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  • 1.
    Coello-Balthasar, Zairis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Problems faced by a national water utility in an urban area, case study: Tegucigalpa, Honduras2013In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 508-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capital of Honduras, Tegucigalpa, has suffered a shortage of piped water, since the 1980s. The national utility company in charge of supply, SANAA, opted to supply water intermittently, which poses a problem for the population who cannot afford water storage facilities. Interviews were conducted with the various authorities involved in the water sector to reveal why SANAA has not been able to incorporate new sources of water and therefore satisfy the needs of the growing population. The research revealed that SANAA's operations have been hindered by the fast and unorganized growth of the city, the failure of other governmental agencies to comply with their mission efficiently, and also by the intervention of the Central Government in its operations. Stability of SANAA's management and coordination between governmental agencies are essential for the efficient operation and long-term planning of and investment in the water sector.

  • 2.
    Hassan, Osama
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Remediation Of Chromium-contaminated Soil Using Blast Furnace Slag2011In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 81-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, it is attempted to study the capacity of blast furnace to stabilize cr(VI)-contaminated soils. The slag samples are incorporated with soils in different proportions and the resulted leachate is tested using batch and column experiments to simulate static and dynamic flows. furthermore, the mechanism by which the chro-mium in the soil is reduced by the iron slag is discussed. The study demonstrated that blast furnace slag can effectively stabilize cr(VI)-contaminated soils.

  • 3.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jernberg, Jonas
    Länsstyrelsen Östergötland, Sweden.
    Estimating the costs and benefits of the closure of a local grocery store2014In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 301-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grocery stores, especially local stores in rural areas, are decreasing in number. The closure of a local grocery store may be caused by a market failure due to consumers’ inability to coordinate their behaviour. This study develops a questionnaire method to estimate the costs and benefits caused by the closure of a local grocery store. We explain why the closure of local grocery stores is a social dilemma for consumers, and we outline the costs and benefits of such closures identified in previous research. To quantify and evaluate the effects of local closures, we asked all households living in the market area of two recently closed local grocery stores detailed questions about their purchases of groceries before and after the closure of the local store. We also estimated their average willingness to pay to have access to a local grocery store. We present here a cost–benefit analysis for the two studied cases and discuss the ways to sustain local grocery stores.

  • 4.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    et al.
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Labor, B.
    Badania Dydaktycne.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sustainability of nuclear energy with regard to decommissioning and waste management2013In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 246-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability aspects of nuclear power are analysed with regard to such environmental liabilities that are associated with decommissioning of nuclear facilities and with nuclear waste management. Sustainability is defined and evaluated based on information searches that also include energy from combustion of coal. It is concluded that the claims on sustainability put forward by different parties are inconsistent and that coherent methodologies for evaluation are needed together with appropriately structured knowledge bases. Examples are presented from the perspective of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority. It is found that nuclear power can qualify as sustainable only if the nuclear liability associated with protection of health and the environment - now and in the future – is appropriately managed. Sustainability awareness is analysed in a historic perspective, and it is found that it has been around for at least as long as agriculture, and that at least some of the shortcomings are actually modern inventions. Comprehensive perspectives are essential, since sustainability awareness may appear as trends. It is a historical fact that planning for decommissioning and estimation of associated costs are frequently treacherous exercises. However, costs must be relatively accurately estimated already at early stages so that adequate funds are available at the time when they are needed. Thus, the timing of the technical planning is often governed by the needs for financial planning. It is the duty of the present generation to assess what is adequate and to find responsible solutions. But the next generation should also be asked to carefully consider the perspective that they provide to us.

  • 5.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yang, Ting
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Long-term performance of contacting concrete and smectite clay in deep disposal of highly radioactive waste2016In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 740-750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disposal of highly radioactive waste (HLW) can be environmentally acceptable if radionuclides are kept isolated from the groundwater, which has inspired planners of repositories to work out multibarrier concepts that postulate defined functions of the host rock and engineering barriers. Assessment of the role of the host rock involves groundwater flow modelling and rock mechanical analysis, which are both highly speculative and ignore future changes in rock structure, stress conditions, and groundwater flow. This makes use of engineered barriers necessary and possible technical solutions for isolating containers with highly radioactive waste by clay and concrete seals have been described in the literature. The present paper examines the performance and interaction of such seals in very deep boreholes with respect to chemical reactions and their impact on the sealing functions.

