim of study

    Marketplaces epitomize a region's culture and trade, and can give a rapid insight into traditions and salience of commercialized medicinal products. The Qaysari bazaar, bordering the citadel in Erbil city in the Kurdistan Autonomous Region, Iraq, has 21 herbalist shops trading natural medicinal products, wild-crafted and cultivated from all over the Middle East and Asia Minor.

    Materials and methods

    Freelist surveys were conducted with 18 of these herbalists to determine diversity and salience of traded traditional medicinal plants. Interviews were conducted to document use, trade volume, origin, stock and value of the reported species. Plant species were identified using a combination of morphological identification and molecular barcoding using the ITS region.

    Results

    Vouchers were collected for a total of 158 samples, corresponding to 82 species of plants, 5 animal products, 8 types of stones, minerals or chemicals, as well as 16 mixtures of plant products. Consensus Analysis of the herbalist interviews shows strong support for a single culture of herbalist plant use.

    Conclusions

    Most reported plant species are known to have been used since antiquity, and uses are identical or similar to previously documented uses. Herbalists report a steady year-on-year increase in trade due to the economic stability in recent times. A majority (64%) of medicinal plants is imported from outside Iraq, and the data shows that imported plants trade at a higher price than locally-sourced species, and that these species are stocked in higher volumes by the herbalists to ensure a steady supply to consumers. A strong tradition of herbal medicine exists in Kurdistan today exemplified by the diverse and vigorous trade in medicinal plants commercialized from the provinces around Erbil to countries as far away as India, Spain and Libya.

  • 21. Mugisha, Maud Kamatenesi
    et al.
    Asiimwe, Savina
    Makerere Univ, Sch Biosci, Kampala, Uganda.
    Namutebi, Agnes
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Kakudidi, Esezah Kyomugisha
    Ethnobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal and nutritious plants used to manage opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS in western Uganda2014Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 155, nr 1, s. 194-202Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicine plays an important role in the daily lives of the people of Uganda to treat a wide range of health problems. Our study presents results of an ethnobotanical inventory conducted to identify and document medicinal and nutritional plants used in the management of opportunistic infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), the plant parts used, preparation and administration methods of herbal remedies. Materials and methods: We performed semi-structured interviews with 79 respondents (women 78%, men 22%), who included specialists in medicinal plants (such as traditional birth attendants and herbalists) and non specialists with general knowledge of plant use. Respondents answered a semi-structured questionnaire regarding their knowledge of plants and general treatment practices including management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. The reported plants were collected and identified. Data were analyzed using factor informant consensus and fidelity level to determine homogeneity of informants' knowledge on medicinal and nutritional plants suitable for different ailment categories and the most preferred plant species used to treat each ailment category in the study areas. Results: The study revealed 148 plant species belonging to 54 families, most of which were herbs (50.7%). Leaves (61.6%) were the most frequently used parts in remedy preparations which were mainly administered orally (72%). The majority of plants (62%) were harvested from wild habitats. The most important species according to fidelity values are Hibiscus sabdariffa L for anaemia, Mangifera indica L for cough, Zehneria scabra (L F.) Sond. for skin infections, Rhus natalensis Bernh.ex.Krauss for diarrhoea and Tarenna pavettoides (Harv.) Sim for appetite boosting. The factor informant consensus highlighted the agreement in the use of plants and showed that the respiratory infections category had the greatest agreement (0.60). Family Asteraceae accounted for 15% of the total species recorded. Sixty plant species (40%) of the plants provide nutritional support. Conclusion: The study revealed that folk medicine is still widely practised. Fidelity level values indicate that these plants are the most preferred Species for particular ailments. The high consensus value (0.6) indicated that there was high agreement in the use of plants for respiratory ailments among others. These preferred plant species could be prioritized for conservation and subjected to chemical screening to ascertain their pharmacological activities.

  • 22. Ocheng, Francis
    et al.
    Bwanga, Freddie
    Joloba, Moses
    Borg-Karlson, Ann-Karin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Obua, Celestino
    Antibacterial activities of extracts from Ugandan medicinal plants used for oral care2014Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 155, nr 1, s. 852-855Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Medicinal plants are widely used for treatment of oral/dental diseases in Uganda. Aim of the study: To investigate antibacterial activities of 16 commonly used medicinal plants on microorganisms associated with periodontal diseases (PD) and dental caries (DC). Materials and methods: Pulp juice and solvent extracts (hexane, methanol and water) from the plants were tested against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia associated with PD and Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus associated with DC. Tests were done using agar well-diffusion (pulp juice) and agar-dilution (Solvent extracts) assays. Results: Pulp juice from Zanthoxylum chalybeum and Euclea latidens showed activity against all the bacteria, Zanthoxylum chalybeum being most active. Hexane extract from aerial part of Helichrysum odoratissimum was most active (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml). Methanol extract from leaves of Lantana trifolia showed activity against all bacteria (MIC: 0.25-1 mg/ml). Conclusion: Several of the tested plants showed antibacterial activities against bacteria associated with PD and DC, meriting further investigations.

