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  • 1.
    Andersson, Anders G.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Andreasson, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    CFD-modelling and validation of free surface flow during spilling of reservoir in down-scale model2013In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 159-167Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Anders G.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Andreasson, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Effect of spatial resolution of rough surfaces on numerically computed flow fields with application to hydraulic engineering2014In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 373-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In numerical simulations of flow over rough surfaces, the roughness is often not resolved but represented by a numerical model. The validity of such an assumption is investigated in this paper by Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of flow over a surface with a large roughness. The surface was created from a high-resolution laser scanning of a real rock blasted tunnel. By reducing the geometrical resolution of the roughness in two steps, the importance of an appropriate surface description could be examined. The flow fields obtained were compared to a set-up with a geometrical flat surface where the roughness was represented by a modified form of the Launder and Spalding wall-function. The flow field over the surface with the lowest resolution was substantially different from those of the two finer resolutions and rather close to the results from the set-up with the wall-function. The results also yield that the finer the resolution is the more vorticity is formed close to the rough surface and more turbulence is generated.

  • 3.
    Beyaztas, Ufuk
    et al.
    Department of Statistics, Bartin University, Bartin, Turkey.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Construction of functional data analysis modeling strategy for global solar radiation prediction: application of cross-station paradigm2019In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1165-1181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To support initiatives for global emissions targets set by the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change, sustainable extraction of usable power from freely-available global solar radia- tion as a renewable energy resource requires accurate estimation and forecasting models for solar energy. Understanding the Global Solar Radiation (GSR) pattern is highly significant for determin- ing the solar energy in any particular environment. The current study develops a new mathematical model based on the concept of Functional Data Analysis (FDA) to predict daily-scale GSR in the Burk- ina Faso region of West Africa. Eight meteorological stations are adopted to examine the proposed predictive model. The modeling procedure of the regression FDA is performed using two different internal parameter tuning approaches including Generalized Cross-Validation (GCV) and Generalized Bayesian Information Criteria (GBIC). The modeling procedure is established based on a cross-station paradigm wherein the climatological variables of six stations are used to predict GSR at two targeted meteorological stations. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the panel data regression model. Based on various statistical metrics, the applied FDA model attained convincing absolute error measures and best goodness of fit compared with the observed measured GSR. In quantitative evaluation, the predictions of GSR at the uahigouya and Dori stations attained corre- lation coefficients of R     0.84 and 0.90 using the FDA model, respectively. All in all, the FDA model introduced a reliable alternative modeling strategy for global solar radiation prediction over the Burkina Faso region with accurate line fit predictions.

  • 4.
    Homsi, Rajab
    et al.
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Shiru, Mohammed Sanusi
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Federal University Dutse, Dutse, Nigeria.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Ismail, Tarmizi
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Harun, Sobri Bin
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Peoples People’s Republic of China.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Precipitation projection using a CMIP5 GCM ensemble model: a regional investigation of Syria2020In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 90-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possible changes in precipitation of Syrian due to climate change are projected in this study. The symmetrical uncertainty (SU) and multi-criteria decision-analysis (MCDA) methods are used to identify the best general circulation models (GCMs) for precipitation projections. The effectiveness of four bias correction methods, linear scaling (LS), power transformation (PT), general quantile mapping (GEQM), and gamma quantile mapping (GAQM) is assessed in downscaling GCM simulated precipitation. A random forest (RF) model is performed to generate the multi model ensemble (MME) of precipitation projections for four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5. The results showed that the best suited GCMs for climate projection of Syria are HadGEM2-AO, CSIRO-Mk3-6-0, NorESM1-M, and CESM1-CAM5. The LS demonstrated the highest capability for precipitation downscaling. Annual changes in precipitation is projected to decrease by −30 to −85.2% for RCPs 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5, while by < 0.0 to −30% for RCP 2.6. The precipitation is projected to decrease in the entire country for RCP 6.0, while increase in some parts for other RCPs during wet season. The dry season of precipitation is simulated to decrease by −12 to −93%, which indicated a drier climate for the country in the future.

  • 5.
    Jing, Wang
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China. Faculty of Computer Systems & Software Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, Pahang, Malaysia.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Saggi, Mandeep Kaur
    Department of Computer Science, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, India.
    Tao, Hai
    Department of Computer Science, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China.
    Kisi, Ozgur
    Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China.
    Implementation of evolutionary computing models for reference evapotranspiration modeling: short review, assessment and possible future research directions2019In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 811-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evapotranspiration is one of the most important components of the hydrological cycle as it accounts for more than two-thirds of the global precipitation losses. Indeed, the accurate prediction of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is highly significant for many watershed activities, including agriculture, water management, crop production and several other applications. Therefore, reliable estimation of ETo is a major concern in hydrology. ETo can be estimated using different approaches, including field measurement, empirical formulation and mathematical equations. Most recently, advanced machine learning models have been developed for the estimation of ETo. Among several machine learning models, evolutionary computing (EC) has demonstrated a remarkable progression in the modeling of ETo. The current research is devoted to providing a new milestone in the implementation of the EC algorithm for the modeling of ETo. A comprehensive review is conducted to recognize the feasibility of EC models and their potential in simulating ETo in a wide range of environments. Evaluation and assessment of the models are also presented based on the review. Finally, several possible future research directions are proposed for the investigations of ETo using EC.