  • 6.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ecke, Holger
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Vitrified forts as anthropogenic analogues for assessment of long-term stability of vitrified waste in natural environments2013In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 380-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The area’s natural analogues, vitrifi ed forts, combustion technology, and vitrifi ed waste have been reviewed.The purpose was to identify if investigations of vitrifi ed rock in hill forts might be warranted for assessing thelong-term integrity of vitrifi ed waste in natural environments. Wastes that are being vitrifi ed include ash fromincineration of domestic waste, contaminated soil and fi ssion products from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.It was found that vitrifi ed materials in at least 200 hill forts constitute good anthropogenic analogues to vitrified waste. The compositions vary considerably from site to site and even within one site and may correspondrelatively well to the spans of parameters in the various vitrifi ed wastes. Glasses in vitrifi ed forts comparefavourably to archaeological artefacts which are soda- and potash-based and consequently have different corrosionbehaviours and may weather too quickly. Natural glasses might be too limited in composition variationand are perhaps also too durable. Combustion technology considerations based on quality of heat analysesindicate that at least some of the vitrifi cations of hill forts were carried out with the specifi c purpose of achievingstrong and durable constructions. This makes it considerably easier to envisage how the vitrifi cations mighthave been carried out, and this, in turn, facilitates comparisons between anthropogenic analogues and modernvitrifi ed wastes.

  • 7.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Management of intergenerational environmental liabilities: example of decommissioning of nuclear research and development facilities2012In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 135-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The character is described of various prerequisites for and obstacles against fulfilment of the polluter pays principle in the case of decommissioning of old nuclear research and development (R&D) facilities, and the relevance to other areas is analyzed. Background is compiled in the areas of Swedish old nuclear R&D facilities, environmental liabilities in some areas, and legislation. Two completed decommissioning projects and two under planning are described together with some findings on planning for decommissioning and on cost estimation. Also, an example is given on developing a basis for regulation relating to small facilities. It is concluded that although the polluter pays principle is easy to understand, it may be complicated to implement, especially in cases where there is a gap in time between the operations and the decommissioning. Pitfalls may be plentiful and extensive awareness and substantial efforts are warranted for adequate funds to be available at the time when they are needed. Thus, it is essential that internationally available advice and knowledge be utilized, information exchanged, and necessary knowledge acquired. It is also important to realize that the planning is usually dictated by the needs for financial planning, and that there is a substantial difference between end of license and end of liability. A need for information exchange between different areas of technology is identified and it is hoped that the present work might contribute to such processes.

  • 8.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Weaver, Jamie L.
    Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, WA.
    Peeler, David K.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
    McCloy, John S.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
    Kruger, Albert A.
    Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA.
    Ogenhall, E.
    The Archaeologists, Geoarchaeological Laboratory, National Historical Museums (SHMM), Uppsala.
    Hjärtner-Holdar, Eva
    The Archaeologists, Geoarchaeological Laboratory, National Historical Museums (SHMM), Uppsala.
    Vitrified hillforts as anthropogenic analogues for nuclear waste glasses: project planning and initiation2016In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 897-906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear waste must be deposited in such a manner that it does not cause significant impact on theenvironment or human health. In some cases, the integrity of the repositories will need to sustain fortens to hundreds of thousands of years. In order to ensure such containment, nuclear waste is frequentlyconverted into a very durable glass. It is fundamentally difficult, however, to assure the validity ofsuch containment based on short-term tests alone. To date, some anthropogenic and natural volcanicglasses have been investigated for this purpose. However, glasses produced by ancient cultures for thepurpose of joining rocks in stonewalls have not yet been utilised in spite of the fact that they might offersignificant insight into the long-term durability of glasses in natural environments. Therefore, a projectis being initiated with the scope of obtaining samples and characterising their environment, as well asto investigate them using a suite of advanced materials characterisation techniques. It will be analysedhow the hillfort glasses may have been prepared, and to what extent they have altered under in-situconditions. The ultimate goals are to obtain a better understanding of the alteration behaviour of nuclearwaste glasses and its compositional dependence, and thus to improve and validate models for nuclearwaste glass corrosion. The paper deals with project planning and initiation, and also presents some earlyfindings on fusion of amphibolite and on the process for joining the granite stones in the hillfort walls.Keywords: ageing, amphibolite, analogue, anthropogenic, Broborg, glass, hillfort, hill-fort, leaching,long-lived, nuclear, rampart, waste.

  • 9.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Zietek, A.
    Jönköping Energi AB.
    Gaude, E.
    Miljöhantering i Jönköping AB.
    Fagerqvist, J.
    Avfall Sverige - Swedish Waste Management and Recycling Association, Malmö.
    Karlfeldt Fejde, K.
    Water Environment Technology, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Stabilization Of Lead In Incineration Fly Ash By Ageing And Carbonatation In Contact With Moisture And Air2016In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 683-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residues from incineration of waste vary considerably in quality not only depending on the compositionof the waste and the incineration system, but also on the extent and duration of contact withmoisture and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Lead has a rather varying abundance and an even morevarying availability in ash as determined by leach tests. Fresh fly ash from Jönköping Energi AB hasa relatively low content of lead in comparison with other similar ashes but a somewhat high leach ratein relation to the total amount. Thus, in determining the pertinent destinations for this ash, it is appropriateto assess the availability after prolonged contact with moisture and air. It was found that theleaching decreased by up to around three orders of magnitude after such conditioning, which will whattake place in a landfill over time. The effect was confirmed by pilot tests. The paper also describes theash chemistry and possible mechanisms for the stabilization. It is concluded that the stabilization canfacilitate landfilling

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