  • 23.
    Persson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi.
    Dong, Linda
    Persson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Farmakologi.
    Effect of Panax ginseng extract (G115) on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production2006Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 105, nr 3, s. 321-325Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effects of the Panax ginseng (Araliaceae) extract G115 on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and nitric oxide (NO) in cultured human endothelial cells from umbilical veins (HUVEC) and bovine mesenteric arteries (BMA). In HUVEC, ACE activity was significantly reduced after 10 min incubation with aqueous extract of ginseng 5.0 and 10 mg/ml. This effect was additative with the inhibition of the traditional ACE inhibitor enalaprilat. No effect was seen on NO production from the cells. Angiotensin I-induced contraction of BMA was significantly attenuated by 0.1 and 0.5 mg/ml ginseng, while no endothelium-dependent or -independent relaxation was seen. In conclusion, extract of Panax ginseng (G115) inhibits ACE activity, but does not affect NO production in HUVEC and BMA. © 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Posthouwer, Chantal
    et al.
    Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands; Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9505, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Veldman, Sarina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Abihudi, Sarina
    Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, United Nations Road, P.O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Otieno, Joseph N.
    Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, United Nations Road, P.O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    van Andel, Tinde R.
    Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands; Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9505, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi. Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands; Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Postboks 1172, Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway.
    Quantitative market survey of non-woody plants sold at Kariakoo Market in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania2018Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 222, s. 280-287Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: In Tanzania, traditional medicine plays a significant role in health care and local economies based on the harvesting, trade and sale of medicinal plant products. The majority of this plant ma- terial is said to originate from wild sources, and both traditional healers and vendors are concerned about the increasing scarcity of certain species.

    Aim of the study: A market survey of non-powdered, non-woody medicinal plants was conducted at Kariakoo Market in Dar es Salaam, the major hub for medicinal plant trade in Tanzania, to assess sustainability of traded herbal medicine. Materials and Methods: For this study, fresh and dried herbs, seeds and fruits were collected and interviews were conducted to obtain information on vernacular names, preparation methods, monthly sales, uses and prices. Bundles of herbal medicine offered for sale were weighed and counted to calculate the value and volumes of daily stock at the market.

    Results: A total of 71 medicinal plant products belonging to 62–67 different species from at least 41 different plant families were identified. We identified 45 plant products to species level, 20 products to genus level and four to family level. Plant species most encountered at the market were Suregada zanzibariensis, Myrothamnus flabellifolia and Sclerocarya birrea. The major use categories reported by the vendors were ritual purposes, di- gestive disorders and women's health. Annual sales are estimated to be in excess of 30 t and close to 200,000 USD, and trade in herbal medicine at Kariakoo Market provides subsistence income to many local vendors. Conclusions: A large diversity of wild-harvested plant species is traded as medicinal products in Tanzania, in- cluding species listed on CITES Appendices. Identifying and monitoring temporal changes in availability per season and from year to year will reveal which species are most affected by this trade, and help relevant au- thorities in Tanzania to find alternative sources of income for dependent stakeholders and initiate targeted efforts to protect threatened plant species.

  • 25.
    Sandberg, Finn
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    Perera-Ivarsson, Premila
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    El-Seedi, Hesham Rushdey
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi.
    A Swedish collection of medicinal plants from Cameroon2005Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 102, nr 3, s. 336-343Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A collection of 32 botanically identified medicinal plants from the slopes of Mt. Cameroon made by two Swedish settlers in the beginning of the last century is described and the literature is followed up. The drug names were found to be unaltered during the century passed.