  • 6. Laramee, R. S.
    et al.
    Erlebacher, G.
    Garth, C.
    Schafhitzel, T.
    Theisel, H.
    Tricoche, X.
    Weinkauf, Tino
    Konrad Zuse Zentrum Informat Tech Berlin, Germany.
    Weiskopf, D.
    Applications of Texture-Based Flow Visualization2008In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 264-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flow visualization is a classic sub-field of scientific visualization. The task of flow visualization algorithms is to depict vector data, i.e., data with magnitude and direction. An important category of flow visualization techniques makes use primarily of textures in order to convey the properties of a vector field. Recently, several research advances have been made in this special category, of dense, texture-based techniques. We present the application of the most recent texture-based techniques to real world data from (1) oceanography and meteorology, (2) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the automotive industry, and (3) medicine. We describe the motivations for using texture-based algorithms as well as the important recent advancements required for their successful incorporation into industry grade software. Our goal is to appeal to practitioners in the field interested in learning how these recent techniques can help them gain insight into problems that engineers and other professionals may be faced with on a daily basis. Many of these applications have only recently become possible.

  • 7.
    Liu, Ting
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Yang, James
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Three-Dimensional Computations Of Water-Air Flow In A Bottom Spillway During Gate Opening2014In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 104-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Undesired entrainment of air in a bottom spillway often leads to problems in both safety and operational functions. A numerical analysis of a transient process of air entrainment into bottom spillway flows when a spillway gate is opened was conducted in this study. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model was used. The 3D computational domain consisted of a spillway conduit, a moving bulkhead gate, a gate shaft, an upstream reservoir and a downstream outlet. The large number of cells, together with the dynamic mesh modelling of the moving gate, required substantial computational resources, which necessitated parallel computing on a mainframe computer. The simulations captured the changes in the flow patterns and predicted the amount of air entrainment in the gate shaft and the detrainment downstream, which help in the understanding of the system behaviour during opening of the spillway gate. The initial conduit water level and the gate opening procedure affect the degree of air entrainment in the gate shaft. To release the undesired air, a de-aeration chamber with a tube leading to the atmosphere was added to the conduit. Despite the incomplete air release, the de-aeration chamber was found to be effective in reducing water surface fluctuations in the downstream outlet.

  • 8.
    Mulu, Berhanu
    et al.
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Devals, Christophe
    Andritz Hydro Ltd, Computer and Software Engineering Department, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal.
    Vu, T.C.
    Andritz Hydro Ltd.
    Gibault, F.
    Computer and Software Engineering Department, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal.
    Simulation-based investigation of unsteady flow in near-hub region of a Kaplan Turbine with experimental comparison2015In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 139-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    his paper presents a detailed comparison of steady and unsteady turbulent flow simulation results in the U9 Kaplan turbine draft tube with experimental velocity and pressure measurements. The computational flow domain includes the guide vanes, the runner and the draft tube. A number of turbulence models were studied, including the standard k-eps, RNG k-eps, SST and SST-SAS models. Prediction of the flow behavior in the conical section of the draft tube directly below the runner cone is very sensitive to the prediction of the separation point on the runner cone. The results demonstrate a significant increase in precision of the flow modeling in the runner cone region by using unsteady flow simulations compare to stage simulation. The prediction of the flow in the runner cone region, however, remains delicate, and no turbulence model could accurately predict the complex phenomena observed experimentally.