  • 26. Sher, Hassan
    et al.
    Aldosari, Ali
    Ali, Ahmad
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Indigenous knowledge of folk medicines among tribal minorities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northwestern Pakistan2015Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 166, s. 157-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Mapping ethnomedicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge of folk medicines can provide a comprehensive overview of individual herbs employed in health care. Reliance on medicinal plants in remote parts of northern Pakistan is high, especially among women, but no research has investigated specifically which plants are used. This study investigated indigenous knowledge of folk medicines among tribal minorities in selected sites in upper Swat, Buner and Chitral Districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. Materials and methods: Interviews were conducted with gender-specific focus groups using questionnaires and standardized data sheets, followed by forest walks in each of the visited areas. General medicinal herb use, preparations, storage, marketing and collection habits for each gender group were ascertained from the questionnaires. Results: In total 168 women and 390 men were interviewed and provided information on 127 different shared medicinal species. Species use consensus among the informants ranged from 2.3% to 83.3%, with Cynodon dactylon, Avena sativa, Celtis australis, Datura stramonium, Solanum nigrum, Skimmia laureola, Spiraea nervosa, Ziziphus jujuba, Rumex hastatus, Plantago lanceolata, Lathyrus aphaca and Ficus palmata having the highest reported consensus. The survey also revealed that a number of medicinal species were exploited by the community for both marketing and personal use, and many of these species were reported as being rare, vulnerable or even endangered. Conclusions: The results revealed that women in all the three districts were important custodians of medicinal plant knowledge, but elder women in general and the women from Buner district in particular had a superior understanding of folk medicine. The forest walks revealed that women's traditional medicinal knowledge was based on a more limited diversity of plant species. People in tribal communities have an expressed interest in learning efficient techniques for medicinal plant collection, preparation, storage and cultivation advice, and to learn more about the potential of marketing medicinal herbs and ways to reach local market centers. Education and awareness were considered to be essential for improved health care and successful marketing.

  • 27.
    Sher, Hassan
    et al.
    Univ Swat, Ctr Plant Sci & Biodivers, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan..
    Bussmann, Rainer W.
    William L Brown Ctr, Missouri Bot Garden, St Louis, MO USA..
    Hart, Robbie
    William L Brown Ctr, Missouri Bot Garden, St Louis, MO USA..
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi. Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, N-0316 Oslo, Norway..
    Traditional use of medicinal plants among Kalasha, Ismaeli and Sunni groups in Chitral District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan2016Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 188, s. 57-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: The traditional use of medicinal plants for the treatment of human and livestock ailments is important to indigenous communities in the northern parts of Pakistan, and considered to be a valuable local biological and sociocultural heritage. The aim of this study was to obtain a detailed inventory of medicinal plant use and preparation among Kalasha, Ismaeli and Sunni groups. Materials and methods: Semi-structured group and individual interviews were carried out with men and women of different age groups that identified themselves as being Kalasha, Ismaeli or Sunni. Interviews were followed up by field visits to collect herbarium vouchers and record in greater detail the exact methods of harvesting, preparation and use on medicinal plants. Results: A total of 76 species were recorded for treatment of various diseases. The Kalasha, Ismaili and Sunni ethnic groups have similar medicinal floras, but show striking differences in plant use. Our comparative survey shows that out of all species reported in this study, only 13 species have been reported previously from Chitral District. Conclusions: Indigenous knowledge of folk medicine is intricately linked to local culture, religion and history. Any short study can only scratch the surface of this intricate system, but provide an insight into the critical importance of medicinal plants for local livelihoods and the important role these play in health care systems. There is a great need to assess and properly manage the production potential of medicinal plants to ensure sustainable supply of these species for local use and subsistence trade.

  • 28.
    Shwter, Abdrabuh N.
    et al.
    Univ Malaya, Dept Biomed Sci, Fac Med, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia..
    Abdullah, Nor Azizan
    Univ Malaya, Dept Pharmacol, Fac Med, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia..
    Alshawsh, Mohammed A.
    Univ Malaya, Dept Pharmacol, Fac Med, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia..
    El-Seedi, Hesham R.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för farmakognosi. Univ Malaya, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia..
    Al-Henhena, Nawal A.
    Univ Malaya, Dept Biomed Sci, Fac Med, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia..
    Khalifa, Shaden A. M.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Expt Hematol, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Abdulla, Mahmood A.
    Univ Malaya, Dept Biomed Sci, Fac Med, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia..
    Chemopreventive effect of Phaleria macrocarpa on colorectal cancer aberrant crypt foci in vivo2016Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 193, s. 195-206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Natural products are important ingredients for pharmaceutical applications specifically new entities for treating cancer and other diseases. Phaleria macrocarpa is native of Indonesia and considered as a prolific source of bioactive substances useful for chemoprevention. Aim of the study: To investigate the chemopreventive properties of Phaleria macrocarpa on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Methods: The biological activities of the ethanol extract of P. macrocarpa fruits were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. First the extract was investigated for its in vitro antioxidant activity by the total phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Then the chemopreventive effect of P. macrocarpa was performed on AOM-induced aberrant crypt foci as colorectal carcinoma model in rats. Result: the crude ethanolic extract of P. macrocarpa has high antioxidant activity and modulated the oxidative stress as proved by the up-regulation of glutathione-s-transferase and superoxide dismutase. Immunohistochemical staining of the treated sections showed overexpression of PCNA and Bax, reduced crypt sizes and numbers, indicating the characteristic feature of apoptotic cancer cells. PCNA is a landmark of cell damage and turn-over and can be associated with clinical cancer mutation. The most potent doses were 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg as compared to 35 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil. Conclusion: In this sense, the potential modulation of the colorectal pathophysiological pathway by P. macrocarpa natural compounds mostly flavonoids offer a great possibility for the discovery of new leads towards the colorectal cancer.

  • 29. Towns, Alexandra M.
    et al.
    Quiroz, Diana
    Guinee, Lieke
    de Boer, Hugo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    van Andel, Tinde
    Volume, value and floristic diversity of Gabon's medicinal plant markets2014Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 155, nr 2, s. 1184-1193Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: African medicinal plant markets offer insight into commercially important species, salient health concerns in the region, and possible conservation priorities. Still, little quantitative data is available on the trade in herbal medicine in Central Africa. The aim of this study was to identify the species, volume, and value of medicinal plant products sold on the major domestic markets in Gabon, Central Africa. Materials and methods: We surveyed 21 herbal market stalls across 14 of the major herbal medicine markets in Gabon, collected vouchers of medicinal plants and documented uses, vernacular names, prices, weight, vendor information and weekly sales. From these quantitative data, we extrapolated volumes and values for the entire herbal medicine market. Results: We encountered 263 medicinal plant products corresponding with at least 217 species. Thirteen species were encountered on one-third of the surveyed stalls and 18 species made up almost 50% of the total volume of products available daily, including the fruits of Tetrapleura tetraptera and seeds of Monodora myristica. Although bark comprised the majority of the floristic diversity (22%) and the highest percentage of daily stock (30%), the resin of IUCN red-listed species Aucoumea klaineana represented 20% of the estimated daily volume of the entire herbal market. Plants sold at the market were mainly used for ritual purposes (32%), followed by women's health (13%), and childcare (10%). The presence of migrant herbal vendors selling imported species, especially from Benin, was a prominent feature of the Gabonese markets. Conclusion: An estimated volume of 27 t of medicinal plant products worth US$ 1.5 million is sold annually on the main Gabonese markets. Aucoumea klaineana and Garcinia kola are highlighted as frequently sold species with conservation priorities. The herbal market in Gabon is slightly higher in species diversity but lower in volume and value than recently surveyed sub-Saharan African markets.  

  • 30. van Andel, Tinde
    et al.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Barnes, Joanne
    Vandebroek, Ina
    Medicinal plants used for menstrual disorders in Latin America, the Caribbean, sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeast Asia and their uterine properties: A review2014Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 155, nr 2, s. 992-1000Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Menstrual disorders are generally not perceived as major health concerns by global health organizations, despite being disruptive to women's daily activities, particularly when access to sanitary facilities or analgesics is limited. Improving menstrual health requires access to safe and effective medication, but many women in Latin America, Africa or Asia prefer traditional medicine above modern remedies (such as contraceptives), as they can cause physical symptoms associated with fertility loss. Many medicinal plants are used for menstrual disorders, but few have been examined for their pharmacological activities related to traditional uses. Plants that have a smooth muscle-relaxant effect could ease menstrual cramps, but there are indications that dysmenorrhea in low-income countries is commonly treated with emmenagogues. This review aims to assess the most salient plants used to treat menstrual morbidity in Latin America and the Caribbean, sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeast Asia, their uterine properties and adverse effects. To test whether plants used for painful menstruation could have uterine contracting properties, we recorded whether these species were also used to ease birth, induce menstruation, abortion or expel the afterbirth, as these suggest spasmogenic activities. Materials and methods: We reviewed the literature documenting traditional plant use in the study area for dysmenorrhea, regulating or inducing menstruation, uterine cleansing, uterine fibroids, expelling the placenta and lochia and for easing childbirth. Thirty genera (59 species) used in at least two continents or frequently throughout one continent, where shortlisted from the 90 most salient plant species emerging from our literature review. Using Medline, we searched for pharmacological properties and/or mechanisms of action relevant to their traditional uses of the shortlisted species. We searched VigiBase (TM), the WHO global individual case safety report database, on reported adverse drug reactions associated with these species. Results: More than 2000 plant species are used for menstrual disorders in the study area. The most salient uses are to treat painful menstruation, induce or regulate menses, and induce abortion. Around half (29) of the 59 most salient species have been tested for their pharmacological effects, of which 48% act as uterine spasmolytics and 31% as uterine spasmogenics. Several frequently used species contain toxic constituents, which may put women and their unborn children at serious risk. VigiBase (TM) listed adverse drug reactions for 18 of these species, but few reports came from the study area. Conclusions: Research into the risks and benefits of medicinal plants for menstrual complaints should be given a higher priority in reproductive health programs that respect traditional knowledge and practices. Increased data collection is needed on adverse drug reactions among women using herbal medicines for reproductive health, especially in countries with limited reproductive health facilities.