  • 9.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    et al.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Aldlemy, Mohammed Suleman
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Collage of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Benghazi, Libya.
    Rasani, Mohammad Rasidi
    Centre for Integrated Design for Advanced Mechanical Systems, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.
    Ariffin, A.K.
    Centre for Integrated Design for Advanced Mechanical Systems, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.
    Ya, Tuan Mohammad Yusoff Shah Tuan
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China.
    Thin and sharp edges bodies-fluid interaction simulation using cut-cell immersed boundary method2019In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 860-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to develop an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm combined with Cut-Cell IBM using two-stage pressure–velocity corrections for thin-object FSI problems. To achieve the objective of this study, the AMR-immersed boundary method (AMR-IBM) algorithm discretizes and solves the equations of motion for the flow that involves rigid thin structures boundary layer at the interface between the structure and the fluid. The body forces are computed in proportion to the fraction of the solid volume in the IBM fluid cells to incorporate fluid and solid motions into the boundary. The corrections of the velocity and pressure is determined by using a novel simplified marker and cell scheme. The new developed AMR-IBM algorithm is validated using a benchmark data of fluid past a cylinder and the results show that there is good agreement under laminar flow. Simulations are conducted for three test cases with the purpose of demonstration the accuracy of the AMR-IBM algorithm. The validation confirms the robustness of the new algorithms in simulating flow characteristics in the boundary layers of thin structures. The algorithm is performed on a staggered grid to simulate the fluid flow around thin object and determine the computational cost.

  • 10.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    et al.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Allawi, Mohammed Falah
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Esraa University College, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Yousif, Ali A.
    Water Resources Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraq.
    Armanuos, Asaad M.
    Irrigation and Hydraulics Engineering Department, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.
    Saggi, Mandeep Kaur
    Department of Computer Science, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patalia, India.
    Ali, Mumtaz
    Deakin-SWU Joit Research Centre on Big Data, School of Information Techonology, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM).
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Viability of the advanced adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model on reservoir evaporation process simulation: case study of Nasser Lake in Egypt2019In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 878-891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable prediction of evaporative losses from reservoirs is an essential component of reservoir management and operation. Conventional models generally used for evaporation prediction have a number of drawbacks as they are based on several assumptions. A novel approach called the co-active neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) is proposed in this study for the modeling of evaporation from meteorological variables. CANFIS provides a center-weighted set rather than global weight sets for predictor–predictand relationship mapping and thus it can provide a higher prediction accuracy. In the present study, adjustments are made in the back-propagation algorithm of CANFIS for automatic updating of membership rules and further enhancement of its prediction accuracy. The predictive ability of the CANFIS model is validated with three well-established artificial intelligence (AI) models. Different statistical metrics are computed to investigate the prediction efficacy. The results reveal higher accuracy of the CANFIS model in predicting evaporation compared to the other AI models. CANFIS is found to be capable of modeling evaporation from mean temperature and relative humidity only, with a Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.93, which is much higher than that of the other models. Furthermore, CANFIS improves the prediction accuracy by 9.2–55.4% compared to the other AI models.

  • 11.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Geza, Vadims
    Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Latvia.
    Jacovics, Andris
    Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Latvia.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Burner backflow reduction in regeneration furnace2011In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 372-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present case from the steel industry, waste hydrochloric acid from the pickling process is regenerated using spray roasting. The process is driven by four burners placed symmetrically along the periphery of the cylindrical main section of the reactor. Severe problems with gas backflow and sintering of iron oxide inside the burner chamber have led to a complete shut down of the process 1-2 times every week, which is a frequency which significantly affects the productivity. In this study the influence of a kick-out on the gas flow in the vicinity of the burner chamber is investigated numerically. It is shown that the kick-out geometry creates a vortical low pressure region preventing the inflow of gas and hence the sintering of iron oxide. This has led to a significant increase in the productivity with no additional shut-downs than needed for the ordinary maintenance every 6-8 weeks.

  • 12.
    Yang, James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure. Vattenfall AB, R&D Älvkarleby Lab, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Teng, Penghua
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Zhang, Hongwei
    Inst Water Resources & Hydropower Res IWHR, Dept Hydraul, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Experiments and CFD modeling of high-velocity two-phase flows in a large chute aerator facility2019In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 48-66Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mathematical formulations of two-phase flows at an aerator remain a challenging issue for spillway design. Due to their complexities in terms of water-air interactions subjected to high flow velocities, experiments play an essential role in evaluations of numerical models. The paper focuses on the underlying influence of the air-water momentum exchange in the two-phase Two-Fluid Model. It is modified to better represent the drag force acting on a group of air bubbles and the wall lubrication force accounting for near-wall phase interactions. Based on data from a large aerator rig with an approach velocity of 14.3 m/s, the models are evaluated for calculations of entrained air characteristics of a flow mixture. The air bubble diameter used in the modeling ranges from 0.5 to 4 mm as suggested by the experiments. In terms of air cavity configurations and aerator air demand, smaller air bubbles lead to better agreement with the test results. As far as air concentrations are concerned, the modified model gains by comparison. In the air cavity zone, smaller bubble sizes also provide better matches with the experiments. However, the near-base air concentration remains overestimated downstream from the impact area. The fact that the program user must pre-define a single air bubble size in simulations presumably limits the correct reproduction of near-base air concentrations and of their decay.

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