  • 31.
    Weckerle, Caroline S.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Inst Systemat & Evolutionary Bot, CH-8008 Zurich, Switzerland..
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi. Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, N-0318 Oslo, Norway.
    Puri, Rajindra K.
    Univ Kent, Sch Anthropol & Conservat, Ctr Biocultural Div, Canterbury CT2 7NR, Kent, England..
    van Andel, Tinde
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Darwinweg 2, NL-2333 CR Leiden, Netherlands.;Wageningen Univ & Res, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Bussmann, Rainer W.
    William L Brown Ctr, Missouri Bot Garden, POB 299, St Louis, MO 63166 USA..
    Leonti, Marco
    Univ Cagliari, Dept Biomed Sci, Via Osped 72, I-09124 Cagliari, Italy..
    Recommended standards for conducting and reporting ethnopharmacological field studies2018Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 210, s. 125-132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: What are the minimum methodological and conceptual requirements for an ethnopharmacological field study? How can the results of ethnopharmacological field studies be reported so that researchers with different backgrounds can draw on the results and develop new research questions and projects? And how should these field data be presented to get accepted in a scientific journal such as the Journal of Ethnopharmacology? The objective of this commentary is to create a reference that covers the basic standards necessary during planning, conducting and reporting of field research.

    Materials and methods: We focus on conducting and reporting ethnopharmacological field studies on medicinal plants or materia medico and associated knowledge of a specific people or region. The article highlights the most frequent problems and pitfalls, and draws on published literature, fieldwork experience, and extensive insights from peer-review of field studies.

    Results: Research needs to be ethical and legal, and follow local and national regulations. Primary ethnopharmacological field data need to be collected and presented in a transparent and comprehensible way. In short this includes: 1) Relevant and concise research questions, 2) Thorough literature study encompassing all available information on the study site from different disciplines, 3) Appropriate methods to answer the research questions, 4) Proper plant use documentation, unambiguously linked to voucher specimens, and 5) Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the collected data, the latter relying on use-reports as basic units.

    Conclusion: Although not exhaustive, we provide an overview of the necessary main issues to consider for field research and data reporting including a list of minimal standards and recommendations for best practices. For methodological details and how to correctly apply specific methods, we refer to further reading of suggested textbooks and methods manuals.

  • 32.
    Zubair, Muhammad
    et al.
    Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Balsgård, Kristianstad.
    Ekholm, Anders
    Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Balsgård, Kristianstad.
    Nybom, Hilde
    Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Balsgård, Kristianstad.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Widen, Cecilia
    Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Balsgård, Kristianstad.
    Rumpunen, Kimmo
    Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Balsgård, Kristianstad.
    Effects of Plantago major L. leaf extracts on oral epithelial cells in a scratch assay2012Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 141, nr 3, s. 825-830Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim of study The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects from different leaf extracts of the traditional medicinal herb Plantago major L. (plantain) on cell proliferation and migration in vitro, as a test for potential wound healing properties. Materials and methods Water and ethanol-based extracts were prepared from Plantago major fresh and dried leaves, and tested in vitro in a scratch assay with oral epithelial cells. Results The scratch assay produced reliable results after 18&#xa0;h. Most of the tested extracts increased the proliferation/migration of the oral epithelial cells compared to the negative control. A concentration of 1.0&#xa0;mg/mL (on dry weight basis) appears to be optimal regardless of type of extract, and among the alternatives, 0.1&#xa0;mg/mL was always better than 10&#xa0;mg/mL. Ethanol-based extracts with a concentration of 10&#xa0;mg/mL had very detrimental effects on cell proliferation/migration. At the other two concentrations, ethanol-based extracts had the most beneficial effect, followed by water extracts of fresh leaves, ethanol plus water extracts of dried leaves and, finally, water extracts of dried leaves. This study suggests that both the water extracts and the more polyphenol-rich ethanol-based extracts of Plantago major leaves have medicinal properties. Further research is, however, needed to determine what compounds are responsible for the wound healing effects.

1 - 32 of 32
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf